Volume 4 - No. 5 - 1909 May/June
|Table of Contents|
The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.
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tNT AND REAR CON-rROLS OF A FLYING MACHINE
)PELLER MATHEMATICS FOR THE KINDERGARTEN CLASS
John Squires, M. E.
MSTRUCTION DATA W TO GLIDE
Wm. H. Aitken
•P GLIDERS AND TOWING TOWER
M. B. Sellers
*EIGN AERO MOTORS DROGEN GAS BALLOONING
Carl E. Myers
/ Balloon Record—Morris Park Doings —2000 Miles in an Aeroplane—Wrights Back Home — Army News—Ascensions— Foreign News Letter.
he Aero News of the World Graphically, Pictorially, ccurately Told.
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\V. C. Cline. Photo
•Beachey Sailing 'Round Washington's Monument, Washington, D. C.
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r~|~'HE present discussion of prizes for aeronautic contests recalls the FIRST aeronautic trophy ever given. It was offered in 1907, by the
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Scientific American Trophy, 1907
LEE S. BURRIDGE
With the Auto Club he travels
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Of his Sun typewriter's clatter, Everybody now enjoys it,
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E. L. Jones, treas.-sec.
Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Posloffice, New York, N. Y., under the Act of
March 3, 1879.
Vol. IV June 1909 No. 5
Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.
One year, $3.00; payable always In advance.
Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order, check or registered letter. Make all remittances free of exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.
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Important.— Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure oroper credit.
Jn accordance with our previous method, the present issue would be dated May. We have made it the JUXE number. A great many readers have urged upon us the confusion they find in our differing in this respect from the other magazines. We have therefore acceded to their request and adopted the popular custom.
To correct the change this makes in our subscription list, we have extended each subscription a month, so that all will have the whole twelve issues to which they are entitled.
The change will thus end Vol. IV. with the June number, but the volume will contain only rive issues, and July, iocq, begins Vol. V.
PRIZE GIVING THE "DAILY MAIL's" $5,000
The prayer of the American aeronautical inventor still is, O Lord, how long? The thousands upon thousands of dollars offered abroad have created no sense of humiliation in the bosoms of onr aeronautically. so-called, interested men of means.
While we admit the majority of these foreign prizes are for "freak stunts," and for flights only possible, as yet, by the Wrights, and some even impossible by them, still, the
enthusiasm created has had its effect in the causing of wholesale endeavor. The fact that few of these prizes are of real practical value has made little difference.
The different nature of the American prevents allied results in this country. Here we look for a definite return for our outlay. Though not a single prize is now open in France which might appear to be an incentive to the American inventor or to a financier who
might back experimental work, still activity there increases daily in magnitude.
The fact that so much money is_ so easily forthcoming in Europe, one might think, would suggest ideas to those wealthy Americans who pretend to have so great an interest in the science of dynamic flight.
The small prizes of "Aeronautics," $200; C. F. Bishop, $i,ooo; F. S. Lahm, $250; only reward the successful inventor in a small way. They do not bring about the introduction of capital into construction. The "World" prize asks too much of the inventor at this early stage. Only the Wrights at the present time can possibly compete.
The London "Daily Mail" has just offered $5,000 under admirable conditions, those best calculated to stimulate the inventor and the capitalist. This prize is the first offering since the winning by Farman of the Deutsch-Arch-deacon $10,000 kilometer-circle flight, of a large sum available to the beginner.
These conditions, open for twelve months from April 7, 1909, are summarized as follows: (1) That the entire machine be of British manufacture; (2) That the inventor and operator he British subjects; (3) That the flight shall take place within the British Isles; (4) That the flight be either circular or to some point and back involving turning; (5) Distance, one mile.
The conditions being so easy, preclude the jeopardizing of a larger sum. From one point
Levick Photo Wilbur Wright
of view a larger sum with more severe conditions might ix' advisable. At any rate, considering this, if a like prize were offered in America under like conditions, I, an inventor, having constructed a successful model, would go to some man of my acquaintance who I knew would be interested in a business-like proposition, and I would say to him:
"You, of course, realize the commercial value of a practical flying machine. If you are sure of commensurate returns from any investment, you do not hesitate. You do not hesitate to risk considerable sums for a fair chance of extraordinarily great returns. You have seen my model fly. You know my ability and standing in other directions. I can prove to you that the cost of the machine which I would build will not exceed $2,500. Here is So-and-So's prize, of $5,000 for a mile flight. If my machine can fly a mile, it can fly, under reasonable conditions, a great many miles. Do you want to risk $2,500 to win double the amount? You know through the papers of the dozen or more men who have already flown a mile!"
It is the opinion, of many that such a prize would 'bring out many machines. There are many engineers of note who are interested in this new science, and are only waiting for a chance to secure immediate returns before starting work. The thing now is to find the first $5,000 prize; and the next thing, to find the second.
By Joseph B. Baker
Who's the sandy, dandy flyer?
He's a Yankee, Wilbur* Wright! (Yes, our Dayton Wright, all right.) Every day he's high and higher; Mounts and soars at heart's desire. Every morning in the papers—
"Wilbur* Wright's successful flight!"
Look, he's off! and up and over, flying! Darting like a giant swallow, Till the eye can scarcely follow:
Now like the eagle's swoop and hover. Driving lesser birds to cover—
Heating Frenchman, Dago, Dutchman, 'thout half trying.
How the dickens does he fly—
Yankee Wright? (Wings of leather. Motor, plane or canvas feather?)
Never mind, but by and by,
Over all, in even' weather
See Old Glory stream on high—
Slanting through the up-air breezes,
Conquering meteor of the sky!
FRONT AND REAR CONTROLS OF A FLYING MACHINE
Editor's Note:—The following unique symposium is taken by permission from the Bulletin of the Aerial Experiment Association. With this article, the Association inaugurated the practice of having a stenographer present during discussions and the following is a revised verbatim report.
TOPIC OF DISCUSSION.
Dr. A. Graham Bell. Should not the front control be at the rear instead of in front?
Imagine a long pole balanced on a horizontal axis at its middle, and carrying a horizontal surface at one end. Under the action of the wind the surface will be carried to the rear like the vane of a weathercock. If we hold the pole so that the surface is at the front end facing the wind the whole arrangement is in a state of unstable equilibrium requiring an effort to keep it in place. Is not this the case with the front control of an aerodrome (flying machine), and would it not be better to use a horizontal tail at the rear?
The natural action of the wind of advance upon the front control is to upset the whole machine upwards or downwards so as to make a complete somersault and bring the front control to the rear as a tail. Whereas the natural action upon a horizontal tail at the rear is to keep the longitudinal axis of the machine parallel to the line of advance and prevent any deviation up or down excepting by the will of the operator.
Mr. Baldwin:—In the first place I think the aerodrome with its front control is not comparable to a pole with one surface on it. There are two surfaces on the pole that would represent the machine. The main surface is behind the center of gravity, or whatever point you want to take as a pivot.
I think one of the greatest things about a bow control is that you can see what you are doing. In fact, I think, all steering or working parts should, if possible, be in full view. If your bow control breaks, why you would know where you are!
You can make your truss strong, you can make your rigid parts strong; the things that go wrong are your working parts. Now the Red Wing certainly broke her tail on one side. Everybody excepting myself knew it. but I didn't until I came down on the ice. Now I should have seen it had it been in the bow. It is perfectly possible for a tail to break and oper-
ator not to know enough to shut off, when to shut orf might save his life. An accident to the stern might cause you to lose control of the whole machine and you might not know what was wrong.
The dangerous thing is loss of headway. In all our machines that is the only thing we have to fear very much. As long as you have good steerage way you won't have a very bad fall. If you lose headway, I think a bow control is a safer proposition than a tail because your center of pressure, when in flight at small angles, is well forward. Your weight has to go forward when you speed up. You must either have your center of gravity well forward of the center of surface or else shift the controlling planes to meet it. You could have your center of gravity somewhere near the center of surface of the machine and control the travel of the center of pressure by using your front control at a negative angle and then if you lose all headway your machine is nicely balanced for a slow glide, the center of gravity being very little in advance of the center of surface. I think the safest possible proposition would be a good big bow control on a good long arm and travel with it at a slightly negative angle.
Dr. Bell:—Then I understand that you admit the main proposition, about the pole with a horizontal surface at one end to be correct, but think that the main surface of the aerodrome being back of the center of gravity, renders the two cases not comparable, that, in fact, in the aerodrome case, you have two surfaces, one in front and the other behind the axis of turning, and the one behind very much larger than the one in front. But in this case the main surface which is supposedly back of the axis of rotation is inclined with its rear edge downwards. In other words it is tilted up in front. Thus so far as its action as a rudder is concerned it would tend to make the machine dive. * * *
Mr. Baldwin:—Xo, no; it balances all right. They are not tending to thus turn the machine over. If the center of gravity is right under the center of pressure there is no turning tendency.
Dr. Bell:—Yes, but if the surfaces are back of the center of gravity why is there not a turning tendency; why don't they act like a rudder steering the bow down under headway?
Mr. Baldwin:—Because the part behind is not as effective.
Dr. Bell:—Well, anyway, you admit the main proposition, but don't think that the two cases are quite comparable, that there is not a single suiface away out in front As I gather your idea, the front control would be, you think, a more efficient safeguard in case of loss of headway than a rear tail.
Dr. Bell:—Now let us look at that. We lose headway and under these circumstances neither a front control nor a rear tail will operate to direct a machine.
Mr. Baldwin:—1 don't think that is quite correct.
Dr. Bell:—No rudder will work without headway. Now we lose headway and the machine begins to drop under the action of gravity. Then wc have "downway," not "headway," and in the interests of safety is it not advisable that the machine should turn head down rather than tail down? Now the effect of a single surface away out in front would, under the influence of downway, tend to send the head up, and lead to a stern fall. Whereas the influence of a rear tail would be to elevate the stern and lead to a dive with subsequent recovery of headway when the machine would be again under control. I speak here of the tendencies of the front or rear controls.
You introduce a new element and place the center of gravity in front of the center of surface so that, under the influence of gravity alone, the machine will dive when headway is lost, and then claim that the front control is safer because its tendency to turn the head up, when dropping, neutralizes to a certain extent the tendency of gravity to turn the head down. Whereas the influence of the rear rudder tends to make the dive greater. So that your proposition is that the front control, combined with an advance in the center of gravity, is safer than a rear control, combined with an advance in the center of gravity.
Mr. Baldwin:—That is it in a nutshell. They are equally safe if you have a long enough distance to drop; but if you have only got a short distance it is much better to have a machine with which you could regain steerage way more quickly. Now I think you can regain steerage way more quickly and without such a steep dive, when you have a bow control and preferably carry it at a slight negative angle. In all our machines the center of gravity must be well forward of the center of surface of the machin e.
Mr. Baldwin:—Well, because as a machine travels at an increasing speed and a less angle of incidence, the center of pressure does move forward, we know that. Take any of our machines and balance them up, put your center of gravity under-
neath the center of surface of the machine. Now propel that at any small angle of incidence, and it won't balance. The bow goes up. With the surfaces we have used the center of pressure moves forward almost to the front edge of the machine. About 8 inches back was a fairly good balance for the center of gravity. Now the planes are 6 feet deep so that we know that the center of gravity must be well forward on the machine to balance it when in motion. Now when the machine hasn't any headway with that balance, if you suspend the machine, and let it suddenly drop it will take a very bad dive, and then recover headway. Just like the little gliders, it would go along and dive, then go along and dive again, etc., etc. Now you can have the center of gravity further back in the machine if you have a front control at a negative angle.
Suppose you have a tail and lose headway. Then under the influence of down-way the action of the tail turns the stern up, increasing the tendency to dive.
Mr. Gardiner Bell:—That tail isn't going to make your action any worse, on account of pressure on the upper surface of the tail resisting turning action.
Mr. Baldwin:—You don't get pressure on the upper surface until you have headway, and you don't get headway until you have downway.
Now let that machine drop, it will tend to dive more speedily with this tail on. With a bow control it tends to check the dive.
Dr. Bell:—You think the pressure is on the under surface of the tail. Gardiner Bell thinks it is on the upper surface.
Gardiner Bell:—You take both cases, one machine with a tail, and the other without; you can turn the machine without the tail quicker than the one with the tail. The resisting pressure will be on the upper stir face of the tail the moment the machine turns, that is if the tail is fixed or stationary.
Mr. Baldwin:—According to Dr. Bell's proposition the thing with a tail let free to fall will tend to do the weather vane act and drop with its head vertically downwards.
Dr. Bell: I think we are all agreed upon the point that the principal danger to the aviator is in loss of headway. Now in all machines so far made the center of gravity is in front of the center of surface so that when we lose headway the machine dives and the front control by its resistance tends to check that dive. It is equally obvious that if the center of gravity was behind the center of surface then the rear tail would check the stern dive with what result? But the question comes in my mind why do we have to have that center of gravity in front of the center of surface. Why would it not be safer, without headway, to have it directly under the center
of surface. Suppose the reason to be, and I think it is right, that when headway is gained the center of pressure moves forward and wc have to have the center of gravity under the center of pressure in order to balance. Then the faster the machine moves and the slighter the angle of the main planes with the line of advance, the more the center of pressure moves forward, which would mean that the center of gravity also has to move forward to balance the machine.
Now are we not going on the wrong principle altogether to balance an instability that results from a change in the center of pressure, by making a change in the center of gravity. I think the Wright Brothers introduced an enormous improvement over the acrobatic method of Lilien-thal when they proposed to counterbalance such changes by the action of movable surfaces. Why would it not be better in this case also to have the center of gravity under the center of surface, the safest position without headway, and counterbalance the effect of the movement of the center of pressure by means of movable surfaces?
We have hitherto been considering the front control versus the tail. Why not have both together? They can co-operate with one another in steering under headway and would not both be safer than either alone in coming down without headway?
Mr. Baldwin:'—T think that is all right. That is exactly what I mean by carrying the bow control at a negative angle to leave your center of gravity somewhere near the center of surface, although in advance of it, so that if you do lose headway vou are in a better position to control the dive.
Dr. Bell:—There is a great deal in Gardiner Bell's idea. Under a vertical drop the pressure of the air acting on the under surface of the tail would of course tend to push the tail up. But the actual effect depends very largely upon where the center of gravity is. Tf the center of gravity is directly under the center of surface of the main planes the tail would undoubtedly act in that way. But if the center of gravity is in advance of the center of surface of the main planes then the resistance of the air on the upper surface of the tail would lessen that tendency to turn, and so would the resistance on the lower surfaces of the front control, and both of them together, resist the turning tendency resulting from the eccentric position of the center of gravity. The axis of rotation in this case being the center of surface, or center of resistance.
Mr. Gardiner Bell:—And it really does not matter how far back you put your tail, does it?
Mr. Baldwin:—Anything behind the propellers is a bad proposition. There is a draft of air from the propellers upon any rear surfaces, and if they are inclined so as to be supporting surfaces, then when your propellers stop the change in the balance of the machine might be very great.
Mr. Gardiner Bell:—In that case it would be a good scheme to put your rear tail further back.
Mr. Baldwin:—There is a drag to the tail though.
Dr. Bell:—This is shown in the Ham-mondsport experiments. The speed of the June Bug was greatly increased by the omission of the tail. There is one consideration you can get great longitudinal stability by using both the front control and the rear tail, and at the same time get quick action by moving them simultaneously.
Mr. Gardiner Bell:—Mr. Baldwin's idea of having the front control at a negative angle so as to intensify the safety seems to me to be wrong in principle.
Mr. Gardiner Bell:—Because there is nothing that brings about resistance so much as that.
Dr. Bell:—That is, introduces an artificial resistance to advance.
Mr. Gardiner Bell:—That is what I mean. One of the great problems seems to be, where to put the horizontal control or controls, and whether or not to use a tail.
Undoubtedly the front control is the most effective, and for this reason, if not handled propcrh' is the most dangerous. It can cause a fore-downward plunge quicker than anything. But it can also check a plunge more effectively than a rear control. The action of the front control, however, is limited by the position and area of the tail, supposing there is one.
For example a horizontal tail ten feet in the rear of the machine will have a more stabilizing effect than a tail five feet in the rear; the cause for this is leverage. Hence the power of a front control will be less in the first case than in the second.
\n the first case then, the fore and aft stability will be increased and the power of the front control will be diminished. It is obvious that with a stationary tail the horizontal control must be in front. You don't want to increase your sustaining area from fore to aft, but you do want to increase your stability. Hence why is not a stationary horizontal tail, say fifteen feet in the rear a good thing?
propeller mathematics for the kindergarden
By John Squires, M. E.
Chief of Physical Laboratory, E. R. Thomas Motor Co.
To begin with, I am obliged to comment upon the danger of giving data on propellers, which same holds good with aeronautical data in general, because of the peculiarly hazardous risks involved, without explaining the method by which the data was obtained, unless offered by someone whose past performance is a guarantee of his being in right, as otherwise the amateur has nothing to check against, and perforce, being compelled to accept it as gospel if he uses it at all. Id is apparatus goes or stays in due proportion to the amount of misinformation built into it.
The above is intended, not as a diatribe, but merely as a warning to the amateur, as the expert is bound to offer such data as he has been able to accumulate either by experiment or hard knocks, and the editor plays his part in full in bringing it to the attention of readers. If the method used is explained, one can usually determine for himself as to whether the data ought to be accurate or not.
In the present article, however, it is only my intention to lay down the effects of the four purely mathematical variants involved in propeller design, all of which effects can be demonstrated by calculation and without mechanical experiment.
I may say that I have verified all the conclusions set forth below by actual experiment; a great many propellers having been built as well as the necessary apparatus to test them.
It is well to state at this point that there are two distinct types of propellers, only one of which will be dealt with here, and for the present purpose we will consider them as delivering their work in slip, that is, not moving through the air, but delivering their thrust at a fixed, immovable point.
One of these types produces thrust by moving its blades as nearly as possible over undisturbed air, and we will call this the "gliding-blade type." The other, however, exerts its work in moving the greatest possible area of air, at a velocity corresponding to its pitch and speed of revolution, thus getting its effect as though the thrust were accomplished by the effect of air blowing against the propeller, and we will call this the "air-moving type."
Obviously the gliding principle of the first type demands it to be of large diameter, which again causes it to be frail in proportion to the work required of it, if weight is to be avoided, and the very fact of its being designed for undisturbed air
places it at a disadvantage in rough weather. The air-moving type, however, can be built -.mall, compact, is easily applied and can be built very strong without greatly added weight, and this is the type which is considered mathematically in this article.
In my early experiments I, of course, did not know which was the best type of propeller, and was consequently put to many pains to try the various types designed by other experimenters. Some I found extremely deficient and others good. That is, it is possible to measure a propeller and tell under what conditions it will do its best work, and from these good ones gradually began to develop the laws governing the design of a propeller for theoretically perfect efficiency.
(A) For instance, it is possible to design a propeller which will exert its work throughout the whole area swept through by the blades.
Consequently, perfect efficiency is the effect of air blowing against this area at a uniform velocity throughout, equal to the pitch speed of the propeller, and minus the head resistance and surface friction of the hub and blades.
Of course, as my data began to accumulate some formulae increased in accuracy and some had to be discarded altogether, and many entirely new ones were obtained, until in the last propellers built and tested remarkably high efficiencies became the rule.
Owing to the surprising effect that a change in some of the variants produce, 1 have thought it well, as stated above, to explain the principles governing these mathematical variants, for the reason that the whole design of the propeller, cross-section and outline shapes of blades, the number of blades, etc., is so different between a design for low speed of revolution and one for high that it is extremely difficult for a person even fairly familiar with propellers to believe that both will do the same work with the same efficiency.
(B) Let me say here that there is no standard cross-sectional shape nor type of blade as regards normal projected shape, that is equally efficient under more than moderately diversified working conditions.
Consequently, as stated in "A," it being possible to get full-swept area propulsive effect, this is only true with blades of the correct cross-sectional and normal projected shapes, and (C) with a sufficient number of bk.des.
If in plotting the thrust curve the thrust units be considered as abscissae and the blade units as ordinates, it is evident that as more blades are added the line becomes horizontal, and when this condition is reached, a sufficient number of blades is indicated, and more would only serve to use up power in blade surface friction, and it is at this point that we begin to obtain data on blade surface friction.
Knowing that it is possible to get full-swept area propulsive effect, the proportional value of the four purely mathematical variants which affect the work output and power consumption must be intelligently determined before it is possible to make even a rational guess as to what is required as a whole.
The value of the first of these is usually determined by outside conditions: such, for instance, as weight, and is the power at command; and the second, which hinges on the first, is the speed of revolution. Then comes the area, which is largely governed by construction conditions, and last comes pitch, which necessarily, under the above circumstances, is somewhat at the mercy of the other three, although equally important with the speed of revolution, owing to the fact of pressure caused byr moving air varying with the square of the velocity (V2).
Thus it will be seen that variations of either the speed of revolution or the pitch is bound to vary the work with the third power, or cube, because each of these is a second power, or square, to begin with.
Therefore, it is my intention to lay down the effect of each of these variants in the abstract, as though they were purely selective, and show the effects of varying each of them singly as well as in combination with variations of the other three, in relation to the effect on power, and on the thrust per unit of power, which is the particularly essential result for which a propeller is designed.
Reasoning in the abstract, it is presumptive that the power can be varied at will. So in the following table of effects it will be left as a corollary to the other variations; and presuming that we already have a standard propeller, we will begin with alterations of the speed of revolution, always keeping in mind the V2 law.
My excuse for setting down the whole list of changes is that we will have them directly under our eye, where it is usually easier to scan them than in the mind.
In all cases where speed is mentioned in the table, speed of revolution is meant.
(1) Doubling the speed without altering the pitch or area, alters (increases) the power with the cube of the speed, and alters (decreases) the thrust per unit of power inversely with the speed.
(2) Doubling the speed and halving the area without altering the pitch, alters the power with both the speed and the area, increasing it with the cube of the speed and decreasing it directly with the area,
with the sixth power of the speed, and al-
which is practically equal to altering (increasing) it with the square of the speed, and alters (decreases) the thrust per unit of power inversely with the speed.
(3) Doubling the speed and halving the pitch without changing the area alters neither the power nor the thrust per unit of power.
(4) Doubling the area without altering the speed or the pitch alters (increases) the power directly with the area, and does not alter the thrust per unit of power.
(5) Doubling the area and halving the speed without altering the pitch alters the power with both the area and the speed, increasing it directly with the area, and decreasing it with the cube of the speed, which is practically' equal to altering (decreasing) it inversely with the square of the speed, and alters (increases) the thrust per unit of power inversely with the speed.
(6) Doubling the area and halving the pitch without altering the speed alters the power with both the area and the pitch, increasing it with the area and decreasing it with the cube of the pitch, which is practically equal to altering (decreasing) it inversely with the square of the speed, and alters (increases) the thrust per unit of power inversely' with the pitch.
(7) Doubling the pitch without altering the speed or area alters (increases) the power with the cube of the pitch, and alters (decreases) the thrust per unit of power inversely with the pitch.
(8) Doubling the pitch and halving the speed without altering the area does not alter the power thrust per unit of power.
(9) Doubling the pitch and halving the area without altering the speed alters the power with both the pitch and the area, increasing it with the cube of the pitch and decreasing it directly with the area, which is practically7 equal to altering (increasing) it with the square of the pitch, and alters (decreases) the thrust per unit of power inversely with the pitch.
(10) Doubling the speed and doubling the area without altering the pitch alters (increases) the power with the cube of the speed, and also directly with the area, which is practically equal to altering (increasing) it with the fourth power of the speed, and alters (decreases) the thrust per unit of power inversely with the speed.
(11) Doubling the speed and doubling the area, and halving the pitch, alters (increases) the power with the cube of the speed, and also directly with the area, hut also decreases it with the cube of the pitch, which is practically equal to altering it (increasing) directly with the area, and does not alter the thrust per unit of power.
(12) Doubling the speed and doubling the pitch without altering the area alters (increases) the power with the cube of the speed, and also with the cube of the pitch, which is practically equal to increasing it
ters (decreases) the thrust per unit of power inversely with the square of the speed.
(13) Doubling the speed and doubling the pitch, and halving the area, alters (increases) the power with the cube of the speed, and with the cube of the pitch, but also alters (decreases) it inversely with the area, which is practically' equal to increasing it with the fifth power of the speed, and alters (decreases) the thrust per unit of power inversely with the square of the speed.
(14) Doubling the area and doubling the pitch without altering the speed alters (increases) the power directly with the area and also with the cube of the pitch, which is practically equal to increasing it with the fourth power of the pitch, and alters (decreases) the thrust per unit of horse power inversely with the pitch.
(15) Doubling the area and doubling the pitch, and halving the speed, alters (increases) the power directly with the area, and also with the cube of the pitch, but also alters (decreases) it inversely with the cube of the speed, which is practically equal to increasing it directly with the area, and does not alter the thrust per unit of power.
(16) Doubling the speed and doubling the area, and doubling the pitch, alters (increases) the power with the cube of the speed, and also directly with the area, and also with the cube of the pitch, which is practically equal to increasing it with the seventh power of either the speed or the pitch, and alters (decreases) the thrust per unit of power inversely with the square of the speed.
I have neglected to set down in the table such combinations as have two or more decreasing members, as the effect of these is merely opposite to similar combinations with increasing members.
Now, scanning back over the table, it is perfectly easy to see where the greatest economy of change lays.
Take cases (5) and (6) which are exactly alike as far as. effect of change is concerned, but of which (6) is the most practical because of allowing the motor to be run at the same speed, it is found that the change has cut the power to one-fourth of what it was and has doubled the thrust per unit of power.
Tn other words suppose a 20-h.p. motor giving a thrust of 20 pounds per h.p., or 400 pounds total thrust, then by doubling the area and halving the pitch, the power consumed is reduced to 5 h.p., and the thrust per horse power is increased to 40 pounds, or a total thrust of 200 pounds.
Now, reasoning further, we see from case (4) that increasing the area only increases the power directly with the area, and does not alter the thrust per horse power. Consequently, multiplying the area again by four brings the the horse power back to the original 20, and a thrust of 40 pounds per
horse power gives a total thrust of 800 pounds, or double the original total thrust.
At this point it is to be recalled to mind that the propeller under consideration is exerting propulsive effect throughout the area swept by the blades. Therefore, let this area be considered as a normal disc, which is very nearly true in practice with ? correctly designed propeller, and it will be seen that while the area has been increased five times, the diameter has only been increased two and one-quarter times, due to the law that the area included in a circle increases with the square of the diameter.
It is not necessary to carry the discussion on effects further, as it should be quite possible from the table to deduce which particular combination would be the most suitable under given circumstances, and 1 think it shows quite fully in what direction the best economy of power lays.
One point in particular which the table brings out very forcefully is the great variation in thrust per unit of power which is possible with propellers of equal efficiency, as witness cases (5) and (6), where the thrust per unit of power is doubled, and cases (12) and (13), where the thrust per unit of power is quartered, thus giving conditions under which (D) one propeller could have a thrust per unit of power eight times that of another, even if both of them were of 100% efficiency.
To avoid misleading the reader I wish to point to the danger of misapplying the above table of effects. Please do not confuse area and diameter. For instance, there is not an aerial propeller in service to-day that gives swept-area propulsive effect, some giving slightly more than blade-area effect and others giving less than blade-area effect, due to bad design. Consequently, when this is the case the table does not hold, and diameter must be considered instead of area.
This particular kind of bad design carries more than its own penalty with it, in that the necessity for increasing the size of the propeller with the diameter rather than with the area, increases the amount of centrifugal force involved in two ways, both from the necessary additional material to get the surface required and the additional strengthening of the cross-section to withstand the strain.
In conclusion I wish to emphasize again the four points which I have tried to bring most strongly to the reader's attention:
A, that it is possible to design propellers which will give swept-area propulsive effect.
B, that there is no universally' efficient cross-sectional and normal projected shapes of blade.
C, that the number of blades varies with the working conditions.
D, that propellers of equal efficiencies can deliver widely different thrusts per unit of power.
(Continued on page 211)
A very important item in construction work is the method of tensing the guy wires. We have previously llkistnwcd one type ot turn-buckle. Herewith is illustrated a simple turn buckle designed by Carl Bates (Fig. i), and the methods used by Bleriot (Fig. 2), and the Voison Brothers (Fig. 3), described recently in the "Aerophile."
The drawing (Fig. 1) shows an easy way to make a strong and inexpensive turn-buckle for tightening and adjusting of aeroplane wires. It is made of band iron and a stove bolt, the stove bolt having a screw head so the tightening of the wire can be accomplished by simply turning the bolt with a screw-driver.
It is the opinion of many that two propellers are theoretically more practical than one, and many use but one for the sake of simplicity. Others argue that the Wright accident is the result of the two propeller system. A French patent has recently been taken out by F. K. Rossel for the transmission system illustrated in Fig. 7. The power is transmitted from the motor shaft A through the differential B to the propellers IIH. If one propeller should break, the pressure on the clutch will be nil, the other propeller would lose all its pull, and no propulsion would be the result. If one propeller shaft is braked by a lever, the flying machine would turn in proportion with the increase of speed in the one screw. The claim is made that by steering with the propellers, no loss of power or forward motion would result, as is apparently the case steering with rudder alone.
The band-iron bent close to the nut prevents the nut from turning. Stove bolts 3-16 x ij4 inch are the most suitable size to use, anil these will stand nearly a thousand pounds dead load.
The use of shock absorbers is so frequent in French construction that a description of one type designed by I .can's Hreguet is timely.
In Fig. 4, the hollow plunger D ends in the piston C, and operates in the tube A. The
connection with the truck of the aeroplane is shown at E. The wheel which runs on the ground is shown by B. The stroke of the piston may be made as long as desired. The body of the pump, A, is filled with a liquid, and the piston C is pierced with several holes at "a" which permits the flowing of the liquid between the two halves of the device.
in proportion to the square root of the compression, and transforms the energy into calories of heat. By varying the size of the holes the pressure is varied.
Fig. S shows possible variation. A is the body of the pump, C is the piston, and D the plunger. The valve is shown at F, with cross-section view, G, of a spring. The holes, H,
In flight, as the aeroplane leaves the ground the weight of the wheel B pulls down the part A, filling the compartment with liquid. At the instant of the machine striking tbe ground the liquid is greatly compressed, and flows through the valve in the piston at a speed
above the valve are covered successively as the pressure of the liquid in A gives way to the pressure of the spring G.
A cheaper method might be employed as illustrated in Fig. 6.
May 29.—Exhibition of The Aeronautic Society at Morris Park, N. Y.
May.-—-Aero Exhibition, St. Petersburg, Russia.
May 25.—Aero Carnival at Arlington, N. J., auspices Aero Club of America.
May 30.—Distance Balloon Race, Aero-nautique Club of France.
June t.—Herring must deliver Aeroplane at Washington.
June 5.—Grand Prize Balloon Race, Indianapolis. Starting at 5 p. m.
June 28.—Wright Brothers must complete contract at Washington.
July 10.—Aero Exposition at Frankfort, Germany, till October 10.
Aug. 1.—Landing Balloon Contest, Aero-nautique Club of France.
Aug. 29.—Gordon Bennett Aviation Contest.
Aug. 22-29.—Aviation Week at Rheims.
Sept. 5-Ji.—Daily Balloon Ascents during North Adams' Old Home Week.
Sept. 25-Oct. 9.—Hudson-Fulton Celebration, New York.
Sept. 30-Oct. 8.—Motor Exhibition of Aeronautic Engines at Paris.
Oct. 3.—Gordon Bennett Balloon Race at Zurich, Switzerland, twenty balloons entered.
Oct. 4.—Aero Club of St. Louis Balloon Race.
HOW TO GLIDE
By Wm. H. Aitken
demonstrator at phila. country club.
One of tlie most essential things in the beginning of this sport is to purchase a good glider. One of good reliable building can be bought of C. & A. Witteman. The beginner should select a bill of about 10 to 20 feet high. Take your machine to the summit of your hill. The wind must blow uphill to meet you as you come down.
lift the front edge of planes up so that the wind will strike the underneath. You will find yourself then in full flight. Bring the body a little ahead of center. After speed has been attained move the body back to center again. Then continue to do this alternately until you are ready to alight. Now move the body back of center and the wind will strike
Face the wind, take up glider, a little ahead of the center, and let two assistants take hold of each side. Lower the front edge of plane so the wind will strike them on top and then run forward. When you are ready to jump,
W. H. Aitken in Gliding Flight
the planes squarely, and you will alight or drop at the same time. Bring the body back to center and alight easily, which can be learned with a little practice.
step gliders and towing tower
By M. B. Sellers
In my wind tunnel experiments of 1903 I investigated, among other things, the relative interference of surfaces when grouped in various ways; and these tests indicated that when arranged in steps, with the highest in front, they interfered less than in any other grouping. I then made two machines with surfaces thus arranged ; they behaved fairly well; one was actuated by twisted rubber and would fly 60 feet. During 1904 and 1905 1 was busy with other things, but gave considerable time to kite experiments, and attempts to obtain automatic stability. I also built and tried three gliding
machines (two monoplanes and one following-plane machine) merely to learn how they behaved.
In the fall of 1906 I commenced by first step glider, and at the same time, for comparison, a "double deck" glider of the usual type. The "step glider" was finished in the spring of 1907. It had four planes each 3 ft. by 12 ft., total area about 140 sq. ft., and weighed 17 lbs. Much time was given to producing a construction which would be light and strong. Flown as a kite, it would lift two men without serious distortion. With this glider 1 made several
hundred flights, gliding and being towed. In order to get a uniform pull, and to determine the pull necessary to propel the machine, I devised what might he called a "towing tower." My first tower was 25 ft. high and carried a block and tackle with four falls of rope from which a weight was suspended; thus the weight descending 25 ft. would give a tow of 100 feet. With a gliding machine, the tow line would be suitably attached to the front of machine, preferably in line with or below the centre of resistance; and (after pulling up the weight) the start would be made by running a
few steps (about four) until sufficient velocity was acquired. With a higher tower and more falls of rope a long tow can be easily obtained; and when the tow ceases the machine glides quite a distance. By adjusting the amount of weight so that the machine flies horizontally, the thrust or pull necessary to propel can be obtained. In this way I tried gliders with 3, 4 and 5 planes arranged in steps. Obviously two planes would give greatest efficiency, but a larger number gave greater steadiness. I hope this kind of towing-tower will be found useful by other experimenters.
foreign aero engines
Already every automobile engine manufacturer has taken up the work of producing a light motor for aeronautical purposes, with the result that there are now any number of motors of more or less value in which the weight has been cut to a great degree.
We publish below an advance proof of part of a paper read before the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain by A. J. McKinney, M. A., A. I. A. E. This should be of interest to American motor manufacturers as tending to show the demand for an efficient motor of light weight.
Among the newcomers are two mamifac-tured by the Wolseley Company, and exhibited at the last Aero Show at Olympia. One is of the eight-cylinder V type, of 95 mm. bore and 125 mm. stroke. A float feed and spray carburettor is mounted in the centre ot 1 he engine to insure short induction pipes and equal fuel distribution to the cylinders. Cooling is by water on the thermo syphon system, the engine pockets holding \\y2 gallons. Developing 50 h. p. at 13,500 r. p. 111. the engine weighs 400 lbs. or less, giving a weight-power ratio of 8 to 1.
The second Wolseley engine also has eight cylinders, but vertical in this case. Of a bore and stroke of 162 mm. and 175 mm. this engine gives 180 h. p. at 6,000 r. p. m., its weight-power ratio being about 9 to 1.
The Aster Company are showing an interesting engine which they are manufacturing in accordance with Green's patent. There are four separately cast cylinders the water .jackets of which can be easily detached. The inlet and exhaust valves are operated by a cam-shaft, driven by bevel gearing off a vertical shaft placed centrally between the four cylinders. Lubrication is effected by a pump in the base chamber. Pump-driven water circulation and H. T. magneto are included. An interesting feature of this motor is the method of attaching the_ cylinders to the crank shaft bearings. For this purpose columns are used through which holes are drilled, the bolts securing the bases of the cylinders passing through them.
Perhaps the best known light engine is the Antoinette, till lately handled by the Adams
Company, of New Bond Street. Manufactured in both air-cooled and water-cooled types it has been remarkably satisfactory and reliable, though where a little extra weight is of no moment the latter is preferable. Designed in neat units, of eight cylinders, in rows of four, set V-fashion, without a fly wheel, it can be coupled up so as to make motors having sixteen, twenty-four and thirty-two cylinders if desired. In the usual eight-cylinder form it develops either 24 h. p. or 50 h. p., according to size. It can be used with a carburettor, though as a rule this has generally been dispensed with, the petrol being pumped direct into the combustion chambers. When this plan is followed several pounds weight are saved, but it is not so satisfactory, and is gradually being given up. The 24 h. p. water-cooled Antoinette weighs 115 lbs., without carburettor or ignition apparatus, averaging nearly 5 lbs. per horse-power. The larger size scores somewhat on this point, reducing the weight-power ratio by something like 20 per cent. The usual ignition is high-tension multiple trembler coil, accumulators, and distributor. The air-cooled Antoinette is said to weigh about 2l/2 lbs. per horse-power.
Light and powerful engines are now made by the Bayard Clement Company, which has recently introduced them for purposes where weight-saving is essential. The best model is the six-cylinder one, giving 170 h. p. at 1,200 revolutions per minute, its weight being about 400 kilogrammes, or 880 lbs. This works out to about 5 lbs. per horse-power. The bore and stroke are 155 mm. and 185 mm., and the valve-gearing is of the overhead type. The engine is water cooled, the jackets being of copper and of large capacity. The firm also makes a four-cylinder model of 120 h. p., having a bore and stroke of 168 mm. and 100 mm., and weighing 748 lbs., or, roughly, 6 lbs. per horse-power. In the larger model the cylinders radiate in a circle from the crank-shaft, which is made in two parts, bolted together, and running in ball bearings. No fly wheel is used, accurate balance weights in the crank-case taking its place.
Another newcomer is the E. X. V., which has eight cylinders set in two rows of four at
Some Foreign'Aero Motors
right angles to each other. Known as the V type, this arrangement is followed by the majority of light engine designers, including the Antoinette, Fiat, Jap, Pipe, and Renault. Of oo-h.p., the E.N.V. has a bore and stroke of too mm. and no mm., and is water-cooled, neat copper jackets giving it an attractive appearance. The crank-shaft is hollow and has three bearings, a single cam-shaft operating the whole of the sixteen valves. Its weight is doubtful, no information being forthcoming on this point; but, judging from appearances, it is about 5 lbs. or so per horse-power.
Another efficient water-cooled engine is the Gobron-Brillie, now pretty well known to us on this side of the Channel, as it has been exhibited more than once at Olympia. It is of particular interest, as it has two pistons in each cylinder, which move in opposite directions during the explosion stroke. One model is of the four-cylinder vertical type, but a later one, the light-weight, with eight arranged in pairs in the form of a St. Andrew's cross, has been recently introduced. This engine is remarkably light, for, including the water used for cooling, two magnetos, and the carburettor system, it only weighs 325 lbs. As it develops 80-h.p. at 1,400 revolutions per minute, it gives the very useful weight-power ratio of four to one. A peculiar feature is that it has no valve gear in the ordinary sense, a neat and compact system of rockers doing duty instead.
Another air-cooled engine that runs the Antoinette very close is the new eight-cylinder Fiat. Estimated to give 50-h.p. at full speed, it weighs 60 kilogrammes, giving an average of about 2^2 lbs. per horse-power. Overhead valves, detachable combustion beads, and copper water-jackets are used. This motor, however, looks so small that, perhaps, 35-40-h.p. would be a more accurate estimate.
An air-cooled engine of quite another type is the eight-cylinder Farcot, the cylinders of which are arranged in a horizontal circle around the crank-case. There are two throws in the crank-shaft, half the cylinders working on one and half on the other, the alternate cylinders being slightly staggered. A model of this engine was shown at the last Paris Salon, and was said to develop 75-h.p., and to weigh 220 lbs. This gives about 3 lbs. per horse-power without the magneto or carburettor.
An engine which might be suitable for aeroplanes is the new model made by the Gnome Company. It is peculiar in having seven cylinders, the whole revolving round a fixed crank-shaft, the draught caused by the motion being relied upon to keep them cool. The bore and stroke are no mm. and 120 mm., and the power 50-h.p. at 1,200 revolutions per minute. Including the fittings, the weight works out to 105 lbs., or slightly more than 3 lbs. per horse-power.
Belgium contributes a good light-weight air-cooled engine in the new 70-h.p. Pipe', and-also of the eight-cylinder V type. With a bore and stroke of 100 mm., and light reciprocating
parts, it can turn at 1,500 revolutions per minute, at which speed i'. develops full power. The weight is stated to be 130 kilogrammes, equal to 4 lbs. per horse-power. An ingenious system of cooling is found in this motor, the radiating fins, which are longitudinal, being-covered with a light alumiuu.n jacket. The chambers thus formed are connected with a larger one containing a centrifugal fan driven by the engine, which forces a powerful draught over the cylinders. Neat concentric valves, operated by overhead tappets, a carburettor, and magneto ignition are used.
The well-known French firm of MM. Renault et Cie. are manufacturing a light-weight engine of 50-60-h.p. Like most of its competitors, it also has eight air-cooled cylinders, set V-fashion. It weighs 375 lbs., which works out to 6 lbs. or so per horse-power, and it is cooled by forced air draught, a fan in front of the motor driving air on to the combustion heads and thence between the flanges.
A very interesting aeronautical engine is the Dutheil Chalmers, on view at Olympia at the present time. Made in various types, the particular model to which I am referring has six cylinders, set in threes, opposed to each other. Developing 60-h.p., its weight is alleged to be 170 kilogrammes, or about 370 lbs. A fly wheel is fitted, but of very light construction, consisting of a narrow rim of not more than J^-inch section, and tangent wire spokes. There is also a very light engine at Olympia in the Miesse, which is said to weigh only 245 lbs. while developing 100-h.p.
Another interesting motor is the air-cooled Adams-Farwell. Of the revolving type, it has five cylinders in the same plane, the bases of which are arranged round a common centre. The cylinders are bolted together and revolve "solid" round the centre of the crank-shaft, cooling themselves by their movement through the air. A single magneto will, it is claimed, fire all the cylinders, but the standard ignition is a trembler coil and a storage battery. It is made in two sizes—36-h.p. and 63-h.p., the respective weights per h.p. being 2.7 lbs. and 4 lbs. The valves are closed by centrifugal force instead of the usual coiled springs and opened by a single cam. The crank-shaft has a single throw, and in the smaller model weighs 4r/2 lbs.
No survey of aeronautical engines could be complete without a reference to the -dever steam engine constructed by Sir Hiram Maxim for use with his aeroplane. Of extraordinary lightness for its power, it is a marvel of ingenuity, yet none the less was so handicapped by the weight of the boiler and other appurtenances as to be unsuitable for the purpose. The engine was of the compound type, the area of the H. P. piston being 20 square inches, and that of the L. P. 50.26 square inches. It was estimated to give off 363 horse-power with a steam pressure of 320 lbs. per square inch. When both cylinders were driven by live steam the output reached the high figures of 500-h.p., showing that as far as the engine itself is concerned, its weight-power ratio is far in advance of its rivals.
INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS
President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.
HYDROGEN GAS BALLOONING. By Carl E. Myers.
In the present state of the Art aeronautic, buoyant gas seems to me of first importance; for without it we do not travel the air to any great extent. In the order of their discovery the means of buoyancy for ballooning are confined to hot air, hydrogen gas, coal gas, water gas or carbon-dioxide, and natural gas from the earth, which gas I was first to introduce for ballooning and successfully use on many ascensions.
Of these buoyant mediums, hot air is the cheapest and of least value in aerial journeys for distance. Its buoyancy varies with temperature, and it needs only a cheap cloth bag without netting, but of very large size to liti much weight, and its ascent is projectile, with a quick return to earth, usually.
Next in bulk required is the so-called water gas or carbon dioxide, a mixture of steam vapor, air and hydrocarbon, usually. It requires a close bag of large size and light weight. Few persons, if any person except myself, successfully used it man}' times.
Natural gas I first used from the Pennsylvania wells, where it issued at 700 pounds pressure to the inch and travelled through pipes to Franklin, Venango County, Pa. I employed a light balloon of 10,000 cu. ft. capacity, carrying myself and 20 pounds of ballast. This balloon had just carried me from Hanover, Pa., with 200 pounds of ballast when inflated with ordinary carbonated hydrogen or illuminating coal gas.
Natural gas seems to have one feature of value. Its lifting power was permanent for a long time in a tight balloon, and with it in a light balloon of 17,000 cubic feet I later ascended from Erie, Pa., to a height above three miles. With the Franklin supply Mrs. Myers made her highest flight of five miles, landing at Kinzoo Bridge, Pa., a distance of ninety miles in ninety minutes. I have also used it successfully in New York State. It has a great variety of varying ingredients. It never failed to carry me because of the very light weight bags I used.
Coal gas usually has a buoyancy of 30 to 40 pounds per 1,000 cubic feet, and has been largely relied upon for sport and pleasure, especially abroad. In America it has been used less because not plentifully distributed at the
present time, or supplanted by water gas or the newer electric lighting, so that it is not often conveniently found for ballooning, or of satisfactory buoyancy. The desire for convenient supplies of buoyant gas at any time or place early led me to develop a satisfactory portable plant for generating hydrogen gas with speed and economy, and ninety per cent, of all my ballooning, now extending over nearly thirty years, with numerous operatives, has been with hydrogen gas generated from water and having a practical buoyancy of about 66 pounds per r.ooo feet, which I understand exceeds the commercial products of foreign lands. This gas I make anywhere, in camp or park, public street or rural fair, in a few hours after arrival. At Congress Springs Park, Saratoga, N. Y., I yearly made it twice a week between 11 a. 111. and 3 p. m., before and after which hours there was absolutely no trace of iw apparatus or operations. This shows the possible celerity of such operations.
The desire for convenient supplies of buoyant gas at anj' time or place has made hydrogen of the greatest importance in aerial navigation with buoyant airships and balloons, and for aerial observations by the public from captive balloons controlled by cable and windlass.
As coal gas may be regarded as ordinarily having a lifting power of 33 pounds per 1,000 feet and hydrogen 66 pounds, it follows that a hydrogen balloon only needs to be of half the size of a coal gas bag to perform the same service. Further than this, the coal gas bag to carry the same weight as the hydrogen necessarily weighs twice as much. It has to be larger also to carry its own added weight and a heavier net to withstand the extra strain upon its large surface, so that it becomes big, heavy and cumbersome to handle and manage, while the hydrogen balloon is the refinement of its art in comparison, for sport, pleasure or business.
It is almost impracticable to use the large bulk of a heavy captive balloon against the wind pressure which often assails its increased and opposing wind surface.
In aerial navigation with buoyant airships the same is true, and it is impracticable to drive gas spindles of larger bulk by the same
motor power which easily moves the smaller hydrogen gas spindle, either in calm or against opposing winds.
I began gas ballooning about thirty years ago. The first season I built a coal gas balloon of 10,000 cubic feet and a hydrogen bag of almost 5,000 feet, both of very light fine cotton fabric, woven expressly for me. This cloth in 100 yard rolls was made impervious to hydrogen by seven successive coatings of thick cooked linseed oil applied by my invented varnishing machine. The application was so perfect that no caliper revealed the increasing coats by measurement, and each of the finished rolls of 100 yards weighed only an ounce or two more or less than its fellows. I could varnish 1,000 yards of surface and hang it up in bright sun to dry in two hours. The impervious fabric when finished could be cut into balloon sections and sewed up into spheres or spindles in a few hours or days instead of requiring weeks or months to varnish and revarnish with hand brushes which produced a balloon of two or three times the weight of the machine-varnished bag, and never so impervious.
I have had several ascensions to test the practical speed of balloon production 011 a commercial scale. I have made over 100 hydrogen gas balloons for the United States Government, usually under "rush orders." Of these I made twenty complete in ten days. I accepted another order of ten for ten-day delivery and completed them in fi.ve days. In testing others for gas holding properties, I have used ten Signal Service balloons, having one inflation only, which shrunk and expanded with the varying temperature during a whole winter month, but were always "plumb full" when the thermometer reached 80 degrees. I have used a captive balloon with one inflation during three days of windy and partly varying weather, carrying hundreds of passengers, and then without additional inflation made an evening "cut-loose" flight with one companion, landed and anchored over night; and Mrs.
Myers made the next day another six-hour continuous voyage, using only one 40-pound bag of ballast, and landing with all the six others carried. I will also say that this four-man captive balloon had its neck tied tight shut during each voyage, and that this has been my usual practice in my own voyages during many years past. My first voyage was made thus, and all airship voyages since. The first requirement for long distance ballooning seems to be a gas tight hag, and next, to keep your gas for delivery only at the valve as required.
Under these circumstances, a balloon or airship can be retained easily at any selected altitude for a long time, as it cannot rise higher without expanding, or without room for expansion. I made these discoveries on my first personal ascensions, wdiich I undertook only after two years of very successful balloon business with aeronauts working for me, who failed to make the tests I desired or who could not satisfy my demands for information.
This, briefly, was the whole story of my first two balloons. My experience in the air gave me increased respect for hydrogen gas. The coal gas balloon had to be filled where I could find a convenient or practicable opportunity. The hydrogen I could make anywhere. The coal gas bag was more sluggish in its movements up and down, requiring greater loss of gas and ballast. The hydrogen bag was sensitive almost to a touch or a hint to move like a tender-bitted horse. The ease with which it moved led me to reverse my previous opinion against air navigation by gas bags, and after two years of this experience, I built my first gas kite, and later a symmetrical air line spindle which experienced no "head resistance" to rapid flight or propulsion except skin friction, and I have built one or more airships each year since in the effort to acquire a better form or more efficient methods. I am so little rttached to any rued, blind beliefs in any type of aerial translation that I willingly try all things and hold fast that which is good.
In the "Night Mail" (Doubleday, Page & Co., New York) Kipling takes one across the Atlantic in an aerial packet boat at the rate of a mile in sixteen seconds. Monstrous signal lights pierce the clouds for guidance, while aerial lightships, hospital and salvage boats look after the heavy traffic on the various "levels." A realistic wind storm with "holes in the air," "slants," vortices and laterals provide an exciting few moments for the reader. This book ought to prove of extraordinary interest.
"Conquest of the Air," in which he tells what he has done, and what he believes to be the possibilities of the immediate future of aerial locomotion by dirigibles. Lieut. Frank P. Lahm also contributes a review of experiments from a century and a quarter ago up to the present under the title, "The Air—Our True High way."
The second volume on the experiments conducted at the Russian Aerodynamic Institute, Koutchino, Russia, is now out.. Copies may be secured from D. Riabouchinsky, Povarskaia 14, Moscow.
In the June number of Putnam's Magazine is an article by Count Zeppelin on the
"Who Makes What?" is the title of the fifteenth annual directory of buyer's guide published at one dollar by Daniel T. Mal-lett, 253 Broadway, New York. To those constructing airships or flying machines it will be found useful in furnishing at once an alphabetically arranged list of all products or goods made in the hardware line, with key numbers to the names of the manufacturers. This will save long delays in hunting material.
$10,000 IN PRIZES. For Flights At Morris Park.
The Aeronautic Society is offering a series of prizes totaling $10,000 to be competed for at Morris Park. With the exception of $2,000, all of these are open to everyone. The conditions are most lenient.
The only prize, $2,000, not open to all is confined to members of the Society and is
suited in damaging two of the wheels. Almost daily attempts are promised.
As everyone knows who has experimented in aeronautics, a flight is something which cannot always be had at the announced hour; and experiments do not always "pay dirt." One change here, and another there, takes time. So we must not get impatient because the "balloon does
for a circuit of the track, about 1^/4 miles. Should the contestants fail to make this but cover a distance of 500 ft., each will receive $250 for this distance.
Another $2,000 is for a io-minute flight. If less than 10 minutes but 7 J/2 or more, the contestant receives $1,000; 5 minutes, $600; 3 minutes, $400. Rules may be obtained by addressing the Society.
Bokor Completes Triplane.
The Bokor triplane of which some dtails and a drawing were given in the March issue has now been completed and had its first trial on May 8th. The machine was tied to trees and propeller thrust measured. A run on the track was made which re-
not go up." "There's many a slip," etc.
After replacing the pulley-rims on all the eight propellers of the Kimball machine by deeper rims, an attempt was made the first week of May to run the propellers. This resulted in twisting the rims of and breaking two propellers. The wire rope transmission scheme has involved so many mechanical difficulties that this long delay in actual trials at flight is somewhat disheartening.
S. Y. Beach has started at the Park another aeroplane. The "Beach-Whitehead" machine has had the planes covered and trials arc promised at Bridgeport this month, after which it will be brought to Morris Park in time for the exhibition.
A. C. Triaca has finished the chassis of his windwagon and the aeroplane. Both of these are promised for the show.
Both Dr. Walden and Dr. Greene are making rapid progress on their machines.
Shneider is adding two sections to the supporting surface of his machine in order to carry a greater motor weight. New propellers have also been made.
Spruce is used for the beams and struts, and hazel wood for the ribs. The beams have two rectangular air cells running the entire length.
The operator sits directly over the motor on a swinging seat, like a pendulum. The vertical rudder is worked by pulling up or down on two vertical wires in front of the aviator.
The society's aeroplane built by G. H. Curtiss and to be flown by him at Morris Park
Rickman has started work on a large helicopter to be finished by the end of May.
The 40 h.p., 4 cylinder, Continental motor purchased by the Society for the free use of its members has arrived and has been put in shape for use. After turning down the flywheel, its weight is 330 pounds.
All the fences on the inside of the track and the big score board have been taken down so that there is no obstruction whatever to flights in any direction.
Society's Motor Arrives.
The Continental motor, which the society purchased for the use of members, is now on hand for use. The flywheel has been turned down to reduce weight.
The social side of the month's meetings has been enhanced by an interesting and valuable
The latest machine to be completed at the grounds of the Aeronautic Society at Morris Park is the triplane of Morris Bo-kor, a member.
The three planes each measure 28 by 614 feet. The distance from the lower to the second is 5 feet, and to the upper 6 feet. Each half of the lower surface is movable in opposite directions. In front is a double surface horizontal rudder 14 by 2l/2 feet, operated by a lever pivoted at its center.
In the rear are two V-shaped surfaces, one behind the other. Behind the rearmost one is a vertical rudder. From the front edge of the surfaces to the front edge of the horizontal rudder is 12 feet, and the extremity of the tail is the same distance from the rear edge of the surfaces. The total surface is 570 square feet, which includes the tail and the horizontal rudder.
Two 8-foot propellers, 6^-foot pitch, are driven by chain at 700 r. p. m. from an automobile engine of well-known make, of which Mr. Bokor has taken the agency. The motor runs at about 1,400 r. p. m. A Livingston radiator is in front of the engine for cooling.
C. J. Hendrickson's glider in a high flight
illustrated lecture by F. H. White, giving the inflation of a balloon, the trip, down to the taking of the pictures on the landing. H. Leo Stevens also discussed the matter of government licenses for balloon pilots on the same evening.
The Wrights Arrive in America.
On Tuesday the Brothers Wright landed in this country to take up the completion of the Government contract. A delegation went down the Bay on a revenue cutter to meet the incoming steamer, and on Wednesday, May 12, seventy-five enthusiastic members of the Aero Club- of America, Aeronautic Society and guests had the honor of lunching with the famous birdmen at the Lawyers' Club.
The trials will be rushed along at Washington so that foreign arrangements may be completed at the earliest possible moment. On June 10th will take place at the Capitol the presentation by President Taft of the Aero Club medals.
The newly formed Aero Club at Dayton is preparing a hearty welcome for the Wrights in that city on June 17 and 18. President Taft, or a representative, will present the Congress medals, Governor Harris the Ohio medals, and Mayor Burkhardt the Dayton medals. Vice-president Sherman, cabinet members, officials of the army and navy, and members of the official corps have been invited to attend.
Taft to Present Medals.
May 5, 1909.
The medals of the Aero Club of America will be presented to the Wrights by President Taft in the East Room of the White House on the afternoon of June 10. In the forenoon it is proposed to have flights at Fort Myer. After the presentation the President will receive the members of the club and their guests.
It is purposed to have the whole people take part in honoring the Wrights on this occasion, a national affair. Nothing to equal the historic importance of this event will occur in our times. The Aero Club of America should be well represented by members and their friends; the Wrights are members of our club; our medals are artistic and eostly above all others ; it is the Aero Club that has brought to them the honor due them; this presentation is the final step; let us all attend with our friends at Washington.
For one hundred fares the Pennsylvania Railroad will furnish a special train at $6.78 for the round trip; we can go and come when we like. Sleepers $2 each for double berth each way. If the trip is made by daylight, Pullman coaches will be attached to the regular day coaches: chairs, $1.25 each direction; buffet ear with cither train.
The most popular way now seems to be to go by sleeper on special train leaving here
about midnight and witnessing the flights at Fort Myer in the forenoon and the President's presentation in the afternoon, and getting back to New York the next morning. The regular fare without sleeper or day coach is $10.
Will you please write the Club at your earliest convenience?
Very truly yours,
Aero Club of America.
Wright Aeroplane in the French Museum,
The machine that Wilbur Wright used in carrying out his contract with the Weiller Syndicate has been presented by the latter to the Arts ct Metiers Museum in Paris. This is the aeroplane that made its first appearance near Le Mans and won the Michelin prize in a two-hour flight.
"Now Wilbur Wright is using a French-built machine—made of American wood—and even his motor has come from a French factory. Fifteen of his machines are in actual service and others are almost readyr for launching. Thus it was possible to remove the most glorious of them all from the flying ground and place it on a pedestal in i crowded city museum."
Flying Machine Factory in Canada.
J. A. D. McCurdy, former secretary of the Aerial Experiment Association, and F. XV. Baldwin, also a member of the organization whose lease of life as an association expired .March 31st, have started construction for commercial use of three machines under the name Canadian Aerodrome Co. The aeroplanes now being built differ in some essential features from the "Silver Dart," the last machine built by the A. E. A., though the bow-form of construction will be retained. One machine will possibly be purchased by the Canadian Gov eminent, and it is proposed to take the second one to England to win some of the prizes offered there, among them being the new "Daily Mail" $5,000 prize for a mile flight of a British built machine ; and also to interest the English Government. The $50,000 "Mail" prize for a flight from London to Manchester is also within the possibilities of the machine.
The "Silver Dart" is now at Dr. V Graham Bell's summer home near Baddeck, Nova Scotia, where the three new machines are being built. Though the A. E. x\. has been
disbanded, after spending over $35,000 in a year's experimental work which produced four aeroplanes, all of which flew, Dr Bell continues his own experiments with tetrahedral structures, propellers, etc., in his own laboratory.
2,000 Miles in an Aeroplane.
The fact that the "Silver Dart" has already made some 300 flights totaling over 2,000 miles, ought to convince skeptics that there is such a thing as a flying machine. This figure is accurate enough for practical purposes, as the flights were made over a measured course around small trees stuck in the ice. This statement was made by J. A. D. McCurdy, secretary of the defunct Aerial Experiment Association during his visit to New York a couple of weeks ago.
Work will be started in the Summer or Fall on full-sized machines along the line of the successful flying models invented by E. I. Eichenfeldt, of Minneapolis, and now being put on tlie market by the H. J, Nice Co.
The framework will be of steel tubing and sheet aluminum will be used for the supporting surfaces. The bowed construction is believed-to yield further value than strength and light weight alone, and, of course, offers a greater surface than two parallel planes. The
motor is to be placed under the lower surface and drives a single two-bladed propeller in front. Rudders for vertical and lateral direction are provided fore and aft. No flexing of the planes is utilized. The total weight will be only a little over 500 pounds, and the selling price not more than $1,000. The arched construction resembles quite minutely the Lesh glider, which made successful towed flights at the 1908 exhibition at Morris Park and same idea has been utilized by Louis R. Adams of New York in his gliders with great success in the matter of weight reduction.
The models which are now on the market are of Japanese paper and bamboo, weigh less than an ounce, and fairly illustrate the large machine. They travel straight even in side winds and right themselves if started on uneven keel.
Some few details are available of the full-sized machine on which F. O. Andreae, Central Valley, N. Y., is starting work along the lines of the 1-6 to 1-3 size models already experimented with. The large machine will measure 30 feet longitudinally by 30 feet laterally'. There will be 19 separate planes, of a total square area of 737.32 feet, resolved into supporting equivalent making 559.26. Steel tubing of %-inch No. 22 gauge, autogenously welded, will be employed, the surfaces to be of vulcanized silk. Complete, with aviator, motor and UrVi gallons of gasoline, will weigh 1,000 lbs. Propulsion is by one propeller 6 ft. 7 in. diameter, turning at 1,000 r.p.m., chain driven. Rudder surfaces are divided into horizontal rudders (70.24 sq. ft.) and vertical rudders (35.12 sq. ft..). Vertical surfaces in addition, 66.44 sq. ft. Supporting surfaces of various shapes, curvature and angle. The whole apparatus is mounted on wheels. One thousand one hundred and eighteen feet of tubing is used and no wood in the construction of the machine proper.
Many Gliders Building.
At the University of Oregon, a senior, Lelaud C. Hurd, has started the construction of a glider, to be ready for trial the end of May. The glider is to be double-decked, with 3 ft. 10 in. between the planes, which are convex (12-foot radius) and covered with unbleached muslin. The planes are 20 by 6 feet. Clear cedar is used for the framing, braced with piano wire.
The boys of the Aero Club of Los Angeles Polytechnic High School have a glider. It is a bi-plane 25x4, with an auxiliary plane in each end for lateral stability and two planes in front for fore and aft stability.
The bi-surface bamboo glider built by the Columbia University Aero Club on designs of Grover Cleveland Loening has now been completed and will he tried any day either in towed flight over the Hudson or 011 a suitable hillside, if one can be found in the city of New York. The machine has a spread of 25 feet, depth 6 feet, 5 feet between surfaces; there is a front horizontal and a rear vertical rudder and the whole is mounted on skids. The members working actively on the machine are E. Werndl, H. G. Henderson, E. II. Hinman, F. L. Ives, B. Willis and G. H. Warren.
The Snell Experiments.
Harry B. Snell, of Toledo, O., is building an aeroplane, so it might be called, in which the spuporting surfaces rotate opposite to the direction of flight. This idea has been worked upon, also by Hon. Butler Ames, as described in "Aeronautics" some time ago, but his surfaces rotate in the direction of flight.
The photograph shows the experimental truck with which the lifting power per square foot at various speeds and power required to revolve planes were secured.
In a demonstration made in an armory, the inventor mounted on a truck two re-
Christopher John Lake, Bridgeport, Ct., No. 918,336. A structure referred to as a vessel or vehicle provided with hollow wings or aeroplanes, and longitudinal and vertical air passages form the means of propulsion by discharging "heated elastic fluid" generated under pressure.
James M. Wright, Keokuk, la., No. 918,410, airship. Operative mechanism for airships, consisting of jointed propeller shaft provided with means tp manually change the angle of propeller, similarly to a boat rudder, which may be duplicated by providing a steerable propeller at the front and back.
volving blades, each having a surface of about 8'/2 sc. ft. The blades were set in motion by an electric motor. When the truck carrying the apparatus was pushed ahead there was generated an upward pull in the revolving system, which increased with the speed of the truck. The pull was measured by the displacement of a steel spring and was found to be equal to 23',^ pounds when the speed of the truck reached about eight miles an hour.
It is believed that the same result would be obtained if the truck were stationary with a wind at the same rate blowing against the revolving blades. When the direction of the truck was reversed the pull of the revolving blades was downward.
Rudolph Dressier, Coney Island, N. Y., No. 919,834, flying machine. A platform for the aviator at lower part, with oscillating wings above and an inclined aeroplane at the top. A steering rudder below the wings and at the rear. No motor is shown in the drawing. The structure as illustrated, suspended to an elevated track or cable by a trolley wheel and suspension wires above the aeroplane.
Raul Jamnitzki, Conemaugh, Pa.. No. 020.064, propeller mechanism for airships, etc. Con.strtiction of ornithopter consisting of a supporting frame and two pairs of oval-shaped wings oscillating in unison as to each pair. The wing blades are made up of "a plurality of transversely extending arches, said arches gradually increasing in
height from each end of the wing blade toward the center thereof."
William L. Romme, New York, N. Y., No. 920,085, aeroplane. A basket suspended from a plurality of ring members forming an inverted bell-shaped structure, connected by ribs so arranged that the flaring horizontal portions of said inverted bell-shaped structure form the resistance for the atmospheric pressure. This frame is covered with silk and has an opening at the top and bottom at the flaring initial portion. The means of propelling consists of propellors and "a plurality of rotatable hollow spheres."
Joseph Sinkovitz, New Brighton, Pa., No. 920,675. airship. A cylindrical frame having conical ends, with a gas bag located therein and a car suspended therefrom. Propellers are provided with transmission bearings permitting of swinging movement for steering purposes.
Julius Uherkevich de Uherkocz, Bayoune, N. J., No. 920,792, winged propelling and guiding mechanism for airships. An airship comprising a shell and a frame supported above the shell, from which project wines and a tail operated by motive power. The wings and tail appear to be extensible and collapsible like fans.
Antoine P. Fillipi, Paris, France, No. 920.^54, surface of ascension or aeroplane for flying machines. An apparatus adapted to raise itself on the helicopter principle. Jt comprises a central flat portion having an elliptical contour and oppositely disposed edge portions, "each of which is bent downwardly below said flat portions for about a quarter of the periphery." The aeroplane is rotated or spun.
Page's Aeroplane R. R. Co., New York. Capital stock, $100,000. Hall H. Page, 1148 J.qth street, Brooklyn, N. Y., heads the Board of Directors.
The Brownsville Aeroplane Co. will be incorporated to finance the further work of P. A. Newman, who is now building an aeroplane at Brownsville, Texas.
Flying Auto Co., Portland, to manufacture and sell airships; capital, $1,000,000. President. E. T. Fenley, Portland; treasurer, C. E. Todd, Boston; clerk, G. H. Allan, Portland.
Under the name of the Aeronautical Supply and Experimental Company, Oscar F. Ostby, of 80 Broadway, George F. Wilson, of Syracuse, and J. E. Dobson have applied for incorporation under the laws of New York State, to aid worthy inventors who possess ideas but lack funds to carry out their progressive schemes. The incorporation papers state that the new concern will endeavor to aid and encourage inventors who are anxious to show how easy it is to fly.
A five-acre plot has been obtained at Huntington Manor, where inventors will be invited to show their models or machines, and their designs will be investigated by experts. Meanwhile proper tools and a mechanical outfit will be prepared where aerial inventions may be carried on at wholesale if necessary.
The company will be capitalized at $250,000.
ORIGINAL WRIGHT MACHINE FOR SMITHSONIAN.
At the suggestion of the Aeronautic Society' steps have been taken by Smithsonian Institution toward securing the original Wright machine and certain of the models.
Geo. A. Metcalf, of Maiden, Mass., expects to complete a full-sized helicopter this summer. Two screws are employed, 20 feet in diameter, placed 8 feet apart on a shaft, from the center of which is suspended the car for passenger and motor. The screws can be tilted to various angles with the horizontal. The screws rotate in opposite directions. "By means of shifting the center of gravity, one propeller is tipped higher than the other, and the machine can be made to fly sideways. The machine measures 48 feet, tip to tip, 22 feet front to rear, and 12 feet high. Two motors are to be employed, both in use at same time, but each capable of doing all the work, if necessary." Both screws are geared together, so that both rotate at exactly the same speed.
C. A. Zornes, of Hatton, Wash., is building a two-surface aeroplane. The spread is 33lA feet, and each plane is 6 feet, deep at the center, running to 22 inches at the tips. The total surface is 324 square feet; two propellers are used, one in front and one in the rear, driven by a 15-h.p. motor. The weight of the motor and operator comes below the level of the lower surface.
Chandler Prince, Springfield, 111., has been experimenting with a glider at his home during the spring school vacation. The work will be taken up again at the close of the school year.
Prof. Joseph Hidalgo, of San Francisco, is constructing an aeroplane with a novel method of automatic balance, details of which are at present withheld. He will use a 20-h.p. Franklin motor. Towed-flight results have been very satisfactory.
Detroit now has a machine which may soon be competing with the Wright aeroplane bought by Messrs. Fred'k and Russell Alger. This latest addition to the 1909
American aeroplane crop is that of Andrew Cuthbertson, which is being built in the yard of the Michigan Steel Boat Co. It is a monoplane, Avith a dihedral angle, of 30 feet spread. A 16-h.p. gasoline engine drives at 600 r. p. m, a 2-bladed whitewood propeller of 5V2 feet diameter, mounted on a shaft above and parallel to the engine shaft. A single plane horizontal control is in front and a vertical single surface rudder in the rear. The former is governed by a lever and the latter by a steering wheel.
Carl Bates has started work on a new and improved machine. A 160-acre volery has been established near Chicago, where the machine will be tried out. In the fall it will probably be seen at Morris Park, in New York.
J. Fillmore Cox, of Jersey City, is building three machines, of which the details are not available as yet. He expects to be associated with Mr. Sa muel Cjardenhire, one of the members of the Aeronautic Society.
Fred M. Barnes, of Chicago, is negotiating with the Minnesota State Agricultural Society with a view to the exhibition of a Wright aeronlane durinar the Fair from September 6th to nth. The matter is being given serious consideration by the Board of Managers of the Fair.
FOR SALE — One S cylinder air cooled Curtiss motor, half price
Geo. A'ager, Omaha, Neb.
aero shows and expositions
Great Interest in Frankfort Exposition.
Additional money prizes are being donated and more are expected. The Opel Motor Works, near Frankfort, and the Frankfort Council each offer a prize of 20,000 marks ($4,760). The neAv Frankfort Festhalle, which will be used for the exposition, is 430 feet in length, with a medium dome width of 215 feet, giving ample room for floating numerous large inflated balloons. For the large dirigible balloons four immense halls are being constructed, to which another for the Zeppelin balloon will probably be added, and the Rhenish Westphalian Aeronautic Society will erect a hall for its new motor balloon. The new Parseval balloon, of 6.000 cubic meters (2ii,SS4 cubic feet), which recently made its brilliant trial trip at Bitterfeld, will carry passenger^ to the vicinity of Frankfort during the exhibition.
As a large number of competitive flights of free balloons will take place, the question of the gas supply was important, and the chemical factory Electron, at Greisheim, has arranged to supply daily 1,000 cubic meters (35,314 cubic feet) of hydrogen free of charge. Railroad cars with the steel bottles containing the hydrogen will be taken directly to the large balloon halls and the inflation made direct from the cars without unloading the bottles. A large pipe will supply ordinary gas, so that several balloons can be inflated at the same time. The new process for the cheap manufacture of hydrogen by the Electron factory will be shown in a special pavilion.
For the flights of aeroplanes a large even field of about one square kilometer will be available. Mr. Mathis, of Strassburg, who purchased the original Wright apparatus, will come to the exposition with it and with a Fiat Wright aeroplane. Flights with the
Voison aeroplanes will take place at the experimental military' grounds.
Professor Prandt, of Goettingen, will establish an aeronautic experimental station.
AERONAUTIC SOCIETY EXHIBITION.
Curtiss To Fly—Dirigible Balloon.
By the time this issue is mailed, a definite date for the exhibition will have been set. Although May 22nd was the original date on which it was expected to begin the series, it was not possible to be certain of the delivery of the aeroplane which G. H. Curtiss contracted to build and fly. Although the 29th of May is now the possible date, the aeroplane may delay matters still another week.
In addition to the Curtiss machine in flight, there will be a dirigible balloon to make circles of the track. A towed glider flight is promised by Lieut. R. E. Scott. There will be new power windwagons of Dr. J. P. Thomas and A. C. Triaca, and the Prospect Motor Co. will have a Simplex motor cycle fitted with an aerial propeller. The historic man-power tricycle of Professor Tickering will also be in evidence. Arrangements have been made for a contest between hot-air balloons.
Three National Championship motor-cycle events will be held under the control of the Federation of American Motor-cyclists.
The great iuclosurc under the grand stand will be used for an accessory exhibit. All the manufacturers of accessories such as motors, magnetos, batteries, castings, tubings, etc., have been invited to exhibit their wares. Already a large number of firms have taken advantage of this offer and will be represented.
A mound will be ready for the gliding contests; C. and A. Wittetnann, W. H. Ait-ken, of Chester, Pa., and Chas. J. Hendrick-son will compete in gliding for the Chanute cup and prize. Edward W. Smith, of Ger-mantown. Pa., will have one of his famous large flying models in flight in the model class. A large number of models, both flying and non-flying, have been entered.
Several of the members should be able to make short flights by the end of May. Even if there were no real flying, no gliding, nothing "in the air" assured, there would still be an exhibition of machines and material greater in magnitude than any aeronautical show yet held.
The full-sized machines which will be on show, completed, are as follows: Shneider, Kimball, Bokor, Greene, Beach, Lawrence, Hendrickson, Triaca, Stadtler and Walden aeroplanes; the Rickman helicopter.
Aero Carnival for Jersey.
The Aero Club of America is likely to be "in bad" again. In President Bishop's absence last year, the club was induced to have the Farman flights under its "auspices." Now, just after Mr. Bishop leaves for
Europe again, the club is to have the "carnival" of the West Hudson Aero Club the last week of May, at Arlington, N. J., under its "auspices."
The circular sent out by the "West Hudson Aero Publicity Committee" states that this affair will "undoubtedly prove to be one of the biggest, if not the biggest, aeronautical carnival ever held in this section of the country." No doubt it will, for nothing like an "aeronautical carnival" has ever been witnessed in the effete East.
Capt. T. S. Baldwin will sail his dirigible,
using a smaller duplicate of the Government Dirigible No. i, the same as he exhibited last year at Poughkeepsie and Danbury. Complete description of this was given in the April, 1908, issue.
Samuel F. Perkins will endeavor to teach the young Jersey idea how to fly kites.
It is so lamentable that the Aero Club, which claims to be a "sporting organization," has been made in the past the butt of a commercial joke, and now some ill-natured mortal has suggested that this new departure from conservatism is to exploit Jersey real estate. Fie upon the suggestion of such an absurdity!
in the ballooning world
To Balloon to Canada.
Members of the Aero Clubs of New England and of Springfield are planning some long flights in their new balloons, the "Massachusetts" and the "Springfield," which will be christened about May 15, and some considerable rivalry is being created between the two clubs as to which shall accomplish the longest flight during the year. Both balloons will be the largest owned in the state, having a capacity of 56,000 cubic feet of gas. They should remain in the air with three persons from 24 to 36 hours, and possibly longer. The starting point for these balloons will be in the western part of the state, as far from the sea as it is possible to obtain gas, and this can be had at Springfield, Pittsfield and North Adams. Probably the most remarkable flight will be in the "Massachusetts" in an attempt to cross Mount Washington and reach the St. Lawrence river. If proper gas can be furnished this attempt will be made on June 15 from St. Johnsbury, Vermont, which is only 25 miles air line from the summit of Mount Washington, which could easily be reached in a wind blowing a little north of west, but if the Vermont towns cannot supply the gas the flight must be made from Massachusetts. The committee on balloons and ascensions are now in correspondence with interested parties at St. Johnsbury and other
points with a view of completing the arrangements. From the Berkshire Hills, Pittsfield, with a wind blowing to a point 40 degrees cast of north the flight to Mount Washington is assured in one of these large balloons. Already in a 35,000 cubic foot gas capacity balloon more than one half of the distance has been accomplished, the balloon landing at Plainfield, N. H., which is 70 miles in a direct air line from the summit, the total distance beinq- t6o miles. On this route the balloon would pass out of Massachusetts after crossing the Florida Mountains at Monroe, continuing in Vermont, passing over Wilmington, and crossing the Connecticut River at Springfield; thence over Claremont, Canaan, Wentworth, Fran-conia and the Presidential range, into Maine west of the Rangeley, and crossing the Canadian frontier at Lowell, Maine, 250 miles from Pittsfield. The start could be made at night, and in the morning, if the position were right, continued during the day. A morning start would carry the aeronauts to the mountains before sunset and during the night over Maine into Canada. The "Massachusetts" on the trip June 15th to cross the Presidential range, will be piloted by Mr. Charles J. Glidden, who will have as passengers Prof. W. H. Pickering, of the Harvard University, and Air. Jay E. Benton, editor of the "Boston Transcript." Professor
Pickering will take with him instruments for scientific purposes, and the party will be supplied with rations for 36 hours. From the Canadian frontier at Lowell. Maine, the distance to the St. Lawrence is 90 miles, making the total distance from Pittsfield of 340 miles, not a very long flight for balloons of the capacity of the "Massachusetts" or "Springfield."
Balloon Basket Which Will Float.
The many descents by balloons in bodies of water have caused a demand for a basket or car which will float.
The recent invention of a German provides two air and water-tight compartments filled with air. These aie attached on the outside of the basket. While not in service
velope; and the cutting of a string fills the air compartments. What more could an aeronaut ask?
All Ready for North Adams Race.
The point to point balloon race of the North Adams Aero Club is on the 12th. Dr. R. M. Randall in the "Greylock," the challenger, and Arthur D. Potter, of Greenfield, in the "North Adams No. 1," the defender of the trophy, are the contestants.
The trophy goes to the pilot making landing nearest to previously selected place without a 30 mile radius of North Adams, if he is within a ten mile limit of that place when he lands. Winner holds trophy six months without challenge. This is second contest for the prize, a handsome cup.
these chambers are collapsed and held thus by a strap or rope. When descent in the ?r is imminent, the aeronauts have only t the retaining strap md strong spiral >pru&i contained in tin. cl.ambv.is expand Hh walls and draw the air in through a valve 111 the wall. A flexible tube leads from this valve to the upper edge of the basket so as not to draw in any water.
Another part of the invention consists of a device by means of which the occupants can free themselves within a moment from the envelope, which otherwise might be soaked with rain or drag the basket through the water in a high wind. Curved rods slide in the upper hollow edge of the basket, which is round. The ropes which run from the connecting ring to the basket end in metal snap hooks. These snap over the above mentioned rods at appointed places on the edge car. A crank, working a rack and pinion on the edge of the basket, shifts the rods a few inches and instantly disengages the snap hooks, allowing the envelope to sail away free of the basket.
Thus, at the moment of touching the water, a turn of the crank sets free the cn-
fhich Will Float
Wellman to Try Again.
Walter Wellman has announced that he would this summer renew his effort to reach l1..; >rth pole by means of a dirigible balloon. All me |>rcparain ha\ ■ been made and Mr. Wellman will ^a.i fhe middle >. I May for Paris and Norway.
This expedition will be under Mr. Y\ eii man's individual ownership and re^pi nsirn' ity. The capital has been supplied by Americans. No change has been made in the general plan of the expedition, which is to assemble and inflate the airship at the headquarters station, Danes Island, Spitz-bergen, in June and July, and to start thence northward through the air in August, provided the weather conditions make a start practicable with a reasonable chance for success.
The airship to be used is the "America," which had a trial in a voyage of about twenty miles at Spitzbergen a year ago last September. The owners of the Chicago Record-Herald have turned over to Mr. Wellman, free of charge, the airship, plant, buildings and machinery of Mr. Wellman's former enterprise.
Mix Tells How to Use Blower.
E. W. Mix, the celebrated French aeronaut, has furnished his friend Albert Bond Lambert with some valuable information in regard to the use of a blower on a balloon. Mr. Lambert, believing that it may be of interest to balloouists in general, and particularly to his competitors in the forthcoming championship event from Indianapolis, has generously allowed the data to be published.
"As to the use of the blower on a balloon," writes Mix, "I think it is quite valuable for a long voyage. The main object is to keep the balloon always full—for you know you cannot, in daytime, when the source of heat is from the sun, have a stable condition unless the aerostat is full. Should vou descend for quite a distance, the balloon becomes flabbv and the volume of gas has diminished. When vou check the descent, almost invariably the balloon begins to ascend. As the weight of air displaced remains the same so long as the difference in temperature between the gas in the balloon and the air outside remains the same, you will continue to mount until your balloon is full. As the balloon has a certain speed at the moment it reaches the full point, it will not stop but continue on; then you lose gas and start down again.
"Had the balloon been filled with air by the blower when you were down \ow, you would have reached the full point—by this I mean the altitude attained when the gas bag is entirely inflated and fdled out—at a much lower altitude: also, the speed would have been less when this point was reached, so less gas would have been lost.
"If you are at a certain altitude, say t,50o feet, and you want to descend to 1,000 feet, vou can blow air in to force the gas out. In such a case you descend, but, naturally, you must throw out some ballast when, or even before, yrou reach the desired altitude of t,ooo feet, otherwise you would go the ground as if you had opened the valve to let out the same r.";uunt of gas. However, ypur balloon being full, you will not start up again and go higher than 1,500 feet, as would be the case when using the valve.
"Idie difference in temperature between the gas inside the balloon and the gas outside plays a most vital part, and the blower must also be used, taking into consideration these changes of temperature.
"As a rule, in the daytime, the difference between the temperature of gas inside and air outside increases with the altitude, as the source of heat is the sun's rays and they are all the more intense at higher altitudes. But at night the opposite is true, and for that.reason it is sometimes best to run at night with the bag not quite full, as the gas tends to lose its heat as the balloon rises and the difference in temperature between gas and outside air is less at high altitudes than near the ground at night.
"The use of the blower is quite complicated, and requires good knowledge of the action of gases under varied temperatures and densities; for no fixed rules can be laid down.
"The simplest Avay to put the question is to say that as a balloon is nearest to being in stable equilibrium when it is full, the blower fills this role. We also know that the lower a balloon remains throughout its transit the less gas, and therefore the less ballast, is lost. Were it not for the temperature changes it would be a simple thing to get the maximum advantages out of a blower, but as temperature changes come in no regular way, and never twice in the same way, the pilot must be a keen observer in order to make the best use of it."
The Aero Club of New England's balloon "Massachusetts" on its second trip, about May 17th, will have for passengers F. S. Osgood, Franklin Playter, and the latter's twelve-year-old daughter. The start will be made from Tittsfield.
The New York real estate promoter, C. B. Harmon, has ordered a Baldwin rubber-cloth balloon. This will be used by Harmon and Forbes in the Indianapolis race.
Demonstration of (he handling and inflation of a balloon was made by. A. Leo Stevens with his balloon "U & I" for the benefit of the National Guard Signal Corps at the 71st Regiment Armory. New York, on May 13th, supplementing an instruction tour through the Stevens' shops on Ninth Ave. and at Union Hill, N. J.
Tt has been found possible by the Collins Wireless Telephone Co. to receive telephonic messages in a balloon without having any ground connection, but it is not possible to state what distance may be covered under this ^wnne^tion.
A. Roy Knabenshue is to make airship trips from Sacramento on Sacramento Day. In the meantime, work is being prosecuted on an aeroplane. During the winter 72 airship sorties have been made in and around Los Angeles.
As the time seems near when there will be a regular dirigible balloon service between cities, the question arises: What fare will the passengers have to pay per mile or hour? The "Frankfurter Zeitung" attempts an estimate. A "Zeppelin" will cost about $150,000, and may be expected to last four or five years. The outlay for gas, a crew of seven men, landing charges, depreciation, and so on, will amount to about $112,000 a year. Assuming that 120 days will be available for trips, it would be necessary to take in over $900 per trip to pay expenses-for a
twelve hour journey, and this charge would have to be divided among the passengers. How many of these would it be possible to take? Fifteen, at any rate, the German expert thinks, which would make the cost of a twelve-hour trip about $60, plus such profits as the company would wish to make. But he does not think that would prove prohibitive; tens of thousands would be willing to pay it, to gratify their curiosity, and, by the time that is done, further improvements will have probably' reduced the cost sufficiently to allow less favored mortals the occasional
luxury of a Post."
flight in the air.—"Evening
Mr. Charles J. Glidden says: "We must creep before we can walk. Familiarize the people with a voyage in the air in the old-fashioned spherical balloon and the dirigible and aeroplane will have a host of supporters. Aerial navigation will then go forward with a rapid stride. The step is too far from the earth to the aeroplane for the novice, but finally we shall all be able to manage the aeroplane."
First Lieutenant Benjamin D. Foulois has been assigned to duty in the Aeronautical Division. First Lieut. Raymond S. Bamberger, of the cavalry, and Second Lieut. Oliver A. Dickinson, 5th Infantry, have been ordered to duty in the Signal Corps in connection with aeronautics. First Lieut. Bamberger has already reported.
The balloon detachment arrived from Ft. Wood, N. Y.. April 19th.
Signal Corps Dirigible No. 1 is being overhauled, and will be inflated and operated at Ft. Myer within a few days.
The Signal Corps still has the unfulfilled contracts of Mr. A. M. Herring and the Wright brothers. Mr Herring is to deliver his aeroplane and complete the terms of his contract at Ft. Myer by the 1st of July a»a<l-ihe military manoeuvers at Des Moines*
There have been several applications to send Dirigible No. 1 to Des Moines and other places in connection with military demonstrations, but nothing has been approved as yet. It is quite probable that it will go to one or two points, however.
Three flying machines are promised for the military manoeuvers at Des Moines Sept. 21-23 under the auspices of the U. S. Signal Corps and in charge of Lieut. W. A. Glassford, commander of the post and school at Fort Omaha. The Wright machine, if acquired by the government, will no doubt be available, but the other two niachincs are x-quantities as yet.
The government has plans for the building of a large new post on the Fort Sill Reservation, in Oklahoma, and these plans provide for an "airship station" to be connected with the fort. The entire scheme is on an elaborate scale, and will take several vears to carry out. The work will probably begin some time during 1909.
Military Aeronautics Abroad.
Lord Montagu, in his lecture before the National Defence Association, showed the amounts spent upon experiments in aerial navigation for military purposes by European powers during the last year. The following are the particulars:
Ordinary expenditure for upkeep of ballooning establishments, training of balloonists and experi-
ments ............................ $36,000
Extraordinary expenditure for new
material and constructions...... 60,000
Upkeep of ballooning units........ 142,500
Total ........................ $238,500
(a) From Public Funds:
Home Office vote for the
Zeppelin airship.......... $537,50°
Expenditure on balloon battalion, pay, etc............ 131.155
(b) By private subscription:
Collected by the National
Zeppelin Airship Fund ...$1,325,000 Austria-1 ltmgary. Ordinary expenditure for cost and
upkeep of the balloon establishment at Vienna, including the training of field balloon detach-
ments ......................... $15,000
Extraordinary expenditure for providing balloon equipment and organizing field balloon detachments ......................... 12.500
Total ........................ $27,500
Great Britain. Army expenditure in 1908-09:
On dirigible balloons ........... $0,000
On aeroplanes ................. 16,450
Total ........................ $^6,350
Wright Flights in Italy—Many Machines Sold by Voisins—Farman, Bleriot, Santos Dumont and Antoinette Flights—New Zeppelin—Flying Getting Common
Legagueux, who bought Henri Farman's old machine, has at last been getting some good flights ous of it at Vienna. Inclement weather delayed him some while. In his first flight he covered over 300 yds. at a height of about 6 ft. In his second effort his left wing was damaged in landing. On the 24th he made two trips of 1,400 m. and 1,500 m. at a height of 5 to 6 m. On the 27th he made a series of successful flights, turning and getting back to his starting point. But on the 28th while flying along the banks of the River Danube the whole of the chassis was carried away, the lower plane and the propellers were smashed, and the motor injured in at attempt at landing. Happily Legagueux escaped unhurt by jumping. When he bought the machine it was a triplane, and he could not get it off the ground until he removed the upper plane, which had been added by Farman as an improvement.
A big syndicate has been formed in Vienna to build airships and aeroplanes. It is named the Motorluftfahrzeng-Gesell-schaft. and, according to correspondence, those at the head of it are the Weiner Bank Vefein, the Austro-American Rubber Co., and the Daimler Motor Co.
Vienna is looking forward to a visit from the Zeppelin airship; the aged emperor, Francis Joseph, has expressed a wish to see it.
Extensive experiments with dirigibles are being made by the Archduke Ferdinand at Linz near the capital. Linz is also preparing for an Aeronautical Exhibition in last two weeks of September.
Baron de Caters has been at Chalons experimenting with a Voisin, and on April 22 made three flights ranging about a kilometer at a height of 7 to 12 m.
Roger Sommer of Mourzon, Ardennes, who is having a Voisin built, has also been at Chalons superintending the erection of his shed.
Adhemar de la Hault of Brussels, whose orthoptere was at the Olympia show in London, has put up a prize of $200 for the best aerial motor produced in Belgium before next September.
A company, entitled the "Avia" Societe Beige de Constructions Aeronautiques, has been formed in Brussels with a capital of $110,000. The leading men in it are said
to be the Baron Joseph Crawhez, the Duke of Arenburg, and M. Surcouf and Capt. Kapferer of Paris. Their, first production is to be the "Flandres," a dirigible 240 ft. long with a 150 h.p. motor.
Capt. Windham, secretary of the Aeroplane Club, has obtained the use of Wembley Park, and the surface is being leveled and trees felled to make it suitable for him. Flying early in the month, Capt. Windham got caught in some overhead wires which tore away parts of his upper surface.
The present state of the public mind in England just now is peculiar. Devotees have got over their first enthusiasm, and are beginning to feel the setback caused by the realization of their limitations—so things seem to be going slowly. On the other hand, the general public, having just woke up to the fact that flying is a possibility, are clamoring for a perfect machine at once, and are picturing the air full of invading armies in airships with England left with nothing to meet these new foes.
Fortunately, adds our correspondent, the wild cat companies that are being organized to exploit an unknown quantity are mostly confined to France and Germany. The few that have been started in England are small and not likely to do much harm to the movement.
The Government has at last woke up to the fact that Salisbury Plain is an ideal spot for practice with aeroplanes. Sheds are now to be erected near the old British Encampment about a mile from Amesbury station. The trial ground will not be far from Stonehenge. But the new trial ground must be for some new machine. The British War Department is sick of the Cody aeroplane, and has made him a present of it, and want him to take it away somewhere and lose it. On April 26 Cody tried on Laffans Plain with a new rudder; but it wouldn't. The authorities would not let him have a single soldier to help give him a push, and he had to get a friendly hitch onto a passing cart.
The Aero Club of Great Britain has put up four prizes of $125 each for the first four flights of 250 yards, and three of $250 for one mile in a closed circle.
J. L. McKim, a member of the Aeroplane Club, has put up $500 for the first Britisher who in an all-British machine flies 100 yards 10 feet above the ground.
J. Norton Griffiths has presented the Aero Club with a handsome trophy in solid silver in perpetuity for the longest flight of each year.
The Aerial League of the United Kingdom has formed a Ladies Branch. Patrick V. Alexander has made a donation of $5,000 to the funds, and W. PI. Lever, the famous soap maker and deviser of the model village for his workpeople, has given $2,500. The League has sent a delegation to commence a branch in India.
England has applied for permission to have a second entry in the balloon race for the Gordon Bennett Cup.
The month was marked by a pathetic tragedy in ballooning. The well-known aeronaut Bellamy went up in the "Daily Chronicle" from the Crystal Palace on April 12. Half an hour later he was seen over the mouth of the Thames, and in the evening a steam trawler saw him drifting on the North Sea and tried to overtake him but could not. No news has been heard of him since.
Wilbur and Orville Wright, with their sister, arrived at London just before midnight on May—3aUi. At Charing Cross station they dodged a long line of reporters and drove away to the quiet old family fashionable hotel, Longs, in New Bond Street. The train was very late and the officials of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, having grown tired of waiting, had left the station, and so there was no one present to give them an official welcome. But the crowd gave them a hearty reception.
At the Ritz Hotel, the big new American building on Picadilly overlooking the Green Park and Buckingham Palace, the residence of King Edward VII, the Wrights were giv-
en a luncheon by a number of Englishmen who had witnessed the flights at Le Mans and Pan. In the evening they were entertained by the Aeronautical Society' and presented with the Society's gold medals.
The next evening they were entertained by the Aero Club, and the following day-set sail on the Kronprinccssin Cecilie for New York.
Leon Dclagrange made his first flight in a Wright on April 13, and declared himself enchanted with it. He has become a pupil of the Comte de Lambert, and the Ariel
Co., which has the French rights of the Wright machine, has engaged him as their pilot in chief.
Little was done at Pan in the early days of the month. The new Wright, the first made by the French company, arrived, but the motor did not work regularly, and had to be taken entirely to pieces. On the oth, Comte de Lambert made his first flight in it, and in the evening of the same day, Paul Tissandier took his first trip in the new apparatus. It behaved precisely as the original, they said. On the 10th, Tisandicr took up Rene Gasnier as his first pupil, and thereby established a new record as the first pupil to take up a pupil. Tissandier has four pupils of high distinction under his instruction, Alfred Leblanc, Capts. Kapferer, and Ferber, and Col. Vives, the latter of the Spanish army. De Lambert has also four pupils in addition to Dela-grange.
On April 8 at St. Cyr, near Paris, Santos Duniout flew 2l> km. in his tiny "Demoiselle," which weighs only 265 pounds, in-eluding Dumont himself. The span of the
small wings of this midget aeroplane is but 17 ft., and the entire length but 19 ft. 8 in. Unfortunately no record was made of his speed in this flight, but it must have been considerable. Dumont is said still to have hopes of getting an aeroplane that will go in his waistcoat pocket. He has heard that
there is one in America which will go in a suitcase; but he says he wants to hear whether it will fly. Later in the month he took his little machine back to Issy to make some alterations.
Bleriot on a few odd days during the month continued his practice with the "Bleriot XT" at Buc; but except that he
Santos Dumont's " Demoiselle "
again escaped his accidents in his usual marvellous way nothing very notable was accomplished. One of his machines is now being assembled at Pau, and he intends to do most of his work there, it is said.
Hubert Latham, who, with Jacques Faure made the famous balloon trip from London to Paris, and has now taken to aviation, soon got the "Antoinette IV" repaired after his spill on April 3 when he ran into some trees and damaged his wings, and has been making flights up to y2 km. at Chalons. Towards the end of the month he succeeded in covering 1,500 m., including a turn.
Capt. Burgeat, who is now flying the "Antoinette VI," at Chalons, has managed to make a number of short flights of about loo m.
Henri Farinan, who is also at Chalons, has not yet got more than very short leaps out of his new machine.
1 On April 9, Rene Demanest won his 250 m. .Aero Club de France prize in the "Antoinette V."
Guffroy with the R. E. P. once more in action at Buc after his smash when he dug its nose into a bank made four flights on April .25th of from 400 to 600 m. at a height of about 10 m. and with perfectly successful landings. On the same day Maurice Farman made his best flight so far, keeping in the air for 300 m.
Rougier the Lorraine-Dietrich racing autoist, made his first flight in his Voisin at Issy on April 15, and was in the air for 800 m. Duray, another Lorraine-Dietrich racing driver who has taken to aviation, is having a machine built in Paris.
Five new aeroplanes are now at Issy, and much work is expected during the coming month. M. Theroul has a 14 m. biplane by Regy Freres of Javal with a 50 h. p. Farcot motor. M. Odier has a 10 m. biplane by the same firm with a 30 h.p. Tur-cat-Mery motor. The Regy Freres have also a third machine there which has a 12 m. span. The fourth machine is also 12 m. in spread and has a Mors motor. The fifth is a Picquerez biplane with a 45 h.p. Dutheil-Chalmers motor. The names of the different firms show how rapidly the industry is being taken up in France, and bow the automobile motor makers are in the field with their engines.
At Aix-la-Chapelle a first flight was made the last week in April by Prof. Reissner, who managed to cover about 40 m. at a height of 5 m., but he lauded badly and damaged his machine considerably.
Experimenting at Bouy, M. de Salvert, one of the latest recruits, broke up his machine in his first flight, and seriously injured his right leg.
M. Longuepin, one of the students of the Ligue Nationale Aerienne at Juvisy flying on Good Friday in the machine that had been blessed by the Archbishop of Paris, lost control of the apparatus when at a height of about 50 feet. Both planes were smashed, but he was not hurt himself. So far the school has had to spend most of its time repairing damage. It has had an unlucky run of spills.
One bold aviator tried a machine on the Quai Jemmapes, Paris, on April 13, and smashed it by running into the statue of Floquet.
A physician at Pertius in the Vaucluse country early in the month tried to make some trials with an aeroplane, but could not, because the inhabitants set upon him, convinced that he was in league with the devil! There would appear to be some "backward" parts in France even yet.
The Monte Carlo "Meeting." for a flight across the bay and back, a distance of about 28 miles, proved a fiasco. There were 35 entries. Not one of the entrants made an attempt. Jacques Faure, who had hoped to make the journey in his small dirigible,
made a second trial flight over the bay, but, though this time the car did not break, he again fell into the sea, and had to be towed ashore.
The energetic Mayor of Pan, M. de Las-sence, is determined that his city shall lack nothing in the way of flying attractions. He has now arranged with Capt. Kapferer to have the dirigible which is at Nancy at Pan in October to take visitors on aerial excursions. Other dirigibles are being chartered. An aeroshed 500 m. in length is being-erected.
Cortland Field Bishop arrived in Paris April 22, and at once ga-ve the Paris "Herald" a half-column of extremely warm hot-air about the Aero Club of America having "the finest aerodrome in the world." He did not say that nothing has yet been done towards it so far as putting it into practice is concerned, nor mention that the club jias only $r,ooo up in prizes, and is devoting all its energies to managing, at a comb-down of 25 per cent, on the entrance fees of $200 and $400, an event far more difficult to accomplish than the feat which proved a fiasco at Monte Carlo, and to helping a soi-disant club sell building lots to the profit of the press-agent! Next morning, however, he must have been greatly delighted to see printed immediately below his interview a special cablegram announcing that the Aeronautic Society of America had at its meeting in New York overnight put up $10,000 in prizes for aeroplanes! So far the other French papers do not seem to have realized that Mr. Bishop is among them! The cables to America announced a week beforehand that a great flight in the Clement-Bayard was to be made by little Miss Cortland Field Bishop, the very youngest dirigibiliste in the world. But no cables have yet announced that the much advertised trip has yet been made. It may be that little Miss Bishop is waiting for Mr. Bishop!
Gen. Picquart, the French Minister of War, has opened a competition for designs for an aerial cruiser of 6,500 cubic meters capacity to carry six passengers fifteen hours at a speed of 31 miles an hour. The designs are to be in within the next four months.
Count Henrj' de la Yaulx made another of his striking trips over Paris in his small dirigible Zodiac on April 15 with M. Clerget as a passenger. A considerable wind was blowing, but the balloon was easily bandied.
A new Societe d'Encouragement a l'Avia-tion under high patronage has been started at Chartres, and has obtained grounds on the plains of Beauce on the outskirts of the town. Two new aviators, MM. Gaugler and Sotiuel are erecting sheds there.
The ladies' ballooning club "Stella" is to hold its inauguration meeting on June 17 in the Balloon Park of the Aero Club, of France, at St. Cloud.
The Academy of Science has decided that the two Petit d'Ormoy prizes of $2,000 each, usually given for mathematics, shall be spent this year on gold medals for the most daring aviators.
The Aerial Touring Committee of the Touring Club de France is preparing its first flyers' map. It is to be of 50 miles round Paris, and will show all the safe landing places.
The committee of the Ecole Normale d'Aerostation of Paris, founded in 1850, at their meeting on March 30, passed a vote thanking A. C. Triaca, of New York, for becoming an honorary member of the school.
According to Arthur Du Cross, who made an enormous fortune out of the pneumatic tire for bicycles, buying it from its inventor for a mere song and is now an English M.P., the German Government has the intention to possess by iqii "at least two dozen mammoth aerial vessels primarily designed and constructed for war purposes— in addition to their fleet of ordinary dirigibles." The German Government has denie'd it. But there seems no reason why they should not: and the probabilities are that they will have such a fleet.
The Government "Zeppelin IP' is now ready for delivery. Its envelope is 446 ft. long, 42V2 ft. in diameter, and has a capacity of 530,000 cu. ft. It is believed that this airship will be stationed at Cologne, and on its way there will be shown at the Frankfort Exhibition.
"Zeppelin 1" has been discarded for war purposes. It is declared too slow. It is to remain at Mansell on Lake Constance to serve as a "training airship."
Count Zeppelin has issued a statement as to the $1,524, [35 provided for him by national subscription after the burning of his airship last year. He sa3's that extensive works are being prepared for building dirigibles rapidly, and important enterprises and experiments are being supported; and he has no doubt that the steps contemplated will keep Germany ahead of the world for years to come in aerial navigation.
Though he himself builds the largest airships yet constructed, Count Zeppelin has offered a prize of $2,000 for the smallest dirigible that will make five flights with two passengers at the Frankfort Exhibition.
The semi-rigid dirigible "Gross 11," made a trip April 26 over the Tegel rifle ranges near Berlin, and proved quite successful. Eor three-quarters of an hour the airship manoeuvred over the city at a height of about 700 ft. Major Sperling was in charge. The "Gross II" is similar to the ''Gross I" except that the bag is rather thicker forward and more pointed aft. It has two 75 h.p. motors.
The German Aerial League is making arrangements for the establishment of an
Aeronautical College at Friedrichshaf en, close to Zeppelin's headquarters. Lt. Gen. Nieber has been chosen as the principal. The classes are to open at the beginning of
the next academic year Oct. i, and the course is to be for three years. The first will be theoretical, the second in the workshops, the third in actual experiment in the air. Three years is quite good. It took Wilbur Wright ten days to teach flying to the Italians.
The Wrights arrived in Rome on April i and left on the 28th. The first two weeks were taken up in assembling their Italian machine. In ten days of the next two weeks they completed the instruction of their Italian pupils!
Hardly anything has struck the imagination of Europe more than this. It would indeed be difficult to conceive any demonstration which would speak more effectively than this of the simplicity of Hying— as the Wrights do it.
It was on the 15th that Wilbur, assisted by members of the Aviators' Club of Rome, brought the machine out to the military training grounds at Centocelle, near Rome, for the first time. Even then it was not quite to his mind, and he was working at it till 4 p. m., while a crowd of some 6,000, mostly princes, princesses, dukes, duchesses, marquises and marchionesses, looked on, wondering and waiting. All the day before they had waited, too. Among them that day was J. P. Morgan, the New York money king. The great financier just looked in, and then said good-bye on learning that a flight was impossible that day; but the princess, and the princesses, and the dukes, and the duchesses waited from daylight till dark! It was the steering gear that Wilbur could not get to his satisfaction. Eventually, however, he fixed it, and at 6.30 he made his first flight in Italian skies. The trip lasted eight minutes; and it was a curious spectacle that stirred the Romans into frantic cheers of the Italian for "Long live Wright!" For this flight, the wonderful achievement of to-day, was right over the ruins of some of the wonderful achievements of the engineers of the days long gone, and the contrast was very striking.
Next day Wilbur made five flights. His first was with Lieutenant Calderara of the Italian navy, one of the appointed government pupils. He made three circles over the grounds in about six minutes at a height of 10 to 20 m. Then he took up Lieutenant Savoia of the Italian military engineers, another government pupil, and flew over the plains and back, a trip of ten minutes, at a height of about 50 m. Later he took up Captain Castagneris, secretary of the Aviators' Club of Rome, for a short ride, circling just over the heads of the spectators, among whom was Sig. Son-nino, former Prime Minister, and many officers of the army and navy, as well as the princesses and the princes. All expressed their enormous surprise at the ease with which the flying was done. Everyone was particularly astonished at noticing that after getting off the starting sail, the passengers seemed to find no need of anything to hole; on to to make sure of a safe seat. The fourth flight gave Calderara his second lesson, five circles of the grounds in 14 minutes; and then Sig. Sonnino was taken up to a height of 40 m., but something sounded wrong with the motor, and a descent was made in five minutes, much to the signor's disappointment. The brief lessons were continued daily. On the 19th the cavalry and artillery were out exercising on the grounds. Wright flew over their heads. Some of the horses were badly scared at first, but they soon grew used to it, and gazed up with as much wonderment in their eyes as did the princes and the princesses.
In the evening of the 19th, with Prince Scipione Borghese and others of high Italian rank anxious to help with a shove, Wilbur went up without using the derrick. That excited the crowd so greatly that when Wright returned they flocked upon him and made further flights impossible for that day or the next by crowding on the front rudder and damaging it.
On the 21st among the spectators were General Singari, Minister for War, and Admiral Mirabello, Minister of Marine. The wind was blowing 20 miles an hour, but Wright decided to fly, and Admiral Spingari went up with him. On his landing after a five minutes' trip the Admiral said: "Signor Wright, 1 have dreamed all my life of flying; you have realized ray dream; but it was better than I had ever dreamed." The manner in which the machine behaved itself in the high wind impressed everybody very deeply.
Lieutenant Calderara on the 22d, at his sixth lesson, amounting to a little more than a total of an hour's flying, began to handle the steering gear. Lieutenant Savoia was equally adept.
It was not till the 24th that King Victor Emmanuel went out to see the King of the Air. He got to the grounds at 6 a. m., and it was a damp, foggy morning. Wright and Calderara made a flight of 10 minutes,
and frequently were hidden in the fog, and when they came down were dripping wet. But the King was so delighted he stayed on for three hours and waited till the light was good enough for him to take some snapshots. In one of his flights before the King, "Wilbur took up Major Moris, the inventor of the Italian military dirigible, and carried him over the forts and showed him where all the "hidden'' guns were. That impressed the King very much.
Later the same day Wilbur had Lloyd C. Griscom, the American ambassador, as a passenger, and Sig. Tittoni, the Foreign Minister, among the spectators.
On the 26th Wilbur is said to have made his machine crown all its previous performances by rising from the ground, not merely without the aid of the thrust from the derrick, but even without the use of the monorail. According to the spectators, "the machine glided along the ground on its skids for about 100 metres, and then Wilbur raised it into the air with a powerful stroke of the lever (sic), and soared immediately up to a height of about 30 111., astonishing everybody."
All the correspondents seem convinced that the monorail was not used. Hut the cables give no explanation, and the feat as described seems to call for confirmation.
On the last day the members of the Aviators' Club drew lots to decide on four who should be passengers. Among the lucky winners was a lady, Mine. Belmont, who quickly sprang into the seat and tied her skirts round her ankles, and said she was ready.
On the 28th. the day the Wright Brothers left. Lieutenant Calderara made a brilliant flight alone in a heavy rainstorm.
From Rome the Wrights went to London on their way to the States, stopping off for a banquet at Le Mans by the Aero Club de la Sarthe.
Count da Schio's airship "Italia" made its first trial trip on April 8. In landing, some damage was done to the framework.
Lieutenant Calderara of the Italian navy, one of Wilbur Wright's pupils, met with a serious accident on May 6. It was arranged that the lieutenant should take a passenger on board, but as a strong wind was blowing, he made the ascent alone and rose to a height of 100 feet, making several turns and descending to 45 feet. At this point the aeroplane stopped suddenly, then plunged, and fell to the earth.
There are two theories of the accident— one that the motor suddenly stopped working and that the aeronaut did not know how to bring it to the ground, and the other, which the weight of evidence supports, that the aeronaut was the victim of a sudden attack of vertigo.
The aeroplane is useless, and will have to be reconstructed.
Russia seems determined to have an aerial navy. Hard upon the purchase of the Clement-Bayard, the Russian Government has placed an order in Paris for an airship similar to the "Republic" at a cost of $60,000.
A shed has been ordered in England. It is to be 76 m. long, 20 in. high and 15 111. wide, and so constructed that 100 men can put it up in eight hours and take it down in two.
Geneva is mightily proud of the fact that an aeroplane is being built within its walls. The inventors are C. Comisetti and A. Guignet, and it would seem that they must mean something great, for they say they have ordered a 130-horsepower Antoinette engine!
John Zinimerer, of Chicago, has built a glider of 150 square feet which weighs only 50 lbs. A new glider will soon be started, to weigh but half this figure.
At a meeting of the Providence Association of Mechanical Engineers, held the last of April, Prof. J. Ansel Brooks, of Brown LTniversity. lectured on "Aerial Navigation." illustrating types of present day machines with lantern slides.
The Herring-Curtiss Co. must be doing a land-office business, judging from the following urgent inquiry:
"Please quote us your 1 west cash price to build us an airship. We want one that will fly; and if it will fly we are- game to go with it. Please give this your prompt attention."
An amusing incident occurred at the exhibition of The Aeronautic Society. Two Bowery boys had spent the afternoon in watching the events and one had gotten tired and wanted to leave. He kept urging the other fellow te> 'come on," but the other said he wanted to see the airships. At last number one got disgusted, "Say, cull, let's beat it before I get nutty too."
The science of aeronautics does not seem to take veryr well with the women folks. A certain aeronautical publication was in the habit of sending letters soliciting subscriptions, along the style in vogue with publishers, but after sending two or three, the following reply was received:
"Please do not send any more of these circulars, for 1 forbid him to spend his money thus.—His sister, Mrs. Blank."
farman iii biplane
Henri Farman has been making at Chalons the first trials with his new bi-surface aeroplane "Karman III," during April, making flights from 300 to 1,200 meters. This is*
Some quite new features are employed. The total spread is 10.5 meters, and the length 13 meters. A regulation 4-upright-cylinder Vivinus automobile motor with
The Farman III
the first machine, by the way, built by Far- Bosch magneto has been used in the flights, man since entering into the business of driving a single two-bladed wood propeller "conslructeur." 2.3 meters diameter, mounted direct on the
engine shaft. The radiator, of the ordinary automobile type, is in front of the engine and behind the head and shoulders of the operator. Four auxiliary stabilizing planes are hinged to the rear of the supporting surfaces. When clearing the ground these planes seemingly tilt very slightly upward toward the rear. A single surface horizontal rudder is in front, and the usual box cell in the rear. The old steering wheel of the Yoisin machine has been abandoned in favor of the ordinary bicycle handle-bar. The vertical rudder forrherly inside the~ box tail lias also been dispensed with.
The whole machine is mounted on skids furnished with four wheels, in pairs, immediately beneath the main surfaces. Two other small wheels hold up the rear cell. The two inside wheels in front are somewhat smaller than their companion wheels, as will be seen from the illustration. The total weight is 147 kilos.
The chassis of the Pischof-Koechlin monoplane, illustrated herewith, will provide some suggestions. The two-propeller arrangement is of interest.
the highest astronomical observatory
By Dr. David Todd, Amherst
Tw.o years ago, when I was in the Andes for observations and photographs of Mars, I made some experiments of a physiological character bearing on the possibility of locating an astronomical observatory at a greater elevation than hitherto attempted, say not less than 20,000 feet. But in consequence of soroche, as the natives call it—or "mountain sickness," as we term it—life became unbearable at about 15,000 feet. Xot to go into a discussion of the tedious subject of mountain sickness, I will only state ir,y own theory: that it is due to simple lack of pressure of the air on the vital organs of the body. Restore this pressure artificially and all the symptoms should disappear.
I had long wanted to test this theory, and the opportunity came, at Cerro de Pasco, Peru, through the kind offers of the Peruvian government and the Cerro de Pasco Mining Company. A large and stout steel tank was prepared, with inlet and outlet valves, an aneroid barometer, electric light, telephone, etc. On enclosing myself and a recorder in this tank, and turning on the inlet of compressed air till the aneroid showed a pressure equal to that at about 1,000 feet above the sea, all ordinary symptoms of mountain sickness vanished. Apparently we could have stayed in there comfortably for hours. The only complaint my companion made was that he couldn't smoke. The experiment was wholly successful: but I was not able at that time to complete the tests by remaining in the tank for several hours and on repeated occasions.
Then it occurred to me one day, why not let a balloon carry the tank and its occupant to an elevation, greater if possible than any mountain height, and test out the theory under extreme conditions?
This I am now planning to do; and Mr. Leo Stevens and myself, each in his own compressed air tank, expect to make the ascent as soon as we can try out all the preliminary experiments. Of course there are lots of difficulties which we have as yet only partly met. But the balloon can be manipulated, we think, from the interior of the tank; telephonic connections with the earth can lie maintained, samples of the air at different heights can be brought down, and gradually a lot of data collected which will be useful in many investigations of this wonderful mantle of earth which we call the air.
Xow it was mere chance that this work was projected at a time when Mars is again approaching its nearest to us. And so, quite naturally and incidently, it came about that Mars was taken into consideration in completing our plans, f do not think there are at present any inhabitants on Mars; but, if there are or should be, and if they have been and are still trying to send us Hertz-wave signals through the ether which we know fills all interplanetary spaces, would it not be worth while to add a wireless (receiving) outfit to our equipment, and see if we could get anything? 1 do not believe we should, but there's no harm trying.
Milwaukee Aero Club.—This, one of the most recent aero organizations in the States, now numbers 279 active members. The maiden voyage of the new balloon "Pabst" was made by President John IT. Moss, Vice-President John H. Kopmeier, Mai. Henry 15. Ilersey and Leo Stevens, its builder, the first week of May.
Aero Club of Ohio.—This club now numbers 196 members, mostly residing in Canton or adjacent towns. Only $10 a week is charged for the use of the club's balloon "Ohio," and the total cost o fan ascension, i. e., rental, gas and labor, amounts to but $p. A very complete history of the club was printed on page 90 of the February issue.
Ballooning Season Opens With New Record—New Balloons Christened—Big Increase In This Sport In 1909.
April jo— Capt. P. A. Van Tassel, Jos. M. Masten, and Knox Maddox, left Oakland, Cal., on a three hour trip; landed in Sunoe, Cal. Altitude reached, 7,000 ft. Pleasant-voyage, though narrowly missing a high tension wire on landing.
longest new england trip.
April 19th.—William Van Sleet, pilot, and
from Pittsfield, and I am very much interested in the work, and intend to do more in the line of aeroplanes and dirigibles."
The trip coming nearest to this is that made from North Adams by Dr. Julian P. Thomas, A. Leo Stevens, Wilbur R. Kimball, Dr. Thomas's son, Dr. William Greene, and H. A. Meixner, on February 12th, when a landing was made one mile from the village of Standish Center, bordering on Sc-bago Lake, Me., a distance of 149 miles. These distances were kindly measured by Mr. Williams Welch, of the U. S. Signal Corps.
Ballcon on Tree and View from Balloon
Oscar R. Hutchinson, left Pittsfield in the "Heart of the Berkshires" at 10.35 a.m., and lauded during a hard thunderstorm near Biddeford, Me., an air line distance of 164^ miles, beating Dr. Thomas's trip by fifteen miles. Mr. Hutchinson says:
"We landed in the woods so as not to go over the Atlantic Ocean, as we would have been over it in a few minutes, as we landed only about two miles from it, and were going at nearly a fifty mile an hour gait. We had considerable difficulty in untangling the netting from the trees, it being necessary to cut down several. I have the sheet from the recording barometer, and it shows that we attained an altitude of 3,500 meters, or a little over two miles. This was the first flight of the season from Pittsfield, and the longest that has been made in this vicinity, and we also attained the greatest height
April 20.—Dr. R. M. Randall, N. II. Arnold, and Mr. Gatslick left North Adams in the "North Adams No. j" and landed at l\y-field, Mass., five miles from the ocean, 110 miles. Highest altitude, 7,600 feet.
April 24th.—The first ascension from the grounds of the Aero Club of Ohio this season was made by Dr. H. W. Thompson on this day, alone, in the balloon "Ohio." The lauding was made near Bulger, Pa., about 70 miles from Canton. A high breeze carried the balloon to 9,000 feet, and a terrific snowstorm was encountered. The temperature dropped from 53 degrees, on the ground, to 22 degrees in the storm which lasted throughout nearly entire trip. Thunder was also heard at close range.
April 24.—A. P. Shirley and H. F. Cart-wright made a 50-mile balloon ascent from St. Louis to near Greenfield, Ills., in 2 hours
and 40 minutes. This makes nine ascensions for Mr. Shirley.
April 24.—Lieuts. Frank P. Lahm, B. D. Foulois, and Lieut. Bamberger left Washington in the Signal Corps balloon No. 11 at 12 noon, landing one mile south of Great Mills, Md., at 3 p. 111., 53 miles in airline. Ascent made for purposes of instructing officers of signal corps.
April 29.—Messrs. J. H. Wade, Jr., A. H. Morgan, J. C. Hamilton, A. Leo Stevens and Mrs. J. C. Hamilton, christened the new Stevens-built balloon "Cleveland" at North Adams. Just as the balloon left the ground Mrs. Hamilton broke a bottle of wine over the anchor, instead of doing the christening first and the ascent next. A severe snowstorm was encountered. All altitudes were tried in order to find a breeze, even up to 12,000 feet, where there was less wind than elsewhere. Over Bennington, Vt., the aeronauts stayed for an hour. The landing was made, after a roundabout trip, at White Creek, Washington Co., N. V., with 24 bags of ballast left; a distance of about 20 miles.
April 29th.—C. B. Harmon, piloted by A. H. Forbes, made a trip from North Adams to Waterbury, Ct.; 90 miles.
Flights are also booked at North Adams for May 15 and 21. On June 24 two prominent members of the Knights Templars will be taken up on the occasion of their state c convention in North Adams. \/c(-y o(~!lSl^~
May 3— H. S. Sidway and H^E*-Hughes vj. left Pittsfield and made a five-hour trip, landing in a gale at Keene, N.Mi_^-
May 8.—Chas. J. Glidden and A. D. Converse left Fitchburg at 3.55 p. m., and landed at 7.10 p. m. at the foot of New Ipswich Mountain, N. H. Distance, about ll > 12 miles.
May 8.—William Whitehouse, E. S. Whitehouse, and William Van Sleet, from Pittsfield at 9.58 a. in. After being up three hours a landing was made at Flagpole Hill about four miles from the center of the city.
May j?.— Dr. R. M. Randall in the "Grey-lock," from North Adams at 2.30 a. m., land- (£A&+JL, ing at Shelburne, Mass., at 4.15 a. m., thereby qualifying for pilot license. Distance, 24
»'iles. r ^ (Vi>'4t^^>^
May^T—A. 11. Forbes, in the "North Adams No. 1" from North Adams at 3.00 a. m., landing at 9.40 a. m. at Cdb^en, Mass.,
7iTniles- gfcl uaT
the indiana balloon race
Six balloons have been entered for the American Championship Balloon Cup Race for distance, to be held at Indianapolis June 5. The pilot making the longest distance will receive the Aero Club of America's silver cup and "Prest-O-Lite" Carl G. Fisher will reward the pilot who stays in the air the longest time. In addition, each pilot will receive the silver medal of the A. C. A.; and each aide, the bronze medal.
The entries are as follows, the pilot being named first: Carl G. Fisher and G. L. Bum-batigh in the balloon "Indiana" (Bumbaugh, builder); A. B. Lambert and H. E. Honeywell in the "St. Louis" (Honeywell, builder); A. II. Morgan and J. H. Wade, Jr., in the "Cleveland" (Stevens, builder); Chas.
Walsh and aide, balloon not named: John Berry, aide and balloon not named; A. H. Forbes and C. B. Harmon in the "New A'ork," (Baldwin, builder) the first rubber-cloth balloon to be built in America so far as is known.
The Aero Club of Indiana has done heroic work in getting ready for the race. Five miles of pipe have been laid from the gas works and the grounds inclosed by a high board fence. A club house has been built and great grand stands. The 6-in. gas main is connected to a system of live filling pipes with valves at each end. Each pipe is 120 ft. long and 100 ft. apart, so that 10 balloons can be inflated at one time.
To the Editor.—New England will average more than one ascension a day during the season. How many ascensions is the Auto Club of America arranging for its members? When will they own a balloon? I understand the New England clubs now have eight. A N. Y. Member.
"Aeronautics" Widely Read.
April 19, 1909.
"Editor Aeronautics, New York.
"Sir,— 1 am in receipt of many and various letters containing inquiries, congratulations, offers of various sorts, etc. Inasmuch as it will be impossible for me to respond to all of these directly, I must ask the indulgence of 'Aeronautics' for these few lines.
"All of these letters show the earnest and generous interest of the writers to whom please extend my thanks. As soon as any further data and details are made public they will be sent to "Aeronautics," which was the first journal to publish any figures other than dimensional. In order to answer many inquiries on the subject, I might add that the United States Patent Office^has allowed basic claims on the heating of gases during flight and on the use of the heat of the exhaust for this purpose as well as a number of other basic and structural claims. "Very respectfully yours,
Mr. Sirch refers to the description of his dirigible published in the March issue.
INDEX TO VOLUME IV.
Note.—Volume I started with the first issue, that of July, 1907. Volume II started with the issue of January, 1908. Volume III started with the July, 1908, issue, and Volume IV. began with January, 1909.
In accordance with the note printed in the first part of this present number, we complete Volume IV with this issue, and it therefore takes in but five issues instead of six, as heretofore. The new Volume V will begin with the next issue, July, 1909, issued on June 20th, and will of course contain the usual six numbers.
America to Stimulate Aviation ■ (Editorial).............................. 3
American Aviation Prizes ("Aeronautics"—Bishop) ...................... 4
Shneider Aeroplane................... 7
Kimball Aeroplane ................... 8
Gordon-Bennett and Michelin Prizes.. 9
My First and Only Balloon Ascent, by Blanche Vignos .......................
Over the Canyons and Mountains of the Coast Range in a Balloon, by Horace B. Wild......................... .. t6
R. E. P. II.—Bis Aeroplane, by Carl Dienstbach ......................... 21
Effect of Drift upon the Speed of Flying Machines, by Williams Welch.... 23'
First Steps in Aviation and Memorable blights, by O. Chanute ............. 24
Aerial Experiment, Association Work.. 35
Principles Involved in the Formation of Wing, Surfaces and the Phenomenon of Soaring, by Prof. J. J. Montgomery 43
Early Gliding Experiments in America, by Prof. J\ J. Montgomery.......... 47
American Prizes (Editorial).......... 53
Aerial Experiment Association, by J. A.
D. McCurdy....................... 56
Thomas E. Self ridge: A Tribute, by
R. E. S............................. 57
The Helicopter, by C. II. Chalmers,
E. E............................... 58-
Helicopters for Aerial Research, bv
Prof. Cleveland Abbe............... 61
Antoinette V Aeroplane, by E. T. Tandy 63 Aerial Warfare, by Hudson Maxim.... 64 Ames Aeroplane, by Hon. Butler Ames 65
Bates Aeroplane...................... 67
Bennett Aeroplane, Shneider Aeroplane, W. H. Martin Glider, John Metzger's
Side Lights on the Future of Flying.. .. 84 For Sale, by Hatton Turner.......... 85
Army Aero Appropriation, Editorial.. 93
"Aeronautics" Prize Fund............. 93
Aerial Experiment Association Work.
by J. A. D. McCurdy................ 95
How to Lay Out a Propeller, by R. W.
Jamieson ........................... 97
Grist for the Mathematical Mill, by-James Means ...................... 101
Comments on Mr. Means' article, by
W. R. Turnbnll and Dr. A. F. Zahm.. 103 Aeronautic Society Buys Aeroplane.... 104
Bokor Triplane ....................... 107
Louis R. Adams Glider................ 106
Orville Wright Disaster, by Dr. A. Graham Bell and W. S. Clime.......... 108
Sirch Dirigible ....................109-m
Rinek Aeroplane ..................... 113
Bates Aeroplane...................... 114
Dufour Aeroplane .................... 105
Newman Aeroplane .................. 120
The Flying Machine, by Dr. Carl Barns 123
Bleriot XI, .............____.......... 128
Possible Cause of Zeppelin Disaster, by
C. W. Sirch........................ 130
Laws of Flight, by F. W. Lanchester.. 131 Report of Gliding Machine Tests, by Geo.
A. Spratt ..............'............... 132
Our Prize (Editorial)................. 133
Soaring Flight—How to Perform It, by
O. Chanute........................ 134
Aerial Experiment Association Work,
by J. A. D. McCurdy................ 137
The Awakened St. Louis, by E. Percy
Noel ............................... 138
Aids for the Inventor................. 139
Wright Brothers' Patents.............. 141
Thomas E. Selfridge: An Appreciation.w^*
by C. H. Claudy.................... 143
Beach-Whitehead Aeroplane........... 145
Shneider, Bokor, Stadtler, Greene and
Aerial Propellers ..................... 150
Herzog, Downer, Telfer, Scott and
Lane Machines .....................151-152
iCornu Helicoplane ................... 159
yBertin's Helicopter .................. 160
Tests of Framing Wood, by A. Q. Dufour ............................... 167
Club News .......................... 168
No May issue. Name changed to June. June.
Prize Giving (Editorial).............. 173
Front and Rear Controls of a Flying Machine, by Dr. A. Graham Bell, Gardner Bell and F. W. Baldwin.... 175 Propeller Mathematics for the Kindergarten Class, by John Squires, M. E. 17S
How to Guide, by Wm. H. Aitken.... 1S3 Step Gliders and Towing Tower, by M.
B. Sellers........................., 183
Foreign Aero Engines............... 1S4
Hydrogen Gas Ballooning, by Carl E.
New American Aeroplanes (Eichenfeldt, Andreae. Snell)............... 102
Floating Balloon Basket.................. 107
How to Use Blower, by E. W. Mix..... 10S
Highest Astronomical Observatory, by
Dr. David Todd ...................207
Farman's New Aeroplane............. 206
Bokor Triplane ...................... 190
Propeller Mathematics ^/j^e'iso)
In the course of my experiments 1 built and tested propellers from the data of Langley, Maxim, Phillips, Herring, Hollands, Turnbull, and others less well known, but latterly, of course, from the very nature of the developments, the types varied according to the working conditions and the designs were governed entirely thereby.
In this article 1 have carefully refrained from giving any actual experimental data, but have endeavored rather to stick to the purely mathematical principles involved, and would further call to the attention that 1 have not dealt with propellers in flight, preferring to take this up separately and to show as a sequence, again, that a higher thrust per horse power does not, of itself, mean higher efficiency, and that because a propeller has high thrust per horse power against a fixed point, it does not follow that the machine to which it is attached will travel faster through the air than one with a lower thrust per horse power.
New Aviation Motor.
The Kirkham Motor Mfg. Co. have just sold one of their motors to Messrs. 11c-Curdy and Baldwin. In an hour test of the motor by Mr. McCurdy, it developed 47 b.h.p. at 2,100 r.p.m. and shows 40 h.p. at normal (1,600) ■ speed. The motor is a 4-cycle, 6-cylinder (3 I3-i6x4t4 inch), vertical, water-cooled, weighing, without magneto or battery, 300 lbs. The Kirkham compaii}' believe they have the rieht kind of a motor for aero purposes and, if possible, will exhibit at the first of the Aeronautic Society's exhibitions. At any rate, it can be seen a little later at Morris Park.
WANTED.—Curtiss 8-cylinder, air cooled motor in good condition. Name lowest cash price. L. J. C, c/o Aeronautics.
WANTED TO BUY—A light weight (25 h. p. or more) gasoline motor. Address E. F. Kumler, 6S07 Aetna Road, Cleveland, O.
In the collection of new scientific aeronautical instruments received from Paris hy the International School of Aeronautics, is a transparent glass compass, which is fixed on the side of the balloon basket. A special extra-light manometer to indicate the pressure in the balloonet of a dirigible, a half-weight duplicate of the one supplied Capt. T. S. Baldwin by A. C. Triaca, proprietor of the School for the Government Dirigible I, has also been received.
Experiments will shortly begin at the school with plane and curved surfaces, making use of the wind wagon, for obtaining resistances at various speeds and angles. The Triaca aeroplane will be completed in three weeks and begin its trials. Mrs. Triaca has been elected a member of the Aero Club of Italy.
It may be of interest to recall the various aeronautical journals which have previously been published in America.
The first was "Aeronautics," which was started by M. Forney in October, 1803, to publish the papers of the "Conference on Aerial Navigation" held in Chicago in 1893. Twelve issues sufficed for this magazine, and the papers were re-published in book form. Then a department of aeronautics, with O. Chanute as associate editor, was added to the "American Engineer and Rail Road Journal" in October, 1894, -'ind continued until December 12, 1895, when the journal was sold out.
The second was the "Aeronautical World," published by W. E. Irish, at Glen-ville, Ohio, which lived from August 1st, 1902, until August 1st, 1903, inclusive.
The third paper to be started was the "Aeronautical News," published by F. R. Thirkettle in New York earl}' in 1907. The lack of support for this enterprising paper was the cause of its delivering up the ghost after one issue.
The fifth unfortunate demise was that of "The American Aeronaut and Aerostatist," started by T. R. MacMechen and A. Kauf-mann in St. Louis, October, 1907. Its precarious existence ended in July, 1908, after publishing six numbers. This was more pretentious than any of the foregoing.
The fourth magazine to be started in America was the present "Aeronautics," which began its existence in Jul}', 1907, and has now grown into sturdy youth. "Aeronautics" has been issued regularly every month for twenty-three months now, and remains the only aeronautical journal published in America.
New York > Chocolates
Health Food Chocolate
Most Suitable for Aeronauts or thone requiring: a Non-Hulky Su«tnininer Food Office, 150-154 CHAMBERS STREET, NEW YORK
" Aeronautics" * Library Bureau
Will Supply on the Shortest Notice All Books, Pamphlets, or Periodicals Dealing With Aviation, No Matter Where Published. It Is Also Prepared to Furnish Photographs of all Machines and Aviators, and Articles Either Technical or Descriptive Treating of the Art. Lectures arranged.
At the informal evening of the Association of Doctors of Philosophy of Columbia University, in the Columbia University Club, A. M. Herring gave an illustrated talk, principally about his own past experiences and work, preceding a short discussion by L. G. W. Schroeder.
Norfolk, Va., May i.—A mysterious airship, occupied by a man and a woman, passed over Hampton Roads, in the vicinity of Sewalls Point, according to a well-authenticated report brought here to-day. Those who saw the strange air-craft stated that it resembled an automobile without wheels; that it was moved by a long propeller. The aeroplane did not ascend in this section.
The new aero club, Asociacion de Locomotion Aerea, in Barcelona, Spain, has begun the issuing of a journal devoted to aeronautics. This is the second aeronautical organization in Spain; the other being the old "Real Aero Club de Espana."
The American Vacu Aero Car Company
I which will do business under this name, is now being formed tf and promoted by a prominent youg Engineer, Inventor ■I and Scientist who has to his credit several valuable and M meritorious patents on various appliances and machines. The
K company will control his inventions which without doubt are lg the most valuable pertaining to aerial navigation to-day. Partiesivho wish to become financially interested, and who can exchange references are requested to communicate with Mechanical Engineer, 124 W. 26th St., Bayonne, N. J.
How to Make a Glider
8-page illustrated pamphlet giving full details for the construction of a bi-surface glider, with diagrams and exact measurements. Every experimentor should have this valuable treatise. Price, 12 Cents (Post Free). AERONAUTICS 1777 Broadway, New York
The N. Y. Globe takes occasion to say this:
"The various aeronautic clubs and societies have very able press agents, with the Aero Club of America in the lead. The man who looks after the press work for the Aero Club of America is really a star in his line, and he has made the club stand for more things and say more things than would be required to fill all the hot air balloons in the country.
"Most of the flying done these days by these clubs is in the nature of talking, and, not to be outdone, the West Hudson Aeronautic Club a few days ago gave an automobile parade, which is considerably safer than flying. Idie president of the Aero Club of America now threatens to go up in the air and take a little girl with him—at least that is the latest bit of 'news' that the press agent of the Aero Club of America has sent out."
when you visit morris park
don't forget to visit the aeronauts' retreat
Morris Park Cafe 866 Morris Park Ave.,
and Summer Garden _j?«lm°™ P-*:
Special lunch served at moderate prices. Private rooms for parties with ladies. All bottled goods sold as represented. Telephone, 239 Westchester. John J. Dragnett, Prop.
ADAMS-FAR W ELL
THE WORLD'S LIGHTEST AND SIMPLEST
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THE ADAMS COMPANY
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Light in weight -Strong and
Variety of types and sizes in stock. Absolutely Guaranteed.
Send for Catalogue 10.
All Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls on Hand.
R. 1. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York
WORKSHOPS—Where members may construct their machines without charge for space or facilities.
MOTORS — With which members may make their initial trials at the cost only of gasoline and care.
SHEDS-—In which members may house their machines, rent free.
GROUNDS—Where members may try out their machines, learn the art of flying, and make flights.
EXHIBITIONS—To which all members are admitted free, and in which they have splendid opportunities to make their [mentions known either in model or full scale.
Weekly Meetings — Held at the
club house of the Automobile Club of America, at which valuable discussions take place, and every assistance and encouragement given.
LECTURES — Well known scientists tell things worth knowing.
LIBRARY —Including a complete file of all aeronautical patents.
EXPERIMENT FUND—A fund is forming for the work of investigation and experiment.
CATAPULT — Apparatus provided for starting aeroplanes that are wheel-less or for gliders.
Gliding Mound—For the practice
and exercise of gliding.
Tiventy-one Members of the Society are now building Machines.
NO INITIATION FEE. DUES-$10 A YEAR.
WRITE SECRETARY FOR BOOKLET.
FORM OF APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP.
To (he SECRETARY, The AERONAUTIC SOCIETY,
Morris Park, Westchester, N. Y.
1 desire to become a member of (he Aeronautic Society. If elected I agree (o pay (he membership fee of $10 per year, and (o abide by (he Rules of (he Society.
Profession or Occupation............................
Cije Aeronautic S>octetp
MORRIS PARK", WESTCHESTER, N. Y.
Join Now at the Opening, of the Season.
MEMBERSHIP AFFORDS STERLING BENEFITS.
AERONAUT LEO STEVENS
THE LEADER OF BALLOON
AND AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTION
The keen Sportsman
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improved Electrical Process.
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Also representing Carton &. laChambre, leading balloon builders of
Special Patented RUBBER BALLOON FABRIC, (German and French.)
THESE FABRICS HAVE BEEN TESTED—NOT IN EXPERIMENTAL STAGE.
A. C. TRIACA AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVE FOR STEVENS BALLOONS.
TWO CENT STAMPS FOR REPLY.
Box 181, Madison square, New York
In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.
Devoted to aerostation, aviation, meteorology, aerology, etc. Edited by Major B. Baden-Powell and John H. Ledeboer
ISSUED MONTHLY SUBSCRIPTION, 75 CENTS
27 CHANCERY LANE LONDON, W. C. ENGLAND
The Aeronautical Journal
(The organ of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain) Edited For the Council by
Col. J. D. Fullerton, R. E. (ret.), F. R. G. S., F. Z. S.
An illustrated Quarterly devoted to the Science of Dynamic Flight in all its branches. Annual Subscription : Publishing Office :
Six Shillings and Sixpence. 27 Chancery Lane, London.
Pcsl Free England
INTERESTING AND USEFUL
The Aeronautical World
Illustrated Monthly—Published 1902-3 by W. E.Irish
Contains Important Information for
Experimenters in Mechanical Flight
12 Nos. Vol. 1
What Kind of a MOTOR Do You Want?
Let us answer
1st, A reliable motor 2nd, A powerful motor 3rd, An enduring motor
HAVE THESE QUALITIES
Curtiss 8 cyl. Motor used in '"Silver Dart"
THE KIND YOU ( *st' ^ motor of "freak" construction. DO NOT WANT I ^n^' A motor °f extremely light construction. I 3rd, A motor of unproven merit. CURTISS MOTORS ARE NOT IN THESE CLASSES. Built in All Sizes. New Models of Highest Type and Greatest Efficiency. Send for Catalogue N. CURTISS MOTORS HAVE MADE GOOD
H. CURTISS MFG. CO., Hammondsport, New York
FOR SALE BY
BOOKS AERONAUTICS BOOKS
1777 BROADWAY, NEW YORK
AERIAL WARFARE, by R. P. Hearne, with an introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim. First systematic popular account of progress made by the countries of the world in aeronautics. 57 views of airships and aeroplanes: Wright, Farman, Delagrange, Bleriot, Ferber, Zeppelin, Patrie, Republique, &c. Profusely illustrated. $2.06 postpaid.
TV/TOEDEBECK'S HANDBOOK, by Major iVX H. W. L. Moedebeck and 0. Chanute. The only handbook of aeronautics in English. All phases of aerial travel fully covered. Invaluable for the beginner and a ready reference for the aeronautical engineer. Data on screws, pressure, ballooning, physics, etc. Illustrated. $3 25.
PROBLEM OF FLIGHT, by Herbert Charley.
Especially written for engineers. Outline of contents : Problem of Flight, Essential Principles, the Helix, the Aeroplane, Aviplanes, Dirigible Balloons, Form and Fittings of the Airship. Appendix furnishes much instructive information. 61 illustrations. Price, $3.50.
A 17AR IN THE AIR, by H. G. Wells. The greatest fiction story in recent years. Unfolds a breathless story of aerial battle and adventure, a triumph of scientific imagination, possibly not beyond the realm of actuality. Illustrated. $1.50.
^STRA CASTRA, by Hatton Turnor.
This rarest aeronautical work in existence can be supplied to a few first inquiries at $15-All in perfect condition.
A ERONAUTICAL ANNUAL, by James Means. For years 1895, 1896 and 1897. Extremely rare. Illustrated.
"DALLOONING AS A SPORT, by Major B. Baden Powell. A handbook of ballooning and guide for the amateur. Full instructions for the equipment and management of a balloon. Illustrated.
"NJaVIGATING THE AIR, by members of the Aero Club of America. Interesting record of ideas and experiences of 24 distinguished men. Contributors: Wright Bros., Chanute, Pickering, Rotch, Zahrn, Stevens, Herring and others. 300 Pages, 32 Illustra-
Resistance of Air and the Question of Flying (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated.
Flying Machines, Past, Present and Future (A. W. Marshall and H. Greenly). 11-Paradoxes of Nature and Science (W. Hampson). Illustrated. Two chapters on bal-Airships Past and Present, by Captain A. Hildehrandt; translated by W. H. Story. Aerial Flight: Aerodynamics (F. W. Lanchester). Large 8vo., cloth, illustrated.
By C. H. CHALMERS. E. E.
In this paper, Mr, Chalmers gives valuable data obtained in his elaborate experiments. Subject is treated in an altogether different manner than in any other work. A new foundation is laid. Reprinted from Feb., 1909, issue. Pamphlet 25 Cents.
Proceeds of Sale to go to the Prize Fund. "AERONAUTICS." 1777 Broadway, NEW YORK
Artificial and Natural Flight
By SIR HIRAM MAXIM. With 95 IIIus.
Cloth, illtis., S vo., $1.75 net
A concise history and description of the. development of flying machines. Description of his own experimental work. Kxplaining the machinery and methods which enable him to arrive at certain conclusions. Fully describes the work of other successful inventors. Chapter on dirigible balloons.
••AERONAUTICS," 1777 Broadway. NEW YORK
f LYING MAC MINE
a genuine fjlying machine
Will fly by its own power over one hundred feet, in a circle or straight away. This wonderful toy was an original model, developed in the making of a successful man-carrying machine. Built on totally new scientific principles, and acknowledged by leading students in Aeronautics as the most wonderful invention of the age. Measures 14 inches across, 5 inches high, 6 inches long ; weighs less than one ounce ; will carry more than its own weight. Very
durable, amusing and instructive to both young and old. Interest increases with every flight. If started upside down it will right itself and continue flying.
Price $ 1.00 at your dealer's. If he cannot supply you we will send direct by express prepaid in the U. S. on receipt of $1.00.
II. J. NICE COMPANY
I 1 IS. E. 5th St. Minneapolis. Minn.
Bokor Aeronautic Motors
50-60 H. P. - 26-38 H. P.
The Most Reliable Motor Possible for the weight—not a featherweight freak.
THE HORSE POWER ABSOLUTELY GUARANTEED Aeronautic Supplies of all Description
1876 BROADWAY, Cor. 62nd Street
PHONE, 5039 Columbus J. P. F1TZPATRICK. Sales Manaeer
Demonstrations at Morris Park Aerodrome
TWO GREAT FIRSTb
st. louis honeywel;
RECORDS PROVE IT
II The longest voyage by a licensed pilot in the United States, in 1908, was made with the 2200 cubic meter "Yankee"—461 miles with two stops—a remarkable perform* ance; 800 pound ballast aboard when landing.
II The greatest bal= loon trip of the year —850 miles, in com= petition—made b y the 2000 cubic meter balloon, "Fielding= San Antonio." Four American and two Foreign makes de= feated by wide margin.
BUILDER and PILOT
This picture from basket was made 3000 ft. altitude show. ;ng French staggard block system peifectly constructed, as all our balloons are made, giving safety and strength.
AEROSTATS, AIRSHIPS AND INSTRUMENTS
IN STOCK AND MADE TO ORDER
1 HONEYWELL CONSTRUCTION Utilizes the latest and best materials-varnished or rubberized envelope with French=type valve, and Italian hemp or linen nettings. Cars equipped for comfort and convenience —light and durable.........
FRENCH—AMERICAN BALLOON CO.
H. E. HONEYWELL, Director
3958 Cottage Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.