Aeronautics

Volume 5 - No. 2 - 1909 August

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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I W fc. IN I Y-rlrTH ISSUE

HUBERT LATHAM AT THE CAMP OF CHALONS IN HIS "ANTOINETTE IV "

THE AERO WORLD IN REVIEW ^FJKS^'.

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

Leading

BALLOON AND AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTOR

of the world

Representing the

CONTINENTAL RUBBER COMPANY

of HANOVER, GERMANY

Makers of the Finest and Strongest Balloon Cloth Ever Produced

Constructor of the United States Government Balloon No. 10 in which Captain Charles De Forrest Chandler, U.S.A., and Mr. J. C. McCoy, won the Lahm Cup for Distance

MR. ALBERT C. TRIACA, Sole American and Canadian Agent

American Representative for

Carton & Lachambre

Balloon and Airship Makers of Paris, France

Aeronaut Leo Stevens

Box 181 Madison Square NEW YORK

What Kind of a MOTOR Do You Want?

Let us answer

1st, A reliable motor 2nd, A powerful motor 3rd, An enduring motor

CURTISS MOTORS

Curtiss 8 cyl. Motor used in "Silver Dart"

THE KIND YOU DO NOT WANT

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| 1st, A motor of "freak" construction. , 2nd, A motor of extremely light construction. ' 3rd, A motor of unproven merit. CURTISS MOTORS ARE NOT IN THESE CLASSES. Built in All Sizes. New Models of Highest Type and Greatest Efficiency. Send for Catalogue N. CURTISS MOTORS HAVE MADE GOOD

HERRING-CURTISS CO., Hammondsport, New York

AERONAUTICC -;-Edited by- \ J

Major B. Baden-Powell and John H. Ledeboer

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fitted with Compound or Koilos Shutters and

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BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishiug. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

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INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS

Founded 1908, by ALBERT C. TR1ACA

Aeronaqtic Pilot of Aero Clubs of America, France and Italy.

Aerostats Dirigibles and Aviation Courses. Home study and Resident. Model Hall, Shop, Construction Sheds and (•rounds at Morris I'ark Aerodrome. Write for Catalog.

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GUS BEISWENGER, Prop.

C. and A.

WITTEMANN

DESIGNERS - CONSTRUCTORS—DEVELOPERS OF

AEROPLANES, GLIDING MACHINES, MODELS, SEPARATE PARTS

PRACTICAL LESSONS IN GLIDING

Experiments Conducted. Large grounds for testing.

GLIDERS IN STOCK Works: 17 Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road.

Telephone, 390-L WesI Brighton.

STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK.

G. L. BUMBAUGH

1029 N. Illinois St., INDIANAPOLIS, IND.

DESIGNER - CONTRACTOR, - OPERATOR CONSTRUCTOR

AIR SHIPS AXD BALLOONS

Builder of the CHICAGO—largest balloon in the world; the INDIANA, which remained in the air 4.' hours and 95 min.. the ENDURANCE RKCORD for the U. S.; and the INDIANAPOLIS, which won the Handicap Race.

JVo connection with any other concern.

AEROPLANE RADIATORS

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GLENN H. CURTISS

IF on a balmy summer eve Glenn Curtiss can't be beaten in You ever chance to spy A motor-cycle race,

A bug of most unusual size A score of trophies he displays

Above you in the sky, To show he set the pace,

Don't be afraid, and shut the doors But since he hatched the Gold Bug, lo!

And all the windows tight, It is his pet and pride,

It's nothing but the Gold Bug out And he delights upon its back To take a spin by night. To take a rapid ride.

AERONAUTICS

MAIN OFFICE 17 7 7 BROADWAY NEW YORK

Published by AERONAUTICS PRESS. Inc.

A. V. Jones, president E. L. Jones, treas.-sec.

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Entered as second-class matter September 22, t908, at the Postoffice, New York, N.Y., under the Act of

March 3, 1879.

Vol. 5

August 1909

No. 2

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

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PROGRESS IN AVIATION SLOW.

Waive for the moment all this flying enthusiasm, and consider just what progress has really been made. Though the Wrights really began successful flying with their flights of 1903, the popular belief and interest in the art dates with the little jump of Santos-Dumont in the fall of 1906, when the world went wild over his grasshopper-hop as compared to the bird-flights of the Wrights three years before. Since 1906 how many men have really flown? Those who are known are only Farman, Dela-grange, Cody, Moore-Brabazon, Bleriot and now Latham and Count Lambert in Europe; Curtiss, McCurdy, Selfridge, F. W. Bald-

win and the Wrights in America. In Europe there are one or two others who have made short flights, and then, too, Calderara, a Wright pupil, in Italy. At the moment there are only the Wrights, Latham and Bleriot doing any real flying. This does not seem much like progress in these three years and more. How far did the automobile advance in three years? Somewhat faster than this, indeed. One's enthusiasm easily flies away.

The prizes offered abroad have caused an enormous amount of experimental work, and it is to be regretted that such encouragement is not in America.

APPRECIATION NOT A LOST ART.

"I would like to praise fAeronautics' through its editor for its noble work, which has improved to the delight of its subscribers and those who perchance come across a stray copy. The instruction given every month is a meal that is indeed very palatable—and reaping a big harvest, which those interested in it have found out. Wishing you and your magazine continued success, I am, yours very truly, R. P. D."

"The way in which I wish to speak about "Aeronautics"' reminds me of the gentleman who was asked how he felt. His reply was, 'If I felt any better, I would see a doctor immediately.' That expression fits your magazine perfectly. All the rest of the magazines treating on aeronautics are in the shade. It does not treat too much of either ballooning or aviation. In every respect I think it is perfect.—S. A."

NEWS FROM THE PACIFIC COAST

By Cleve

The three upper pictures show the machine of Messrs. Babcock, Locke, Gleason and Robinson, of Hammondsport, N. Y. (See story elsewhere in this issue.)

The lower photo shows the Becher CS. Wolf Glider, of California.

T. Shaffer.

EM. RAYBURN, of Sausalito, is^ex-Clande cle Haven, Robert Bergfeld • perimenting with a glider, and A. C. Watkins of San Francisco are also having a great deal of sport and experiment with a glider of the familiar two-decker type out in the sand dunes near the beach.

Membership in the Pacific Aero Club is increasing. The club expects to give an exhibition of moving pictures, gliders, models and large sized machines about the first of August.

An interesting feature of the weekly meetings, is the short talks or lectures and discussions that have been arranged; these add a great deal to the knowledge and entertainment of the members. Last week's very instructive argument was between Messrs. Geo. Booth and Chas. Bradley, the former arguing for the propellor to be placed in front of the aeroplane, and the latter for placing it in the rear. Both gentlemen have had considerable experience with models.

Messrs. Carl Wolf and August Becher of Oakland, are experimenting with a tri-plane, 220-ft. surface, planes 19 ft. 8 in. by 4 in. The machine has a double front rudder not superposed, each side capable of independent movement. Lateral stability is also had by warping the wings a la Wright. Launched on its skids from a hillside chute or track, flights up to 200 ft. have been m ade.

A. L. Smith of Los Angeles, has a biplane two-thirds constructed, 40 by 7, 6 ft. between planes; the engine is to be 60 h. p.

H. La V. Twining, President of the Aero Club of California, will build a large size man-carrying ornithopter this summer.

Mr. A. C. Watkins of San Francisco, is experimenting with a monoplane glider.

Mr. Claude de Haven will build an aeroplane with a patented equilibrium device of Mr. Watkins'.

Messrs. Wolf and Becher have repaired their glider -Tor flight.

Messrs. Arnold and Hiniker of the Pacific Aero Club, are building a large size model of a machine which will incorporate the principles of the helicopter, the aeroplane and the dirigible. The model, of neat workmanship and fine lines, is of fish shaped design. The helices revolve in two separate wells contained in the body. Additional aeroplane surfaces are placed on the lower sides.

Prof. Jos. Hidalgo lectured on Aeronautics at the meeting of the Pacific Aero Club, July 6th. The lecture of Cleve T. Shaffer on the state of the art and the application to aerial warfare was a great success.

WRIGHT CELEBRATION AT DAYTON

By Our Special Correspondent

DAYTON, June 18.—To-night closed the two-day celebration for which the whole of Dayton laid aside business to do honor to its two most illustrious sons. Buildings, both public and private, were profusely decorated, the streets were lined with pillars of staff, and at night the city was illuminated with thousands of lights.

diamond-studded medal by Mayor Burk-hart.

The Congressional medals are gold plaques, designed at the Government mint. On one side are the profiles of the Wrights with their names and the inscription "In Recognition and Appreciation of their Ability, Courage and Success in Navigating the Air." The coat of arms of the United States also appears on this side.

Invocation by Bishop Wright, Father of the Famous Brothers, at Beginning of Ceremonies.

Aside from the presentation of the medals, the chief feature was a monster parade illustrating the developing of transportation. This was headed by an Indian runner and ended by a Wright aeroplane.

To-day the nation, state and city paid tribute to Wilbur and Orville Wright. Amid a fanfare of brasses, surrounded by soldiers and the militia, the Wrights drove up to the platform where General James Allen, Chief Signal Officer, presented the medals authorized by Congress. At the same time were given the Ohio state medals by Governor Harmon and Dayton's

On the reverse side is an allegorical fi^ur^, carrying a torch of knowledge, flying through the clouds and the inscription fr un Isaiah, "Shall mount up with wings as angels."

Yesterday a reception was held, the Wrights lionized in public speeches, and the keys of the city presented by heralds. The closing feature of the day was the proclaiming to the four winds that the "festivities of the city in honor of her distinguished sons are now open and all men are bidden." Thousands cheered when, {Continued on page 70)

ON WRIGHT'S TRIALS AT FT. MYER

By Harold A. Brown.

TO one only casually interested in the science of aeronautics, it might seem that the trials of 1909 would only be a repetition of those of 1908, and that if one saw the earlier ones that there would be very little novel in the later ones.

However, a number of facts should be borne in mind. In the years 1908 and 1909 both of the Wrights have had vastly more experience in the practical handling of a power-driven machine than in all of their

On the last year's machine, a wire stay, or guy, led from the outward end of each strut to the plane on either side. Thus the struts were stayed against sidewise motion. A wire stay extended from the rear end of the lower strut to the upper end of the front strut, and this stayed the rudder against vertical motion. To complete the vertical staying another stay led from the rear end of the upper strut to the front end of the lower strut. At the centre of this

Orville Wright's Machine at Fort Myer

previous experience. It is well known that no matter how perfect the design of any piece of machinery may be when first designed, that in good extended practical use that some small minor defects are bound to crop out; or to put the matter in another way, improvements are bound to- suggest themselves.

Then again, during the extensive sojourn of the brothers abroad they have had excellent opportunities to observe the methods of construction used abroad, and also to acquaint themselves with the practice in light weight gasoline motor building as exemplified by the foreign makers.

To the person who expects to see any radical changes, the first glance at the 1909 machine is disappointing. In fact, at first sight nothing seems to have been changed. However, a closer inspection will show that the method of staying the rear rudder has been modified, and that the skids have been greatly increased in height.

stay was placed a length of closed spiral spring, the object being to allow the lower end of the rudder to rise by the stretching ( i this guy in case it struck the ground in landing.

This year a solid wire is used in place of the elastic stay, and the likelihood of the lower end of the rudder touching on making a landing is minimized by the use of much higher skids.

The horizontal bracing of the struts is also somewhat modified. The spread of the main stays is somewhat diminished, and two supplementary stays run 'from about half the length of the stays to the anchorage point of the main stays on the plants. A bridle crosses both stays midway between the ends of the short stays in order to prevent undue motion or sagging in case of loosening of the stays.

On an examination of the engine the system of cooling and carburetion will be found to be the same as last year. How-

ever, in place of the friction driven direct current magneto formerly employed to furnish current for the make and break igniters, a Bosch geared magneto with shuttle wound armature is employed. This is a decidedly practical improvement, since it allows the motor to be started without the aid of a storage battery. It may be remarked here that on the machines used by the Wrights abroad a high tension or jump spark magneto was employed, but experiments showed that the make and break system gave about ten per cent more power than the jump spark on the motor employed by them; hence as the motor used was equipped for make and break, it was decided to use this type of ignition. Within the last few days the make and break mechanism has been considerably improved. It is possible that in future motors spark plugs will be used.

The early trials of the machine at Ft. Myer certainly should serve as an object lesson in patience and perseverance to both inventors and experimenters. To begin with, considerable difficulty was experienced in getting the motor to run properly when first put in place on the machine. This was perhaps largely, if not entirely, due to the ignition, and almost two days were occupied in correcting this difficulty. Owing to this difficulty and unfavorable winds, the first attempt at flights did not occur until the 29th of June. At the first trial the machine went about two hundred feet and suddenly veered to the right, scraping the right wing. Orville immediately stopped the motor and descended from his seat. In striking the ground the cloth of the wing was torn, and Taylor returned to the aeroplane house getting a hammer and needle and thread. With this the injury was repaired in a couple of minutes. A council of war was held and the machine started again. This time it went straight forward about the same distance as at first, and as it showed no tendency to rise the motor was again stopped. At this point Wilbur returned to the shed and came back with some iron and a couple of clamps. The iron was then clamped to the front rudder struts, the object being to weigh down the forward end, which showed an undue tendency to rise.

The third trial was not much more successful than the first two. At this point the motor was started up where it stood, and the R. P. M. were taken by Orville

with a stop watch and counter. Then after some_ slight adjustments to the motor the machine was returned to the starting rail and the motor started. By this time it was well after sundown, and there was now hardly any remaining wind. The motor seemed to be running much better than it had at any of the previous trials, but as yet did not appear to be up to the speed that it showed in 1908. This trial, however, was somewhat more successful. Orville succeeded in making a complete circuit of the field, although the machine did not as yet show the life that had been shown in previous trials.

The next day the motor seemed to be running much better when it was started up preparatory to launching, and on the start it seemed to be going much better. However, as the end of the field was reached and the turn was being made the left wing struck the ground, and the power being shut off, the machine settled and broke one of the skids. This stopped the experiments for the day.

On July 2, however, the flights were much more successful, the motor seeming to be in its old time form, and two flights were made—one of seven minutes and the other of about twelve. In the second, either the motor stopped itself or was stopped, and O. Wright glided to earth. A large bush was mistaken for a clump of weeds, the wing was pierced, and the machine slewed around, breaking off the skids.

Although not apparent to the eye of the casual observer, the area of the planes have been materially reduced, to about 36 by 6 feet, so that at least three more miles per hour are necessary to keep the machine in the air than last year. The reduction in area is about 90 square feet. Since the first experiments were commenced two additional lengths of rail have been added to the starting track, or in all about twenty-four feet. The manner in which the many difficulties which the Wrights have encountered in this year's trials have been met, recognized, and one by one conquered is probably the secret of their success, and one cannot but feel that their efforts to fulfill the government contracts must eventually lead to success.

* A complete description and analytical discussion of the 1908 machine was given in the September and October, '08, issues.

PROPELLER MATHEMATICS FOR THE KINDERGARTEN CLASS-11*

By John Squires, M.E.

CHIEF OF PHYSICAL LABORATORY, E. R. THOMAS MOTOR CO.

IN dealing with the proposition that the fact of one propeller (or machine to which the propeller is attached) having a higher thrust per h. p. against a fixed point than another does not signify that the first propeller (or machine) will travel faster through the air than the one with the lower thrust per h. p., it will probably be easier to follow the demonstration if concrete values are assigned to the several variants to give them quantitative individuality, especially when considering the effect produced by changing the value of the variants.

It is of course remembered that the air-moving type of propeller is being considered, and before taking up the proposition of propellers in flight, it is advisable to analyze the function of each variant in utilizing the power put into a stationary propeller.

Let it be considered that all the power input is used in producing work, as to consider less than perfect efficiency would complicate the demonstration too greatly for the present purpose.

Accordingly, resuming consideration of propellers thrusting against a fixed point, and supposing that we have a theoretically correctly designed propeller that we can adopt as a standard for analytical purposes and a base from which to consider variations, and in the abstract this is simply a machine doing useful work in moving a certain weight (in this case the weight of the air moved) a certain distance (equal to the pitch multiplied by the speed of revolution) in a certain length of time, and, therefore, it is possible to take the algebraic expression for work and factor it to include the functions of all the variants (or elements) involved in producing this work.

The formula " reductum" for work being y2 m v2 = W, (in which W represents footpounds) or a better expression for the present purpose, m^ — W. This can be functioned for the element of weight by converting the mass into its factors, and then becomes

— - = W, or in its usual form, ™ ^ = W.

g 2 2 g

As w represents the total weight involved, this must necessarily be composed physically of a number of units; so let a cubic foot of air be considered as a single unit called w, and w then consists of wt multiplied by the total number of cubic feet of air moved in a certain unit of time. Let this total number of cubic feet be called C, and by substitution the formula becomes ^ W' V — W. 2 g

Before the formula can be factored further

to functionate the effect of the four variants, it is necessary that each of them be represented by a symbol.

The power involved (or its equivalent expression, work) is already represented by W. Let the speed of revolution per second be represented by R, the area throughout which the propulsive effect is exerted by A and the pitch in feet by P, and we can proceed to factor for the functionate value of each of these in the formula.

Looking for an opportunity to factor further, it is seen that the individual symbols C and v in the formula are the results of combinations of sub-values. Factoring C for its components, it is found that the total quantity of air moved in a unit of time is dependent on the pitch, the area and the number of revolutions in that unit of time, and making the indicated substitution, the formula reads

(A P R) zv v*

—--= W.

2 g

As v equals the velocity at which the mass travels and is the product of the pitch multiplied by the speed of revolution, another substitution can be made and the formula completely factored out becomes

(A P R) w, (P R)1 _

2 g

which simplified is

A p3 R* ™> = W

2 9

or expressed as an equation A Ps R3 w, _

2 g W ~ 1

and we now have an equation which explains the function of each of the variants in converting the power input into work output, and permits the intelligent determination of the correct relative values of these variants toward each other in actual practice.

It is now possible to create an actual standard properly functioned propeller for the purposes of comparison and such values as are apt to occur in actual practice may be assigned to as many of the variants as possible. So, taking, say, 20 h. p. at 20 r. p. s. (1,200 r. p. m.) and an area of 50 sq. ft. (equal to about 8 ft. diameter), all of which are within present practical limits, and it is possible to determine the correct value for the pitch, by substituting the numerical values for the corresponding symbols in the equation.

* The first " lesson " was given in the June issue, 1909.

No value has yet been assigned to the symbol w\ in the equation, but as we are dealing with air in units of cubic feet, the value of «/, is, therefore, the weight of one cubic foot of air, which can be taken approximately as .073 pound, although in practice this may vary considerably, depending on barometric and ther-mometric differences, and the velocity with which the air is being handled. The numerical value of g is, as usual, 32.16.

Now having numerical values for all of the variants involved except the pitch, the equation can be stated arithmetically thus :

50 X P3 X 8000 X -Q73 64.32 X 11000

which solved for P3 = 24.2, makes P = 2.893 and completes the full set of correct proportional values for the elements of the standard propellers thus:

H.P. =20 R. P. S. = 2o

P. = 2.893

A. =50

To get complete data for comparison, let the thrust be calculated in actual quantity also, and, remembering that the propeller can be designed to give the effect of air blowing against a normal disk, the formula P = S V2 .003 can be used by altering the coefficient to correspond with V in feet per second, and substituting the symbols we are using here for the sake of uniformity and using T as the symbol for thrust it becomes

T = A v2 .00139.

Applying this formula to the standard propeller gives

50 X (2.893 X 20) * X .00139 = 232.67 lbs.,

or 11.6 lbs. per h. p. As the proposition under consideration requires two propellers of varying thrusts per h. p., another propeller having a decreased thrust per h. p. can now be prepared for comparison.

Noting from the table (Variation 7 in the article in June issue) that an increase of pitch reduces the thrust per unit of power, let the same h. p. and speed of revolution be maintained and it is evident that the area will have to be reduced.

As doubling the pitch without altering the power or speed of revolution would reduce the area to one-eighth of its previous size (this effect is not stated in just this way in the table, but can be deduced from Variation 7), it will do as well to increase the pitch any amount that will not vary the working conditions too greatly, and accordingly let the pitch be made 3 feet and solve the equation for A, thus

A X 27 X 8000 X .073 11000 X 64.32

and A is found to be 44.87 sq. ft., or a diameter of approximately 7J4 ft.; and calculating for thrust

44-87 X (3 X 20) * X .00139 = 224.18, or 11.2 lbs. per h. p.

With theoretically perfect efficiency, we now have the equivalent of two normal surfaces, one having an area of 50 sq. ft. and being moved at a velocity of 57.86 ft. per second with an expenditure of 20 h. p., and one having an area of 44.87 sq. ft. and being moved at a velocity of 60 ft. per second utilizing the same h. p.

Now, presuming that the total head resistance of the machine (whether composed of area and drift in a dynamically-sustained machine or area alone in a buoyancy-sustained machine) to which the propeller is attached, is equal to the resistance caused by a surface of 20 sq. ft. area, normally presented, this resistance is proportional to the square of the velocity of flight v2 and produces slip in the propeller.

Representing the factors of the initial propulsive force in the propeller by the symbols A for the area against which the force is exerted and v for the velocity at which A is being moved, it is apparent that this velocity will be decreased by any additional area moved in proportion to the added resistance which, as we know, varies with v2, consequently symbolizing the added area by a, the resultant velocity of the combined resistance is expressed by the formula _

' A -f- a

in which A represents the surface against which the propulsive force is exerted and A a the surfaces presenting resistance to propulsion.

Stating arithmetically the resultant velocity of the machine with the standard propeller attached, thus,

1/50 X (2.893 X 20)2 _ v V So X 20

we find it to be approximately 49 ft. per second, and for the same machine with the second propeller

-t/44-87 X (3 X 2Q)3_7, r 44-87 + 20

a velocity of approximately 50 ft. per second, thus showing that it is possible for a propeller having a lower thrust per h. p. than another when the machine to which it is attached is held stationary, to drive the machine faster through the air in flight, than the propeller having the higher thrust per h. p.

I wish to specially comment on the common error of using the wind pressure coefficient in propeller thrust calculations. I have only used it so far for the sake of simplicity in laying down comparative effects. Before closing this series of lessons I will give it differentiating values under varying conditions. As noted above, its value not only changes materially

(.Continued on page 79)

AERONAUTIC CONSTRUCTION AIDS

IN the articles on construction which have appeared in "Aeronautics," the endeavor has been to show how other builders do things, to show new ideas in the necessary details of construction, and in this way to allow improvements to be

F/g.l

thought from the ideas suggested by the work of others.

R. E. Pelterie has taken out a patent on the control of a horizontal rudder. (See Fig. i.)

This mechanism has been designed to

Fig. 8

enable a large and rapid adjustment to be given to the "elevator," as it is called in England, and also to allow it to be set accurately. The lifting plane A is operated by means of the lever B, which is connected by a link C to the centre of a pulley D. An operating cord runs round this pulley and is connected at one end to the control lever E at or near the fulcrum thereof, and at the other end to the control lever F near the handle. By moving the lever F a large movement is imparted to the pulley D and lifter A. Thus the lifter can be moved through a wide range rapidly by means of the lever F. To set the lever accurately and to provide delicate control the lever E is used. Owing to the attachment of the operating cord near the fulcrum of this lever a large movement of the lever results in but small movement of the pulley and elevator. The patent specification describes also a system whereby levers are used in place of the cord and pulley illustrated.

In Fig. 2 is shown the main beam construction of the Beach-Willard monoplane. A and B are the horizontal and C the vertical parts. These are fastened together

with glue and screws. Care must be taken with this form of building to prevent warping. The same system is used to separate the upper and lower half of the ribs, running at right angles thereto. (See Fig 3.) AA are two thin strips at front and rear of the main surface to which the ends of the ribs are fastened.

To tighten guy wires, F. H. Lindsay merely crimps the wires as much as may be necessary, (Fig. 4).

Dr. H. W. Walden uses the system of trussing shown in Fig. 5. D is the strut, EE are washers, F is a bolt, G is a piece of metal (thimble) bent as shown and H is the wire, run through the two ends of G. In Fig. 6 is shown a method of joining horizontal beams and vertical struts. I is the strut, J and ordinary "T" hinge and K the beam.

Fig. 7 shows another method. L is a strut, La a ferrule, M the beam and N a bolt, securely fastened inside the strut with glue and a hollow dowel through which the bolt goes.

The Wright's scheme of joining is shown in Fig. 8 and the curve of their surface is 9.

HISTORY OF TWO-SURFACE FLYERj

THE popular use of the two-surface machine has brought up the question of its origin. It will be of interest to refer to the article of Octave Chanute in the September and October (1908) issues of "Aeronautics" on the "Evolution of the 'Two-Surface' Flying Machine."

F. H. Wenham of England, in 1866 originated and patented a machine with superposed planes. Stringfellow showed a large triplane model in 1868. Others experimented with multiple superposed planes. Then Lawrence Hargrave used two surfaces only in his "box" kite, now so well known. In 1895 Lilienthal glided with a two-surface machine.

In 1896 when A. M. Herring was working for Mr. Chanute, the latter designed and built a triplane. The lower surface was later removed. Over 700 glides were made with this machine and this type of apparatus has since been universally known as the "Chanute," inasmuch as he was really the first to actually construct and extensively use a reliable apparatus of this design.

THE FIRST POWER FLIGHT.

Sir Hiram Maxim must be credited with the first flight ever made by a machine with a self-contained power plant. His "fearfully and wonderfully made" aeroplane flew for about 200 ft. on July 31, 1894. Then there is Ader, whose flight with a

steam power monoplane of about 1,000 ft. on October 14, 1897, has been pretty well established as a fact.

The Wrights are undoubtedJy the first men to have made a successful flight in a power machine (December 17, 1903.) Maxim, Ader, and Kress had also flown, but did not succeed in landing safely.

A. M. Herring claims two flights with compressed air power in 1898, but these were unwitnessed.

The Cuthbertson flying machine which was built at the yards of the Michigan Steel Boat Co., Detroit, was smashed the last time the inventor tried getting it into the air. The boat company is now building another one to be ready by the end of July.

G. Curtis Gillespie, 186 Prospect Park Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y., is building an aeroplane which will soon be completed. The delay is now with the engine. Many will remember the large-sized model and the full-sized machine shown by Mr. Gillespie at the first two shows of the Aero Club of America.

W. H. Holloway, 117 E. Hargett St., Raleigh, N. C, is in the market for a light motor.

IN THE WORLD OF AVIATION

AMERICA STEPPING FORWARD.

A. P. Warner Buys Curtiss Aeroplane.

ON Tuesday night, June 22nd, Mr. C. F. Wyckoff, of Wyckoff, Church & Partridge, New York, Eastern distributors for Stearns automobiles, arranged for the selling of Herring-Curtiss aeroplanes.

Within twenty-four hours Mr. C. Wm. Wurster, New York Manager for the Wyckoff Advertising Company, who takes care of the publicity and advertising for Wyckoff, Church & Partridge, sold one of the first practical aeroplanes ever purchased in this country by a private individual, to Mr. A. P. Warner, Vice President and General Manager of the Warner Instrument Company, of Beloit, Wis. Russell and Frederick Alger were, so far as known, the first individuals to purchase an aeroplane in America, buying a Wright machine.

For a number of years Mr. Warner has made a close study of aviation, and through "Aeronautics" has kept himself fully posted on the progress of the various American and foreign gasless machines.

Mr. Warner will probably soon enjoy the unique distinction of being the first private gentleman to have delivered an aeroplane which an amateur can readily handle in the air for an hour or more. The contract provides for delivery of the aeroplane within 50 days, and the assembling of the various parts will be begun at once.

Incidentally Mr. Warner is closely allied with the automobile industry through the manufacture of high grade speed indicators.

The problem of inventing an improved instrument which will register the speed of an aeroplane while in flight is just now of the greatest interest to Mr. Warner, and he proposes to begin experiments along this line just as soon as he has mastered the handling of the. machine just purchased.

The machine is to be shipped to Beloit where Mr. Warner will begin trials. In the winter, the adjacent lake will provide a perfect place for learning.

Curtiss To Go Abroad.

Glenn H. Curtiss has definitely made entry to represent the Aero Club of America, in the Gordon-Bennett aviation contest to be held over the Betheny plain in the champagne country of France on August 28. Gordon-Bennett offers for the winner's club a $2,500 cup, and $5,000 in cash to the aviator himself. The contest

is for speed, twice around a 10-kilometer course. Landings are permitted.

From August 22 to 29 a whole week will be devoted to aeronautics. There will be elimination trials for the Gordon-Bennett, speed and altitude contests, as well as balloon and dirigible events. In all $40,000 are offered in prizes, most of which sum is donated by champagne manufacturers.

Aeroplane In Washington State.

H. C. Richardson, Othello, Wash., is constructing an aeroplane, to be finished early in the Fall. A biplane, with the upper and lower surfaces forming dihedral angles and meeting at the extremities, the machine has a spread of 38 ft. over all. There is a movable tip at each extremity 2 by 8 ft., 3 ft. of which are flexible. Running back from the rear of the usual sustaining surfaces on each side of the backbone of the apparatus are two large surfaces at a dihedral angle, each 8 ft. wide by 26 ft. front to rear. The rear edges of all planes are flexible. The tail is two-surfaced, 3 by 8 ft., spaced 2 ft. apart, moving at every conceivable angle. Two levers control all movable parts.

Newman Aeroplane Makes More Glides.

More towed flights have been made by the Newman aeroplane, built by the Brownsville Aeroplane Co., Brownsville, Tex. A Curtiss motor was expected by July 1st and as soon as this is installed, power flights will be tried. If successful, the machine will compete for the World's $10,000 New York-Albany prize—at least, that is what the builders say.

W. H. Butler's Flying Machine Shed At Morris Park.

Plans have been filed with the Building Superintendent of the Bronx for a two-story "garage" for the sheltering of flying machines to be built for Wm. H. Butler at the south end of the Morris Park race track.

The affair is something brand new in the building line in this city. It is to be of wooden frame construction from designs by the Dixon Building Co., having rubberoid roof, the latter being practically fireproof and durable. It will have a frontage of 25 feet and a depth of 55J/2 feet, and is to cost $3,000.

Canadian Aeroplanes Ready.

Ottawa, July 10.—Trials of the new flyers of the Canadian Aerodrome Co., of Baddeck, will soon take place at the military encampment at Petawawa by Messrs. Baldwin and McCurdy.

Young America In Aviation.

At Hammondsport, N. Y., four young men, Messrs. Babcock, Locke, Gleason and Robinson, are making experiments in aviation. During the winter they made some great glides down hill on the snow and have since developed a more advanced apparatus about which they tell as follows:

"A monorail like a channel-section was laid on a gentle slope. The machine was taken to the grounds and a short flight was made at 5.30 p. m., but owing to motor trouble, it terminated in a broken skid.

"After repairs a trial was made another day before the surfaces were dry after a shower, and consequently they were not airtight. The machine was carried (as it only weighed about 150 lbs.) to the starting point and placed on the monorail. Then the motor was tuned up until it ran perfectly by an expert motorcycle tester, Chas. Locke, who is a very active member of our club.

"When all was ready the operator's seat was taken by Wm. Babcock and the signal to let go was given. The machine was held on the sides by men until it gained headway. Then it balanced automatically owing to the dihedral tips. When a speed of about 18 miles per hour was reached, the operator raised the front control slightly and the machine rose from the rail. It flew very steadily for about 75 ft., but slowly lost speed on account of insufficient motive power and sank slowly to the ground on an even keel. A few small pieces of wood were broken upon landing. This machine was of our regular type with the box tail covered on top and bottom only. The motor was a single cylinder 3 h.p. motorcycle engine. The propeller was of laminated construction 3 ft. in diameter. It was directly connected and it revolved at 1000 r.p.m. The aeroplane was supported upon two motorcycle wheels in the center of the machine, one behind the other. The flight was considered a success in every way except for insufficient power. A double cylinder V-type engine is to be installed and more flights will be attempted."

An Aerial Railroad.

Paul H. Pages, Borough Park, L. I., is working on an overhead monorail transit line, somewhat similar to the famous electric aerial trolley line now running in Germany. There are some additions, however, which make the plan truly aeronautical.

Above the car itself are aero-surfaces of such area as to lift nearly the entire weight of the car or train from the overhead monorail. There is also a propeller to each car to assist in the lift and to hasten the acquiring of initial velocity. The cars are to be very light, and as there would necessarily be less friction and fewer moving parts, greater speed is promised.

It is proposed to install such a system between New York and Long Beach.

The Aeroplane-Safety-Suspension Electric Railway was incorporated last April. The treasurer of the company is the Rev. John C. Welwood, pastor of the Bensonhurst Episcopal Church. The full list of officers is as follows: Paul H. Pages, president; W. W. Heroy, first vice-president; George Giller, second vice-president; Stephen W. Dodge, third vice-president; James P. Koh-ler, secretary; John C. Welwood, treasurer; Edwin D. Kenyon, general counsel. The capital of the company is given as $100,000.

Aeroplanes for Meteorology.

Dr. Weichert, of the German University of Gottingen at Hanover, plans to send small aeroplanes to great heights for the purpose of obtaining meteorological data. These would be steered by means of electricity. Some success has already been had with a small apparatus. This recalls Prof. Cleveland Abbe's article along the same line, printed in the February, '09, issue of this journal.

R. D. Herzog, of Harvard, Nebr., writes: "I tested a new form of propeller last night. I was present at Hammondsport when the engine and propeller were tested on the 'Silver Dart,' and I used the same method of testing, which I presume to be fair and correct. We obtained an even pull of 16 lbs. using one man power. This propeller made 59 revolutions per minute at time of 16 lbs. pull. Do you not think this is good? I ain confident that 20 horsepower will suffice to drive and fly my new aeroplane which is just being started, which, ready to fly, including engine and operator, will have to lift % lbs. per square foot. The planes of the aeroplane and propeller are the same design." (See April, '09, number for description of machine.)

And in spite of the fact that they have been wined and dined by Europe, the Wrights still remain the simple, unpretentious mechanics they were when they went away. The only thing that ever hurt their feelings got its sting from the fact that they are good mechanics. When M. For-dyce, representing the French government, looked them up in Dayton some years ago to buy the rights of their machine, he had to inquire of a prominent citizen where to find them.

"Don't pay any attention to those Wrights, Mister Fordyce," said the p. c. "I'll tell you the man you want to see. You look up Uncle Bill Hooley."

"And what has he done?" asked Fordyce.

"Why, haven't you heard?" asked the prominent citizen. "Why, dang it, he has discovered perpetual motion!"—N. Y. Globe.

AEROPLANE FLIGHTS AT AERONAUTIC SOCIETY EXHIBITION.

Martin In Towed Flight Barely Escapes Serious Accident.

CURTISS CIRCLES TRACK.

Wind Wagon Makes Fast Mile.

THE Morris Park aerodrome looked like a full fledged flying machine foundry the last half of June. Any one who had a machine of any kind was getting it in shape for the June 26 show, though the efforts made did not get some of the machines finished after all.

On the 13th the Curtiss aeroplane, for which the society contracted, arrived. Several days were spent in assembling it, and on the 16th a straight flight was made in the gathering gloom. This was the first aeroplane to fly at Morris Park. After returning from a trip to Hammondsport, Air. Curtiss made two short flights on the 19th, in one of which the speed was figured at 46.7 miles an hour. The rear horizontal rudder was set at an angle with the ground so as to cut down the speed by giving greater lift. On the 24th three more short flights were made, and a circle of the track.

In the storm of June 25th the Myer dirigible was blown against a post and put out of commission for the show.

JUNE 26TH EXHIBITION.

Those visitors who were willing to brave one of the hottest days on record found much of interest in the exhibition, the first of its kind ever held in the world. Not only were there present machines, models and kites approaching in number the recent foreign aero shows, but in addition, real (lying, towed flights, balloon ascents, wind wagon demonstration, etc.

During the first part of the afternoon, when there was a slight breeze, Samuel J7. Perkins had in the air his display of kites

and banners, and over a hundred school boys, in charge of A. E. Horn and W. M. Mohr, contested with kites in various contests.

Dr. Wm. Greene had organized a "bal-loonatic"' obstacle contest in which the competitors suspended themselves from small balloons and endeavored to run and leap over obstacles. The spectacle was a funny one, as more often the balloons pulled the competitors backward than they could pull the balloons forward.

On the lawn and in the sheds were the various machines and models of the members. Among these were the full-sized machines of Messrs. Beach-Willard, Dr. Wm. Greene, F. H. Lindsay, Geo. A. Lawrence, Fred Schneider, F. E. Rickman, Dr. H. W. Walden, and the remains of the Kimball machine: the Martin, Wittemann, Hendrick-snn and Kimball gliders. Among the flying models were those of R. E. Scott, Edward W. Smith and F. O. Andreae. The Scott model made main- successful flights. Edward W. Smith, whose twin screw model has been described and illustrated previously in this magazine, won the first prize. The model shown herewith was launched from the hand and flew for 52 paces. The other model was launched from a little catapult and travelled 50 paces, with twin propellers. None of the gliding models were tried.

The Thomas wind-wagon had been completely rebuilt, and was very .successful. Though really in an unfinished condition, it made a circuit of the mile track in 2.07. This is equipped with a 24 h. p. air-cooled Aero-car motor, driving by chain an 8-foot propeller. Prof. Pickering's man-power t r i -cycle was also in evidence.

During the early afternoon Mr. Curtiss made two straight (lights. Next Wm. II. Martin, of Canton, Ohio, was towed in his big glider hy a six-cylinder Kissel Kar automobile. The glider is a monoplane with large surfaces underneath set at a dihedral angle. It is provided with rudders and a boat shaped frame runs on three wheel-. The speed of the automobile was a little too

great, the bridle gave way, and the apparatus made a short and successful swoop over the fence. The machine was partially wrecked, but Mr. Martin was not seriously hurt. The dihedral angle is Martin's scheme for preserving lateral stability, and in his flying model it works perfectly, righting itself, no matter how started. But the big machine swings from side to side and oscillates considerably. Wm. H. Aitken made another towed flight in a Wittemann glider, keeping on even keel and landing safely.

Two hot air balloons made ascents, with parachute trimmings. The aeronauts were Johnny Mack and Mary Hunter, the Stevens medal being awarded to Mr. Mack.

The Schneider machine was placed on the catapult and started, after long delay caused by a leaky radiator, but it did not fly._ The engine is much too heavy, for one thing.

It was nearly eight o'clock before Mr. Curtiss was able to make another flight, and in this one he circled the lower end of the track, but hesitated about taking the second turn at the north end. Criticism has been made of the size of the Morris Park track, the largest in the country, on account of its being too confined, but those who have seen the Le Mans course, where Wright started flying in France, say that Morris Park is considerably larger.

The attendance was very small, and the society faced a deficit running nearly into $5,000. Nearly every one seemed well satisfied, however, with the events of the day.

exhibition july 5th.

At the urgent appeal of several of the members of the Aeronautic Society, a second exhibition was held on Jul}' 5th, which exhibition is now a thorn in the flesh of the Enthusiastic Ones. A larger crowd was in attendance, but lack of organization and co-operation, combined with the absence of promised events, disappointed a majority of the spectators. It was after dark before the strong and steady wind subsided enough to allow Mr. Curtiss to make two short straight flights, and a near-circle of the track. Those who remained felt repaid for their wait, but the general public, which does not appreciate the whys, wherefores and whims of aeronautics, grew annoyed, to say the least, when there were delays.

The first part of the afternoon was taken up by three long distance motor-cycle events and the wind-wagon demonstration. Wm. H. Aitken had erected in the infield opposite the grand stand a real perilous-looking platform 30 ft. high from which he promised to glide at intervals during the afternoon. The wind, however, blew from the opposite side to that on which he had his inclined runway, and Aitken with his glider posed on the top of the tower the whole afternoon, amid the jeers of the crowd.

Dr. Wm. Greene took out the repaired dirigible and made a short flight. His weight proved too great for the miniature airship and it slowly sank to the ground.

The hot air balloon ascents and parachute drops, which were a novelty in New York, were one of the missing numbers on the program.

Later even than the Curtiss flights, Geo. Thompson made several excellent and stable towed flights in the Martin glider, and R. E. Scott made a successful towed flight in a glider of his own design.

One of the jokes of the first show was the Beach-Willard monoplane, which was found too big to be gotten out of its shed. At the second exhibition the machine was wheeled out all right, but in the Beach-Willard hustle-bustle way of doing things.

One of Edw. W. Smith's Models.

the engine was found to run the wrong way for the propellers. That prevented its first trial.

Entry had been made by Mr. Curtiss for the Bishop $25o-kilometer-prize, and it was announced that he would endeavor to establish a record in competition for the "Scientific American" trophy, but neither competition was held. Air. Curtiss has taken his aeroplane to the Hempstead plains on Long Island for some demonstrations with the permission of the Aeronautic Society. After these are completed, the machine will be returned to Morris Park. While on Long Island Mr. Curtiss will teach two members of the Aeronautic Society how to operate it—that is. if the machine withstands the first lesson.

Kimball Aeroplane Wrecked.

After many days of consecutive 1 rials at Morris Park, the first part of June, the Kimball eight-propellered aeroplane met vuth a serious accident which will delay further experiments for several weeks. At the later trials, while the novel type of transmission employed continued to give satisfactory results, some trouble developed in the ignition, preventing the engine exerting full power. In spite of this, however, sufficient speed was attained to lift the front and one side of the machine well into the air, and the remaining wheel in contact with the ground seemed to barely rest on the high points as it rolled along at about thirty miles per hour. Upon such an occasion, while intent upon operating the steering

I. Hendrickson Glider. 2. Martin Glider. 3. Glenn H. Curtiss making a straight flight. 4. The Beach-Willard Aeroplane sunning itself. 5. Wm. H. Martin and his glider in a towed flight. An instant after this photograph was taken the glider scaled the fence on the outside of the track. 6. Dr. Wm. Greene making an ascent with the Myers Dirigible. 7. Rear view of the^Shneider Biplane. 8. _ Charles M. Crout driving the Thomas Windwagon. 9. Lindsay's Aeroplane minus the motor. 10. The Rickman Helicopter. 1 1. Wm. H. Aitken at the start of a towed flight with a Wittemann Glider.

gear, one wing of the machine swung over an earth embankment at one side of the track, switched the apparatus sharply to one side, and before the speed could be slackened crashed into the earth, breaking some of the propellers and wrenching the frame. The work of repairing has been begun, and the opportunity availed of to make a number of minor changes in the control and operation, chief of which will be the changing of the vertical rudders from the ends to the rear center, and reducing the spread of the machine over all by about six feet.

Shneider Biplane a Wreck.

New York, July 13.—Last evening Fred'k Shneider made another trial with his aeroplane at Morris Park; in a few brief seconds it was a bunch of junk.

The machine was placed on the starting rail, the engine started, the weight dropped and off he went. His forward rudder was tilted up too sharply and a wind blowing head-on took the machine up at a steep angle for about 30 ft., then it lost all headway and started down backwards, in a manner similar to the Kimball glider accident (see April, '09, issue), striking the ground with the rear edge of the lower surface, breaking the propellers and smashing everything but the motor to kindling. While in the air the machine buckled in the middle, and each wing tilted up at an angle, showing lateral weakness. The motor was uninjured.

Andreae Model.

A curious-looking model has been developed by F. O. Andreae, of Central Valley, N. Y., and shown at the June 26th exhibition of the Aeronautic Society'.

For a trial flight it was hoisted 300 ft. into the air by Eddy kites on a piano wire 2,000 ft. long, of which 1,200 were out when the model was released by means of a hook and ring. A small and old steam engine was used, horse power unknown. The engine worked badly but the propellor seemed to do better than ever before, and the apparatus reached the ground without injury. The flight lasted some minutes, exact time not taken. This model, called "A-i,"

measures 10 by 10 ft., and weighs with the engine 35 lbs.

The model was not expected to do as well as it did, and Mr. Andreae started immediately to build a new one, acting on the lessons learned by this flight.

F. O. Andreae after he got his model machine into the air said: "I believe the properly constructed machine, to be yet invented, will keep a steady safe balance

The Andreae Model in Flight.

without special devices, will not need extensive means of control and be a machine distinguished by the absence of upright struts and diagonal bracing wires. Machines are only hard to control because they are very imperfect attempts as yet. I am encouraged by the results attained, that's all. I hope to evolve something better."

AERO CALENDAR

July 10.—Aero Exposition at Frankfort. Germany, till October 10.

July 28.—Wright Brothers must complete contract at Washington.

Aug. 1.—Landing Balloon Contest, Aero-nautique Club of France.

Aug. 3-7.—Balloon ascents at Milwaukee Home Week Celebration.

Aug. 15.—Herring must complete trials at Washington.

Aug. .—Exhibition Pacific Aero Club, San Francisco.

Aug. 22-29.—Aviation Week at Rheims.

Aug. 23.—Gordon-Bennett Aviation Contest.

Sept. _ 4-19.—Austrian Aero and Industrial Exhibition at Linz.

Sept. 5.-—Aero events at Motor Parkway, Indianapolis.

Sept. 5-11.—Daily Balloon Ascents during North Adams' Old Home Week.

Sept. 25-Oct. 9.—Hudson-Fulton Celebration, New York.

Sept. 30-Oct. 8.—Motor Exhibition of Aeronautic Engines at Paris.

October.—Aero Carnival in Pittsburgh.

Oct. 3.—Gordon-Bennett Balloon Race at Zurich, Switzerland, twenty balloons entered.

Oct. 4—Aero Club of St. Louis Balloon, Dirigible and Aeroplane Events.

1910.—Aero Show in Boston.

GLIDING FROM HOT AIR BALLOON

THE experiments conducted some years ago by Prof. J. J. Montgomery, of Santa Clara College, in which glides were made from considerable heights after the operator and machine had been taken up by a hot-air balloon, have been copied by U. Sorenson, of Berwyn, Nebr.

Describing the machine and his experiences in the air to a representative of 'Aeronautics," Mr. Sorenson says: "The aeroplane was double-decked, main planes 6 ft.

"Before cutting loose I hooked the rudder lever so as to right the glider as soon as it commenced dropping, but as the rudder was broken, it failed to right until it had dropped 500 feet or over, and then the sudden stop in the air broke the planes on the left about 4 ft. 6 in. from the end. The descent was made in about one minute. This caused it to up-end, and gave a spinning motion which was about 100 r. p. m.

Glider After the Accident. The Broken Planes on Left Caused the Spinning During Descent

x 30 ft., spaced 5 ft. 4 in., with rudder extending 10 ft. in rear. It was equipped with warping planes for balancing.

"The balloon was an ordinary hot air balloon, and was well inflated, and when cut loose raised swiftly to a height of 3,500 ft., carrying the glider edgewise, the hitch being made in front of the glider about 18 in. above the lower plane. In leaving, the box rudder hit the ground and was broken. This I did not notice, or I should have stayed with the balloon.

The Hot Air Balloon and Glider Just Before the Start

This gave me a chance to warp the plane on the right and balance the machine again. It was completely demolished when it hit the ground, about a half mile from the start. I think the only thing that saved my life was my experience with the parachute.

I thank "Aeronautics" for the good I have learned through its pages, and hope this experiment will help some one else along in this great field."

STRIVING FOR PERFECT MACHINE

Arthur Holly Compton, of Wooster, Ohio, has evolved a system of equilibrium for which he claims great things. In tin-new Farman machine, described in the June issue, auxiliary surfaces are hinged to the rear of the supporting planes for obtaining lateral stability. The Wright Brothers warp the wing tips. These operations are in addition to the moving of the horizontal rudder.

In the Compton model are combined the apparatus for securing lateral and fore-and-aft stability, and he has reduced the number of moving parts to two. At some distance in front of the main surfaces, one at

either end of the wings, he has placed horizontal rudders which are large enough to maintain stability in any wind. In preserving fore and aft stability the rudders are moved simultaneously in the same direction; in keeping the lateral balance one rudder is turned up and the other down. This can be managed by a steering gear which is so simple and natural in its movements that no mistake could be made. He has secured fore-and-aft stability by placing the center of gravity a little in front of the center of air pressure and turning the rudder slightly upward, but has found that in gusty air the wings set at a dihed-

ral angle are not as stable as when they are perfectly straight, and he believes that when there is an operator in the machine, it would be better to have the wings turned slightly downward.

By Arthur Holly Compton.

This method of securing stability has uaAOjdvery efficient, and is more economical than any other type. Economy depends upon the amount of power required to drive the machine a given distance, and the power required depends upon the ratio of the lift of the machine to its forward resistance. Following the planes are detrimental as they lessen the lift of the wind, for the planes in front impart a downward motion to the air on which the following planes must support themselves. It is this which makes the large tail of the Voisin machine such a drag. The Wright aerocurve has much less following surface than this type, and our machine has the same proportion of surface in the horizontal rudders as the Wright machine, thus losing no more lift than theirs and much less than Voisin's. Using two rudders for securing equilibrium also lessens the horizontal resistance when turning in a sharp curve.

Take the Wright machine for an example. When this is about to make a sharp turn, the wings are warped, one end turned up and the other down, and the horizontal rudder is turned upward. As an end oi the machine is turned down and the rudder up, these two surfaces counteract each other in lifting force, while at the same time they increase the forward resistance. This is also the case in the Voisin machine. With our method, however, when it is desired to change both the lateral and fore-and-aft angle, the two rudders counteract each other only enough to change the lateral balance. Thus we see that not only is the lift of the surfaces greater with this new system of balancing, but, also, that it produces less forward resistance than any other type, making the ratio of lift to forward resistance, upon which depends the economy of the machine, somewhat greater.

One important step which has been taken in the construction of our model is the use of three instead of two superposed planes.

There are several reasons why we consider this construction advantageous, the most important of which is the compactness of this style compared to that of the double surface type, making it more convenient for housing. A triple-decker has slightly less forward resistance for the same amount of surface, weight and strength, and in experimenting with different models the triple-surfaced machine seemed to be more stable on windy days than a double-surfaced model of the same size. Another advantage of using three curves is that in shortening the lateral dimension of the machine, the radius of the circle in which it can turn is also shortened. Also when the

Wright machine alights, the propeller and the vertical rudder are in danger of strik- • ing the ground, but if they use a tricurve its large vertical dimension would give plenty of room for them and avoid all risk of injury. Having considered all these points it has seemed advisable to us to adopt the triple-surfaced machine.

These two improvements, the use of three superposed surfaces and the new method of securing stability, have been embodied in the model shown in the accompanying photograph. This model is 39 inches long with the surfaces 6 inches wide and the same distance apart, curved in a parabola through an angle of nine degrees. We have tried several Wright models and one of the Voisin type, but even with the double surface the new system of balancing seemed steadier than the others. In order to secure automatic equilibrium in gusts it was

Compton Model In Flight

found necessary to use vertical planes between the supporting surfaces of our model. We do not however advise this in a machine where a person can control the balance, for a side gust carries such a machine out of its course, and if compelled to fly in a narrow course this would be inconvenient to say the least.

Besides these two devices which have been tried and found to work well, we have thought of an improvement which ought'to do away with one of the great defects of existing flying-machines, that of their inability to alight and start from any kind of ground. Machines equipped with wheels can start from almost any smooth meadow, (Continued on page SO)

The Aero Club of America has appointed the following as its representatives to the F. A. I. congress in Milan this Fall: Col. John Jacob Astor, Cortlandt Field Bishop, Jefferson De Mont Thompson, Colgate Hoyt, Orville Wright, Alan R. Hawley, Robert Lee Morrell and Dave Hennen Morris.

The Aero Cub of Dayton has had two ascents under its auspices during June with Captain Bumbaugh's "Hoosier," as noted in the list of ascensions. Other trips are planned an da balloon will be purchased.

The Aero Club of California has elected the following officers: Pres., H. La V. Twining; First Vice pres., A. L. Smith; Second Vice Pres., J. H. Klassen; Sec, Parke Hyde; Treas., E. W. Murch; Directors, J. S. Zerbe and H. J. Parker. A new constitution was adopted, dividing the membership into the following classes: active members $10 a year; associate, $5; life, $200.

The Pacific Aero Club has definitely decided to hold its show about the third week in August at Dreamland Rink. The Junior Aero Club has asked for space to exhibit its members' models, gliders, etc.

The Aero Club of New England is

anxious to encourage ballooning and has inaugurated a very good plan. Chas. J. Glid-den will devote his time to instruction in piloting and a special rate of $50 per ascen-

sion has been fixed for members intending to qualify as pilots. Payment for the necessary number of ascensions, ten, must be made in advance. The number of ascensions already made by the applicant will be deducted at the same rate. The balloon "Boston" will be used at Fitchburg and for the night ascension, the "Mass." at Pitts-field. The club has now 100 members and it feels that to close the season without increasing its number of pilots would indicate a lack of interest.

The club has offered the use of their 56,000 cubic ft. balloon Massachusetts to pilots of the Aero Club of America at $35 for each ascension and their balloon Boston for $25. The "Massachusetts" is at Pittsfield and the "Boston" at Fitchburg. The Boston is a 35,000 ft. balloon. The Massachusetts costs $50.40 to fill with gas, and the Boston $31.50.

With the Aeronautic Club of Chicago,

things are going along very nicely. The club will have a big balloon race there in August, and expect to have one home-made aeroplane that will fly at the time of the meet. The membership of the club is increasing very rapidly. The Illinois National Guard is going to have an encampment at Elgin, and C. A. Coey's big balloon "Chicago" is going to be held captive there. After the maneuvers of the officers have been engaged in, Mr. Coey will have the honor of taking Governor Deneen and General Young for a little ride.

M. B. Sellers in the "Step Glider" Described in the June '09 Issue. On the Left is the Towing Tower

59

FUTURE AERONAUTICAL EVENTS

AERO TOURNAMENT FOR ST. LOUIS.

Aero Club There Plans Big Events.

0\T the occasion of the Centennial Celebration of the City of St. Louis, commencing October 4, three afternoons have been set aside for the balloon events. On the 4th a long distance race will be held; on the 8th and qth aeroplane and dirigible competitions will be held. There will also be an "auto-aero" competition for members of the St. Louis club, who will follow in automobiles a balloon to be sent up. The first car to reach its landing place will be the winner. For all these and other events a large sum of money has already been raised.

SPHERICAL BALLOONS.

In the long distance race Monday, October 4, from Club Grounds, beginning at 4.00 p. m., there are offered the following prizes:

First, $600 or cup; second, $400 or cup; third, $300 or cup; fourth, $200 or cup; fifth, 100 or cup. The endurance prize will be a cup.

Contestants will be furnished • gas free. The rules of the F. A. I. are to govern, and only licensed pilots are eligible. The entrance fee is $25, which will be returned upon starting.

AEROPLANES.

The aeroplane contests are to be held somewhere in the west end of St. Louis on Friday, October 8, at 2.00 p. m. The first prize, $1,000 and gold medal; second prize, $500 and silver medal.

The grounds will be laid out with a starting square approximating 200 feet; then a get-away will be laid out a half mile from the starting point. Each aeroplane will be given three trials for a get-away and if the aeroplane does not pass the outer square in any of these three trials, it is disqualified for the race. If the aeroplane passes the getaway line on the first trial, it must continue its flight, 'as it will have no more trials. The aeroplanes are to maneuver throughout a given district, for instance, Forest Park, if the Catlin track is chosen for the starting point. The 'plane staying out the longest and returning to the 200-foot starting square wins the first prize; to win a prize, it must fulfill the following conditions:

Leave the starting point and in at least three trials get outside of the outer getaway line; maintain a continuous flight and return to the starting square. The first

prize will be awarded to the aeroplane remaining the longest in continuous flight.

ADVERTISING BALLOON RACE.

The start of the Advertising Balloon Race will take place at 2:00 p. m. from the Aero Club Grounds, on Saturday, October 9th.

DIRIGIBLES.

The race between dirigibles will be held from the Club Grounds, Saturday, October 9th, beginning at 3:00 p. m.

First prize, $1,000 and Gold Medal; second prize, $500 and Silver Medal.

The conditions of the race are that the dirigibles must leave the starting point and cover a triangular course as follows: Aero Club Grounds to Blair Monument, then to Mounted Police Station, returning to starting point. Each competitor is to have three trials and the best time out of the three trials is to count. No competitor can win two prizes as only one time is to be counted out of the three trials.

A special prize will be given for the best exhibition of maneuvering.

Aeroplanes and Dirigibles for Indianapolis

The new Indianapolis motor speedway will be the scene of a big event on Labor Day, Monday, September 5. Arrangements are being completed for a second big aeronautic event. On this occasion the contests are promised with aeroplanes and dirigible balloons. They are expected to form the biggest attraction ever booked for Indianapolis, and will be under the auspices of the Indiana Aero Club. The program for the Indianapolis meeting will be practically the same as that of the St. Louis Aero Club, of St. Louis, set for October.

The Indiana and St. Louis clubs will exchange courtesies. The Indiana club has agreed to send as many entries to the St. Louis meet as the St. Louis club sends to Indianapolis.

Aero Division for Hudson-Fulton Celebration

Hon. James M. Beck, former Assistant Attorney General of the United States, and at present Chairman of the Committee on Aeronautics of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, has left for Europe. During his sojourn abroad it is his intention to get in touch with the leading aviators in France, England and elsewhere, with a view of securing their eo-operation in the proposed special features being inaugurated by the Aeronautic Department of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission.

The Hudson-Fulton Commission recently appropriated the sum of $25,000 to carry out the plans which have been formulated by the Aeronautic Committee. One of the

most important features promised are a series of spectacular flights and evolutions by aeroplanes at the time of the holding of the remarkable marine pageant which is to pass up the Hudson River headed by the replicas of Hendrik Hudson's "Half Moon" and. Robert Fulton's first steamboat. It is proposed to erect a large landing stage in the vicinity of Grant's Tomb and to arrange similar facilities on the Palisades on the opposite side of the Hudson and from these landing stages the aeroplanes will pass to and fro across the Hudson, over the marine pageant as it ascends the River. The Aeronautic Department has already received most encouraging word from prominent aviators in this country and Europe, and as the Chairman has it is expected that negotiations will be closed with a number of the leading aviators before he returns to this country. The Committee expects to render assistance to the foreign aviators who enter the Hudson-Fulton contests in enabling them to bring their machines to this country, and they will also give a substantial sum of money to each contestant actually making the flight. And in addition to this a large sum of money and a handsome trophy, to be known as the Hudson-Fulton Tropin-, will be awarded to the aviator who makes the most spectacular and satisfactory performance.

The Committee desire to secure entries from Various aviators of America and recommend that parties who are building machines or at present experimenting with machines should get in touch with the Secretary of the Committee, William J. Hammer, who will be glad to give the fullest information regarding the plans of the Committee. Mr. Hammer is a well-known consulting electrical engineer of New York City, who has given a large amount of attention to the subject of aeronautics, is a member of the Aero Club of America and Chairman of the Hudson-Fulton Committee of that organization, a member of the Aeronautic Society and also a member of the Hudson-Fulton Committee of that body. He was also the Chairman of the International Aeronautical Congress of the Jamestown Exposition and has attended aeronautical congresses in this country and abroad. His address is Room 902, Tribune Building, Aeronautical Department of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission.

The Aeronautic Society of New York City, which controls the Morris Park race track, wrote the Aeronautic Committee of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission some time ago offering the full use of its grounds at Morris Park for such preliminary tests and experiments as the Committee might care to carry out. And it is the intention of the Hudson-Fulton Committee not to permit the entry of any aviator who has not previously qualified either by well-recorded flights or by an actual performance such as making a com-

plete circuit of the race track at Morris Park; or, in other words, a flight of one mile with turns.

Arrangements are being consummated for holding a series of evolutions of dirigible balloons coincident. It is hoped to secure a number of the most representative aeronauts in this country, and possibly one or more from abroad, who will also pass to and fro across the Hudson forming difficult and spectacular evolutions and possibly accompanying the marine pageant a short distance up the Hudson. Plans are also being formulated for sending up huge man-carrying war kites.

The Hudson-Fulton Committee on Aeronautics hope at an early day to make further announcement of additional plans covering the aeronautic features of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration.

An interesting feature which is being arranged by the Committee on Aeronautics working in conjunction with Mr. Stoddard, Captain of Pagaentry. and which it is expected will be an important feature of the Historical Parade, will be a float tj-pifying the inception and development of aerial navigation. It is expected that on this float will be shown a model of Professor Lang-ley's "aerodrome." There will also be the original machine with which the Wright Brothers made their first flight, a man-carrying machine with self-contained power; and a model of the Stringfellow machine now in the possession of the Smithsonian Institution, etc.

During Mr. Hammer's recent visit to Washington he saw the authorities at Smithsonian Institution and also Messrs. Wilbur and Orville Wright. And since the return of Secretary Wolcott from abroad he has arranged with the Smithsonian Institution for the exhibiting of models of these famous machines.

It is expected that various other interesting models of notable spherical and dirigible balloons, aeroplanes, etc., will be included in the plan for the proposed float. It may also be decided to equip a second float.

Aero Show for Boston.

The first National Exhibition of Aerial Craft ever held in \mcrica is contemplated for Boston next spring. It has been customary to hold aerial displays in connection with automobile shows in New York and elsewhere, but the affairs have been incidental rather than of primary importance.

Owing to the great strides that aerial navigation has taken lately, this exhibition will be exclusively of the air machines, and so much interest has been manifested upon the part of those concerned in the project that it seems a foregone conclusion that success is assured.

The proposed show for Boston will include exhibits of all known types of air

craft, heavier than air machines, dirigibles and balloons. Chester I. Campbell, of Auto Show fame, will have charge of the exposition, and Charles J. Glidden will be one of the prime movers in the project and has accepted the position of Chairman of the Executive Committee and of the Advisory Board.

The following gentlemen have already accepted and will serve on the Advisory Board, and their names speak eloquently of the interest being taken in the affair: Chas. J. Glidden, Chairman; Prof. W. H. Pickering, of Harvard College; Prof. David Todd, of Amherst College; H. Helm Clay-

ton, Lewis R. Speare, Hon. Geo. A. Hib-bard, Hon. Geo. H. Brown, Hon. H. O. Carpenter of Rutland, Vt.; Hon. W. H. Gannett, of Augusta, Me.; Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, of Blue Hill Observatory; Mr. E. A. Tarte and Mr. U. H. Dandurand, of Montreal, Can.; Glenn H. Curtiss, of H.am-mondsport, N. Y.; Luke J. Minahan, Pitts-field., Mass., R. Lincoln Lippitt, Providence, R. I.; Herbert I. Wallace, Fitchburg; John Coughlin, Worcester, Mass. Messrs. Orville and Wilbur Wright and A. Leo Stevens have also been invited to serve on this board, and it is confidently expected that they will accept.

WILLIAMS HELICOPTER SUCCESS

WE have received from our Washington correspondent some interesting particulars of the important helicopter trials made recently by Messrs. Berliner and Williams at the laboratory and farm of Emile Berliner of Washington, D. C.

Mr. Berliner, whose fame is international as the successful electrical engineer and inventor of the telephone transmitter, the gramophone, the Victor talking machine, etc., has made a study of practical aeronautics for years, and has made some interesting experiments, particularly with the helicopter type of flying machine. Last year he had the Adams-Farwell people build him two light-weight aeronautical motors, of their revolving-cylinder type, of about 35 rated h. p. each, and with one of them connected to a single two-bladed propeller of 17 ft. diameter, and 40 ft. superficial aera, got a thrust of about 350 pounds.

J. Newton Williams of Derby, Conn., inventor of the Williams typewriter, the automatic bank punch, etc., has been a student of aeronautics for many years, and his experimental work was being carried on quietly before the Wright Brothers were known to the public. He has always worked, however, on the more difficult problem of developing the helicopter type. While awaiting the evolution of the lightweight motor, he built practical working models that would lift themselves to the ceiling, fly horizontally in a straight line, could be set to fly in a curve to the right or to the left, would lift and carry an added weight as great as its own weight, fully demonstrating or indicating its dirigibility and easy control, and the possibilities of a large machine.

Between two and three 3rears ago, Mr. Williams built at Ansonia, Conn., a machine of man-carrying size and after trying a motor that proved quite inefficient in power, the machine was connected to the factory power, by belts and flexible shafting to test its propeller efficiency, and gave a thrust of over 550 pounds.

The machine was later taken to Hammondsport, N. Y., and an 8-cylinder Curtiss motor installed. Trials were made giving encouraging results, but the motor was not quite strong enough to lift the additional weight of Mr. Williams.

Last winter Messrs. Berliner and Williams discovered, on comparing notes, that unknown to each other, their work had been along quite similar lines, and that some of their experiments had been almost identical, in size and shape of propeller, methods of transmission, etc. Mr. Berliner haying the two light motors which had been overhauled and improved and tested at his laboratory, and Mr. Williams' machine being completed and of lighter construction, it was arranged to conduct some further experiments together.

A number of instructive experiments and tests were made, each of the motors lifting the machine with a few pounds of added weight, and developing about the same thrust they did in Mr. Berliner's previous tests with a single propeller of some larger diameter and area.

The last and most important trials took place on June 26 at Mr. Berliner's farm, when, with the two revolving motors mounted upon the helicopter, each geared direct to the oppositely revolving propeller shafts, and with Mr. Williams standing on the platform, it lifted him three separate times. The trial was abruptly terminated by an accident to Mr. Moore, Superintendent of Mr. Berliner's laboratory who was running the motors, receiving an ugly looking but not dangerous cut in the upper arm.

In this trial, the two motors, with their bed plates, counter shafts and pinions, weighed 124 lbs. each—total, 248 lbs., making the total weight of helicopter, with the two motors, 460 lbs.; and with Mr. Williams' weight added, the total lifted was 610 lbs.

As this helicopter was originally designed for a motor of about 100 lbs., weight, these two motors loaded it to the danger point, taxing the light and frail structure quite to the limit, it was not deemed safe to make

further trials. Mr. Berliner will immediately commence the construction of a motor some 50% stronger than one of these and only 25% more weight, and Mr. Williams will build a new machine some larger and some lighter, which, with his experience and knowledge of the progressive art of light construction, he can now do. The new machine with motor will not weigh over 325 lbs.

In this last trial, an extension was added to the propellor blades, increasing their superficial area to 80 ft., and the diam. to 18 ft. 8 in., which increased the general efficiency of the machine, the larger area giving greater lift per horse power.

Mr. Berliner is now on an extended trip in Europe, and Mr. Williams' experiments with him have terminated for the present.

The readers of "Aeronautics" are doubtless aware that the "Williams Helicopter" is of the type which has two superposed two-bladed propellers, on concentric shafts, revolving in opposite directions, driven by a motor resting on a platform that is suspended and supported by the shafts beneath the propeller. Its low center of gravity assuring automatic stability and perfect balance, it cannot be capsized, the operator having only to regulate the motor and steer the machine. As the method of steering and control are the subject of pending patents, they are not described. The machine carries a large folded parachute for emergency to retard its falling in case of stopping of motor, or other accident.

AERON AUTISM

POINT TO POINT BALLOON RACE.

The Pittsfield Defeats North Adams No. 1 in Twenty-Mile Contest.

Chester, Mass., July 5—In a twenty-mile point-to-point balloon race from Pittsfield over the Berkshire Mountains to this town to-day, the balloon Pittsfield, piloted by William Van Sleet, defeated the North Adams No. 1, with N. H. Arnold as pilot, by about five miles, the former landing close to the town line here, while the latter came down in Southampton.

The two balloons left Pittsfield about 11.30 a. in., with a strong northwest breeze blowing. At noon both were over the mountains, and at 12.20 p. m. the Pittsfield came down close to the Chester line. The North Adams No. 1 landed ten minutes later in Southampton.

Those in the North Adams, besides the pilot, were Carl A. Grout and E. L. Snyder, of Pittsfield, while with Mr. Van Sleet in the Pittsfield were Miss Mildred Hill and Daniel Cullen, also of Pittsfield.

Pommern Nearly Destroyed.

The balloon Pommern, winner of the 1907 Gordon-Bennett, and holder of the American distance record, was to have served as a captive balloon at Coney Island this summer. Dr. Julian P. Thomas, its owner, had fitted up at great expense a monster hydrogen plant, an elaborate windlass, and was about to make the first ascent when, on June 25, a sudden gale, which did untold damage all around the vicinity, tore the balloon from its moorings before any attempt could be made to secure or deflate it.

IN AMERICA

Later part of the envelope was recovered, when it was found that for 18 ft. up from the appendix the cloth was burnt. The reason assigned for this was that on its touching the ground a discharge of static electricity took place which set part of it afire. The netting was entirely lost. The unburnt cloth is marked all over with dark lines where the net had been, just as though a net had been painted on. Dr. Thomas is trying to rebuild it and carry out his plan.

Fourth Gordon-Bennett Balloon Race.

James Gordon-Bennett has come to the front for this year's race with another $2,500 prize to the winner. For the first three contests he provided in advance a $2,500 cup and three cash prizes of $2,500 each. This was to end his own giving, but he has changed his mind—our balloonists' thanks.

On Oct. 3 the fourth contest for the Bennett trophy will be started from Zurich, Switzerland. The gas works at Schlieren, on the outskirts of Zurich, will be in a position to supply 44,000 cubic meters of gas in two to three hours, under high pressure. The gas pipes leading to the grounds are a kilometer long and have been furnished free by a large iron works. The Zurich Corporation also supplies free all the gas for the big race and the various matches preceding it, beginning Sept. 30th

The first Gordon-Bennett race was from Paris in 1906, won by Lieut. Frank P. Lahm. representing America. The second from St. Louis the following year, was won by Oscar Erbsloh, who covered the greatest distance ever made in America. The 1908 race was won by Lieut. Schaeck on behalf of Switzerland, from Berlin. In this race he broke the world's duration record heretofore held by Drs. Kurt and Alfred Wegener, making a trip of 73 hours. The Wegener trip was of 72 hours.

Baldwin at Norwich.

Norwich, Conn., July 7.—Capt. T. S. Baldwin to-night concluded his ascents at the 250th anniversary of Norwich, making a long trip over the city. Yesterday he made two good flights and one the day before in a stiff breeze. The new Curtiss motor, similar in design to the one now in the Curtiss aeroplane, gives much more power and reliability than its predecessor.

Aero Club at Buffalo.

An aero club is being formed in Buffalo by E. M. Statler, proprietor of the Statler Hotel. A. balloon will be bought for the use of members. Mr. Statler is enthusiastic over his recent trip with Leo Stevens.

Airship Crosses the Hudson.

Frank B. Goodale, a youthful aeronaut of Toledo, who is filling an engagement as chief attraction at the Palisades Amusement Park, New Jersey, near the Fort Lee Ferry, on June nth made a spectacular flight across the Hudson River to Grant's Tomb, afterward landing in the river.

His performance surpassed anything of the kind ever witnessed in New York, except the dirigible balloon flights of Roy Knabenshue in August, 1905, when he made a voyage lengthwise of Manhattan Island.

Goodale's airship is only 58 ft. long, has a gas capacity of about 8,000 cu. ft. and is equipped with a seven horse-power motor. Its ascensional power is barely enough to sustain the boy during a short flight.

In the nearly calm air it was easy for him to guide the craft, so he circled about over the United States cruiser New York, anchored in midstream, and lowered to the decks a message, which he had attached to a cord.

Sailors on the warships caught the message and shouted congratulations to the young aeronaut. After that he steered the ballon across to Riverside Drive and made a landing near Grant's Tomb. In coming down one of the propeller blades was broken, but he quickly repaired it and started back for Palisades Park.

Meanwhile a brisk breeze had begun to sweep up the river and that, together with the bad behavior of the motor, caused the balloon to swoop down into the river. Several boats started to the rescue and Goodale moved back-in the frame and buoyed up the forward end of the gas bag so as to keep it afloat. The balloon was not seriously damaged and the young aeronaut escaped with nothing worse than a thorough ducking in the r»'ver.

Zeller Airship Makes Flight.

East St. Louis, June 5.—C. M. Zeller to-day made a successful inaugural flight in a new

dirigible balloon, invented by W. J. Smith of this city, but lost control of the gas bag after landing. The big cylinder shot up into the sky and at dark was a mere speck, traveling at a tremendous height.

The ascent was made from Edgemont, 111. Zeller guided the craft nine miles toward Belleville and then started to return. From the basket of the balloon trailed a long drag rope which caught in the branches of a tree. It became entangled in the propeller and was cut 15 ft. from the basket. The real damage, however, was to the propeller, which was put out of commission.

After landing the airship was being let over some electric wires when the ropes were burned off and the airship darted upward, landing some miles away quite unharmed.

June 21.—Another ascent was made to-day. After performing many evolutions and the ship was about to land, the motor stopped. The motor was got going again only to stop once more, and by that time the ship had drifted some distance away. The plucky one-legged aeronaut let out gas and made a fine descent.

Sensational Airship Flight Over New York.

On July 12 Frank Goodale sprang a surprise on little old New York by sailing his little airship across the Hudson at 130th St. downtown to 42d St., and back again, following Broadway closely both ways. It was 9 o'clock in the morning, when all the office buildings and stores along Automobile Row were awakening and no one could be found who was not looking up at the sky. Going downtown the ship made very good speed, but the head wind on the return prevented fast going. Not since Knabenshue sailed over New York in his dirigible has New York's sky held aerial craft, and Knabenshue is now outdone. Goodale was in the air 50 min. in all and traveled a distance of about 11 miles On the ground a gusty wind was blowing, but this did not seem to swerve the airship in the least from its course.

Stevens Sells "Continental" Cloth.

Leo Stevens has taken the exclusive agency for the well-known Continental balloon cloth, used in the great dirigibles of Europe, for the United States and Canada. He is also agent for the French balloon builders, Carton & Lachambre.

A 1600 cubic meter balloon has been sold by Stevens to E. B. Weston, president of the Ohio Automobile Co., of Dayton, to be delivered August 10th.

"Aeronautics" expresses its thanks to Mr. George H. Guy for his endeavors with the Press on its behalf.

FOREIGN LETTER

$240,000 for Aviation—Public Subscription in England to Buy a Zeppelin—Aero Exhibitions in Europe—Aviators to Fly Across the Channel—Cody Says Wrights Infringe —Monoplane Carries Three—Delagrange and Latham on Cross-Country Flights—Bleriot and

Voisin Get $20,000 Prize Wellman Polar Expedition Delayed Again— '^

Zeppelin Polar Trip—Spain and Holland Alive—Russian

Dirigible Makes Fast Time—French Government <^ce ^ } ^

Divides $20,000 Grant.

Jn.v 10th, 1909.

Austria.

The Austrian War Department is purchasing a dirigible of 3650 cubic metres capacity and similar to the La Republiqne.

Belgium.

The first volery to be established in Belgium was opened on June 5 at Brussels. No aeroplanes were ready for the inauguration, however, and the celebration had to be made with six balloon ascents.

Despite heavy rain, the first trials were made on June 27 of the nejiv dirigible "La Belgique," which Robert Goldschmidt built to the designs of Louis Godard. The La Belgique is 78 m. long and has a capacity of ^.65eo~cubic metres. She is equipped with two ' Pipe motors, each £4.5, h. p. and weighing 290 kg. / f ^ "I- ,~ - Denmark.

Legagneux, who has acquired a new Voisin, has been giving exhibition flights at Copenhagen during the month. On his first exhibition day thousands of spectators had to go away disappointed because the wind prevented flight. But they were all given tickets for the next day, and seemed satisfied. Several short flights were made, up to 4J/2 min.

England.

TO FLY ACROSS THE CHANNEL.

All England is now awaiting daily the accomplishment of the feat of flying across the channel that separates England from Europe. Hubert Latham says he will certainly fly across the channel before August 1. On June 27 he was in England selecting a suitable landing place. He had wanted to land at Folkestone, "Because I have some cousins there and it would please them." But he chose a spot upon the Shakespeare Cliff near Dover, with an alternative on the south side of Dover Harbor. To have made for Folkestone would have meant a much longer journey. From Calais to Dover is the shortest distance across. It is about 33 km. Latham thinks of starting from Cape Blanc Nez, near Calais. Henry Farman, who has been at Boulogne, also says he will try for the cross-Channel prize and will start from Sangatte, which is between Calais and Cape Grisnez. Comte Lambert, the Wright's first French pupil, is also near Calais preparing. The French Government has arranged to have a

number of torpedo boat destroyers attend each attempt so as to be on hand in the event of need. The English Government will lend no such aid for a trifling event like this.

Lord Roberts has got into action quickly by calling upon the British public to subscribe $250,000 to purchase a Zeppelin to shame the Government, show it what to do, and have at least some protection against the dread aerial fleet of Germany. The "Morning Post," the fashionable two-cent daily, has opened its columns for the collection of the money. But very little is rolling in. Meanwhile arrangements have been made with M. Clement to send over an airship in September, and the Government has accepted the offer of the "Daily Mail" of $25,000 to build a shed for it.

CODY FLYING AGAIN.

Poor Cody is making out finely with his much-despised army aeroplane. On June 18 he flew about a mile and a half in a circle. Many changes have recently been made in the machine. Cody has weighted the front by moving the radiator forward on to the bamboo stays supporting the horizontal rudder. The controls of the wing tips are now connected with the steering gear. A single vertical rudder has replaced the double one. and the aft wheel of the chassis has given place to an ashen spring 7 ft. in length. It would seem as if Cody really has the Wright patents tied up; at any rate, sufficiently so t< put up a good fight if the famous brothers wish it. He claims priority on use of a plane warping, and has illustrated newspaper clippings dated Dec. 6, 1902, nearly four months lie fore the Wrights' application of March 23. 1903, showing that he was using such a method in the apparatus, which subsequently he turned into his man-lifting kite. He also claims rights on the wing tips, and has photo graphs taken in 1904, three years before the Wrights' wing tip patent of 1907.

Henry Cockburn, of the Aero Club, has purchased a Farman, and has made his first flight at Chalons. When he tried to land he pulled the wrong lever, and shot the machine up into the air at so sharp an angle that the lifting plane gave way. The apparatus fell, but was only slightly damaged, and Cockburn was not hurt at all.

Capt. Windham is now building a tandem monoplane of his own design. The planes are square and placed point foremost. The machine is 50 ft. by 24 ft., and weighs only 125

His., of course without the engine. The propeller will be in front, and both rudders at the rear point. The framework is of bamboo.

Another new English would-be aviator is trying very hard to get into the air. This is A. V. Roe, who is experimenting vainly on Lea Marshes with a tandem triplane. The machine is of very light construction and has only a 6-h.p. engine. The propellers are in front of the leading set of planes, and the engine is between the lower and middle planes of that set. The aviator sits in the frame joining the two sets. Control is by warping and the two sets work in harmony.

France.

Hubert Latham has been the sensation of the flying world during the month. He has roused France to the wildest pitch of excitement and enthusiasm.

LATHAM CARRIES PASSENGER IN MONOPLANE.

Following his records of S7lA rnin. on May 22, and I hr. 7 min. 37 sec. on June 5, Latham has kept things humming well all the month with the Antoinette IV at Chalons. On June 4 he made a new and curious record. While passing over the heads of the spectators in a 37-min. flight, he took his hands off the control wheel and rolled and lit a cigarette. On June 6 he won the Am-hroise Goupy prize for a 5km. cross-country flight. Starting from the Chalons Camp, he flew over trees and houses to the village of Vadenay 5.9 km. away in 4 niin. 33/5 sec, a speed of about 50 miles an hour, turned in the air and flew back to his starting point.

On June 7 he made still another record, being the first man to take up a passenger in a monoplane. He made four flights and took up a passenger each time. One was a correspondent for the "London Daily Mail," whose trip lasted 11 min. 56 sec, and he found it so easy he was able to make notes throughout. On June 12 Latham flew 49 km. in 3Q min. and glided from a considerable height with his engine turned off.

The next evening there was a strong breeze, but he wanted to show a flight to his mother, who had been away on a visit and had not seen him, so he turned out rather than disappoint her. He had flown about 3 m. at a height of 10 in. or so, when a violent gust drove the machine, damaging the left wing and bending the propeller. Latham himself was only shaken.

On June 16th he rose to a height of 60 111. and turned off his engine and glided down, effecting a perfect good landing. On the 18th he was out in a wind blowing at 25 km. an hour and had an exciting struggle in some of the more violent gusts, but managed tn maintain his equilibrium. On the 19th he buckled a wheel in landing. Subsequently hr devoted his time to preparing for the cross-Channel prize and the chance of winning the more than $10,000 that depended on that feat.

^t> " 'THREE FLY IN MONOPLANE.

Bleriot at Issy also took up a passenger. Andre Fournier, on June 7 in the monoplane Bleriot XII, and on the 12th set a fresh record by taking up two passengers together, A. Fournier and Santos Dumont. But his best work during the month was on his small machine the Bleriot XI. While out with A. Fournier on June 15 in the No. XII he made too steep a landing and snapped his propeller shaft against the ground. On the 19th he got out the small and swift No. XI and flew 4 km. On the 21st he was up for 6 min. On the 25th he extended that to 15 min. 30 sec, despite a sharp 15 miles an hour breeze, and made a perfect landing. The next day, June 26, he started out to set a new monoplane record. But when he had been up for 36 min. 55 3/5 sec. over-lubrication caused his machine to start missfiring and he had to descend. On the 28th he took part in the opening day of the two weeks' meeting at Douai with No. Xlf, and was the first prize winner, but his flight was only about 2l/2 km. at a height of some 20 m. The following day he carried a passenger round the~i_ course. On July 3 he flew 26 min. 47 ~iec7w'On » June 21 he nearly lost the small machine by fire. He started filling his tank after a flight and the gasolene caught fire. The spectators quickly lent a hand and buried the flames beneath sand.

Apart from Bleriot, there has not been much flying at the Douai meeting. M. Bre-guet has made several short hops with his biplane. Yet the Breguet machine will certainly fly all right for Jean Gobron. son of the Senator for the Ardennes, who has one at Issy, on June 26 flew 15 km. and on the 29th covered 10 km. at a speed of 70 km. per hour.

During the second week of the mouth Delagrange was at Argenton. On June 7 he flew against a post and injured a wing, and on the 8th broke a front wheel in landing. On the nth he made kin. over trees and farmhouses. Four days later he was back at Juvisy and on the 19th made a couple of short flights. In the first he went twice round the course in 3 min. 50 sec. In the second he went three times round in 3 min. 55 sec.

A good story is told of a Russian count and Delagrange. It is so good that to doubt it is a shame. Delagrange was flying at Savigny-Sur-Orge on June 20 when among the spectators was Count Jarl Hedherg de Caurnet of Moscow, who became so enthusiastic he wanted a flight, too. Delagrange would not consent. "How much do you want for the machine?" cried the count. And right on the spot he placed the money and proceeded to get into the machine. He would listen to no warnings. He went up beautifully. And after he had returned they carried him to a hospital with a badly hurt knee, and all that was left of the machine made a heap in a corner of its shed!

New Russian Dirigible " Russie " Built By the Lebaudys—Returning From a Sortie.

Bleriot XII Carrying Three

Lambert has his Wright at Juvisy, but in his first flight met with an accident. The weight representing a passenger got out of balance, and the machine fell at the end of the starting rail. The left wing and propeller were slightly damaged. On the 19th he made another attempt and was in the air for 12 min. 52 sec, doing eight times round a circular course and a height of about 30 111.

Tissandier has also his Wright at Juvisy, and there will be no more flights 011 what is now known as the "Wright Aviation Ground" at Pau until September. M. Tissandier gave his last lessons there during June. The old Wright is still in the shed, but the new motor that was put on it is to be taken to Jovisy where the old motor is now in use in new surfaces.

"F. de Rue" is the "aviationym" for a prominent French sportsman who has taken to flying and has had an interesting month at Port Aviation. On June 5 he won the Archdeacon Cup from Delagrange with a flight of 6y2 circles of the course. It is said quite a high wind was blowing at the time. On June 13 while trying to make a record for the Rolland Josselin fastest 5 km., he made the distance in 5 min. 34 sec, and was gliding down with his engine turned off when by accident his elbow caught against the ignition lever and so restarted the engine. Before the motor could be turned off again the biplane was driven full tilt into the members' refreshment room. De Rue escaped unhurt but the machine was badly damaged—also the refreshment room. On the 27th, after a flight of about 2 min., the motor suddenly stopped and the machine landed heavily but only slightly damaged itself. De Rue then found that he had gone up without filling his gasolene tank.

Six to seven kilometers was about the best Farman could get out of his new machine at

Chalons without something going wrong. But on June 28th he managed to keep up for 21 min.

Santos Dumont had his little Demoiselle out on June 19th and she fell 011 her tail. The damage was not great and Santos Dumont was only shaken.

Ogier, a new aviator at Issy with a Regis Freres biplane, made several short flights on June 27. Then he soared up to a good height when suddenly the machine fell forward and came down with a crash. The motor, propeller and planes were badly damaged, but Ogier was not hurt any.

Another new arrival at Tssy. Paulhan has a Voisin and 011 June 28 made; several flights of about 200 metres, g n- , , i>.'.^ *~

$240,000 FOR AVIATION.

Henri Deutsche de la Meurthe has given $100,000 and promised a further $3,000 annually to the University*of Paris for a department of aeronautics, and $140,000 for the same purpose has been donated by Basil Zakaroff, a great resident in the: gay city. The French Institute has divided the Osiris prize of $20,000 between Bleriot and Gabriel Voisin. Daniel Osiris, who founded the prize, died only a couple of years ago. Eight years before his death he gave funds for a triennial prize of $20,000 open to all the world to reward remarkable works or discoveries of general value. He also purchased Malmaison and presented it to the French nation.

At last the French Government has decided on the division of its $20,000 grant. $8-375 goes to the Aero Club de France, $7,600 to the Ligue Nationale Aerienne, $1,000 to the Societe Navigation Aerienne, $1,000 to the Automobile Club de France for its aerodynamic laboratory at Lavallois, $800 to the Nancy exhibition^ and the balance in various t * * ' 1

ways. The L. N. A. is buying two Wrights with its portion of the grant.

With Henri Kapferer as its pilot, the new dirigible Ville de Nancy made its first public appearance on June 27 with a successful trip from Sartrouville to Longchamps and back. It has been built by the Astra Co. and is similar to the Clement Bayard. A speed of 40 miles an hour is claimed.

Walter Wellman and Melvin Vaniman left Paris on June 20 for Spitsbergen to prepare the airship America for his second attempt to reach the North Pole. On starting he stated his hope that all would be ready for a start on the great trip by July 20, and he asserted his conviction that he would not fail to reach the Pole this time. But a woeful disappointment awaited him. On June 28 the ship Arctic put into Tromsoe from Danes Island and reported that on Boxing Day, Dec. 26, last year, a gale blew down the airship shed and killed Knut Johnson, one of the members of the expedition passing the winter there. Wellman was just on the point of starting on the Fram. He was greatly downcast by the news, and, puting his things back ashore, decided to wait until carpenters could go ahead and erect a new shed. It is thought hardly likely now that the expedition will be made this year.

The Aero Club de France issued its first pilot's certificate to a woman this month. The recipient was Mme. Surcouf, president of the woman's balloon club Stella, who made her 28th ascension on June 16.

Germany.

It is declared in Berlin that Count Zeppelin has obtained the protection of the Kaiser for an airship expedition to the North Pole under the guidance of Prof. H. Hergesell of Stras-burg University. A ship is to be built for the purpose, the rumor says, and in it Prof. Hergesell will investigate the North Pole suburbs next summer from Cross Bay, Spitsbergen, preliminary to making the attempt on the Pole itself, possibly in 1911.

Zeppelin has announced that he will make his next attempt from Friedrichshafen in the Zeppelin II on Aug. 26.

On June 29 the Zeppelin I sailed from Friedrichshafen for Metz, where it is to be stationed. Some trouble arose with the motor and a delay of five days was made at Biberach, in Baden, about 100 miles from Friedrichshafen and half way to Metz. A battalion of soldiers was called out to hold the great ship down until it could be anchored. Part of Lake Lucerne is to filled in to form a foundation for a Zeppelin shed.

Major von Parseval, builder of the famous Parseval airship, is constructing a monoplane. It is, he says, 14 m. wide and 12 m. long, and will have a long floater under the center and two at each side for landing on water. The propellers will be placed in front driven by 100-h.p. Mercedes motor. The weight will be 1200 kg. and it is to carry three people.

The major holds that the monoplane has a better chance of righting itself in a fall than the biplane has.

The German Wright Co. has completed two machines and has ten under construction. One of the completed ones is to Frankfort Exposition.

The Parseval III which is to go to Frankfort to carry passengers on excursions during the exhibition made a trial trip from Bitter-feld June 2ST It passed over the town at a height of 700 m. and was perfectly under control. "V4T ^-^3

It is said that one of the most interesting features of the new Schutte airship will be an arrangement whereby the gas which has to escape during the expansion of the wooden envelope will be retained by a compressor and so can be returned when necessary.

Holland.

On June 27 Comte Lambert gave a demonstration at Essen, near Breda, giving several flights over a circle of 1 km.

Italy.

Lieut. Calderara completely recovered from"1 his accident, resumed flights at Rome July 1 in the Wright machine which had been repaired. He is speaking of building on his own design. liL*,, tfO

Japan. -.t*-4*--v»

Charles K. Hamilton, who was at Brighton Beach last year and has since been in Japan, has been at Kawasabi during the past month making successful flights with his little airship.

Russia.

In its trial flights the new dirigible "La Russie," built by the Lebaudys for the Russian Government, made a speed of 60 km. an hour over a measured 10 km. at Paris.

On June 18 the army balloon burst at a height of 2400 ft. M. Palitzin, Court Chamberlain, was killed, Capt. Korbe broke a leg, Mme. Palitzin was seriously hurt also. A fourth passenger was unhurt.

Spain.

The Spanish Government has made a grant for aviation and Capt. Kindelan is to select models to be adopted for full size construction. Interest is manifesting itself throughout Spain. Two sons of the Marquese de Salamanca, Conde de Los Llanos and Don Carlos are building in Madrid. Other machines are being constructed.

Sweden.

Our esteemed and valuable British contemporary "Aeronautics" says that a Swedish engineer has constructed an entirely new airship in which he has utilized Mont-golfier's system of heated air. The new

{Continued on page 79)

langle;y's important work

By John W. Mitchell.

DURING the present revival of interest in the subject of aerial flight, but scant credit is given in the popular mind to the man who more than all others advanced the art to the position it occupies to-day, and who made the first model machine that actually flew by mechanical power without the aid of a gas bag. That man is the late Samuel Pierpont Langley, recently secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, perhaps the most eminent scientific position in America.

Prof. Langley began as early as 1888 to investigate the problem of mechanical flight, a problem that till then had been left almost entirely in the hands of cranks and visionary inventors. It is of interest to know that the first money for his experiments was given by William Thaw of Pittsburg, father of Harry Thaw. William Thaw was then one of the financial giants of the country. Carnegie, Phipps and Rockefeller were just coming into their own—or into other peoples', as one chooses to look at it. The Langley experiments were outlined to Carnegie as a matter of fact, and he laughed at them and refused to give any assistance. William Thaw gave $5,000, part of which Prof. Langley spent on his first whirling table. His important book on The Internal Work of the Wind is dedicated to William Thaw.

It was prior to 1895 that Prof. Langley built his first steam driven aerodrome. It flew in the presence of Alexander Graham Bell and a few other friends at Widewater, on the lower Potomac. Three steam driven models were built, and in 1896 Prof. Langley announced the general results of his work to the scientific world, saying that he had demonstrated the possibility of mechanical flight, and that he looked to other and younger men to take up the problem and develop it on commercial lines.

If he had stopped there, his scientific fame in that direction would have been unassailable. It was already established in astrophysics as every scientific student knows. But in 1898 when it was practically certain to government officials that this country would drift into war with Spain, Mr. Roosevelt, who was then Assistant Secretary of the Navy, urged that Prof. Langley should be commissioned to build a man-carrying flying machine as an engine of war.

This project was reported on favorably by a board of army and navy officers, and the work was done under the auspices of the Board of Ordnance and Fortifications. The general outline of what followed is known through the daily papers only in distorted form. The gasoline engine had been developed at that time, and Prof. Langley saw that it offered a better power medium than steam._ After applying to all of the great engineering firms, he was forced to build his own engine along original

lines. It stands in the National Museum today, the most powerful and reliable motor weight for weight that has ever been constructed. It weighed two pounds to the horsepower, and developed 52^ horsepower on the brake.

The success or failure of the machine now depended on the launching. A new machine of any sort seldom works satisfactorily till after several trials, but Prof. Langley would not take the risk to the operator of having the machine launched over dry land. His models, one a quarter the size of the big machine, had all been launched and had flown from a launching machine rigged up on the top of a house boat. Charles M. Manly, who built the engine, and was to have the honor of driving it, was anxious to take chances and start on land. Several army and navy officers on the board were in favor of this course, but Prof. Langley let humane motives override scientific ardor, and insisted on the water launch as being safer for the operator.

This method was tried twice, and both times failed owing to tiny points of steel catching on the launching frame. The machine never really got into the air, and never had the chance to fly. Those on the inside knew this, but the spectators, all of them newspaper men, did not. Prof. Langley had vainly tried to keep them away from the trials, as secrecy had been imposed on him by the government, but they were there with binoculars and tele-photo cameras, and when they saw the apparent failure of the machine, they very humanly, though unchristianly, rejoiced in it. and did not even give the machine the benefit of the doubt. The ensuing newspaper criticisms not only hurt Prof. Langley bitterly, but had the effect of deterring Congress from appropriating any more money for experiments. Aid was offered to the Professor from private sources, but he replied that if the American people would not support a work carried on especially for their benefit, he would do nothing more.

The big machine is now in the workshop of the Smithsonian, partly dismantled, but capable of easy reassembling and repair. Whether it ever will be repaired and flown is a question. It is the joint property of the War Department and the Smithsonian Institution. Some of the army officers are anxious to give it a further trial, which would cost at the most three or four thousand dollars. The officers of Smithsonian, who feel that Prof. Langley was badly treated, are reluctant. The machine is there, however, and is one of the most marvellous pieces of workmanship ever constructed. But whether it ever flies or not, the preeminence of Prof. Langley as an aerial investigator is already recognized by the scientific world, and will eventually be recognized by the public

PAPERS OF THE

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS

President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Db. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'I Committee: Wm. J. Hammeb. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.

AIRSHIP PROPELLER PROBLEMS

By Prof. Calvin M. Woodward

[The manuscript of following paper was received a few days after the program was printed.]

1. What is the Horse-Power Required to Produce a Given Pull or Thrust by Means of One or More Air-Ship Propellers, When the Frame is Anchored?

The net horse-power of the motor is measured by the kinetic energy imparted to the air acted upon by the propeller. I assume that an absolute velocity of v feet per second is given to a cylindrical stream of air, originally still, and that the cross-section of the stream (or streams if there be more than one propeller) is the same as the area of the propeller circle (or circles). Call this area A sq. ft., and let the given or required pull or thrust be P lbs.

Since the thrust forward, or pull upon the anchorage, must equal the backward push upon the air, we have the general equation

P = Ap.

•[I]

in which p is the average push or action in lbs. per sq. ft., upon the cylinder of air.

Hence the volume of air acted upon and set in motion every second is Av; its weight is Awv, in which w is the weight in lbs. per cu. ft.; its mass

. Awv; .... . Awv3

is-and its kinetic energy is-, bemg the

9 2g

mass into half the square of its velocity.

Now v is determined by p in accordance with the laws for the flow of gases; but since p is small compared with ordinary atmospheric pressure, all changes in density and temperature may be neglected, and the flow of air may be assumed to follow closely the laws of the flow of liquids.

The pressure of p pounds per square foot in the cross-section of the cylinder of air produces a flow or current like the flow or current thru an opening between two indefinitely large tanks of air in one of which the atmospheric pressure is 2117 lbs. per sq. ft., and in the other, 2117+ p lbs per sq. ft.

Hence I use the familiar hydraulic formula v> = 2gh

in which 2g is approximately 64 and h is the "dynamic head" of the current whose value is

Hence v

if A =7tr2, and w = 0.08.

Substituting for v in the expression for the kinetic energy, we have the Kinetic Energy of the air-current, and hence the work done per second by the motor-driven propeller is

, „ Aw /2g P\f 16 a K.E. = —(— ) = — Pi = vP. 2g \ Aw J r

.[IV]

so that we have for the net horse-poweFactually exerted, dividing by 550, the horse-power-woik in one second,

8P*

v P

H = — = -= 0.0515 —............[V]

550 275r Ai 1 J

approximately.

This formula gives the horse-power required by means of a propeller of radius r to maintain a steady pull or thrust of P lbs. If there are two or more propellers acting without the least interference, then their combined area is represented by A = itr2.

In the formulas [III], [IV] and [V] r is the radius of the circle equivalent in area to the combined area of all the propellers.

The above case may be illustrated by a suspended frame carrying a motor and propellers with horizontal shafts in a yard or a large laboratory. The frame should be anchored by a cable attached to a spring balance, or passing over a light and easily running pulley be attached to an adjustable weight P. It is assumed that the propeller is correctly designed for the velocity v of the air-current. For discussion of the design of the propeller see § 10.

Instead of a motor driving a horizontal shaft, one may use an electric motor and a vertical shaft, with arrangements for measuring the lifting or depressing effect of the propeller when in motion.

2. What is the Horse-Power Required to Drive an Air-Ship in Still Air Against a Known Resistance P at the Rate of V Miles per Hour.

If all the air acted upon by the propeller be given an absolute velocity of v ft. per second, it is evident that the volume of air acted upon per second is now A {v + v') in which v' is the velocity of the ship in feet per second.

To mnke this truth still more evident, it may be added that if we assume that the air-ship is drawn or towed thru the air by some other ship or motor, at the rate of v' ft. per second, our propeller standing still, the air would pass thru it, at the rate v' feet per second, or it would appear to do so, though really standing still. Now if the propeller be started and turned fast enough to press p lbs. per sq. ft. upon all the air passing, so as to give it an absolute velocity of v feet per second, then the relative or apparent velocity of the air passing thru the propeller would be v + v' ft. per second, so that the volume of air acted upon every second would be A (v + v').

22V

A speed of V miles per hour is TT" feet per

15

second.

22

Hence v' = —V. feet per second.........[VI]

15

The mass of the volume actually acted upon w

per second is A (v + v1) —. and since the velocity 9

imparted to this mass is v, the kinetic energy generated in the air-current second is

Awv3 , ,x Awvz AwVH' rwT,

_ („ + v') = —- + —-.......[VII]

The first term of this result is identical with the value of K. E. given in equation [IV], and its

16 3

value is accordingly — Pz; the second term, r

Awv'v* , , . . , 2g P

-, when we substitute for ir its value-

2g Aw

from [III], becomes Pv', which is exactly what should have been anticipated; viz: the work done per second in overcoming the resistance of the air to the motion of the ship. Accordingly the horse-power required for the ship when in motion is

rn P flQVT 22V\ P(v + v')

H' = —[-+ — = —:--. [VIII]

550 \ r 15 J 550

The atmospheric resistance of still air upon a moving ship is taken to be the same as the resultant action of moving air upon a stationary ship, the velocity in the two cases being the same. The general equation for such resistance is in pounds

P = CnR>Y\

.[IX]

in which R is the radius of the maximum cross-section of the air-ship in feet; and V, as before, is the velocity of the ship in miles per hour. C is a coefficient dependent upon the shape of the

ship and the nature of its surfaces. An approximate value of C for a cigar-shaped air-ship with fairly smooth surfaces is 0.002. An exact method of determining P would be to measure the pull on a cable when the ship is anchored against a steady wind blowing V miles per hour. Probably no two ships would yield the same value of C hi formula [IX].

3. Discussion of Formula [V] for the Case of an Anchored Ship, with a Motor Driving a Propeller Whose Radius is r.

Sp? p%

H =-= 0.0515 —

275r jj}

For a given value of P it is seen that the horsepower required varies inversely as the radius of the propeller. This suggests the economy of large propellers, or of an increase in their number. There are of course practical objections to very large propellers, and also to a large number of propellers. I venture to suggest for a ship three propellers, one rather low at the stern, and one on each side, well forward, and higher up, abreast or above the uppermost member of the frame truss. In these positions, the propellers would create currents which would not sensibly strike the motor frame and car, or any part of its rigging, and hence would not retard the ship.

With given propellers it is seen that the horsepower required for a greater value of P increases more rapidly than does the value of P. For example, if P is made four times as great, the horse-power required is eight times as great. If P is multiplied nine times, the H must be increased 27 times. If however the face area of the propeller, A, increases equally with P, then the horse-power required to pull (or lift) will increase exactly with P. This appears from the equation above since

H ./P

P= 0.0515/-.

.[X]

P H

If — is kept constant, — is also constant. A P

4. Discussion of Formula [VIII].

H> = — 4- — 275r 550"

If the value of P given in [IX], and the value of v' from [VI] be substituted in the above, it becomes

H' =

8 (CirR2)* CirR*

27or

375

.[XI]

from which it appears that the horse-power required to drive an air-ship increases with the cube of its velocity.

(.Concluded in the September Issue.)

N

Incorporations.

"The Flexible Aeroplane Co.," of Newark, N. J., has been incorporated to manufacture automobiles, aeroplanes, etc., capital $100,000. Incorporators, T. Formanns, J. R. Murgatroyd and H. Taylorson.

"International Aerial Navigation Co.," organized with $5,000,000 capital stock by J. W. Oman and others; has purchased 35 acres near San Antonio and will establish plant for manufacturing aeroplanes.

"Bachmann Aeroplane Company," Newark, N. J., capital stock $30,000. The incorporators are Frederick Bachmann, Frank G. Dehe and John Mossman, all of Newark.

"Black Crow Mfg. Co.," Babylon, 111., to manufacture airships; capital $35,000. Isaac Hubbell, Fulton, 111.

Patent List.

"Flying Machine," John H. Wilson, Middlesex township, Cumberland Co., Pa. No. 926,-I59. June 29, 1909. Biplane construction having planes supported on trunnions provided on supporting frame so that angle of incidence is adjustable. Rear vertical rudder is provided between superposed propellers.

"Aerodrome," Harry H. Orme, Wesley Heights, D. C. No. 926,593, June 29, 1909. Triplane of which highest plane is the controlling one and comprises a series of radial ribs. Means are provided for moving the tips of the ribs both simultaneously or independently in groups. A plurality of front and rear planes are provided for additional control.

"Airship," Philip H. McConnell, Syracuse, N. Y. No. 925,494, June 22, 1909. Novelty consists in a propeller described as a fan comprising radial spokes with arms and webs so connected and operated by cams that these blades of the fan can be opened and closed.

"Flying Machine," Wallace A. McCurd, North Finchley, England. No. 924,813,_ June T5> I909- Machine consists of a plurality of superposed planes adapted to be set at different angles of inclination. One-half of said planes are arranged to move in a direction opposite to the other half.

"Aeroplane," James H. Rogers, Hyattsville, Md. No. 924,833, June 15, 1909. Monoplane, the characteristic feature of which is a body composed of a central tube from which a wing extends at each side.

"Aeroplane Flying Machine," August Beri-ozzi, San Francisco, Cal. No. 923,936, June

8, 1909. A bird-like structure provided with sails on the body portion, from which is suspended a car movable from front to rear for the purpose of changing center of gravity.

"Airship," James M. Park, Pittsburg, Pa. No. 458,013, June 8, 1909. A vertical stem supporting gas envelope at upper end and car at lower end, both revolubly mounted. Means are provided in the car for imparting rotary movement. Also propeller operated by engine and suitable rudder in addition to the other control.

Aero Publications.

"The Conquest of the Air; The Advent of Aerial Navigation," by A. Lawrence Rotch, S. B., A. M., Professor of Meteorology at Harvard University, and Director of the Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, author of "Sounding the Ocean of Air," etc., has just been published. The book considers the sensational achievements of the past year in their relation to the long history of past failures; it discusses some of the scientific possibilities of the future. Many illustrations. i6mo, $1.00 net.

Spon & Chamberlain, 123 Liberty Street, have just received a supply of a most interesting booklet entitled "Model Aeroplanes," by E. W. Twining, which is sold at 50c. The book describes and fully illustrates three different types of biplanes, and in addition to the book there is supplied five sets of full-sized drawings. This book should prove of great interest to the aeronautic youth of America.

"Aeronautischer Kalcnder," 1909-10, second year, by J. Riecken, published by Richard Carl Schmidt & Co., W. Keithstrasse 6, Berlin, German}', at 3 marks. The author, a well-known special writer in this line, offers in a 300-page, pocket size, cloth bound book, a great deal of valuable information on ballooning, together with a list of all the ascents made in Germany last season, prizes, etc., in addition to blank memorandum pages and ascension record forms. It gives a history of the prominent voyages last year, and contains an article on the practice of ballooning.

"The Aero" is the latest in aero journals, published weekly by Iliffe & Sons, Ltd., London at $2.08 a year. It might be called a revival of "Flying," published for six issues in 1901 by the same company. Here's to success!

"Encyclopedia de l'Aviation" is the title of a new and unique aeronautical monthly issued in Paris. We can recall no previous art the interest in which has been keen enough to produce a magazine of similar usefulness. Each month, under headings in alphabetical order, in the ordinary form of an encyclopedia, it gives an analysis of all the articles upon aerial locomotion which have appeared during the month in the aeronautical publications of the world. Similarly, it gives descriptions of all notable apparatus., notes on new patents, biographies of aviators, notices of books, and much other valuable information, such as methods of calculation and construction. It also gives a brief resume of the news of the month. The publishers are: Librairie Aeronautique, 32 Rue Madame; $1.40 a year.

"Flying, The Why and the Wherefore," is a title of an interesting little book published by The Aero, 20 Tudor St., London, E. C, at 35 cents, post free. It is not a "handbook" of flying nor an historical treatise, but a most invitingly written explanation of the why and wherefore of the various machines that have flown, of the theories on which their construction has been carried out, and makes suggestions for further improvement. It is the book for the onlooker, though it will prove of considerable value to the ex-perimentor. It puts in simple language the technical terms of the expert and brings flying within the comprehension of the laity. It is confined solely to dynamic flight.

The "Trouble Finder," published by Whitman and Cameron, 146 W. 56th St., New York, will be found a source of value and a joy forever by those who have anything to do with motors and automobiles. Every possible derangement of any conceivable part is listed with a notation opposite telling how to find and fix the trouble. If you do not know what is the trouble, look through the list of symptoms and you will readily locate the remedy. The price is 50 cents.

An aeronautical topic of interest is the early appearance of a book by Prof. T. S. C. Lowe, of Los Angeles, Calif., upon the balloon during the Civil War. In a letter from Prof. Lowe he says that the early publication of his work seems assured. He certainly is working away with all the vigor that his years permit. Prof. Lowe, as one win remember, was in charge of ballooning during the Civil War under the Quartermaster Department. He seems to have received very little encouragement, but nevertheless did some good work. He has become wealthy, and it was only last New Year's Day that he opened his box containing all the data of his Civil War experiences, since when he has been preparing his memoir.

Sky* Scrapings

Samuel F. Perkins, the expert kite flyer, is attracting attention with his kite and flag display at Coney Island, where he has a summer engagement. The most striking feature is the big banner 'Read 'Aeronautics' " flown at night with a beam from a searchlight thrown upon it.

Hiram Morgan, son of F. W. Morgan, oi Morgan & Wright, the tire manufacturers, has built a glider weighing 65 lbs., 21 ft. spread.

The boys of Public School 77, First Avenue and 76th Street, New York, have taken up kite flying in earnest under the guidance and encouragement of the manual training teachers. A kite-flying contest was held by the enthusiasts on May 24th on the fields near Astoria.

Another glider is being experimented with by John Burton, of Hamilton, Canada. It measures 20 ft. spread. 4 ft. front to rear, and 3 ft. between surfaces, and weighs only 25 lbs. The first trial resulted in a crash on account of not tilting up quickly enough.

E. T. Odom, Birmingham, Ala., has applied for a patent for a flying machine, and is looking now for capital.

Daniel C. Shutt, of Chattanooga, Tenn., has built a dirigible balloon model, and is rushing work on a full sized machine to be ready by July 4th. It resembles much the Knabenshue airship.

Cheney Prouty, of the Iowa Automobile Co., Des Moines, la., has been experimenting with a glider. The first machine was wrecked in gliding flight.

John D. Pursell, of Chattanooga, Tenn., has brought out his aeroplane for tuning up. The government has kindly appropriated a shed for storing the machine, and one of the several parade grounds in the vicinity of the city is fine for trials. Mr. Pursell is figuring on a 4-cyl. 2 cycle revolving motor. He thinks that one of 40 h. p. could be built to weigh 80 lbs., and turned out commercially for less than $200. He is also interested in the Sirch idea for a hot-air dirigible, and is getting out a patent to sell Sirch when he starts building.

J. Clarke, of Chicago, is building an aeroplane.

Hugh L. Willoughby, who started work on an aeroplane last winter at his Florida place, is now in the north, and will continue construction on the sea coast. He has become a convert to the heavier motor, and is using a stock engine of the Pennsylvania Auto Motor Co., 30 h. p., weighing with 30 lb. flywheel, magneto and oiler full for 200 miles, 420 lbs.

Reuben Bassett and A. Carlson, two young men of Hartford, have been making trials with a glider on Prospect Hill. Bassett essayed the first flight of seventy feet, but in landing the wing tipped the ground and broke a rib and the rudder, so Carlson had to wait for repairs. The end of May further attempts were made. A broken rib unbalanced one side, and after four or five trials were made, more ribs were broken. The glider measures 20 by 4 feet, with 20 slender curved spruce ribs. Six upright struts space the surfaces 4 feet apart, and the whole, as well as the rear rudder, is covered with cambric.

A Mr. Bourdin, of San Francisco, is constructing a monoplane, the novel feature of which is the movable engine and directly connected propeller, which, being pivoted in front of the machine, it is supposed, will allow of direction control of all planes.

Roswell Northrup, 12 years old, and Floyd Nicholson, 13 years old, of Iola, Kans., have just completed their first attempt as builders of aeroplanes, having constructed a glider which is a great success and their first trial has recently been made. The machine 22 ft. long and 5 ft. square, is in the shape of a huge box kite, and is covered with a heavy cloth. While about 40 feet in the air pictures were taken, so as to prove to any doubting parties that the machine actually flies.

Cyril King and E. E. Butterfield, ^ of Lewiston, Ills., have been experimenting with a glider. It is 20 feet in length and 4 ft. wide. Muslin is used in the construction of the sails or wings, and the framework is made of spruce and imported piano wires are used in making the braces. The weight of the machine as it now stands is about 75 lbs. The operator has a place in the center of the machine, and just back of him is a vertical and horizontal rudder which is fastened by bolts to the main part of the machine. The spruce frame work is held together with bolts, and these same bolts serve to hold the wire braces. After the trial flight it was necessary to go over the machine and tighten the bolts and braces. At this time there is no way of balancing the machine except by the moving of the legs and body.

Ballooning to Canada.

The prevailing winds six months in the year commencing about this time, make it quite possible that the trophies will be won during the year 1909. The air line distance from Pittsfield to Montreal Island is only two hundred and ten miles, and to reach this point the wind must blow from a direction about five degrees east of south. The 3,500-cubic-feet-capacity balloons have already covered one-third of the distance, and the "Massachusetts" and "Springfield," being 56,000 cubic feet, would have no difficulty in reaching a point even beyond the City of Montreal.

To accomplish this task the start would probably be made in the evening, possibly an hour before midnight, the balloons holding a low altitude and sailing northward taking advantage of the lower currents. A careful study of the weather map at the time the depressions were en route from the west would determine the time of starting. One familiar with air currents says with the depression designated as "low" over Lake Ontario would probably cause the wind to blow from the desired direction as this gradually moves easterly to the St. Lawrence Valley. The Committee on Balloons and Ascensions will arrange a few details of the contest to be submitted to the Canadian people for their approval.

Secretary W. S. Shrigley says this offer of trophies will do more to encourage long distance ballooning in New England than any move since aeronautics became so popular, and that he hoped to be in the balloon that wins the prizes. Mr. Glidden, of the Ascension Committee, who has had considerable correspondence with our Canadian neighbors on the subject, says he expects to make several attempts to reach the localities designated before the close of the season, and believes that the offers will create pleasant rivalry between members of the various clubs in the United States, as the contest is open to all clubs having starting facilities south of the latitude of Poughkeepsie and in Massachusetts.

Helium for Airships.

Helium is the ideal gas for all lighter-than-air airships, said Professor Erdmann the other day in a lecture in Berlin. Had Count Zeppelin used it. he declared, the catastrophe at Echterdingen last August would never have occurred.

While its lifting power is about 1.11 kilogrammes a cubic metre, or little less than that of hydrogen (which is given at 1.20 kilogrammes), it is neutral and non-inflammable, and can stand a cold of 268.5 degrees centigrade without liquefaction. The difficulty is to get the helium. The small quantity of 400 litres possessed by the Leyden University is cherished as a treasure.

FITCHBURG, May 4-—Chas. J. Glidden, pilot, and J. Walter Flagg made a two and a half hour trip to Atkinson, N. H., 38 miles, in the balloon "Boston." Highest altitude, 10,400 feet.

christening of club balloon.

MILWAUKEE, May 8.—Maj. H. B. Her-sey, John H. Kopmeier, and John H. Moss, president of the Milwaukee Aero Club, today made the first trip in the new Stevens-built balloon "Pabst," presented by Gustave Pabst to the Club. After it was christened with a bottle of Pabst "Blue Ribbon" by Miss Jane Fairweather, at 5.30 p. m., it left the ground for an hour's trip, landing about 28 miles from town, near Cedarburg, Wis. Mr. Pabst and his party followed the balloon in an automobile, and an hour after the landing found the aeronauts, and they all ate a bountiful supper at a country farmhouse. The highest altitude was 2,000 feet. This was Major Hersey's fifteenth ascension. Mr. Stevens was of course on hand to superintend the inflation and to see that everything was right. He's always around—you positively can't lose him! Four hundred thousand spectators were present, and more than a page in the daily papers was devoted to the event.

SAN FRANCISCO, May 8.—Roy Knabenshue, A. C. Pillsbury, of San Francisco, and George B. Harrison, of Los Angeles, in the "United States," started to-day from the former site of the Mechanics' Pavilion near the ruins of the City Hall, and the balloon drifted over the business section until the bay was reached two blocks north of the ferry. There it was sent up through the sea fog, 1,000 feet thick, and the upper current took it southward three miles. While above the fog the "United States" attained an altitude of 11,400 feet. Only the top of Mount Tamalpais could be seen as a landmark, and when the balloonists descended into the fog and heard the sound of waves below them they did not know whether they were over the bay or the ocean. Their course rounded the government drydocks at Hunter's Point, and eastward across San Francisco Bay, Alameda, East Oakland and toward the hills. A descent was made in Redwood canyon after a voyage of twenty-three miles. Mr. Pillsbury obtained a number of photographs of the district of San Francisco rebuilt since the disaster of 1906, and of the fog as seen from above it. The trip was the first made by a balloon over San Francisco since the earthquake.

FORT OMAHA, May 10.—Capt. Chas. De F. Chandler and First Lieut. James E. Ware

left Fort Omaha in the Army hydrogen balloon "No. 12," of 19,000 cu. ft., at 11.12 a. m., landing near Jackson, Nebr., at 6.30 p. m., distance 83 miles. When within two feet of the ground the gas exploded. Elapsed time, 7 hours, 18 minutes. This makes the eighteenth trip for Capt. Chandler and the first for Lieut. Ware. (See article last issue.)

NORTH ADAMS, Mav 12.—Double ascent by Dr. R. M. Randall and A. D. Potter. (See July, '09, issue.)

WASHINGTON, May 12.—Lieuts. Lahm, Dickinson and Winter made an ascent in the "Signal Corps No. 11," landing twenty miles away at Cheltenham, Md.

CANTON, May 12.—A. H. Morgan and J. H. Wade, Jr., left about 3 p. m. in the new balloon "Cleveland," with the expectation of crossing Lake Erie, but the wind was not sufficient, and atmospheric conditions prevented. The landing was made near Ravenna, O., at 6.15 p.m., a distance of 26 miles.

NORTH ADAMS, May 15.—Wm. F. Whitehouse, pilot, N. H. Arnold, and R. Baldwin, in the "North Adams No. 1," reached Shelburne, Mass., about 22 miles away, in a night trip, made to qualify Mr. Whitehouse as pilot, with Mr. Arnold as critic.

PITTSFIELD, May 15.—Chas. J. Glidden, Geo. Otis Draper, and Frank B. Comins left here in the Aero Club of New England's new balloon "Massachusetts," of 1,600 cubic meters, on its first trip, at 11.45 a.m., landing at Plainfield, Conn., after 4 hours and 40 minutes. Highest altitude, 9,000 feet; distance, 84 miles.

NORTH ADAMS, May 16.—Wm. F. Whitehouse alone in the "Greylock," landing at Sunderland, Vt., after two hours, a distance of 31 miles. This completed the ascents necessary for pilot license.

WASHINGTON, May 17.—Lieuts. F. P. Lahm, Dickinson and Bamberger made a trip in the "Signal Corps No. 11" at 11.48 a. m., landing at Mullikins, Md., at 1.21 p. m. The greatest altitude was 3,700 feet; distance 20.5 miles.

INDIANAPOLIS, May 17.—The balloon season opened this afternoon, when G. L. Bumbaugh, Russel J. Irvin and Dr. Goethe Link made an ascension from the plant of the Indianapolis Gas Company, at Twenty-first street and Fall Creek. The ascension was the third of a series of ascensions by Irvin and Dr. Link in order to qualify as pilots for the national balloon race of June 5.

After a short trip over the city, the aeronauts landed four miles southeast of the start.

PITTSFIELD, May 19.—Wm. Van Sleet piloted A. D. Converse on the latter's second trip for 3 hours 40 minutes from here to Huntington, a distance of 24 miles.

MILWAUKEE, May 20.—Second ascent of the "Pabst," Major H. B. Hersey, pilot; Prof. Warren B. Johnson and Col. E. P. Vilas, passengers. After a two-hour trip it landed near Palmyra, Wis., 38 miles. Highest altitude, 4,500 feet. President Moss, of the ;lub, who was following the balloon in an automobile, came upon a man aiming a rifle at the balloon, and stopped him just at the moment of his attempting to tire. The man will be prosecuted by the club.

SPRINGFIELD, May 20.—After being in the air four hours in the "All America," landing in a tree was made at Lake Onota, near Pittsfield, 42 miles distant. Piloted by A. Leo Stevens, the passengers were C. E. Wyckoff, Le Roy Taylor, C. B. Harmon, A. J. Pickard, and James LI. Hare.

NORTH ADAMS, May 21.—N. H. Arnold piloted A. D. Converse, W. H. Richardson and C. E. Martin in the "North Adams No. 1" to Greenwich, N. Y., a distance of 34 miles. Duration i*4 hours.

INDIANAPOLIS, May 22.—The initial balloon trip from the Indianapolis Motor Speedway was made to-day. Three "captive" trips were made before Carl G. Fisher and Capt. G. L. Bumbaugh "let 'er go."

Fisher has three qualification trips to his credit as the result of these experiences. Three landings were made, counting on his list of trips required by a pilot in the national race.

The first landing was made near Bridgeport. Roy Foltz, John Hoffman, and Henry Turlin were the witnesses. The second drop to earth was made five miles south of Bridgeport, in Decatur township. H. Moore of Valley Mills and George Wideley of this city were witnesses. The last landing was made near Valley Mills. The witnesses were Charles Furnass, George Wideley and Clayton Pierce. Every landing was made without the use of the rip cord.

four ascents in one.

ST. LOUIS, May 23.—John Berry and H. E. Honeywell made a practice ascent for Berry to qualif3r as pilot, of 2*4 hours, landing about 20 miles away near Bridge-ton, Mo. Harry Grover, Constable John Mueller and a "Globe-Democrat" reporter followed the balloon in an automobile. As soon as the balloon landed, Honeywell got out and Grover and the reporter got in for a mile ride. Another landing, and Honeywell and Mueller went up for a short trip. Upon landing again Honeywell took up six boys.

another christening.

CINCINNATI, May 23.—Piloted by L. B. Haddock, "Jack" Pattison and R. H. Cox, a

photographer of the Cincinnati "Enquirer," made their initial ascent to-day in a new balloon, "The Wanderer," at 4.58 p. m. Of course it had to be christened with a bottle of champagne over the bow—no, the anchor in ballooning. The landing was at Nashville, Ind., the next morning, after a 14-hour trip. Self-heating canned supplies were carried, Thermos bottles for coffee, and a tank of water. The highest altitude recorded was 13,000 feet, just before landing.

PITTSFIELD, May 24.—Pilot William Van Sleet took up in the "Massachusetts" Dr. S. S. Stowell, H. J. Greene and D. H. Cullen on a little trip of fifty miles, landing safe and sound at Palmer, Mass., after 2 hours 15 minutes.

WASHINGTON, May 26.—Howard W. Gill left about 3 p. m. on a lone trip in his 22,000 cu. ft. balloon, followed by friends in an automobile. The latter ran out of gasoline at a critical moment after running a hundred miles. All track of the balloon was lost through the inefficiency of the telephone service.

GIRL GOES UP IN A BALLOON.

PITTSFIELD, May 26.—The balloon "Massachusetts," after ?. trip of 40 miles from here, where it ascended at 2.50 p. m. to-day, landed at 6.12 p. m. on the town line between .Amherst and Sunderland. The highest elevation reached was 6,500 feet. The balloon was piloted by Charles J. Glid-den, of Boston, who was accompanied by Franklin Playter, of Pittsfield, the latter's thirteen-year-old daughter Phyllis, and Fredk. S. Osgood. This makes 28 trips for Mr. Glidden.

A CHRISTENING AGAIN.

SPRINGFIELD, May 27.—Piloted by A. Leo Stevens, E. M. Stadtler, proprietor of the Stadtler Hotel in Buffalo, Charles R. Culver and Harlan T. Pierpont, of Springfield, made the initial trip in the new Stevens-built balloon "Springfield," purchased by the Springfield Aero Club, after it was duly christened by Mrs. Charles T. Shcan, wife of President Shcan of the club and Vivien Culver. All during the inflation there was a steady rain, which got very severe after starting on the trip, so that after two hours and ten minutes it was deemed advisable to land at Mt. Greylock, near North Adams, a distance of 46 miles. When the balloon was packed for shipment it was found to weigh several hundred pounds more, on account of the rain, than it did when the balloon was first shipped.

PHILADELPHIA. May 29.—Dr. Geo. II. Simmennan, pilot, Dr. Thos. E. Eldridge, Thomas Rose and Geo. H. Benz, started from here in the "Phila. II," just delivered to the Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Soeiet\- by A. Leo Stevens, landing at Woodbine. N. J., after a 2I2 hour trip. Mr. Rose sprained his ankle in landing, and all were haled to .1 Jersey "jug" for tearing up a potato patch. Such is ballooning life! Distance, about 52 miles.

NORTH ADAMS, May 31-—Dr. R. M. Randall piloted the "North Adams No. 1," with Thos. Ramsdell and C. E. Martin as passengers to Conway, 24 miles. Twelve ascensions have been made from North Adams this year.

SPRINGFIELD, May 31.—A. Leo Stevens piloted Henry E. Marsh, S. S. Plunder-son, L. J. Powers and H. T. Pierpont in the "Springfield" in a 3 hour 11 minute trip to Hope, R. I., close to the water of Narra-gansett Bay, a distance of 61 miles.

PITTSFIELD, June 3-—Piloted by Win. Van Sleet, William C. Branihall and Henry Ilsley, the sporting editor of the Boston "Transcript," sailed away in the "Massachusetts" at 10.25 a- ni- in the rain, landing in the evening near Westfield.

INDIANAPOLIS, June 5.—Nine balloons start on two contests. See July issue.

PITTSFIELD. June William Van Sleet, P. W. Page. Miss Lois L. Davidson and \V. E. Colbv in the "Massachusetts" to Southwick, Mass., after 3 hrs. Dist. ;!(5 m. The three passengers were representatives of as many newspapers.

PITTSFIELD. June 11.—William Van Sleet, A. J. Petroupoulis and Eugene Dessureau in the "Pittslield" to Colona, N. Y., 4 miles west of Troy. Dist. 32 m.

PHILADELPHIA. June 12.—Dr. Thos. E. Eldridge, A. T. Atherholt, F. B. Cargill, Miss Anna E. Winnicoff and Miss E. Katzniiller in the "Phila. II" to Vincentown, N. J. Dist. 25 m. Dur. 4 hrs.

PITTSFIELD, June 13.—William Van Sleet, W. C. Bramhall and Edgar L. Bobbins in the "Mass." to East Alstead, N. II. A previous temporary landing was made at Dummerston, Yt. Dist. OG m.

PITTSFIELD, June Pi.—William Van Sleet, W. II. Gannett, Dr. S. S. Stowell and O. B. Hutchinson in the "Mass." to West Springfield. Dist. 40 m. Dur. 2:33.

FITCHRURG, June 17.—Chas. J. Glidden and .1. J. Van Valkenburgh to Burlington, Mass., in tbe "Boston." Dist. 47 m. Dur. 2 hrs., 10 m.

CANTON, June 17.—Dr. II. W. Thompson, Col. W. S. Iiiihl and John Oliver in the "Ohio" to Osnaburg, about 5 m.

MILWAUKEE. June 18.—Maj. II. B. Horsey, Miss Jane Fairweather and John II. Moss, president of the Milwaukee club, in the "Pabst" to Kansasville, Wis., 30 m. : 2 hrs. 3 min.

RUTLAND, Vt„ June IS.—In an attempt to balloon to Canada, as was announced in the June issue, William Van Sleet piloted Prof. W. II. Pickering and Jay B. Benton in the "Massachusetts" to Laconia, N. II., about 70 miles away, near Lake Winnipesaukee. This was the first attempt to cross the great mountain ranges of Vermont and New Hampshire. A heavy wind was blowing and the landing was made at this point to forestall the possibility of a descent in one of the big lakes in that district.

DAYTON, O.. June 1!S.—A. Leo Stevens, E. P.. Weston, Geo. W. Schroyer and Uedmond Cross in the "All America" to Cincinnati. 48 m.

ST. LOUIS. June 20.—John Berry and M. A. Ileimann in the "Melba" to Wrights, ill.

NORTH ADAMS, June 21.—N. 11. Arnold. Wm. E. Coffin and T. R. Coffin in the "No. Adams I" to West Richmond, X. II.

DAYTON, O., June 21.—A. Leo Stevens. II. L. Ferneding, John Mclntire, R. L. Devoe and Carroll Sprigg in the "All America" to Findlay. ()., 86 m.

PITTSFIELD, June 21.—Piloted by Wm. Van Sleet in the "Pittsfleld." Mr, and Mrs. R. N. Burn-ham started at midnight on a balloon honeymoon trip, landing at 4 :30 A. M. in Jlolbrook, a dist. of 122 miles, and only 14 miles from Boston.

ST. LOUIS, June 22.—John Berry and M. A. Ileimann in the "Melba" to Rock Hill, near Webster Groves. Dist. 10 in.

CANTON, June 25.—Dr. H. W. Thompson and Geo. F. and Earl Knight in the "Ohio" to Louisville., O., about 7 m.

ST. LOUIS, June 20.—II. E. Honeywell, L. S. Yon 1'hul, M. Schwarz, Lee and Lewis M. Iium-sey in the "St. Louis III" to Carlinville ; 47 m ; dur. 7 hrs.

PITTSFIELD, June 20.—A. H. Forbes, C. B. Harmon, Miss Mabel Herbert Urner and two friends in the "Massachusetts" at midnight, landing at Pomfret, Conn., S:15 A. M. Dist. 75 miles.

FITCHBURG, June 20.—Chas. J. Glidden and W. B. Clark in the "Boston" to Burrillville, R. 1. Dist. 50 miles; dur. 2 hrs., 15 min.

DAYTON, June 20.—The "Hoosier," G. L. Bum-baugh pilot, carried Cyrus Mead, Dr. L. E. Custer and Irvin Kuinlos on all-night trip to 0 miles south of Louisville, Ky. Dist. ±40 m.

Newspaper Published from Balloon.

DAYTON, June 20.—Capt. G. L. Bumbaugh, pilot ; P. M. Crume, G. A. McClennau, Frauk C. Carley, Howard Burba, Lucern Custer and B. F. Weudler, in the "Hoosier" 80,000 cu. ft., made a trip to N. Vernon, Iud., about 140 miles. Besides these men, a printing press was carried along, and IS bags of ballast, landing with two. A small edition of the Dayton "Journal" was edited, type set and printed during the flight. Then, too, a farmer'took a shot at the balloon.

PHILADELPHIA, July 3.— Dr. T. E. Eldridge. Dr. E. II. Simmermau, Fred E. Eldridge and Miss Margaret Tourison on a moonlight ascent in the "Phila. II" at S :O0 P. M.. to Dennisville. N. J., landing there 3 hours later in a swamp during a heavy wind. Dist. about 50 miles.

ST. CLOUD, France, July 4.—Piloted by M. Melandre, Mr. and Mrs. Cortlandt F. Bishop. D. W. Bishop, Mr. and Mrs. Llojd, (i. Griscom, James Deering and Luigi de Chatillon in the "St. Louis."

SPRINGFIELD, July 5.—Harlan T. Pierpont, Harry Jones, II. W. Waters and T. L. Avery in the "Sprmglield" to Westford, Ct. Dist. 25 m. ; dur, 1 :15.

New New England Record

NORTH. ADAMS. July 11.—William Van Sleet. E. Desserault. Frauk Smith, Dr. W. B. Sullivan and Charles Hatslick to Tppsli'a'm, Me. 182 miles.

- <; ; • t .j >

Five Routes Projected by an Aerial Navigation Company.

The German Aerial Navigation Company, of Frankfort-on-Al ain, has established the first permanent airship lines in Germany. It is the purpose of the company at the start to connect fully 30 cities. It has already received patents for its turn halls for motor balloons, and it will erect the first halls in Berlin, Munich and Strassburg in Alsace. The extensive plans of the company have aroused the liveliest interest on all sides, and their execution appears to be financially assured.

The first line of connection planned is Munich to Dresden by way of Nuremberg, Plauen and Chemnitz. The second line is from Munich to Cassel by way of Ulm, Stuttgart, Mannheim, Mayence, Coblenz, Cologne, Dusseldorf, Elberfeld and Pader-born. The third line is from Berlin to LuLeck by way of Bremen and Hamburg The fourth line is from Berlin to Konigs-berg by way of Stettin and Danzig. The fifth line is from Strassburg to Berlin by way of Metz, Trier, ]\Jayence, Frankfurt, Erfut, Leipzig, Halle and Madgeburg.

POST PRESS BULLETIN.

Official Figures National Race.

The official figures of the National balloon race at Indianapolis, June 5th, have been given out as follows:

Balloon "University City,'' 377-9 ni., dur., 25:35; "New York,'' 357 m., dur. 35:12; "St. Louis III," 328.5 m., dur. 26:12; "Indiana," disqualified fur making intermediate landing; "Hoosier," 233.5 m-> dur., 22:10: "Cleveland," 40 m., dur., 2 :50.

John Berry has been awarded the long distance cup of the Aero Club of America and A. H. Forbes gets the Fisher cup for duration. Each pilot gets the Club's silver medal and the aides a bronze medal.

No official figures have been given out of the endurance handicap. This contest, in which unlicensed pilots contested, is disclaimed by the Aero Club of America, although the circulars issued before the race stated that it was held under A. C. A. auspices.

Ladies Balloon Fete in Philly.

Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge, president of the Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society, is arranging a ladies' balloon contest for about August 14th at the grounds in Philadelphia. It will be a sort of "balloon fete," with ice cream and other refreshments served on the lawn to the non-contestants as a sort of consolation, though to what degree that part of the affair is a consolatory success will have to be imagined.

Arthur J. Robinson, of Sheridan, Wyo.. is building a flying machine to be equipped with a 20 h. p. Curtiss motor. The machine should be ready in another month.

Wright Brothers Celebration.

(Continued from page 4,1.)

during the evening's fireworks display, the profiles of Wilbur and Orville Wright, wreathed with laurel, blazed out.

THE BALLOON'S COMPLIMENT TO THE AEROPLANE.

Just as General Allen was presenting the medals to the Wrights, the balloon "All America," with Geo. W. Shroycr and E. R. Weston, two prominent citizens of Dayton, and Redmond Cross and Leo Stevens of New York, passed directly over the platform where sat the Wrights and the officials. The day was ideal and just before the start it appeared quite probable that the balloon might pass directly over the fair grounds where the exercises were taking place. And that is what actually happened.

Propeller Mathematics.

(Continued from, page J,7.)

with barometric and thermometric differences and the velocity with which the air is being handled by the propeller, but also with the speed of the machine, to which the propeller is attached, through the air, its greatest variation being most noticeable in propellers designed for sustentation only, due to the increase in its value caused by the inertia of the air on the intake side of the propeller, and again in the opposite condition, of full flight, decreasing its value. This is true only of propellers revolving at constant speed, different values obtaining again when propeller and motor are so designed as to permit of the rotating speed increasing as the machine containing them acquires velocity up to the full flight maximum.

Foreign Letter (Sweden).

(Continued from page 69.)

machine comprises one or two shuttle-shaped receptacles or pontoons made of balloon cloth with a jacket of aluminum or magnalium, and divided into several compartments. These receptacles are filled with air, which, when compressed, is heated in a ball-shaped, double-walled heater placed in the centre of the pontoon. An isolating substance is placed between the two metal walls of the heater, which is fed from a receptacle with liquid air, and the heating is effected by an apparatus of the Primus system. The warm air from the heater is led into the hull of the pontoon, which for safety's sake may be filled with a number of smaller balloons, the air within which is heated by the hot air let into the pontoon. When the air has attained to a temperature of 60 degrees Cent., the specific weight of the machine will be about the same as that of the atmosphere, and it can consequently just float. An ascent is made by further heating the air, and a descent by letting in cold air. Ascent and descent can also be effected by two vertical air turbines placed in drums right through the pontoons, one on each side of the heater, which turbines, when worked, will make the machine rise, and when reversed make it descend. The airship is propelled by means of one or two horizontal air propellers, placed either under the pontoon or, if there arc two pontoons, between them. The motor is a rotary benzine motor, on the turbine principle, and it works both the vertical and the horizontal air propellers. The motor is of a novel and ingenious construction, and has already stood its test and given full satisfaction; it is an essential part of the invention.

Those interested in the new invention claim for it sundry distinct advantages which render it superior to the usual type of airship.

Striving for Perfect Machine

(Continued from page 08)

but great caution is required as to where they alight. Those equipped with runners on the outer hand, can alight practically anywhere, but are unable to start again without a special starting apparatus. If, however, we should make a combination of the two systems, a large part of this trouble would be eliminated. The machine would start on its wheels, and when in the air, these would be drawn up out of the way, so that it could alight on the runners. Such a system would make cross country flights much more practical and safe than they are at present.

This machine which we have described we believe to excel all others in regard to stability and economy, easy starting and landing, and in convenience for housing. The first two points have been shown by experiments with a model and the latter seem almost self evident. This type of machine, therefore, apparently fufills the necessary conditions of the perfect flying machine better than any other so far constructed, and should consequently be of more practical value.

HI The

WAGNE.TOS

Master

Magneto !

and F. S. Ball Bearings

Used on Voisin Aeroplane, 8 cyl. Antoinette Motor, driven by Hubert Latham <i*

J. S. BRETZ COMPANY

Sole Importers, Times Building, New York

HIGH-CLASS MACHINE WORK

FOR AERONAUTICAL PURPOSES

We Accomplish Results where Others Fail

Pedersen Lubricators have proven to be the most reliable

Pedersen Manufacturing Company

(established 1884. incorporated 1906)

636-644- FIRST AVENUE NEW YORK

wHENYouyisiT MORRIS PARK

don't forgel to visit the aeronauts' retreat

Morris Park Cafe 866 Morris Park Ave.,

and Summer Garden - nearMorrisPark-

Special lunch served at moderate prices. Private rooms for parties with ladies. All bottled goods sold as represented. Telephone, 239 Westchester. John J. Dragnett, Prop.

SUCCESSFUL AVIATORS and THEIR INVENTIONS

Keyed blueprints and complete details of twelve of the world's most successful heavier-than-air flying machines, something of their inventors and some of their trial flights.

Besides embodying the ideas and actual experiences of the world's most successful aviators, these descriptions fully explain the principles upon which these machines fly.

IT IS PRACTICALLY A SCHOOL WITHIN ITSELF AND THE MOST THOROUGH, INTERESTING AND COMPREHENSIVE WORK EVER COMPILED ON

THIS SUBJECT. :: :: :: :: ::

Price $5.00

NORMAN LAND

327 Whitehall Street, Atlanta, Ga.

ADAMS-FAR WELL

THE WORLD'S LIGHTEST AND SIMPLEST

MOTOR

Self cooled by its own revolution

GET OUR CATALOGUE No. 14 A

THE ADAMS COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U.S.A.

F. O. ANDREAE

REGISTERED

SOLICITOR OF PATENTS

Aeronautic Inventions a specialty at home and abroad

Central Valley, N. Y.

3219

Wfje Aeronautic H>ocietp

MORRIS PARK, WESTCHESTER, N. Y.

Join Now at the Opening of the Season.

MEMBERSHIP AFFORDS STERLING BENEFITS.

W ORKSHOPS—Where members may construct their machines without charge for space or facilities.

MOTORS — With which members may make their initial trials at the cost only of gasoline and care.

SHEDS — In which members may house their machines, rent free.

GROUNDS—Where members may try out their machines, learn the art of flying, and make flights.

EXHIBITIONS—To which all members are admitted free, and in which they have splendid opportunities to make their inventions known either in model or full scale.

Weekly Meetings— Held at the

club house of the Automobile Club of America, at which valuable discussions take place, and every assistance and encouragement given.

LECTURES — Well known scientists tell things worth knowing.

LIBRARY — Including a complete file of all aeronautical patents.

Experiment Fund — A fund is

forming for the work of investigation and experiment.

CATAPULT — Apparatus provided for starting aeroplanes that are wheel-less or for gliders.

Gliding Mound—For the practice

and exercise of gliding.

Twenty-one Members of the Society ai~e now building Machines.

NO INITIATION FEE.

DUES -$10 A YEAR.

WRITE SECRETARY FOR BOOKLET.

FORM OF APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP.

To the SECRETARY, The AERONAUTIC SOCIETY,

Morris Park, Westchester, N. Y.

I desire lo become a member of the Aeronautic Society. If elected I agree to pay the membership fee of $10 per year, and to abide by the Rules of the Sociely.

Name..................................................

Profession or Occupation............................

Dale..................1909. Address ...............................

airship Motors

As used by Beachey, Strobel and others

CELEBRATED INDIAN HEDSTROM MOTORS

AND PARTS

Cheap—Light Weight —Simple—Reliable [Send for Data, Prices, etc.

EXPERIMENTAL MACHINE WORK A SPECIALTY

F. B. WIDMAYER. CO.

2312 Broadway New York

New York 3 Chocolates

Health Food Chocolate

Most Suitable for Aeronauts or those requiring ;i Non-Hulky Sustaining: Food Office, 150-154 CHAMBERS STREET, NEW YORK

RARE BOOKS.

Under this heading we publish each month a list of such rare and out-of-print books as can be secured. The demand at the present time for rare aeronautical works is great, and it is usually not possible to obtain more than one copy at a time of any | one work.

TRAVELS _ IN SPACE (Valentine & Tomlinson), introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim; many illusts. 8vo., cloth, London,

1902............................... $4.00

ASTRA CASTRA (Hatton Turner), many illusts., royal 4tp., boards with leather back, uncut, London, 1865... $10.00 TRAVELS IN THE AIR (James Glaish-er, Flammarion, Tissandier, etc.), 125 illusts., royal 8vo., cloth, London, 1871 $6.00 AERIAL WORLD (G. Hartwig), 8 plates, map, many woodcuts, 8vo., cloth,

N. Y., 1875...............:......... $4-00

Same, new ed., same illusts., London,

1892 ............................... $4.50

DOMINION OF THE AIR (Rev. J. M.

Bacon), 24 plates, 8vo., cloth, London,

1904 ............................... $2.00

DONALDSON & GRIMWOOD, A True Account of Their Last Balloon Voyage and Tragic Death in Lake Michigan, thin, 121110., wrappers, illust., Philadelphia, 1875 (very

scarce) ............................ $3.00

THIRTY YEARS IN THE CLOUDS, with Observations on Thunder and Lightning, Formation of Rain, Hail, Snow, etc. (John Wise), 8vo., pamphlet, 1870.....$5.00 |

Aerial Development Company

<J This company is organized for the purpose of exploiting all business connected with aerial transportation, including the patenting of new devices, the purchase and sale of patents and patented apparatus, the establishment of laboratories for original research, the building of manufacturing plants for the construction of all types of flying machines and motors, the promotion of exhibitions, races, prize competitions. <J Models and experimental work of all kinds to order.

<[][ Materials and appliances used in aerial transportation offered for sale.

flfl Estimates furnished for the construction and trial tests of all classes of aeronautical work. <I Write for prospectus.

45 West 34th Street, New York. KIMBALL AEROPLANE, $6000 UP,

WITH GUARANTEE OF PERFORMANCE

BOOKS

FOR SALE BY

AERONAUTICS

1777 BROADWAY, NEW YORK

BOOKS

A ERIAL WARFARE, by R. P. Hearne, with an introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim. First systematic popular account of progress made by the countries of the world in aeronautics. 57 views of airships and aeroplanes : Wright, Fannan, Delagrange, Bleriot, Ferber, Zeppelin, Patrie, Republique, &c. Profusely illustrated. $2.66 postpaid.

PROBLEM OF FLIGHT, by Herbert Chatley.

Especially written for engineers. Outline of contents : Problem of Flight, Essential Principles, the Helix, the Aeroplane, Aviplanes, Dirigible Balloons, Form and Fittings of the Airship. Appendix furnishes much instructive information. 61 illustrations. Price, $3 50.

y^STRA CASTRA, by Hatton Turnor.

This rarest aeronautical work in existence can be supplied to a few first inquiries at $15-All in perfect condition.

TDALLOONING AS A SPORT, by Major B. Baden Powell. A handbook of ballooning and guide for the amateur. Full instructions for the equipment and management of a balloon. Illustrated.

Price $1.10.

]V/f OEDEBECK'S HANDBOOK, by Major x H. W. L. Moedebeck and O. Chanute The only handbook of aeronautics in English. All phases of aerial travel fully covered. Invaluable for the beginner and a ready reference for the aeronautical engineer. Data on screws, pressure, ballooning, physics, etc. Illustrated. $3.25.

VyAR IN THE AIR, by H. G. Wells. The greatest fiction story in recent years. Unfolds a breathless story of aerial battle and adventure, a triumph of scientific imagination, possibly not beyond the realm of actuality. Illustrated. $1.50.

^AERONAUTICAL ANNUAL, by James Means. For years IS95, 1S96 and 1S97.

Extremely rare.

Illustrated. $1.50 each.

"JSJAVIGATING THE AIR, by members of the Aero Club of America. Interesting record of ideas and experiences of 24 distinguished men. Contributors: Wright Bros., Chanute, Pickering, Rotch, Zahm, Stevens, Herring and others. 300 Pages, 32 Illustrations- $1.25.

My Airships (Santos Dumont). Illustrated. Crown 8vo., cloth.................. 1.40

Resistance of Air and the Question of Flying (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated.

12mo., 42 pp., paper........................................................80

Flight Velocity (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated. 45 pp., 12mo., paper.............80

Flying Machines, Past, Present and Future (A. W. Marshall and H. Greenly). Illustrated ................................................................. 60

Paradoxes of Nature and Science (W. Hampson). Illustrated. Two chapters on balloons as airships and bird flight. Svo., cloth, N. Y., 1907................... 1 50

Airships Past and Present, by Captain A. Hildebrandt; translated by W. H. Story.

Large Svo., cloth, profusely ill. Latest book on motor aerostation.......... 3.50

Aerial Flight: Aerodynamics (F. W. Lauchester). Large Svo., cloth, illustrated,

442 pp. Most complete work on the subject; just out...................... 6.00

How to Make a Glider Artificial and Natural Flight

ILLUSTRATED

By SIR HIRAM MAXIM. With 95 illus.

Cloth, illus., S vo., $1.75 net

A concise history and description of the development of (lying machines. Description of his own experimental work. Explaining the machinery and methods which enable him to arrive at certain conclusions. Fully describes the work of other successful inventors. Chapter on dirigible balloons.

AERONAUTICS 1777 Broadway, New York "AERONAUTICS," 1777 Brondway, NEW YORK

8-page illustrated pamphlet giving full details for the construction of a bi-surfaee glider, with diagrams and exact measurements. Every experimentor should have this valuable treatise. Price, 12 Cents (Post Free).

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FOR SALE—Two complete captive balloon outfits, consisting of gas bag, net, valve, and car for 4 persons, controlled by motor windlass with clutch and brake, besides patent portable hydrogen gas works for inflation.

_ ALSO—One-man gas balloon ; one-man airship, 7 h. p. motor and gas works. Write for prices, inclosing stamp.

RESIDENT TAFT has officially recognized the science of aeronautics. The

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

recognized it fifty years ago, and has ever been its advocate and ally, and ?. faithful recorder of the latest aeronautic developments

Aeronautic Patents

Having devoted especial attention to aeronautic patents, we ate exceptionally well equipped to advise and assist inventors. •I Valuable information sent free on request.

WRIGHT FLYING

 

^{Tentific .'American;

 
     
 

X # i

 
     

2-

You must read the Scientific American, to keep posted.

$3 00 PER YEAR. SINGLE COPIES, 10c.

MUNN & CO.,

365 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

Bokor Aeronautic Motors

50^60 H. P. - 26^38 H. P. *

THE HORSE POWER ABSOLUTELY GUARANTEED 2.

Aeronautic Supplies of all Description £

rr.

|j DESIGNING AND CONSTRUCTION WORK — 2 ACRES FOR HOUSING MACHINES ~

600 ACRES EXPERIMENTAL GROUNDS r

J. P. FlTZPATRICK, Sales Manager

f\\ MOTOR MART, 1876 BROADWAY, Corner 62nd Street, NEW YORK n

£ll PHONE, 5039 Columbus Z

more honors for

ST. LOUIS AND HONEYWELL

RECORDS PROVE IT

"University City" ("Yankee") "St. Louis No. 3"

Championship of America Third Place

HONEYWELL, Builder HONEYWELL, Builder

In first national balloon race of The Aero Club of America, Indianapolis, June 5 th.

The longest voyage by a licensed pilot in the United States, in 1908, was made with the 2200 cubic meter "Yankee"—461 miles with two stops —a remarkable performance; 800 pounds ballast aboard when landing.

HONEYWELL

BUILDER

^ The greatest balloon trip of 1908— 850 miles in competition — made by the 2000 cubic meter balloon, "Fielding-San Antonio." Four American and two Foreign makes defeated by wide margin.

HONEYWELL

BUILDER and PILOT

This picture from basket was made 3000 ft. altitude show-in g French staggard block system perfectly constructed, as all our balloons are made, giving safety and strength.

aerostats, airships and instruments

IN STOCK AND MADE TO ORDER

§ HONEYWELL CONSTRUCTION utilizes the latest and best materials -varnished or rubberized envelope with French-type valve, and Italian hemp or linen nettings. Cars equipped for comfort and convenience — light and durable. .........

FRENCH—AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

3958 Cottage Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.


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