Aeronautics

Volume 4 - No. 4 - 1909 April

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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ONTENTS

FLIGHT—HOW PERFORM IT

O. Chanute

L EXPERIMENT AS-■ATION'S WORK J. A. D. McCurdy

\IDS FOR THE IN->JTOR

iELFRIDGE— AN AP-LCIATION

C. H. Clauc'y

AWAKENED ST. U1S E. Percy Noel

L PROPELLERS

-IT BROS. PATENTS

Machines at Morris Park — ivity all over the Country ooning Season oper.s — For-News Letler, etc., etc.

s Aero News I the World \raphically, 'ictorially, urately Told.

MISS ANNA HELD

Photo by F. J. Parrrtt

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Published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc.

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Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the PoslofBce, New York, N. Y., under the Act of

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Vol. IV

April 1909

No. 4

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

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OUR PRIZE

"La Revue de l'Aviation" in its last issue says: "Our American confrere has decided to offer, during the course of the year, $200 for each of the four first aviators who accomplishes a flight of at least 500 metres without touching the ground. This is a good beginning for America, which, up to now, has done so little fo>~ aviation, so little even that the Wrights zvere obliged to come to France for recognition. We give 'Aeronautics' our most hearty congratulations."

The "Conquete de l'Air," complimenting "Aeronautics" on its initiative in offering the first aviation prize in America, says, in part:

"Up to the present $220,000 have been offered in Europe for the advancement of aviation, and in America nothing. The newspapers and reviews have written upon the subject, but nothing has resulted."

An interesting commentary upon America's interest in aeronautics from "purely patriotic motives."

Mr. C. H. Gaudy, whose appreciation of Lieutenant Sel fridge is printed in this issue, was correspondent for the New York and Paris Heralds for the Washington aeronautical trials of last summer. His collection of photographs of the Baldwin and Wright trials, including the Wright accident, is the only individually' complete one in existence. Mr. Claudy was present at every event every day of the sum-

mer and pictured them all. He will attend the balloon races at Indianapolis.

That "the stage of experimentation in aerial navigation is past—the conquest of the air is now a reality" was the sentiment expressed by Maj. Geo. O. Squier and Lieut. Frank P. Lahm in their addresses before the National Geographic Society the last week in March,

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS

President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.

SOARING FLIGHT

HOW TO PERFORM IT By O. Chanute.

NoTE;-Since the International Aeronautical Congress of October. 1007, the author has revised this paper, substituting the Langley co-efhcient to the Smeaton co-efficient for rectangular air pressures. Its present publication seems timely now that soaring flight, ignored for sonic years, is being much discussed in Europe and a prize has been offered for its performance.—Editor.

There is a wonderful performance daily exhibited in Southern climes and occasionally seen in Northerly latitudes in Summer, which has never been thoroughly explained. It is the soaring or sailing flight of certain varieties of large birds who transport themselves on rigid unflapping wings in any desired direction; who, in winds of 6 to 20 miles per hour, circle, rise, advance, return and remain aloft for hours without a beat of wing, save for getting under way or convenience in various maneuvers. They appear to obtain from the wind alone all the necessary energy, even to advancing dead against that wind. This feat is so much opposed to our general ideas of physics that those who have not seen it sometimes deny its actuality, and those who have only occasionally witnessed it subsequently doubt the evidence of their own eyes. Others, who have seen the exceptional performances, speculate on various explanations, but the majority give it up as a sort of "negative gravity."

The writer of this paper published in the "Aeronautical Annual" for 1896 and 1897 an article upon the sailing flight of birds, in which he gave a list of the authors who had described such flight or had advanced theories for its explanation, and he passed these in review. He also described his own observations and submitted some computations to account for the observed facts. These computations were correct as far as they went, but they were scanty. It was, for instance, shown convincingly by analysis that a gull weighing 2.188 pounds, with a total supporting surface of 2.015 square feet, a maximum body cross-section of 0.126 square feet and a maximum cross-section of wing edges of 0.098 square feet, patrolling on rigid wings (soaring) on the weather side of a steamer and maintaining an upward angle or attitude of 5 degrees to 7 degrees above the horizon, in a wind blowing 12.78 miles an hour, which was deflected upward 10 degrees to 20 degrees by the side of the steamer (these all being care-

fully observed facts), was perfectly sustained at its own "relative speed" of 17.88 miles per hour and extracted from the upward trend of the wind sufficient energy to overcome all the resistances, this energy amounting to 6.44 foot-pounds per second. It was shown that the same bird in flapping flight in calm air, with an attitude or incidence of 3 degrees to 5 degrees above the horizon and a speed of 20.4 miles an hour was well sustained and expended 5.88 footpounds per second, this being at the rate of 204 pounds sustained per horse power. It was stated also that a gull in its observed maneuvers, rising up from a pile head on unflapping wings, then plunging forward against the wind and subsequently rising higher than his starting point, must either time his ascents and descents exactly with the variations in wind velocities, or must meet a wind billow rotating on a horizontal axis and come to a poise on its crest, thus availing of an ascending trend.

But the observations failed to demonstrate that the variations of the wind gusts and the movements of the bird were absolutely synchronous, and it was conjectured that the peculiar shape of the soaring wing of certain birds, as differentiated from the flapping wing, might, when experimented upon, hereafter account for the performance.

These computations, however satisfactory they were for the speed of winds observed, failed to account for the observed spiral soaring of buzzards in very light winds and the writer was compelled to confess: "Now, this spiral soaring in steady breezes of 5 to 10 miles per hour which are apparently horizontal, and through which the bird maintains an average speed of about 20 miles an hour, is the mystery to be explained. It is not accounted for, quantitatively, by any of the theories which have been advanced, and it is the one performance which has led some observers to claim that it was done through 'aspiration,' i. e., that a bird acted upon by a current, ac-

tually drew forward into that current against its exact direction of motion."

A still greater mysery was propounded by the few observers who asserted that they had seen buzzards soaring in a dead calm, maintaining their elevation and their speed. Among these observers was Mr. E. C. Huffaker, at one time assistant experimenter for Professor Langley. The writer believed and said then that he must in some way have been mistaken, yet, to satisfy himself, he paid several visits to Mr. Huffaker in Eastern Tennessee and took along his anemometer. He saw quite a number of buzzards sailing at a height of 75 to ioo feet in breezes measuring 5 or 6 miles an hour at the surface of the ground, and once he saw one buzzard soaring apparently in a dead calm.

The writer was fairly baffled. The bird was not simply gliding, utilizing gravity or acquired momentum, he was actually circling horizontally in defiance of physics and mathematics. It took two years and a whole series of further observations to bring those two sciences into accord with the facts.

Curiously enough the key to the performance of circling in a light wind or a dead calm was not found through the usual way of gathering human knowledge, i.e., through observations and experiment. These had failed because I did not know what to look for. The mystery was, in fact, solved by an eclectic process of conjecture and computation, but once these computations indicated what observations should be made, the results gave at once the reasons for the circling of the birds, for their then observed attitude and for the necessity of an independent initial sustaining speed before soaring began. Both Mr. Huffaker and myself verified the data many times and I made the computations.

These observations disclosed several facts:

1st. That winds blowing five to seventeen miles per hour frequently had rising trends of 10 degrees to 15 degrees, and that upon occasions when there seemed to be absolutely no wind, there was often nevertheless a local rising of the air estimated at a rate of four to eight miles or more per hour. This was ascertained by watching thistledown and rising fogs alongside of trees or hills of known height. Everyone will readilv realize that when walking at the rate of four to eight miles an hour in a dead calm the "relative wind" is quite inappreciable to the senses and that such a rising air would not be noticed.

2nd. That the buzzard, sailing in an apparently dead horizontal calm, progressed at speeds of fifteen to eighteen miles per hour, as measured by his shadow on the ground. It was thought that the air was then possibly rising 8.8 feet per second, or six miles per hour.

3rd. That when soaring in very light winds the angle of incidence of the buzzards was negative to the horizon—i. e., that when seen coming toward the eye, the afternoon light shone on the back instead of on the breast, as would have been the case had the angle been inclined above the horizon.

4th. That the sailing performance only occurred after the bird had acquired an initial velocity of at least fifteen or eighteen miles per hour, either by industrious flapping or by descending from a perch.

5th. That the whole resistance of a stuffed buzzard, at a negative angle of 3 degrees in a current of air of 15.52 miles per hour, was 0.27 pounds. This test was kindly made for the writer by Professor A. F. Zahm in the "wind tunnel" of the Catholic University at Washington, D. C, who, moreover, stated that the resistance of a live bird might be less, as the dried plumage could not be made to lie smooth.

This particular buzzard weighed in life 4.25 pounds, the area of his wings and body was 4.57 square feet, the maximum cross-section of his body was 0.110 square feet, and that of his wing edges when fully extended was 0.244 square feet.

With these data, it became surprisingly easy to compute the performance with the coefficients of Lilienthal for various angles of incidence and to demonstrate how this buzzard could soar horizontally in a dead horizontal calm, provided that it was not a vertical calm and that the air was rising at the rate of four or six miles per hour, the lowest observed, and quite inappreciable without actual measuring.

The most difficult case is purposely selected. For if we assume that the bird has previously acquired an initial minimum speed of seventeen miles an hour (24.93 ieet per second, nearly the lowest measured), and that the air was rising vertically six miles an hour (8.80 feet per second), then we have as the trend of the "relative wind" encountered:

6

— = 0.353, or the tangent of 190 26' 17

which brings the case into the category of rising wind effects. But the bird was observed to have a negative angle to the horizon of about 30, as near as could be guessed, so that his angle of incidence to the "relative wind" was reduced to 160 26'.

The relative speed of his soaring was therefore: _r . _

Velocity = » 172 -\- 6* = 18.03 miles per hour.

At this speed, using the Langley coefficient recently practically confirmed by the accurate experiments of Mr. Eiffel, the air pressure would be:

18.032 X 0.00327 = 1.063 pounds per square foot.

If we apply Lilienthal's coefficients for

an angle of l6° 26', we have for the force in action:

Normal: 4.57 X 1-063 X 0.912 = 4.42 pounds.

Tangential: 4.57 X 1.063 X 0.074 = —0.359 pounds.

Which latter, being negative, is a propelling force.

Thus we have a bird weighing 4.25 pounds not only thoroughly supported, but impelled forward by a force of 0.359 pounds, at seventeen miles per hour, while the experiments of Professor A. F. Zahm showed that the resistance at 15.52 miles per hour was

I/2

only 0.27 pounds, or 0.27 X - — 0.324

I5.522

pounds, at seventeen miles an hour.

These are astonishing results from the data obtained, and they lead to the inquiry whether the energy of the rising air is sufficient to make up the losses which occur by reason of the resistance and friction of the bird's body and wdngs, which, being rounded, do not encounter air pressures in proportion to their maximum cross-section.

We have no accurate data upon the coefficients to apply and estimates made by myself proved to be much smaller than the 0.27 pounds resistance measured by Professor Zahm, so that we will figure with the latter as modified. As the speed is seventeen miles per hour, or 24.93 feet per second, we have for the work:

Work done, 0.324 X 24.93 — 8.07 foot pounds per second.

Corresponding energy of rising air is not sufficient at four miles per hour. This amounts to but 2.10 foot pounds per second, but if we assume that the air was rising at the rate of seven miles per hour O0.26 feet per second), at which the pressure with the Langley coefficient would be 0.16 pounds per square foot, wTe have on 4.57 square feet for energy of rising air: 4.57 X 0.16 X 10.26 — 7.50 foot pounds per second, which is seen to be still a little too small, but well within the limits of error, in view of the hollow shape of the bird's wings, which receive greater pressure than the flat planes experimented upon by Langley.

These computations were chiefly made in January, 1899, and were communicated to a few friends, who found no fallacy in them, but thought that few aviators would understand them if published. Thev were then submitted to Professor C. F. Marvin of the Weather Bureau, who is well known as a skillful physicist and mathematician. He wrote that they were, theoretically, entirely sound and quantitatively, probably, as accurate as the present state of the measurements of wind pressures permitted. The writer determined, however, to withhold publications until the feat of soaring flight had been nerformed by man, partlv because he believed that, to ensure safety, it would be necessary that the machine should be

equipped with a motor in order to supplement any deficiency in wind force.

The feat would have been attempted in 1902 by Wright Brothers if the local circumstances had been more favorable. They were experimenting on "Kill Devil Hill," near Kitty Hawk, N. C. This sand hill, about 100 feet high, is bordered by a smooth beach on the side whence come the sea breezes, but has marshy ground at the back. Wright Brothers were apprehensive that if they rose on the ascending current of air at the front and began to circle like the birds, they might be carried by the descending current past the back of the hill and land in the marsh. Their gliding' machine offered no greater head resistance in proportion than the buzzard, and their gliding angles of descent are practically as favorable, but the birds performed higher up in the air than they.

Professor Langley said in concluding his paper upon "The Internal Work of the Wind":

"The final application of these principles to the art of aerodromics seems, then, to be, that while it is not likely that the perfected aerodrome will ever be able to dispense altogether with the ability to rely at intervals on some internal source of power, it will not be indispensable that this aerodrome of the future shall, in order to go any distance—even to circumnavigate the globe without alighting—need to carry a weight of fuel which would enable it to perform this journey under conditions analogous to those of a steamship, but that the fuel and weight need only be such as to enable it to take care of itself in exceptional moments of calm."

Now that dynamic flying machines have been evolved and are being brought under control, it seems to be worth while to make these computations and the succeeding explanations known, so that some bold man will attempt the feat of soaring like a bird.

fiThe theory underlying the performance in a Irising wind is not new, it has been suggested by Penaud and others, but it has attracted little attention, because the exact pata and the maneuvers required were not mown and the feat had not yet been per-ormed by a man. The puzzle has always •ecu to account for the observed act in very ight winds, and it is hoped that by the present selection of the most difficult case /to explain—i. e., the soaring in a dead hori-/zontal calm—somebody will attempt the exploit.

The following are deemed to be the requisites and maneuvers to master the secrets of soaring flight:

1st. Develop a dynamic flying machine weighing about one pound per square foot of area, with stable equilibrium and under perfect control, capable of gliding by gravity at angles of one in ten (53A°) in still air.

2nd. Select locations where soaring birds abound and occasions where rising trends

of gentle winds are frequent and to be relied on.

3rd. Obtain an initial velocity of at least 25 feet per second before attempting to soar.

4th. So locate the center of gravity that the apparatus shall assume a negative angle, fore and aft, of about 30. Calculations show, however, that sufficient propelling force may still exist at o°, but disappears entirely at -f- 4°.

5th. Circle like the bird. Simultaneously with the steering, incline the apparatus to the side toward which it is desired to turn, so that the centrifugal force shall be balanced by the centripetal force. The amount of the required inclination depends upon the speed and on the radius of the circle swept over.

6th. Rise spirally like the bird. Steer with the horizontal rudder, so as to descend slightly when going with the wind and to ascend when going against the wind. The bird circles over one spot because the rising

trends of wind are generally confined to small areas or local chimneys, as pointed out by Sir H. Maxim and others.

~th. Once altitude is gained, progress may be made in any direction by gliding downward by gravity.

The bird's flying apparatus and skill are as yet infinitely superior to those of man, but there are indications that within a few years the latter may evolve more accurately proportioned apparatus and obtain absolute control over it.

It is hoped, therefore, that if there be found no radical error in the above computations, they will carry the conviction that soaring flight is not inaccessible to man, as it promises great economies of motive power in favorable localities of rising winds.

The writer will be grateful to experts who may point out any mistake committed in data or calculations, and will furnish additional information to any aviator who may wish to attempt the feat of soaring.

AERIAL EXPERIMENT ASSOCIATION WORK.

By J. A. D. c7WcCurdy, Sec'y.

LONGEST FLIGHTS EVER MADE BY ASSOCIATION MACHINES— DISSOLUTION OF THE A. E. A.

The A. E. A. has devoted itself during the month of March to experiments with Dromes Xos. 4 and 5, McCurdy's Silver-Dart and Bell's Cygnet II. The weather conditions all through this month were ideal for flying, and as tlie large expanse of ice over Baddeck Bay continued day after day in good condition, many flights were made.

The Silver-Dart has indeed given us much valuable experience in control, balancing, and, in fact, the "feel of the air." We having flown her not only in comparatively calm days, but at times when the puffy northwest wind blew from 8 to 15 miles per hour.

Early in the month a course was marked out on the ice and easily followed, because of the fact that small spruce bushes had been planted at half-mile intervals. This course extended from Dr. Bell's laboratory to the town of Baddeck, a distance of two miles, then passing through Baddeck Harbor, the trees led us to a point two miles beyond this, covering a distance of four miles. We almost daily flew over this route till the spring so far advanced that the ice in the open parts of the lake were no longer safe. Then we confined ourselves to circling in the near vicinity of the laboratory. The diameter of the circle so negotiated was about two miles.

On March 15th the Cygnet was again tried. She was also run over a short measured course, and velocity as to speed with the surfaces presenting different angles to the line of advance were determined. Sufficient velocity was not attained to cause the machine to rise. This, however, may be due to several causes, as, for instance, improper application of the power at our command, insufficient power, or the enormous head resistance of the structure.

The Association felt that they had arrived at a stage where a purely experimental organization was no longer advisable, they having accomplished the purpose for which they originally associated themselves together, viz., "to get into the air," and so on March 31st the Aerial Experiment Association came to an end by time limitation.

Mr. G. H. Curtiss has already started building aerodromes for sale, and while his field will be in the United States, Messrs. F. W. Baldwin and J. A. D. McCurdy will employ themselves in the fields of Canada and Great Britain.

Dr. Bell will in all probability, during the coming summer, devote his attention to getting the Cygnet II into the air after the. manner employed with Cygnet I,

THE AWAKENED ST. LOUIS

By E. Percy Noel.

If St. Louis does not stand near the top in aeronautical importance hefore the end of the year, it will not be the fault of the moving spirits of the Aero Club of the Missouri city. The club has pledged itself to spend $ro,ooo or $15,000 this fall for an air carnival, which probably includes an indoor aeronautic exhibition. Two new club balloons have been ordered, one of which will_ be a racing aerostat of the standard capacity, and the other a 40,000 cubic foot balloon for every day use. Resides—and this is more important—the club has passed a resolution to lease a large tract of ground in the vicinity of Forest Park for ascension grounds, and ordered the installation of inflating facilities.

The latest word is that not only the club racing balloon, "St. Louis No. 3," already entered in the annual championship race from Indianapolis, with Albert Bond Lambert as oilot and H. Eugene Lloneywell as aide, will be seen in the Aero Club of America's contest, June 5: but also the balloon "Yankee," with Al. P. Shirley as nilot and H. F. Cartwright as aide. Mr. Shirley has not, however, April 7th, qualified for his license; but it is understood that he will endeavor to make two necessary ascensions this month so that he may be eligible to compete from Indianapolis.

TO BUY MOTOR.

The Aero Club of St. Louis has made another important step by offering to inventors the use of a suitable aerial motor of 30-50 h.o. Besides lending the motor the club will endeavor to aid the users in every way possible, and can pretty well assure the use of suitable practice grounds for aero-planists. The motor will be of a kind that may be used in either digs or planes; but the mterest so far has come entirely from plane builders.

But there is still more and then a little, to tell about what the club is doing.—A publicity nlan has been outlined and the beginnings of it were evident in the lectures that I had the honor to give before the railroad men's branch of the Young Men's Christian Association, and the central branch of the same organization. Frankly, the people who have attended these lectures have shown intense interest— from locomotive engineers to high school lads. The lectures are illustrated with lantern slides and motion pictures, and are intended to give a clear idea of the subject of aeronautics in general—and slightly in particular. Schools, universities, organizations, the nublic in the big and little cities—all are going to get these aerotalks, and it is believed that much interest will be aroused. The Aero Club is responsible for the inauguration of the lectures, and they mav be said to be under the club's auspices.

One of the first results of the lecturing was the formation of an Aero club at the central

branch of the Y. M. C. A. It is called a "club" because all the courses of instruction there go by that name, and the club idea is also carried out. Mr. Albert Bond Lambert and H. Eugene Honeywell have consented to act as lecturers during the present April and May, and the young men are very much interested and enthusiastic.

At a recent meeting the club decided to give honorary membership to the officers of the State Signal Corps, with headquarters here. At future ascensions on the club grounds the signal corps men will assist in inflation and incidentally learn a great deal that will be valuable to them about ballooning. Later the officers will be given an opportunity to make trial trips, and after that the signal corps is going to have a balloon of its own that will be equipped with wireless. Chester E. Burg is the first lieutenant.

With these few points in mind—things that are being done and have been done already— one will agree with me that St. Louis is sliding up to the top-notch position that it once secured, during the 1907 balloon race. Although the officers of the club, including the re-elected president, L. D. Dozier, deserve a share of the credit because they at last found it best to assume the active policy that the interests of the club demanded, yet the bulk of all the credit belongs to Albert Bond Lambert, who has worked untiringly, and often doggedly, to secure action of a broad and effective character. No one in St. Louis has done more to promote the sport of ballooning, by his personal efforts, than Mr. Lambert, and perhaps no one has the interests of aerial science, sport and the club more deeply at heart. He is one of those rare men essential to the success of aeronautics in general.

HONEYWELL BOOMING.

The orders for the new club balloons went to the French-American Balloon Company, and H. Eugene Honeywell states that he will be able to deliver the 40,000 cubic-footer and the 78,000 cubic-footer bv the first of May, and earlier if need be. The French-American Company has received requests for balloons for the Seattle Exposition, an order for a new dirigible envelope and many minor orders during the past month. For the future Mr. Honeywell is planning the construction of a large balloon hall where several balloons may be dried at one time, and other extensive arrangements ; but for the present, he says, the company's quarters are ample for the purpose of constructing aerostats of a useful size. Although the business of the company has increased by leaps and bounds, Mr. Honeywell continues to oversee every detail of the construction, down to the turning out of the smallest bolt and the sewing of every felled seam of the French staggard block system envelopes.

NEW AIDS FOR THE INVENTOR

Balance Device

Alois Innerhofer and associate, Rosebank, S. I., have devised a semi-automatic balancing device for use on the aeroplane which they are building. This is illustrated and described as follows:

The two steering planes "K" can be turned independently around shaft "S" by means of levers "m," universal joints "n" and connecting rods "h," which are controlled by yoke "d." Screw "d" and yoke are made in one piece. Screw "d" can slide in block "t," but is prevented from turning by key "e.'" Block "t" is fastened to the frame of the aeroplane by two pins so that it can turn around a vertical axis. Steering wheel, sleeve "a" and

tends to counteract this turning momentum of the air current.

In all aeroplanes so far tried out the upward and lowering directions are controlled by one set of levers, and the lateral stabili-sators by still another set.

Aeroplane Radiators.

It is fortunate for designers of engines for flying machine work that the racing automobile has been so fully developed, as the problem of cooling high-powered engines by means of radiators which are very efficient, very light, and which offer little resistance to the air, has been already solved, and while there is no doubt that radiators for "flying

sleeve "b," are connected to each other rigidly; "b" is held to block "t" by means of a flange and collar "c."

The superiority of this device lies in the following: Taking an aeroplane of the present type, as used by the leading aviators, if caught by a current striking the planes from the side with a tendency to upset or destroy the lateral equilibrium, the aviator will instinctively lean towards the side being elevated, as would be done, for instance, by a bicycle rider under similar circumstances. By holding the steering gear he will naturally carry same over with him and thereby give the forward or steering planes the required twist or inclination which

machines should possess those qualifications in a superlative degree, it is not necessary to seek a new type of radiator than that almost universally adopted by the designers of successful racing cars.

This type is the square tube, or honeycomb. Usually these radiators are constructed of drawn brass tubes four inches long, about 7/32 in. square in cross-section, which are assembled in vertical rows, with strips of brass between the rows at front and back, so as to form spaces for the water to flow down between the tubes. The air passes through the tubes themselves and thus cools the heated water. Owing to the large amount of radiating surface obtained, these radiators are

very much more efficient, and much lighter than radiators of the tube and fin variety of the same amount of radiating surface, and also offer much less resistance to the air. In fact, when moved at a high rate of speed, they develop considerable lifting power, as they may be considered as composed of a large number of small box kites.

An improvement on this method is in swaging the ends of the tubes so that when they are assembled, the water spaces are formed without the use of the strips to keep the tubes apart. This allows the water to pass all around the tubes, which is a distinct advantage over the usual method in which the water flows down past the two vertical sides

American inventiveness which has succeeded in using two thin plates of metal so fashioned that when placed together and crimped on the edges, one on another, they form a zig-zag continuous tube, through which the water must flow in a thin sheet. (See illustration.)

When these tubes are placed together, each air passage is entirely surrounded by the heated and flowing water.

These tubes have corrugations on their inner surfaces which permit them to expand in case of freezing or overheating, and have the further advantage of permitting the use of thinner metal than could otherwise be employed, and, of course, increase the amount of radiating surface as well. The edges of these tubes are swaged to sharp edges, so that they present very slight resistance to the air, and as the edges are crimped over before they are soldered, much less solder is used than would otherwise be needed. Actual and very careful tests on this radiator show its great efficiency, but since it is not practical to obtain mechanically any high air velocities (above 18 miles per hour), the full efficiency of the radiator can only be estimated by comparing the operation of the same car under the same conditions, but equipped with the Livingston Radiator and with any other make of radiator.

The Livingston Radiator Company has had much experience with different problems of cooling, and is paying particular attention to the problems of cooling engines for aeroplanes. We have obtained from them the following data on a radiator to cool a 30-h.p. aeroplane motor: Over-all dimensions 18 in. high, 13 in. wide, 4 in. deep, weight, 20 lbs. For 60 h.p., 25 in. high, 18 in. wide, 4 in. deep, weight, 37 lbs.

of the tubes. The swaged end tubes are assembled either in vertical rows, or brick-fashion, and either drawn or lapped and soldered. Owing to the difficulty of swaging the ends of the tubes, they are usually of greater diameter than the tubes first described, and therefore do not have the same efficiency per foot of frontal area, although they do have greater efficiency per foot of radiating surface, as all their radiating surface is or may be active while one-half of the surface of the first kind is conductive only.

The Livingston Radiator Company manufactures a radiator which seems to be the final development in the art. It is due to

McAdamite Finds Favor.

Though they will still use spruce for the framework of their aeroplanes, the Curtiss-Herring Company are having their engine parts made of McAdamite, the new alloy of aluminum. A full account of this new metal, which will undoubtedly be largely used in aerial work, was given in "Aeronautics" in April, last year. Its great value for the needs of flying machines is that it combines the strength of steel with the lightness of aluminum, and its fine properties are very marked in castings. In addition, it is not subject to rust or corrosion by atmospheric gases. McAdamite might also be used for framework on account of its extreme toughness and rigidity, even when in the thinnest strips. The tensile strength of the cast metal is remarkably high : about 45,000 lbs. per sq. in., while the elastic limit is 84,000 lbs., and the compression resistance 126,000 per sq. in., The torsional strength of the best bronze is about 38,000 lbs. per sq. in., but that of McAdamite is about 60,000 lbs., nearly as much as that of steel, which is 66,000 lbs. per sq. in. Its weight compares with aluminum in the ratio of 5 to 4.

WRIGHT BROTHERS' NEW BRITISH PATENT

On November 10, 1908, application was made in the British patent office by Wilbur and Or, ville Wright covering the points given below, which patent was allowed on March 4, 1909:

This invention relates to flying machines of the aeroplane type, and the object of the invention is improvements in their lateral balancing; the object is the realization of this balancing by the arrangement, on the right and left-hand sides of these machines, of movable wings capable of being presented to the air at different angles of incidence, combined with surfaces the resistance of which to the movement of advance can be regulated synchronously with that of the horizontal wings. The apparatus comprises horizontal planes for aero-

FIG--I.

flexible or universal joints. Each aeroplane is formed by a rectangular frame, of which the greater length is perpendicular to the line of flight of the machine; this frame is of materials which unite the necessary resistance with the desired degree of flexibility, being, for example, of wood of good quality, or of light metal rods. The two frames of the aeroplanes are covered with cloth, the rear transverse side, b1, of each frame is formed of a central part, and of two side portions jointed at b. The deformations of the aeroplanes are obtained by means of a cable, 4, fixed at its ends to the rear movable corners of the wings of the upeer aeroplane, and passed under guides, 5, carried by the frame of the lower aeroplane by means

7 /o 20

planes, the lateral wings of which are movable, regulatable resistances arranged upon the right and left-hand sides of the machine, and capable of modifying the resistance to advance of the right and left-hand wings. Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a flying machine. Fig. 2 is a horizontal section taken below the upper aeroplane. In these figures is represented a flying machine, comprising aeroplanes placed one over the other, and connected to each other, and of which the lateral portions or wings are adapted to move about horizontal axes, so as to give to the aeroplanes a heli-coidal torsion, determining upon each wing the different angles of incidence. The aeroplanes are indicated at 1 and 2; they are connected to each other by means of rigid rods or bars, 3, fixed at their opposite ends by means of

of small brackets, 6. Between these guides the cable can be moved, either towards the right or towards the left, by an auxiliary cable, 8a, carried back by a guide, 4a, on to a drum, 7, mounted upon a shaft, 8. This shaft is solidly fixed in supports, 9, carried by the lower aeroplane. This drum is provided with a Handle, 10, and a brake, 11, which prevents it from rotating about the shaft; a clamping-screw, 12, permits the friction on the shaft to be regulated. A second cable, 13, is fixed at its ends to the lower wings, and carried back on to the guides, 14, of the upper aeroplane. By means of these cables, a single movement of the handle, 10, communicates a hclicoidal torsion to the right and left-hand ends of the two aeroplanes, presenting them to the atmosphere at different angles of incidence, which permits, by the regulation of the angles of incidence,

of keeping and re-establishing the lateral balance of the machine, the side presenting the greater angle of incidence to the atmosphere tending to rise, while the other side tends to descend. This regulation of the balance would be perfect if a secondary phenomenon did not arise to interfere with the new working of the apparatus. The side of the aeroplane of which the angle of incidence has been augmented presents a more resisting surface to the movement of advance, and its speed diminishes the opposite wing of the aeroplane, presented at the smaller angle of incidence, offering a lesser resistance to this movement, moves more rapidly. For the purpose of opposing the secondary movements which tend to become produced, there are arranged at the right and left hands of the centre of the machine resistances to the movement of advance wings which can be regulated individually, for the purpose of creating on the side of the apparatus, presented at the smaller angle of incidence, a supplementary resistance equal to the difference existing between the resistances to the advance of the right-hand wings and of the left-hand wings, and to thus compel the two sides of the aeroplane to move at the same speed. These regulatable resistances are preferably constituted by vertical vanes, 15, each mounted upon a shaft or a vertical rod, 16, the extremities of such shaft being located in the upper and lower frames of the aero-

planes near their front edges. Beneath each vertical vane, 15, the shaft carries a pulley, 17, upon which is fixed the end of a cable, 18, the other end of which is attached to the corresponding pulley, 17, of the vane, 15, belonging to the other side of the machine. The cable,

18, is provided with devices for working it, and which allow of the vanes, 15, being acted on. This action on the cable, 18, is obtained by means of return pulleys, 19a, and a drum,

19, mounted upon the shaft, 8, provided with a handle, 20, and a brake, 21, the drum and the shaft being similar to the drum, 7, and the brake, 11. The handle, 20, is preferably arranged parallel and quite near to the handle, 10, so that the handle, 10 and 20, may be grasped together by one hand, and so that they can be made to act simultaneously on the drums, 7 and 19. When the handle, 20, is moved in one direction or the other, a pull is exerted upon one of the sides of the cord, 18, the other side of this cord becomes slack. One of the vanes, 15, is thus moved in the desired direction, presents obliquely to the line of flight, and permits the other vane, 15, to return to its normal position, which is parallel to the trajectory of the machine. The brake, 21, serves to maintain the vane in its new position until the drum, 19, has been actuated again to bring it into another, or cause it to resume its normal direction.

Aerodromic Patents.

The following are American patents allowed since the last issue :

Joel T. Rice, Hot Springs, Ark., 914,511, airship. Structure of dirigible balloon consisting of a rigid supporting frame to which the envelope is fastened and protected by a belt from being worn by contact with the frame. A floatable boat-shaped car is connected at the bottom of the frame and above is another car. Propelling means are provided at vertical center of envelope and also lower on the frame as well as on the car.

Louis H. Becht, Paris, France, 914,732, aeroplane airship. Embodies aeroplane, helicopter and balloon construction. An envelope for gas convex at the top and flat on under side serves as an aeroplane secured to the frame at an incline. Ascensional propellers above envelope are supported by shafts extending through envelope and plane.

Henry Mueller, St. Louis, Mo., 914,969, aeroplane. This apparatus embodies horizontal and vertical propellers, the latter designated as whirling planes, and increase in diameter from the lowest. A plurality of stationary horizontal planes are interposed between the whirling planes which are mounted on a vertical shaft; also designated as a helicopter. Transmission from the motor to the vertical and horizontal propellers is susceptible of varying speeds to one set or the other according to whether raising or advancing movement is desired.

Oscar J. Laisy, Cleveland, O, 916,456, airship. Characteristic features consist of a ro-tatable shaft having spokes extending therefrom in the form of a spiral, and a cigar-shaped envelope surrounding the shaft and through which the spokes pass. The spokes are covered with canvas so that when the shaft is rotated the spiral vane acts to propel the machine. Incidentally, the gas bag rotates. The car and motor are hung below.

Max Strzelecki, San Francisco, Cal., 916,626, flying machine. Car having tail pivoted at rear and wings pivoted at the sides driven by motor. The wings are constructed to have a gas supporting field.

Harry Wells, Oakland, Cal., 917,695, airship. A birdlike structure of immense size having room for passengers within the body. A machinery chamber below the main body and a collapsible gas bag below all. Reciprocating wings at the sides of the body of the bird are driven by motor in machinery chamber. Propellers provided for forward motion.

Malcolm G. Adams, Parsons, Kans., 917,513, flying machine. Aeroplane having plurality of planes with means for operatively connecting said planes combined with means for controlling so as to swing in a fore and aft direction and enable tilting and twisting of the planes.

THOMAS E. SELFRIDGE AN APPRECIATION

By C. H. Claudy

It is my loss that I did not know Lieut. Sel-fridge intimately enough to feel that I have the right to speak for him now. Yet I cannot help having the firm conviction that he would have chosen the death he died above all others, save that upon the field of battle.

interest in aerial work on my own account, and a very small amount of experience in the work, I was able, I believe, to become a little less the stranger and a little more the friend than some of my fellows, as far as Lieut. Sel-fridge was concerned. And because every one,

The Last Photo of Selfridge Ever Taken

Taken by Mr. Claudy just as the fatal flight was started

From my acquaintance with him, and my knowledge of the absorbing and intense interest he had in all matters pertaining to the navigation of the air, I am led to think that few men have been so utterly happy for the last minutes of their lives as he was.

A little group of newspaper correspondents, who had faithfully travelled the weary road of bad suburban car service to Fort Myer, week in and week out, as Baldwin came, and saw and conquered and was paid and went his way, and then, later, as the ' mysterious Wright" arrived, and proved so pleasant a disappointment, and won everyone's regard, and broke records and made history—had many opportunities to get acquainted with the officers in charge. Inasmuch as I was the only one of the group who did not miss some one day during the trials and because of a rather keen

from the humblest rear rank private to the general in command of the corps to which Selfridge was attached, liked him—because we, the newspaper correspondents, found him not only the usual combination of officer and gentleman, but, in addition, modest, retiring, and affable, an able speaker, and a willing helper out of difficulties, I want to go on record with this little tribute to a man whose loss to the cause he was serving, as well as to the Army of which he was proud to be an officer, is greater than we can realize as yet.

Few men at twenty-six years of age have so much the poise and dignity that were his, unless they be plainly assumed. If I were asked to sum up Selfridge in one word, and was forbidden the obvious "manly," I should say "unassuming." I recall that he was much disturbed because he was publicly quoted once,

by some correspondent, with the best of intentions. I asked him why he did not wish to be quoted, particularly when the subject-matter— aeroplanes—was one he knew so much about.

"I am the junior officer on the board," he said. "It looks as if I was trying to come to the front, because I have a little special knowledge. I would be grateful if you wouldn't quote me, unless you have first quoted some otlier officer on the same subject."

Lieutenant Selfridge had unusual ability, not oniy in his own special line, but in a general adaptability to whatever he put his hands. When he and a brother officer, Lieutenant Foulois, made their maidev- -ascension in the Baldwin dirigible, and steered it up and down ths field and back and forth, and brought it to as neat a landing as Baldwin himself could have done, the "Big Captain," as he calls himself in jest, said to me, "Those two boys up there have got brains in their fingers. It won't be two days before I can't teach them anything more." High praise, this, from a man who knows more about dirigibles than any other man alive, from the practical "up in the air" standpoint.

Personally, Selfridge was good to look upon. He was a splendidly built, athletic chap, with the natural grace of the strong man. He had one of the kindest pairs of eyes I ever looked into, and his voice would have charmed a savage. I can't localize it to any section, but it had the Southern cordiality, without its deep drawl, and a ringing quality which made it carry without raising. I doubt that any of those who sat about the Press Club dinner to Captain Baldwin, in Washington, will soon forget the happy speech Selfridge made—a speech which became him well, and bore out his desire not to put himself forward, for he devoted it to his friend and co-worker—Glenn H. Curtiss—told of his life and work and struggles and success in a clear, clean, manly sort of way; and, although he spoke for a quarter of an hour at a dinner where short speeches and many had been the rule, when he sat down, and the clamor commenced, no one could say how much of it was for Curtiss, whom we all know and like, and how much for Selfridge, whom all liked who knew.

Selfridge had tact. With plenty of soldiers to enforce the necessary rules of getting and keeping people off the grounds while Wright flew about—a precaution the necessity of which was so tragically emphasized—and with a thorough understanding of the responsibility which was his in being in charge of this, Lieut. Selfridge said to a lot of us one day—when we were grumbling about our press badges being such hollow mockeries, "We want to get this space clear for Mr. Wright. I know if you newspaper chaps will just start things by falling back, the crowd will follow." A little thing? Yes, but an illuminating thing—many a man would have ordered first, and perhaps made some hard feelings among a class of men accustomed to consider themselves privileged. Not so Selfridge. The gentle way, the tactful way, was, with him, the effective way. I have never heard him raise his voice, but I

never saw the soldier who didn't fairly jump for anything Lieut. Selfridge wanted.

He was anxious to ride on the Wright aeroplane. He had had many trips in the "June Bug"—the first successfully flown American aeroplane as far as public flights were concerned. This is leaving out of consideration the earlier Wright flights, which, while made before witnesses, were not allowed to get into print. He was a co-designer of the "June Bug" and had done valuable work on it, and the other aeroplanes—"Red Wing" and "White Wing," and, I suppose, on the "Silver Dart," at Hammondsport, where he worked as secretary of the Aerial Experiment Association. He was to have had his trip with Wright on the Monday previous to the accident. Wind, however, kept him from it until Thursday. He was to start the next day for St. Joseph, where he was to fly in the dirigible with Lieut. Fou-iois. And he was wild to go with Wright before he went—and so happy when the wind died down and Mr. Wright said they would try. Some friends of his came up to him just before he went up the fi.eld, and shook bands and congratulated him, and said how glad they were to see him fly. No one, you see, who had seen the Wright machine fly but looked on it as about as safe and rigid as an automobile on a macadam road. The other correspondents had gone ahead that day, and Mr. Wright and Lieutenant Selfridge and Lieutenant Creecy, of the Marine Corps, and I, walked up the field together. Just before we got to the starting track, I said to him, "Lieutenant, please remember, when you are flying about up there, that there is one man down here who envies you every minute."

Before he could answer, Creecy broke in, "There are more than you know of—here is one!"

Lieutenant Selfridge smiled. "I guess you fellows would like it," he said. "I am glad to go." And if Mr. Wright had offered_ me his place—it would not have been Selfridge who died.

It had been one of his kindnesses that I was permitted to get just where I wanted, to get some pictures. The general orders to exclude everyone from near the machine were left to Mr, Wright and the officers for exceptions, and Lieut. Selfridge had personally gone about to the members of the guard and seen that they knew me for an exception, so that I might get the pictures I wanted. And one of those pictures was of two men in the machine, just as it started. In the one I obtained, Selfridge is looking directly at me—his hand is on the trip lever, just at the start of the brief flight, the end of which, for him, was eternity.

I am glad to believe that he never knew what hit him. Mr. Wright has said that on hearing the crash of the broken propeller, Selfridge looked back, and then, as they fell, cried out, "Oh ! oh !" but that was all. He never spoke or regained consciousness again. He died as a soldier should—doing his duty; he died as I believe he would have chosen to die—after five minutes of happiness in the air he had given his best years and thought to conquer.

{Concluded on page 172.)

T MORRIS PRRK.

MANY MEMBERS OF AERONAUTIC SOCIETY BUILDING MACHINES.

Flyers Which Will Be On Hand For the Spring Exhibition.

So far as can be found out, at least twenty members of the Aeronautic Society are either building or will construct machines of one design or another.

We are already acquainted with the machines of Fred Shneider, Wilbur R. Kimball, Morris Bokor, and C. W. Williams. Charles J. Hendrickson, of Middletown, N. J., has completed a small monoplane, somewhat similar to the "Butterfly" of Santos Dumont. This is merely experimental to determine thrust, etc., from his small 2-cylinder Curtiss motor. This machine will soon be brought to Morris Park for further improvement and trials.

Trials have been made in gliding flight, as

done or tried out at the Park are R. W. Jamieson, Geo. A. Lawrence, Octave Jean, Alexander Williams, A. J. Stadtler, S. M. Gardenhire, J. Frank Boylan, L. E. Dare, and Thomas A. Hill, a recent member of the Society.

F. E. Boland, of Rahway, N. J., is another member whose work, judging from the man himself and from what some of his acquaintances know, will result in something practical. Not a word about his machine will be given out, but there are rumors that he has been able to make short nights with his monoplane.

Dr. Henry W. Walden will shortly start a machine similar to the Wrights, but with certain quite different details, aeroplane for Win. II. Butler. Dr. William Greene and A. C. Triaca have started work on

Hendrickson Machine Used as Glider

it was found the machine could not well be started under power without wheels, whose added weight would make flying impossible.

S. Y. Beach and Gustave Whitehead have completed a machine, described elsewhere in this issue. This will also soon be seen at the old track.

Wilbur R. Kimball is still working on the machines. Others whose work will either be

Then, of course, the Society will have the Curtiss aeroplane which G. H. Curtiss is to fly at the exhibition.

MACHINES COMPLETED OR UNDER WAY.

Beach-Whitehead Aeroplane

One of the founders and most enthusiastic members of the Aeronautic Society, Stanley Y. Beach, the aeronautic editor of the "Scien-

tine American," has recently had constructed a new type of aeroplane which is said to be superior in several ways to any heretofore produced.

This new machine, which is shown in the illustration, has been built by Gustave Whitehead, of Bridgeport, Conn. It is constructed along the lines of both the Wright biplane and the Bleriot monoplane, its chief feature being the use of a triangular longitudinal body with a bow like that of a ship, which form of aeroplane is the subject of a patent recently issued to Mr. Whitehead. One of the gliders shown at the Aeronautic Society's Exhibition at Morris Park, on November 7 last, was constructed upon this principle, which experiment has shown offers a distinct advantage in giving the aeroplane excellent longitudinal stability, while the transverse stability is also increased, and it is not necessary to box in the

by belts from the motor, and they run in opposite directions. There are two pulleys mounted on the motor shaft for this purpose. The bow of the triangular body is made of sheet metal, and the cooling water from the engine is sprayed over it on the inside and collects at the bottom. This bow thus forms a combined radiator and tank. The aviator steers the machine by means of a wheel, the same as in an automobile. This wheel operates to the rear pair of wheels of the running gear and also the vertical rudders, and the horizontal rudder is operated by a lever at the side of the aviator.

The length of the main planes is forty feet, while the width from front to back is eight feet. The triangular body is also about forty feet long. The total weight of the machine with the aviator will probably amount to twelve hundred pounds, so that the surfaces

-L 3 Beach-Whiteh ends of the main planes with vertical partitions.

This new Whitehead machine is built on a rectangular frame mounted on four wheels, and covered over to form a platform at its front end. The motor and aviator are located on this platform beneath the lower main plane. The triangular body is placed just above this lower main plane, and carries at its rear end the horizontal rudder, while twin vertical rudders are placed on each side of it near the rear. The triangular body spreads into a tail at the rear end, and is also fitted with a pair of wings about two-thirds of the way back from the front end.

Two 8-foot propellers are mounted at the front edge of the planes on either side of the triangular body. These propellers are driven

ead Aeroplane are required to lift about two pounds to the square foot. The motor is a light 5-cylinder 4-cycle engine of about 2^5 pounds weight. It is fitted with concentric valves, the inlet valves being of the automatic type, and it_ ic capable of developing 50 h.p. at a thousand revolutions. The bore and stroke are of 5 and 5^ inches, respectively. Each cylinder is provided with a ring of exhaust, ports extending completely around it. The ignition is by means of a single coil storage battery and a distributor. A light float-feed carbureter is used. This engine was designed and built by Mr. Whitehead especially for the Beach machine. The machine is about completed, and the tests of the propellers to determine their thrust will be made in a few days.

Further Changes in Shneider Machine.

Referring to the changes mentioned in the February issue, the 5 by 2 foot rear vertical rudder has been changed so that the supports for it hinge at the connection to the main surfaces. In the housing shed, the rudder thus folds quite closely against the machine itself. The surfaces of the front rudder have been made rigid instead of flexible, as heretofore noted. The two propellers have been changed again to the usual form, but of metal, 7^ feet in diameter. There is now a stationary "keel" extending front to rear affixed to and below the upper main supporting surface. Two levers are now used for control in place of the steering wheel.

Trials are being made each morning early while calm air can be had, starting from the catapult. Thus far the machine has not been able to get off the ground save from the force of the catapult.

Stadtler Triplane.

Another new machine which will shortly be started at Morris Park is the double triplane of A. J. Stadtler. The spread will be 25 feet and the entire distance from front to rear of the machine 40 feet. There are three parallel planes in front and three parallel planes following. Two chain-driven propellers are placed between the front and rear cells. These propellers will be so constructed that the pitch may be changed while the machine is in flight. There are four vertical rudders in the same plane and acting in concert with the four wheels supporting the entire machine, one of which is placed at each lateral extremity of the two cells between the lower and middle surface. A partly automatic equilibrium device is planned. The machine will be tried in towed flight before the motor is installed, which will probably be a cut-down automobile engine.

Shneider Aeroplane Bokor Triplane. Greene Aeroplane.

The Bokor machine, by the time this journal is issued, will probably have had its first trial at Morris Park for "Aeronautics'" prize.

A regular automobile motor, of the same type as was used in the "Thomas 40" and the "Chalmers Detroit 40" automobiles, will be used. This motor, built by the American and British Mfg. Co, has a total weight of 260 pounds, which includes water pump, oil pump, fan and fly-wheel, and develops 34 b.h.p. at 1000 r.p.m. A Livingston radiator has kindly been loaned to Mr. Bokor for trial to prove its efficiency. R. I. V. ball-bearings have been used on the engine counter shaft and Timken roller-bearings on the propeller shafts. For shock absorbers in the carriage, especially designed Cary springs have been employed.

Another new aeroplane started at Morris Park is that of Dr. Win. Greene, treasurer of The Aeronautic Society. The machine is a biplane measuring 40 feet spread by 6l/2 feet front to rear, 6 feet between surfaces. A stabilizing surface 5 by 10 feet is placed above and below the main spreading surfaces at each extremity. These arc operated by an automatic device which can be regulated in advance to work at various winds. For instance, on one day it would be regulated to work at a wind of 5 miles an hour, and on another day at a wind of 15. A patented combination horizontal and vertical tail is used. There are three propellers, two in front and one in the rear. The whole machine is mounted on a carriage of special construction.

Lawrence "Aeriator."

Geo. A. Lawrence has started his third machine at Morris Park, after a great deal of experimental work. The first machine was a "bicurve," and the second was a quadroplane. The present machine is of the bicurve type spreading laterally 44 feet to end of wings; the main surfaces are 6l/2 feet deep, arched. The surfaces are held 7 feet apart by high carbon Shelby drawn steel tubes 1 inch in diameter set in special light alloy castings which are fastened in place by special cast bronze highly polished eye bolts. The machine is trussed with high tensile steel wire and special made steel turnbuckles.

Anthony Wireless Dirigible at Morris Park.

M. O. Anthony, wdiose wireless-operated model dirigible has been mentioned before in this journal, will take up further experiments at Morris Park some time the latter part of May. A 60 foot dirigible is now being constructed for him by A. Leo Stevens which will be tried out at the Park. Mr. Anthony is experimenting with both electric and compressed air motive power, and while his experiments are still under way, the compressed air plant is the more favorably considered.

Fixed rigid to the lower side of each main surface are four keels—extending downward— placed 13 feet apart. The runners on which the machine rests also act as a keel, being covered with waterproof fabric. Forward and rear of the machine are lateral and vertical trussed bridges which extend out 14 feet. The rudders are fastened to these bridges. There are two horizontal rudders forward and two in the rear; one vertical rudder forward, and two in the rear, giving forward and rear control.

Two propellers in the rear, 7 feet diameter, 6 feet pitch, built of steel, run in opposite directions, power transmitted to same by shaft and bevel gear. Lateral stability is maintained automatically with adjustable wings and an electrical device which is kept secret for the present. The automobile pattern heavyweight motor is located forward of the center on the lower plane in the rear of the operator.

Entire machine is single level control, leaving the operator a single free hand while in flight.

Approximate weight, 1,000 pounds; 600 square feet of sustaining surface; machine will rise from the ground with an initial run on wheels at a velocity of 28 miles per hour, and is constructed to travel while in the air at a velocity of 50 miles per hour.

IWing tips are also operated by foot pedals as in emergency in case of accident to the automatic device of lateral stability.

Kimball in his glider sliding backward on his fall. He landed just where he left the rail.

KIMBALL HAS FALL IN GLIDER.

While practicing with his glider on March 27th, Wilbur R. Kimball sustained bruises and luckily escaped serious injuries. The catapult was used to shoot the glider in the air against a varying wind of 15 to 25 miles an hour, so that the aggregate relative speed was about 40 miles per hour. Just at the moment of launching an extra strong puff struck the glider and threw up the front end before the operator could get control of the rudder, and in thus tilting up, the hook of the cable dropped off and the machine lost headway and glided backwards at a downward angle of about 45 degrees, landing the operator on his back on the starting rail and smashing the glider into kindling wood.

The Christening of an Aeroplane

An interesting ceremony took place at Morris Park when, in the presence of a distinguished assemblage, the first aeroplane to be entirely constructed at the grounds of The Aeronautic Society was christened by Miss Anna Held, who nightly celebrates the aeroplane in song and makes a flight in a stage flying machine. Thus, it seemed appropriate that she should be asked to christen a real aeroplane.

After a short address by President Bur-ridge inside the building and toasts were drunk, the assemblage congregated on the lawn in front while Miss Held broke a bottle of wine over the "bow" of the machine and spoke the words : "I christen thee 'New York the First.'"

this society was the first aeronautic society Already the results of our earnest efforts begin to show, as is displayed in these grounds devoted to the promotion of the art, the only aero organization trial grounds in America, and in what you may see for yourselves in the way of machines building, besides the rapidly growing list of enthusiastic members.

"It is a matter of the highest gratification to every American to know that it was a citizen of this great republic who solved the problem of the ages, and proved that human flight was practical. It is for us, each and all of us, to do the utmost that lies within us to see that the United States not alone made the start in this wonderful accomplishment, but keeps the lead. It will be a national disgrace

Christening the Kimball Aeroplane.

note that these grounds are close to the city.

It was at first purposed to christen the machine with American champagne, but, out of compliment to France, whicn country has, perhaps, done the most to further progress in aviation, it was decided to use Le Comte Vernon, a French champagne especially imported for the occasion, and that was done.

Mr. Burridge said in part:

"The Aeronautic Society was organized a few months ago to hasten progress in every possible way, and, among other directions to that end, to help and assist all inventors in their experiments. To do this the society has obtained this fine expanse of land for the practice of flying, and the trying of machines and workshops, which it has well equipped, in which its members can build machines. It is an interesting fact, and worthy of note, that

in the world to possess grounds and workshops of its own, and it is also worthy of special to us if now we lag behind. But lag behind we certainly will unless all of us are stirred to enthusiasm and work with determination. I give you a watchword. It is a watchword which I am sure will appeal to every heart here to-day. That watchword is: America to the front!

"It has been the unvarying custom on launching a ship or a boat to baptize it, and why not then a flying machine, which is destined to play a far more important part in the future, besides being a far greater achievement, as is evidenced by the fact :that navigating the waters is so comparatively easy that it has been performed for thousand of years, while navigating the air is still not fully accomplished, notwithstanding that man has labored upon the problem for countless ages."

AERIAL PROPELLERS

The Wright disaster brought out many criticisms of twin propellers, wood as a material, etc.

Someone has pointed out the fact that the primary cause of the accident was the failure of one of the twin propellers, a tearing off of one of the wooden blades, thus, of course, disabling it while the other propeller continued running, and at suddenly accelerated speed, immediately followed by an inevitable sudden swerve to one side when flying at nearly forty miles an hour, and that this occurrence seems to teach the following urgent lessons, and in no way to condemn, nor reflect upon, the Wright's type of aeroplane, which has abundantly proved its efficiency and controllability under all ordinary conditions :

I. The vital necessity of designing and con-

HOLLANDS "(PATENT) /I JkfZIAL PftOF>£LLEFl .

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structing propellers of absolutely reliable strength, that can be run at the necessary working speed with safety.

2. That wood as a material for propellers is unsuitable, and open to grave objections.

3. That one central propeller for aerial propulsion is preferable to twins for several reasons.

4. That at the present stage it is scarcely necessary to fly at heights of 75 feet and upwards.

A recent British patent taken out by Sidney H. Hollands is of particular interest, as it is for a high grade steel propeller.

Fig. 1 is a front elevation; Fig. 2 a cross sec-

tion at root (R) of blade. The blades are of conchoidal form in cross-section, concave on the driving side, convex on the leading surface, the concavity being less than convexity; the greatest depth of concavity, D, equals one-eighteenth of the width of the blade, and is situated at one-third of the breadth from the leading edge throughout the length of the blade. The blades taper from the roots, R, F, to the tips, T and E; T and E equalling one-third of R and F. The blades are set at a gradually decreasing pitch-angle A, being 30 deg. at R, 22J4 deg. at M, and 15 deg. at T. The propeller is made wholly of steel, the blades being preferably formed of two thin steel plates brazed together at the edges.

The claims made for this propeller are as follows:

AT T

Note: The blades j The m^-\,K&

Cirregular crescant) SScfion^j, The pitch-angles and propor+ions. "C* Shows ~*he relatively small radios oj- centre pra •i'sui'e a*<j man.

(1) Because its efficiency is 85 per cent., due to the following features, constituting a new departure. (2) Minimum radius of centres of pressure and mass resulting in (3) minimum torque in relation to thrust or greatest thrust for a given turning moment. (4) Least centrifugal stress for a given angular velocity and diameter. (5) Least bending moment on blades. (6) A pitch and pitch-ratio of determined maximum efficiency. (7) Added strength due to crescent (hollow) section of blades. (8) Least weight throughout for a given strength. (9) Being wholly of high-grade steel. (10) Harmonious adaptation of all essential parts to structural strength.

COURT OF APPEALS ON AERONAUTICS

A decision of the United States Court of Appeals at New York City has just been filed which contains a statement of interest in aeronautics. The suit was of The Hall Signal Co. against General Railway Signal Co. and involved a railway block signaling system, the patent in suit being the broad patent for what is known as the "Normal Danger" system. Judge Alfred C. Coxe wrote the decision, and it was concurred in by Judges E. Henry La-combe and Walter C. Noyes.

The reference to aeronautics was by way of illustration of the principle that a patent for a useful device will not be held void because of an earlier patent for a useless device. The language of the court is as follows:

"It is enough that a patent which was respected by competitors for thirteen years and which covers a system which has been in successful operation during its entire life cannot be invalidated by the ambiguous language of a patent which has added nothing of value to the art. In such circumstance unusually clear and perspicuous language is necessary. Success cannot be anticipated by failure. When the problem of aerial navigation is finally solved by the construction of a secure dirigible airship, it is safe to predict that the inventor's patent will not be invalidated by a prior structure, no matter how perfect it may be, which was never known to fly."

ACTIVITY IN AVIATION ALL OVER UNITED STATES-NEW MACHINES BEING BUILT AND TRIED.

Herzog Biplane.

R. D. Herzog, of Harvard, Neb., has completed a full-sized aeroplane. The main surfaces have a spread of 48 feet by 6l/2 feet fore and aft. A 16 foot spread by 2^4 feet fore and aft double surface rudder is placed in front. The motor is 21 horsepower, 4 cylinder, air cooled. The balance of the machine is automatically controlled by auxiliary surfaces attached to each end of the main lower surface. The whole machine is mounted on a three-wheel chassis with skids under each end of the lower surfaces. The weight complete without a man is 773 pounds.

"The one distinguished feature of my model is the manner in which it seeks and retains equilibrium. It cannot turn completely over, and, in the case of a fall, drops but a short distance and starts off to the ground at an angle of 10 and 15 degrees."

Aeroplane in Richmond.

John C. Telfer, of Richmond, Va., is working on an aeroplane, details of which are as yet secret on account of patents.

The machine is so constructed that it will, the inventor says, automatically maintain its

Downer's Quintoplane.

C. L. Downer, of Salt Lake City, Utah, has been experimenting with various models in secret, and will say very little about the success obtained. Mr. Downer states that it is "shaped differently and bears no resemblance to anything yet built."

"I have experimented with from one to five planes and find the present model which has five to be the most efficient of all. I employ the principle used by the Wright Brothers, horizontal rudder placed in the front of the machine for elevating or lowering, but have no rudder behind. Have experimented with rudder placed in fore part of the machine, but expect to trust altogether to movable tips for steering.

equilibrium in all winds. The wooden supports between the planes are arranged in such a manner as to practically obviate the necessity of using guy wires.

The uppermost plane is so constructed that it acts as a steering device for guiding the machine upwards and downwards at the will of the operator, and the rudder is so arranged in the rear as to automatically force the machine, in describing a circle, to lean towards the centre of the circle.

The inventor also claims that he has solved the problem of maintaining the center of pressure and the center of gravity coincident in the centre of his machine, so that there is no possibility of the two centres being disturbed at any time.

Air. Telfer has invented and patented a propeller, which he believes will give increased service over the ordinary type with the application of ordinary power. The power used will be light gasolene motors, which will run two propellers in tandem.

By removing a few screws the entire machine can be taken apart in a few minutes and the whole packed into a wagon and moved to another locality, where it can be set up again in a very few minutes.

Rivals of Curtiss in Hammondsport.

Three young men at Hammondsport, Messrs. Babcock, Robinson and Gleason, have become enthused and are now building a motor machine. Since last September they have built three gliders with which flights as long as 200 feet have been obtained. Skids and wheels were used to run the machine down the snow on the steep hills of Keuka Valley to get it into the air. The first machine was a monoplane of 144 square feet supporting surface with the wings set at a diahedral angle. This was found hard to control and was smashed upon landing. Next, a biplane with a "Herring tail" was built. This proved better but lacked transverse stability. A new biplane with about a quarter of the surface of each wing being set at a diahedral angle was made. A combination vertical and "horizontal tail" was used with a horizontal rudder in front. This proved steady even when Hying at right angles to a ten-mile wind. A new machine along the lines of the third glider is being built for equipment with a motor. The inventors are trying to fly with as little power as possible.

J. F. Scott Triplane.

James Frederic Scott, of Lawrenceburg, Ind., has now completed his machine and is ready for trial. There are two front planes of 144 square feet, and three rear planes of 414 square feet; the front planes are divided into two separate sections each side of center and independently deflectable. The rear planes can be set at any desired angle according to speed. The weight, without operator, is 650 pounds.

Mr. Scott modestly states: "I am simply working out the proposition of assembling into a controllable apparatus the funadmentals of mechanical flight, power, weight, and area of carrying surfaces." Further details are, as yet, not available for publication.

English Helicopter-Monoplane.

Little news has been available in regard to this machine which is being built near San Francisco. Our correspondent simply states that it _ is very near completion, the motor, which is of special construction and design, having just been installed. It is expected to develop over 75 horse power. The helicopter, about 40 or 50 feet from tip to tip of helices, is "a marvel of neat workmanship and shows what careful attention to mechanical detail will do." If this type of machine is practical, it is stated that the English family will

do for the helicopter what the Wrights have done for the aeroplane.

Aeroplane for Seattle Club.

The Aero Club of Seattle, Wash., is in the market for an aeroplane. Mr. Robert Guggenheim, who is now in New York, could not say, however, whether or not it would be a "Wright" machine. But they will have one of some make, anyway.

Lane Flying Machine.

The Lane Automatons Airship Co., of San Francisco, have a machine which is designed on new lines. It is claimed that Mr. Lane, the inventor, made a flight on Sept. 8, 1908, of about a mile and a half on a motorless machine, hand and foot power.

The lifting power is to be furnished by a contrivance whereby the air is drawn from above, compressed, and released under the machine in inverted cone shaped cups, four or five times to the second; the sudden release is supposed to furnish the necessary buoyancy, which, however, is supplemented by a horizontal screw 16 feet in diameter driven on its periphery by two gears. This helice is to be placed in and is to form part of the upper plane, 20 by 40 feet, which serves the double purpose of supporting plane and parachute, having hinged drops which are supposed to swing outwardly in case of disaster to the engine. Propellers front and rear, combination vertical and horizontal tail, take care of lateral direction. When equipped with a 36 horsepower motor it is claimed the machine will lift its own estimated weight of 400 pounds and 600 to 800 pounds additional.

Bates Didn't Fly—Bates Did Fly—?

Carl Bates, from Chicago, secured but one chance to try out his machine during the tournament at Daytona Beach. This was at the close of the races, when the wind had died down to practically nothing. When the aeroplane emerged from its shed a great crowd gathered to watch the trial. The machine started smoothly and ran upon its wheels down the beach for some distance, but failed to rise. The motor worked intermittently, and the gathering darkness made adjustment impossible and the aeroplane was run back to its house for the night. Further attempts at flight will be made before he leaves Daytona. The heavy winds the first part of the tournament week made an earlier attempt impossible.

On March 29th, Mr. Bates writes, he made a witnessed flight of 460 yards. Corroboration of the occurrence is now being sought.

He further says:

"This was my first real flight and the only good one I ever made with my machine. I would have flown further if the flywheel had held longer, but it suddenly came loose again, setting up a terrific vibration, which caused the propeller to break loose and shatter the ribs and main rear timbers of the aeroplane; however, the machine landed easily without further damage.

"In this short flight of a little over a quarter of a mile I had an opportunity to test the rudders and wing tips, and found that they responded perfectly to every move of steering gear. I repeatedly turned the machine to right and to left, going down the course in a zigzag line.

. "The fellows with me at the time said the machine was on the average about 10 or 12 feet above the ground, but on one occasion rose as high as 20 feet or more.

"Everyone seemed to doubt my ability to get off the ground, as they had been disappointed every day of the races and would not accept my invitation to come over to the beach to see me try once more. However, I managed to get a few loyal enthusiasts to help me try the machine on the morning of the 29th of March and on this occasion I made a flight of 460 yards, a little over a quarter mile."

Aero Club and Automobile Club Join Forces

Great Need for 3-Party Committee.

On March 27th an agreement was entered into between the Automobile Club of America and the Aero Club of America, by which the latter obtained the support of its possible rival for the control of aviation.

By this agreement the Aero Club became the aviation section of the Automobile Club. Both clubs being American representatives of the international bodies (the International Aeronautic Federation and the International Association of Recognized Automobile Clubs), the two organizations benefitted by the arrangement. It was also stated that the Automobile Club would appoint an aviation committee composed of eight of its members, of whom five must be members of the Aero Club as well.

This was a shrewd move for the Aero Club, as it feared that the Automobile Club might follow the lead of the foregn automobile clubs and take aviation under its own wing, the Automobile Club having already an aviation committee of two, as mentioned in a previous issue.

Great haste was made by the press agents to get this news before the public, as it seemed to be feared that some new aero organization might spring into being overnight and get all the glory, which, as it was, ran rivers.

In France aviation is controlled by the "Commission Aerienne Mixte," composed of delegates from the Automobile Club of France, the Aero Club of France, the National Aerial League, and the Syndicate of Aeronautic Industries. To the onlooker it would appear the just thing to follow the same plan, making a mixed committee formed by delegates of the Automobile Club, the Aero Club and the Aeronautic Society, which latter has had for some time an agreement with the Automobile Club exchanging privileges. Of course, should the Aero Club-Auto Club agreement stand as at

present, President Bishop would no doubt ask the Automobile Club to cancel its agreement with the Aeronautic Society.

E. Percy Noel, of 304 North Fourth street, St. Louis, Mo., has started a lecture tour. At the Y. M. C. A. some 800 persons, many standing up, listened to an illustrated lecture on "Locomotives of the Air." On April 5th another well attended lecture was held under the auspices of the Aero Club of St. Louis at the Central Branch of the Y. M. C. A. on "Air Travel To-day."

Taft to Present Wright Medals—Reception at Dayton.

President Taft has consented to award the Aero Club of America's two medals to Orville and Wilbur Wright upon their return to this country.

The plans of the committee having charge of the reception to be given Wilbur and Orville Wright at Dayton are not yet matured, but in a general way the plan is to have a public reception in one of the theaters or halls followed by a concert in the evening. On the second day there will be a flower parade and a banquet in the evening. President Taft has promised to be there to present the medals awarded by Congress, or if unable to come, to send a personal representative. Governor Harmon is to present the Ohio medals and Mayor Burkhardt the city of Dayton medals. The reception will probably not take place until after they have completed the tests at Fort Myer, probably the latter part of June or during July.

No Interest in New York.

The Dayton "Herald," in an editorial, makes a few pointed remarks on the desire of the "New York Aero Club" to have the national medals presented to the Wrights under its auspices.

It says in part:

"The New York Aero Club desires that the great metropolis should be the scene of the triumph of the Wright Brothers because of the pomp and ceremony with which it can be surrounded. * * *

"No doubt those who do not know either Dayton or New York will be inclined to side with the representations of the Aero Club of New York in its contentions. There is little weight in the contention that as the Wrights are national characters now, the presentation of the medals should be national in character, and hence held in New York. The fact is that an event of this character would be more national in Dayton than it could ever become in New York. Dayton, being in Ohio, will be a more logical, national, American point than New York or any such large metropolis as Chicago, St. Louis, or even Boston.

"There is no doubt that the demonstration in Dayton would far surpass anything New York could produce for the occasion. Two-thirds of New York would regard the exhibit as a show, and, if interested at all, would care only to satisfy curiosity. In fact, we believe that half New York's population is blissfully unconscious of the existence of these aeronauts, and care little, while Dayton knows them personally and will see to it that they have fitting honor and recognition."

Who knows how the Wrights feel in accepting these belated honors? Though the first organization to accept as a fact the early Wright flights, the Aero Club of America is a little behindhand in the rush to shower medals upon the doughty birdmen. Imagine the Wrights are a little too practical to care now about such things! Besides, hobnobbing with kings does not tend to induce sympathy for ordinary mortals.

Wrights Get Thirteenth National Medal.

Those favored mortals awarded national medals belong in the innermost sanctuary of America's temple of fame. The medal awarded to the Wrights is the thirteenth for non-warlike accomplishments, and they are the first civilians to receive this award in more than 20 years. Washington was the first to receive this honor, and the last was Joseph Francis, of Boston, inventor of the life car. This medal was the largest of all save Grant's, and is supposed to have cost $5,000. Other recipients were: George Wallace Melville, of Polar fame; John Horn, for saving many lives; George F. Robinson, for saving the life of Secretary Seward; Cyrus W. Field, in recognition of his establishing a transatlantic cable; George Peabody, for beneficence in giving millions for education; Captains Creighton, Low and Stauffer, for rescuing work; Commodore Vanderbilt, for presenting a ship to the Government; Dr. Frederick Henry Rose, of the British Navy, for risking his life in attending yellow fever patients on our ship Susquehanna; and Dr. Elisha Kent Kane and brother officers, for bravery in the Lady Franklin relief expedition.

A Public Competition for Government Flier.

In view of the rapidly increasing number of American inventors and experimenters who have taken up work with flying machines within the past year, Brigadier-General James Allen, Chief Signal Officer of the United States Army, has declared that the department will determine whether or not additional bids shall be advertised for under specifications or competition thrown open for furnishing a flying machine to the Signal Corps, should either or both of the inventors who now hold contracts with the government fail to meet specifications in the coining tests.

By the terms of the contracts with the Wright Brothers and with A. M. Herring, it is impossible to declare the competition open until the time extension granted in each case has expired.

Through the action of the recent Congress, the army was left without funds for aeronautical work, excepting the amount set aside for the purchase of the Herring and the Wright machine, should they meet specifications. This means that no other inventor, no matter what the standard of his machine, will have opportunity to furnish an aeroplane to the army unless there should be failure to fulfill _ the present contracts. It was after this condition of affairs had been called to his attention that General Allen expressed a willingness to consider making the army flying machine selection after a public contest, should circumstances permit.

Department Stores to Have Gliders in Stock.

The sporting goods department of one of the big Philadelphia department stores is contemplating the purchase of a glider for the purpose of introducing their sale in Philadelphia. Already bids have been asked for from manufacturers.

IN THE WORLD OF AEROSTATION

Big Aeronautic Concern to be Established.

A half million dollar company, of which Chas. J. Glidden is to be the head, and A. Leo Stevens, general manager, is negotiating for the acquirement of grounds and facilities which, if all plans are carried out, will make the greatest aeronautic park in the world.

At Springfield, Mass., probably a large plot will be purchased adjacent to one of the largest gas plants in the world, where buildings will be erected for the building and storing of balloons, dirigibles, and flying machines. There will be steam-heated drying rooms for drying

balloon cloth, vulcanizing machines, and even sleeping accommodations for aeronauts overtaken by fatigue, night, or other misfortunes.

The American rights for a well-known French engine will be acquired and the construction in America of this engine, saving the duty, will be begun. Balloons will be kept inflated at all times ready for ascensions. It is proposed to have arrangements with the various hotels in the different cities by which a patron desiring" to make a balloon ascent, can leave word at the desk of his hotel, and the following day upon his arrival at the grounds everything will be in readiness for him to step into the basket.

Owing to arrangements with the gas company, there will be no necessity of erecting new tanks for coal gas and the equipment of the gas company is already great enough to accommodate 12 or 15 balloons at one time. Apparatus for making hydrogen gas by both the sulphuric and electrolytic processes will be installed.

This great project, however, cannot be depended upon to be ready for use until some 18 or 20 months later on in the century.

Point to Point Race at North Adams.

The North Adams Aero Club has every promise of the busiest of ballooning seasons. The second point-to-point race from that city for the Forbes Trophy will be held the latter part of April or the first of May. Dr. R. M. Randall, owner of the "Gpw'ock," and one of the contestants in the first race for this trophy last August, has challenged the holder of the cup, Arthur D. Potter, of Greenfield, and Mr. Potter promptly accepted, expressing a willingness to race at any time that suited the challenger. It is expected that a third balloon will be. entered in the race before the time expires for such entries. There is no restriction as to the size of the balloon or the number of persons carried; merely that the pilot shall land within a ten mile radius of a point he selects which shall be without a 40 mile radius of North Adams from which the race must start. If more than one pilot lands within the ten mile radius the pilot landing nearest to the post office of the town he selects shall be the winner.

The North Adams club has just received a new envelope for its balloon and three flights have been booked for the first pleasant days on which the club pilot deems it advisable to make ascensions. During Old Home week in North Adams, September 5 to 11, flights by at least one balloon will be made every day. Dr. Randall will qualify during tne early weeks of the season, having made all the necessary flights except his night ascent, and his lone flight, which he will probably combine in one.

A. H. Morgan and J. H. Wade, Jr., will probably enter in the point-to-point race.

Government Licenses for Balloonists.

LEO STEVENS URGES REFORM.

A. Leo Stevens is opening a strong campaign for the government licensing and supervision of balloon pilots. On April 5 he appeared at the Aero Club of America, which is the present F. A. I. licensing body, and urged the directors to join him in the movement. He declares that action on the part of the government is absolutely necessary.

"Some people," he says, "can never become professional balloon men, any more than all men can become successes as artists, or deep-sea divers. It's a part of a man's make-up. There are some men who can make twenty ascensions, and still be no better equipped as pilots than if they were going up for only the second time. A person who is not skilled in aeronautics, knowing that some man has

made, say, nine ascensions, says, 'Oh, he has been up nine times, he must know all about sailing the air. Yes, I'll willingly go.' If we had government regulation, where men skilled in aircraft would make the examinations, this danger would then be obviated.

"The popular idea is that all one has to do to make an ascension is to jump into the balloon car, cut loose, and when one wants to ascend, to throw overboard a little sand ballast, and when one is ready to descend to let out a little gas. As a matter of fact that is not even the alphabet of air riding.

"A certain sized airship, with so many cubic feet of gas, naturally can carry only so many passengers, exclusive of its ballast. There is a nicety in determining just how many it can carry successfully.

"When a balloon of 80,000 cubic feet has thrown over all its ballast, for one reason or another, except five bags, it should drop to the earth at once. To do otherwise is to run a dangerous risk. A law making descent necessary in such circumstances would be a great boon to the art and pastime of ballooning. A bag that carries between 35,000 and 40,000 cubic feet of gas and two persons besides the pilot should drop to earth when the pilot has expended all the ballast save three bags. If he does not do so he is risking lives that he should not be allowed to jeopardize.

"At the present time licenses are allowed to be granted to pilots in this country by the Aero Club of America. There are now twenty-four men holding these licenses. An applicant must make ten successful ascensions before he is granted the license. These have to be made under the direction of other licensed pilots.

"I am in favor of government licensing and regulation rather than that of State jurisdiction. In that way the laws would all be uniform, and all the air sailors would have to be of about equal competent ability. An applicant would not need to go to Washington to make an ascent. He could make the trip at any place, under the guidance of an accredited pilot appointed by the government.

"Throwing ballast overboard is a science. One man can get along through a whole long trip without expending more than five bags of ballast. Another spends twenty. The latter spends all this time in traveling up and down, making saw teeth. The other sails along in a comparatively level line.

"The dilettant in search of a new sensation in ballooning is as dangerous as an automobil-ist afflicted with speed mania. It is time the law controlled him.

"Another good and necessary thing would be to make it compulsory for all balloons and air craft to be equipped with the wireless sparkless telephone, so that, in the event of distress, C. Q. D. messages might be sent calling for aid, just as on vessels at sea. A balloon in trouble would, were it so equipped, have simply to telephone its location, if it were lost on a mountain or at sea, or its general direction, if it were still in the air. and rescue parties in airships, automobiles or steamships could speed at once to the scene.

"The U. S. Army Balloon Corps, with which I have been connected, has successfully experimented with an instrument, but that one, which was an early form of the invention, weighed about a hundred pounds. However, now Dr. de Forest has a new radio wireless telephone of the sparkless type of very light weight, which any balloonist can safely carry. The radio sparkless attachment docs away with all danger of setting the bag afire. The weight is so smnll that when the bcd'oon lauds the operator ran put the whole of the equipment under his arm and take it with him. The ordinary wireless telegraph is impractical for the reason that it makes a spark that might ignite the gas bag.

"In conclusion, I think the license to a beginner should be made reasonably hard to obtain. Further, the laws regulating the ballooning should be severe."

The President of the Aero Club was full of promises for the care that would be taken in the granting of licenses, but he displayed no anxiety to assist in a step that would deprive the Club of its licensing authority.

C. J. Glidden is also taking an active part in the movement for government action.

^era>u*tic^ April, i

Indianapolis Balloon Race.

The Indianapolis Motor Speedway is now erecting a special grand stand in the southeastern corner of the grounds, near the balloon garage, in order to accommodate visitors for this particular event. The grand stand can later be used to accommodate visitors to the track, but in this case the grand stand will be located somewhat closer to the track

Pipe line from the Indianapolis Gas Company has now been completed. Considering that there were four miles to lay and that it all had to be tested to 50 lbs. to the square inch, the Club naturally feels very much flattered in accomplishing the job in such a short time.

Part of the large fence is completed. Two club houses are finished and the roof is ready to go on the balloon garage.

The track will be completed by July 1st. There will be three entries from Indianapolis in this event.

Conqueror Out Again.

The balloon "Conqueror," which was to have been piloted in the last Gordon Bennett race from Berlin by A. H. Forbes but which burst on account of tying up the appendix, will soon be in service. Instead of having been disposed of or thrown on the scrapheap, as reported by ncw-spapers, it was bought back by its manufacturer, Leo Stevens, a new piece sewn in and will shortly be christened "Columbia," in an ascent from North Adams with Mr. and Mrs. Stevens aboard. Many ascensions will be made with it during the year.

Trans-Continental Balloon Voyage a Possibility.

Mr. H. Helm Clayton has not yet started the transcontinental balloon trip arranged all in advance by the newspapers.

Mr. Clayton is willing to undertake the trip, however, when funds are available; and the proper equipment would cost between $6,000 and $8,000. "If I went on such an expedition," he says, "I should want a large balloon, 60 to 70 feet in diameter. I should go to a great height and I should determine the position of the balloon from time to time with a sex-,tant which I have determined to be entirely feasible in two trips; one with Mr. Erhsloh and one with Mr. Glidden. The prevailing rapid eastward drift of the upper air in these latitudes is well known and I have for twenty years been a student of the air movements at different heights under different conditions.

"Making use of this knowledge, I believe it would be possible with adequate equipment to cross the continent in three or four days."

Wireless Telephone for Balloons.

I The Collins system of wireless telephony will be put to practical use in ballooning by A. Leo Stevens during the coming summer. An experimental outfit has already been started and will shortly be given a test. If successful, sending and receiving instruments will be installed in the Stevens' home and in the balloons so that communication may be had at all times with his home.

This will be a wonderful feat if carried out. Its possibilities are at once self-evident. That it is only a dream, however, has no foundation in fact, for daily wireless telephonic communication is now being held between New York and Boston.

New York-Boston Aerial Navigation Company Buys Airship.

Charles J. Glidden has contracted with Leo Stevens for a $15,000 airship to be completed in 20 months for use by the New York-Boston Aerial Navigation Co. It is now contemplated to use a similar compressed air motor to that which M. O. Anthony will install in his wireless controlled airship, thus doing away with any chance of ignition.

A New Aeronautical Organization— Prospect to Cross the Atlantic With a Dirigible.

Joseph Brucker, former editor of the Chicago Staats Zeitung, and commissioner to Germany for the St. Louis Exposition, will organize an international association under the name "Europe-America Aero Navigation Society."

Its first object will be to organize and execute a trip across the Atlantic by dirigible balloon. Auxiliaries to the main body are to be started all over America as well as in Europe, and the governments and scientific institutions of the different countries are to be asked to interest themselves.

The society is to be popular, and open to anyone who has the requisite dollar.

It is proposed to start on the trans-Atlantic trip about July 25th, it being full moon, from Cadiz, Spain, with the first stop at Madeira, if necessary; otherwise at Teneriffe in the Canary Islands, a distance of about 870 miles. From there the trip across the ocean, a distance of about 2,500 miles to the landing in the West Indies.

Mr. Brucker points out the uniformity of the trade winds, which reach a velocity of nearly 28 miles an hour at times.

To Go the Highest.

Aeronaut Leo Stevens and Professor David Todd, of Amherst College, will soon make a balloon ascension from Springfield, when an effort will be made to reach an altitude greater than ever before attained by man. The ascension is to be made for the purpose of procuring scientific data of an important nature and,

because of the great altitude they expect to reach, involves an element of peril and a great deal of hardship.

The balloon will be only one half or two-thirds inflated because it is expected they will reach an altitude where the thinness of the air might cause the gas bag to burst if it were entirely filled. They expect to rise to a point where the temperature is far lower than anything ever experienced on the earth and it is necessary for them to prepare very carefully for keeping themselves alive in such an atmosphere. Professor Todd has recently made several trips to New York for the purpose of completing arrangements for the voyage.

Mr. Stevens said this week he did not feel at liberty to make any statement about the novel air journey. "In fact," said he, "I know very little about Professor Todd's part of it. T sinmly know it is for scientific purposes, but that does not concern me. My part will be to take the balloon higher than any balloon has ever gone before.

CONTESTS, PRIZES AND SHOWS

Rules for "World's" $10,000 Prize.

"This contest will be held as a part of the official programme of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration in New York City from September 25 to October 9, 1909, under the rules of the International Aeronautic Federation and under the management of the Aero Club of America.

"The competition will take place on a day to be decided upon by the committee in charge and will be during the period allotted for the celebration. The committee in charge reserves right to postpone the event to any subsequent date because of weather conditions or for any other reasons which to the committee may seem sufficient.

"All entries must be made in writing before July 1, 1909, to the Aero Club of America, accompanied by an entrance fee of two hundred dollars in cash. Seventy-five per cent, of this entrance fee will be returned to actual starters. The Aero Club reserves the right to accept entries at its discretion up to September 1, T909, on payment of a four hundred dollar cash entrance fee, seventy-five per cent, of this amount being returned to actual starters. Entry forms will be furnished on application to the Aero Club.

"The contest is open to all airships (sic.) propelled by mechanical means, without limitation of the power used or the mechanical principle involved. All airships entered must be mechanically propelled, and the committee reserves the right to refuse permission to start to anyone who has not demonstrated his ability to handle his airship by having made at least three successful flights prior to this contest. Each airship shall carry at least one person.

"The starting line will be an imaginary line running through Governor's Island in an easterly and westerly direction, or some similar imaginary line designated by the Contest Com-

mittee. Competitors can cross this line any time within the limits of one hour as set by the Contest Committee, and their time will be taken and the flight begun when they cross this line.

"The finishing point will be a large open field, hereafter to be designated, in the neighborhood of Albany, and the winner must land in the limits of the inclosure selected.

"The length of the entire course will be reckoned in an air line from New York to Albany. Contestants are at liberty to follow the Hudson River or any other course they may desire within the limits designated.

"Should more than one airship make the flight on any one day within the limit set the prize of $10,000 will be awarded to the one making the best time, the start being reckoned from the minute of crossing the imaginary line above referred to and the finish when the pilot steps from his airship at the point referred to above. Should but one contestant succeed in making the flight the prize will be awarded to him irrespective of the time consumed. The flight from the starting line to the finish at Albany must be made without landing.

"No member of the Contest Committee can take part in this event either as aeronautic (sic.) assistant or passenger. The contest will be conducted by the special committee to be named by the President of the Aero Club of America, who is ex-officio a member of this special committee, which shall embody the Contest Committee of the club.

The committee reserves the right with the consent of all the contestants entered to change these rules in any particular which circumstances may render advisable. All questions-not included in these rules will be decided by the rules of the International Aeronautic Federation.

"The winner of the contest will receive the commemorative gold medal of the Aero Club of America, and the other competitors who accomplish the full course a silver medal of the club."

Note.—The rules are probably intended to cover flying machines as well as airships, but it does not at once thus appear. All "airships" are mechanically propelled. The operator of a flying machine is an "aviator." not an "aeronaut." See rulings of International Aeronautic Federation.

Gordon Bennett Aviation Prize.

Five entries have been made for the Gordon Bennett aviation contest to be held on August 29th near Rheims in the Champagne district, as follows: Aero Club of France, Aero Club of Great Britain, Aero Club of America, Aeronautical Society of Italy and the Austrian Aviation Society.

A cup of the value of $2,500 is offered, and there are three yearly cash prizes of $5,000 each. The contest is one for distance over a course to be chosen. In case of more than one competitor covering the distance the prize goes to the one making the fastest time for the entire distance. Competition is open to every class of gasless apparatus, but the admission of helicopters or oruithopters must be decided specially by the F. A. I.

The entrance fee is $100, which has been paid by the Aero Club of America for its one entry. Now thatthe Wrights refuse to enter, the club is worrying about the $100.

In a letter Orville Wright suggests that the race is not for aeroplanes but for automobiles: "The rules carefully provide against any test of the qualities desirable in aeroplanes, such as reliability, ease of control, efficiency, dirigibility, etc., and provide only for a test of sped."

No Competition for Scientific American Cup Under "1908" Rules.

Aerial Experiment Association Annoyed at Action of Aero Club.

No competition was held on the date set, September 7, 1908, and in March of this year the Aerial Experiment Association made application to enter therefor, with the result that new rules were made under which the A. E. A. deemed it advisable not to compete. The rules as they stood provided that the longest distance made over 25 kilometers be sufficient to win the cup. Beyond setting the date mentioned above, no time limit was put upon the duration in force of the rules.

There being no other entries the A. E. A. believed that "from verbal communications that have passed between some of our members and the president and other officials of the Aero Club of America, that the trophy would be awarded to the first flying machine in America to make a public flight of 25 kilometers under test conditions to be prescribed by the Aero Club; and that the award would be made immediately upon the fulfillment of the conditions."

In a letter to the members of the A. E. A., Doctor Bell further states :

"Believing that the Silver-Dart could fulfill the requirements we made apolication for the award, and agreed to pay the traveling expenses of representatives of the Aero Club from New York to Baddeck and back.

"After receipt of our application, and in consequence of it, the directors of the Aero Club held a meeting in New York to decide upon the test conditions. Upon this occasion, however, they took the opportunity to make a radical change in the understanding at which we had informally arrived; and this has led me to withdraw our application.

"The club now proposes to award the trophy to the machine that shall make the longest flight over 25 kilometers during the year 1909. This means:

(1) The award will not be made until after the close of the year 1909.

(2) Although we should actually succeed in making the prescribed flight of 25 kilometers this would not secure to us the award; for, should a longer flight be subsequently made by the Wright Brothers or others during the year 1909, the award would go to them.

(3) I did not feel justified in incurring the expense of paying the traveling expenses of the representatives of the Aero Club on the almost absolute certainty that the award would be made to others.

(4) The status of the Association in the matter would be lowered by accepting under the present conditions. Instead of receiving the award as an honor commemorating our success in flying a distance of 25 kilometers we would be entering into a racing match in competition with others. This would place us in a position that would be derogatory to the best interests of a scientific experiment association.

(5) It would not be sufficient for us to fly the required distance of 25 kilometers which is only the minimum, but we would be expected to go as far further as possible so as to demonstrate the full capabilities of the machine."

It seems only just that the Club might have held this competition, awarding the prize for a 25-kilometer_ flight so that it could be said that a competition had been held under each set of rules.

The first competition for the cup was on July 4, 1908, under the first (1907) rules, when G. H. Curtiss in the "June Bug" won it for ;he A. E. A. New rules "for 1908" were thereafter made, under which no competition has been held. The new rules arc "for 1909."

Foreign Aero Motor Show in Fall.

The French builders of aerial locomotion engines have grouped themselves in view of opening in Paris an international exhibition especially devoted to aeronautics.

This exhibition will take place at the Grand

Palais des Champs-Elysees next fall, opening at the end of September till October 8th.

The affair has been organized with Mons. Robert Esnault-Pelterie acting as chairman, and the assistance of Messrs. Bleriot, Breguet, Carton and Lachambre, the Auto-Aero Office, Chauviere, Michel Clemenceau (member of the Board of the Ariel Co.), Clement (of the firm of Bayard-Clement Co.), Darracq & Co., Delagrange, Dussaud (member of the board of the Compagnie d'Aviation), Echalie (Continental Co.), Esnault-Pelterie, Foissac et Sirie, Farman Brothers, Gastambide (The Antoinette Co.), Goupy, Gnomes, Gobron, Guffroy. de la Vaulx (member of the board of the Zodiac Co. and deputy chairman of the Aero Club of France), Lefrancis, de Manthe, Lamber-jack (agent for the F. I. A. T. Co.), Maurice Mallet, Michelin, Panhard et Levassor, Louis Renault, Schelcher, Tissandier, Raoul Ven-dome, Zens, etc., etc.

The French aeronautical builders would be pleased to see their foreign colleagues joining them in order to enhance the brilliancy of this show which is going to mark an era in their dawning industry.

The chairman, M. Pelterie, states: "From this moment we must insist on the fact that this show having been originated by specialist manufacturers for the welfare of their industry, it has been decided that any profit deriving from that enterprise should be shared among the exhibitors.

"The number of stands is, of course, rather small, and we should feel obliged to you for a reply at the earliest possible convenience."

Any further information required will be cheerfully furnished at once by applying to Monsieur Esnault-Pelterie, 149 Rue de Silly. Billancourt, Seine.

EUROPEAN MACHINES

Cornu Helicoplane.

MECHANICAL DEVICE FOR VARYING PITCH OF PRO-TELLERS.

Paul Cornu, of Lisieux, France, seems to have come near solving some of the difficulties of the helicopter. This apparatus has a plane similar to an ordinary monoplane. The main difference lies in the arrangement of the propellers. The arms D or the propeller blades

be desired, something like the movement given to an oar in rowing, when the blade is pulled at right angles to the water, but turned on its edge in returning for a fresh stroke.

The propellers are 6 m. in diameter, and their total surface is 4 sq. m. The supporting plane is 12 m. wide and 1 m. deep. Counting in the tail and the rudders, the total supporting surface amounts to 17 sq. m.

jtiiicoPL^ne.

5i»sTE„ratTon.

E are pivoted, in a socket C, near their ends on to a wheel A. At the extremity of each arm is a small lever F, the end of which has a sort of ball joint G, with the rim I of a pulley H, which does not revolve, but turns on its horizontal axis through an arc of about 45 degrees. When this pulley is placed at right angles with the driving shaft B, the propellers work vertically, as those on the usual aeroplane, and as if it had a fixed pitch. But by changing the angle of the pulley by the lever

K, on the bearing J, the arms of the propellers are made to move in a different field, and the blades present either more or less face as may At 260 revolutions of the propellers per minute, M. Cornu has found his lift to be 400 kg. He has been experimenting with a 50 horse-power motor, but is about to install an engine of 80 horse power, and then hopes to make a speed of 100 km., or nearly 64 miles, an hour.

Bertin's Helicopter.

Bertin and Lieber of Paris are experimenting with a new helicopter. It is equipped with a

Hertin ^-cylinder motor of 55 horse power working two propellers placed horizontally one just above the other. The upper one, which is

driven directly by the motor, has a diameter of 3 m., and revolves at 1,000 revolutions. The other, which turns in the opposite direction at 120 revolutions per minute, and is actuated by gear on the same shaft as the upper one, lias immense blades, covered with linen. Their diameter is 7.8 in. and the surface is 4 sq. m. The total weight of the apparatus is 210 kg. The lift of the small propeller alone is 170 1,

Archbishop Blesses Aeroplanes.

Paris, France, April 2.—Mgr. Amette, Archbishop of Paris, surprised conservative Catholic circles yesterday by motoring out to the Juvisy aerodrome in a natty automobile costume. On his arrival he put on his ecclesiastical robes and blessed the aerodrome, as well as two Voisin flyers, sprinkling the delicate white machines with holy water.

The flying machine, he said, also represented man's upward aspirations, and his desire, nay, resolute will, to penetrate the mystery of the world and eternal life. So far from opposing man's inventive genius, the church, declared Mgr. Amette, always encouraged human progress in any legitimate direction. Before his fall, concluded the speaker, man enjoyed sovereignty of the air and it was to be hoped that be would now regain it.

TRADE

New Aero Motor

The Willett Engine and Carbureter Company will soon put on the market an aeroplane engine of 30 h. p., 6 cylinders, between 800 and 1,000 r. p. m. The cylinders will be vertical and made both air and water cooled. The type is to be 2-cycle, with rotary valve intake. No delay in delivery is promised.

Herring-Curtiss Company Elects Officers.

The "Herring-Curtiss Co." held its first meeting of incorporators and has elected the following officers and directors: President, Hon. Monroe Wheeler; vice-presidents, G. H. Cur-tiss, A. M. Herring; secretary-treasurer, L. D. Masson; assistant secretary, Arthur Gilbert; directors, Messrs. Wheeler, Herring, Curtiss, Gilbert and Capt. T. S. Baldwin. The capitalization is $360,000 and the company has a broad charter enabling them to manufacture motor boats, flying machines, motor cycles, automobiles, etc. The home office is at Hammonds-port.

Honeywell Busy.

In order that there may be no misunderstanding in regard to the reference made last month in a note headed "The Balloon Hoax,"

NOTES

we wish to mention the fact that the French American Balloon Co., of which H. E. Honeywell is director, a well-known balloon builder of St. Louis, was not the alleged "manufacturer" referred to in the article.

Mr. Honeywell at present is constructing two balloons for the Aero Club of St. Louis, one of 40,000 feet and one of 78,000 feet, and during the summer, if a certain scheme goes through, he is to receive an order for 15 or 20 balloons. His basket for the 78,000 ft. balloon will be made oblong so that it will be more convenient in sending it by express.

Here is a chance for St. Louis balloon build-

"EASY-$1,000.00-EASY

I WILL PAY ONE THOUSAND DOLLARS To anyone in St. Louis who can construct a better and more complete balloon than the M. A. Heimann Mfg. Co., provided all the various parts are manufactured in one factory.

M. A. HEIMANN The man who rides in the balloons he manufactures. Mr. Heimann built the balloon 'Chicago' and many others."

New Incorporations.

Seattle Captive Balloon Association, $25,000;

F. C. Dittmar, J. C. Mars, Carl J. Smith. Unzner System Steel Airship Building Co.,

Massapequa, N. Y., $100,000; Gustav Unzner, Adolph J. Shavy, Joseph Richter.

Aeroplane Exhibiting Co., Toledo, O., $10,000.

Horgan Flying Machine Co., Chicago, $100,000; Jacob Winner), John Bentall, Wm. C. Horgan, Carl Strover.

National Aerial Navigation Co. of America, Clinton, N. Y., $25,000; George H. Allen, John

G. Kirby, Louis M. Martin. Spokane-Chicago Aerial Transportation Co.,

Spokane, Wash., $1,000,000.

Wagner Aeroplane Co., $100,000, has been formed by Louis Wagner at Newberg, Ore.

Triaca & Bowman Dissolve.

The partnership which has existed between the S. B. Bowman Auto Company and A. C. Triaca, by which Mr. Triaca had charge of the Aeronautical Department, has been dissolved. All the agencies are now retained by Mr. Triaca himself, except that of the Clement-

Bayard dirigible, as before, and he will now devote his entire time to the school at Morris Park.

G. L. Bumbaugh now has in his charge six balloons, from 40.000 cubic feet to 110,000 cubic feet, two dirigibles and an aeroplane which is scheduled to fly July 4th.

Five big balloons are being rushed through at the Stevens shop. These are all to be turned out by the 15th of May and are for the Aeronautical Recreation Society of Philadelphia, Charles J. Glidden, Messrs. Wade and Morgan, Springfield Aero Club and H. J. Pain.

Hugh L. Willoughby, who has started an aeroplane in Florida, has been delayed by reason of the non-arrival of the motor and is now shipping the parts north for completion this summer, possibly at Newport.

March 16.—Roy Knabenshue, Mrs. Roy Knabenshue, Mr. and Mrs. Dick Ferris, in the "United States,'' from Pasadena, Cal. The ascension was made from Tournament of Roses Park about 4 o'clock and the balloon reached an altitude of 8,000 feet soon afterward, disappearing from view in the clouds. After sailing fifteen miles southward it was brought down on the drag rope at the Puente Hills, still in Los Angeles county. A passing horseman was hailed and he towed the balloon to a suitable landing place on the edge of the town of Puente. The landing which was "as light as a feather," as one of the ladies expressed it, was twenty-one miles from the starting point. It was the first balloon trip made by Mrs. Ferris, who is prominent on the stage as Florence Stone. Mrs. Knabenshue and she are the first women to make a balloon ascension on the Pacific coast. Professor T. S. C. Lowe, the noted inventor and who was a famous aeronaut at the time of the Civil War, was at the park to extend his best wishes for a pleasant voyage to the ladies. Mr. Dick Ferris is the owner of the "United States" and "American."

Loxr, Airship Flight.

Roy Knabenshue made a flight of thirteen miles from the center of Los Angeles to the eastern edge of Pasadena, March 14. Pie was accompanied by his brother-in-law, L. M. Rakestraw, of Toledo. A good wind was blowing at the time and at one period in the journey the airship made nearly thirty-five miles an hour. About halfway on the journey a stop was made to clean out the carbureter, which was necessary because of foreign matter having lodged in it while the airship was deflated. The landing at this time was made entirely without assistance, and this feat was accomplished again a few days later in Pasadena in a flight from Tournament of Roses Park.

This is the second long flight made with a dirigible by Mr. Knabenshue. He made the first one also from Los Angeles to Pasadena in 1904 with Thomas S. Baldwin's "California Arrow."

]\larch 16—A. E. Mueller, Edwin R. Sorver, C. M. Myers, Charles Martin and R. C. Hal-stead in the "American" from Pasadena, Cal. The ascension followed that of the "United States" at Tournament of Roses Park. These were the first to be made from Pasadena, the "millionaires' suburb of Los Angeles." The "American" kept lower than the "United States" at the start, but later went up almost

to the same altitude and traveled southeast. None of the party with Mr. Mueller had ever been in a balloon before, and they heartily enjoyed the sensation of eating lunch in the clouds. After three hours over the eastern suburbs of Los Angeles an easy landing was made at Pomona, making a trip of thirty-two miles. The party remained at a hotel for the night and had the balloon back at Pasadena before 9 o'clock the following morning.

"Lost" in a Snowstorm. March 20.—A. E. Mueller, R. C. Halstead, Harold A. Parker, Sidney Gray, Lane C. Gil-

tramp on the mountain trail with deep snow underfoot they came to Colby's ranch house on the Tujunga creek. They were made welcome and rested here through the next day and night. Resuming their walk through the canyons they reached Switzer's camp, ten miles from Pasadena, where telephone communication was possible, at 2 o'clock Tuesday afternoon, having left Pasadena at 3.30 o'clock Saturday afternoon. When no word came Sunday morning their Pasadena friends feared that the balloonists had been lost in the mountain canyons, and search parties were organized to find them. Parties were sent out by the Pasadena city council, the Elks' lodge,

Geo. B. Harrison, Mrs.

liam and E. C. Dodsclnvtz in the "American" from Pasadena, Cal. After ascending from Tournament Park the balloon swept toward the mountains north of Pasadena, and on reaching the foothills was traveling so fast that the pilot decided not to land at once. It circled Mount Lowe and was caught in the upward sweep after ballast had been thrown over to counteract the condensation from the cold air currents around the mountains. The starting point was surrounded by orange groves and semi-tropical gardens, but as the "American" went over the mountains it encountered a snowstorm. Two ranges were surmounted at an altitude of more than 10,000 feet, and Mr. Mueller saw an opportunity for a landing on the north slope of Strawberry peak between two canyons. A landing was safely made at 5.30 o'clock, two hours after starting and eighteen miles from Tournament Park. The travelers made their way into a box canyon, but decided the safest plan was to camp for the night. One match was found to be the only one possessed by the six men, but it was sufficient to start a fire which was kept up despite the falling snow. In the morning the party started out to find their way to a railroad and after nearly a day's

and Mr. C. A. Coey.

government rangers and the Pasadena board of trade. A possibility existed in the minds of the searchers that the "American" and the men with it might have come down in a deep canyon, from which the snow would prevent egress, and at one time this was reported as a fact. When the word was telephoned from Switzer's camp that the party was safe the Pasadena papers issued extras and automobiles were sent as far up the Arroyo Seco canyon as possible to meet them. A movement has been started to rename Strawberry peak, changing its present meaningless title to Mueller's peak in honor of the "American's" trip.

March 25.—G. L. Bumbaugh, Mr. and Mrs. Charles A. Coey, Ben E. Powers and George B. Harrison from Los Angeles, Cal., in Mr. Coey's "Chicago." The start was made near the Hollywood Hotel on the northwestern-edge of Los Angeles at 2.30 o'clock with a landing two miles from San Fernando an hour later, a trip of eighteen miles. Before the ascension Mr. Coey took up nearly fifty persons, using the "Chicago" as a captive. When the balloon was released for the *xip it was carried northward over the Santa Monica mountains at an altitude of 5,100 feet, and then followed the San Fernando valley northwesterly. The

day was cloudy and condensation brought the balloon down so that it "bumped" four times, once in a peach orchard, neatly cutting off a good-sized tree, and later in a cactus bed. The landing was made in a barley field after a 20-minute trip. Although the basket turned over and was dragged thirty feet, Mrs. Coey showed no sign of fear on her first trip, and laughingly scrambled out with the declaration that she was a great deal more frightened on her first automobile ride. She now agrees with her husband that aeronautics is the king of sports, and is anxious to make other ascensions. Mr. Coey was suddenly called back to Chicago by business matters, and was unable to make the attempt to travel across the country. He has shipped the two balloons he had at Los Angeles to Chicago, but plans to return to California later in the year for winter ballooning. Mr. Bumbaugh returned at once to his home in Indianapolis to assist in the preparations for the national race. The ascension with the "Chicago" was one of the incidents in Mr. and Mrs. Coey's honeymoon, which they spent in Los Angeles. Mrs. Coey before her marriage was very prominent in the younger society of Kansas City, Mo., her home, and at the national meetings of the Daughters of the Revolution and the Daughters of the Confederacy. She plans a number of ascensions with her husband this year.

On returning home Air. Bumbaugh spoke in praise of the gas furnished. The balloon balanced, he said, with the five passengers and thirty-seven forty-pound sand bags, carrying in all about 2,500 pounds of ballast, including the weight of the aeronauts, 1,700 pounds more. The 110,000 feet of gas lifted in all over 4,000 pounds weight.

Dick Ferris, Roy Knabenshue, John B. Elliott, Harmon D. Ryus, and George B. Harrison in the United States, April 6, at Los Angeles, Cal. The start was made from the Chutes park balloon grounds in the center of the city at 9.30 a.m. In addition to the thousand pounds weight of passengers, the balloon carried thirty-three sacks of sand. The lower current was taken to the westward until the edge of the residence section was reached, when a southeast current was taken to the city limits. Here by ascending the United States struck a current to the northeast and was sent toward Pasadena. A calm was obtained at 6,600 feet about ten miles northeast of the starting point, and the balloonists enjoyed the beautiful California view for an hour, from the snowy mountains on the north with the stretches of orange groves below them across the plain cities to the harbor and beach resorts. A lower current was taken southeast twelve miles around the city of Whittier, where the peculiar sight of flocks of ostriches stampeding just as chickens do at the sight of a balloon was noticed. The United States was allowed to "skid" over the Pueute hills, traveling on the drag rope and touching slightly as it cleared a high hill. Flocks of sheep feeding in .the hills were sent bleating ahead of the balloon's shadow. Another valley and the hills beyond were passed, and a landing was made in a barley field at Pomona at 2.45 p.m., after a trip of fifty miles. The balloon was quickly packed and the balloonists caught a train to Los Angeles, where they arrived at 4.30 p.m. This is the eighth pleasure trip at Los Angeles since the first of the year, and furthers Mr. Ferris's ambition to see balloon ascensions in Los Angeles every month in the year.

CALENDAR OF EVENTS

April April May

May

May

June

June

June

July Aug.

Aug. Aug. Sept.

Aero Show at Los Angeles. Aero Races at Monte Carlo. Exhibition of The Aeronautic

ciety at Morris Park, N. Y. Aero Exhibition, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Distance Balloon Race, Aeronautique

Club of France. Herring must deliver Aeroplane at

Washington. Grand Prize Balloon Race, Indianapolis. Starting at 5 p. m. Wright Brothers must deliver Aeroplane at Washington. Aero Exposition at Frankfort, Germany, till October 10. Landing Balloon Contest, Aeronautique Club of France. Gordon Bennett /wiation Contest. 22-29. Aviation Week at Rheims. 5-11. Daily Balloon Ascents during

North Adams' Old Home Week. 25-Oct. 9. Hudson - Fulton Celebration, New York.

17. •23-

30.

28.

29.

So- Oct.

Sept. 30-Oct. 8. Motor Exhibition of Aeronautic Engines at Paris. Gordon Bennett Balloon Race at Zurich, Switzerland, twenty balloons entered. Oct. 4. Aero Club of St. Louis Balloon Race.

EXHIBITS WANTED.

For the Aeronautic Society's first exhibition this year, to be held in May, an urgent call has been sent out to all the members to let the secretary know at once of any apparatus they will have ready for show, and what contests they will enter. Everything is wanted, full-sized machines, models, gliders, kites, balloons.

All who have apparatus, though not members of the society, arc invited to send particulars addressed to the Aeronautic Society at Morris Park, Westchester, N. Y. All machines will be safely housed.

FOREIGN LETTER^

Belgian Aero Club-Auto Club War Ended by Mixed Committee —Olympia Aero Show Success-Roger Wallace Decries Syndicates—Wrights to go to England—New Michelin Prize-Aero Clubs in Africa—Russia Buys Clement Airship—Zeppelin Ascents-More Prizes—Aerial Torpedo—Wright Students Fly Alone-Aviation in Spain, Austria and Hungary.

Algeria.

Africa joined the field last month. A group of prominent sportsmen in Algeria have formed a club, and have looked over four places suitable for a volery. They are seeking the permission of the authorities for the use of the military manoeuvre grounds near Algiers.

Austria.

Throughout the month the people of Vienna have been waiting anxiously for some flights by Legagneux. who purchased Henri Farman's old machine. The apparatus reached this city about the middle of the month and was taken charge . of by the aeronautical corps of the army.

Several Austrians are building. Many exhibited models at a competition got up in the capital on April 3 by the Oestercichische Flug-technisecher Verein.

The military authorities are having two semirigid dirigibles built to design by Dr. Raymond Nimfuhr, one of 1,500 cubic metres capacity and the other of 2,500.

The aged Emperor has just shown his interest in the art by conferring the Cross of the Order of Francis Joseph on Henry Deutsch de. la Meurthe.

Belgium.

King Leopold of Belgium has formulated the thesis for his $5,000 prize book. The essays are to be sent in to the Minister of Arts and Sciences at Brussels by March 1, 1911, and are to "Describe the process of aerial navigation and the best means to encourage it." The competition is open to all the world. It is curiously interesting that the idea is not how to accomplish, but how to encourage.

The conflict between the Aero Club and the Automobile Club for the control of aviation in Belgium has been ended by the appointment of a mixed committee of seven members from each club. The committee has begun by putting up a prize of $200 for a motor between 25 and 50 horse-power. The test is to be a run for two hours at full speed and for four hours at nine-tenths speed.

A new club, the Aero Club du Hainault, has been founded at Mons, an hour from Brussels, and it has obtained the use of the fine Plain of Casteau, only 15 minutes trolley ride from the city, and 223 hectares in extent.

The council of Douai, famous for its bibles, has offered to devote $4,000 for a race there.

Baron de Caters, who has a private aerodrome of four square kilometres on his estate, has invited all the officers of the army to

make free use of it. In return, the Minister of War has placed the military grounds at Welryck at the disposition of the baron, and will build him a shed there.

England.

The exhibition at Olympia, London, March 19 to 27, was a great success, although many of the visitors found the machines disappointing because they proved so unexpectedly simple after so many centuries of devising. The show was pluckily backed by the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders who put up $25,000 to guarantee it which is strikingly in contrast with the apathy of the motor builders so far in America. It was notable for the number of English machines which it brought out. These were the Howard Wright, a biplane with absolutely flat surfaces; the Short Brothers, a beautifully made apparatus very suggestive of the Wrights', but with no rear rudders; the Handley Page, a monoplane of 34 feet spread, and 150 square feet total surface, with two propellers working in the centre of the wing-like planes; and the Lamplough, an ornithopter, the 20-foot wings of which are ingeniously given a reciprocal motion as if they were tracing figures of 8, and are worked by compressed air motors fed from a compressor driven by a gasoline motor. In addition to these there were three Voisins, a Breguet, one of Esnault-Pelterie's R. E. P., a Weiss, and one of the De la Hault wing-flapping machines. But the only apparatus that had actually flown was Moore Brabazon's Voisin "Bird of Passage," and that, with the large model of the Wright, attracted the chief interest. The exhibition was opened by Prince Francis of Teck, brother of the Princess of Wales, and chairman of the Royal Automobile Club; and on the Thursday was visited by the Prince of Wales.

At the inaugural luncheon, Roger Wallace, the chairman of the Aero Club of Great Britain, gave a warning. "Nothing," he said, "would cripple the new movement more than untimely attempts to develop it by the launching of syndicates with large capital." Prince Francis said he looked to the near approaching day when aeroplanes would rival the steamboats for those who wished to visit the continent and did not like to face the discomposing effects of the sea.

Many aeroplanes were purchased subject to their proving capable of flight, and it was noticed that the interest for dirigibles was slight compared with the gasless machines, although one of the principal features of the

show was the Wellman airship "America," with which it was hoped to cross the North Pole. The prices asked for the machines were interesting. The dearest was the Howard Wright, $6,000. But practical apparatus of the American type could be bought for $3,250; and while Lamplough's elaborate ornithopter was listed at $1,500, the Page monoplane was as low as $1,250.

These figures compare curiously with the prices asked for motors. The show of motors was undoubtedly the most interesting that has ever been got together in London. There were seventeen varieties, five of them being English. The English ran from $3,000 for the 50 h. p. Wolseley down to $1,050 for the 50 h. p. International Rotary by way of $2,250 for the 50 h. p. Simms. The French were but a shade cheaper. It was worthy of note that many of the makers were willing to sell under a 12-hour test, while most would give 3, 4, or 5 hours.

The British government is getting worried now about the conquest of the air. Cody has made a few very short flights and his engagement has been extended to Sept. 30. But the government has been in negotiation with the Wrights, and has arranged with them to give a demonstration in England, and rumor has it that some machines have been ordered and are being hurriedly built. The Minister for War made the admission in the House of Commons that "We have reached a stage when progress will be more rapidly made by dealing with private inventors than by confining ourselves to our own officials who have not the facilities which many private inventors have"; and he has since been frequently in consultation with Sir Hiram Maxim, Dugald Clerk, and Prof. Hele Shaw. But they will not buy any Wright machines, unless forced to it. They will wait and see how the English machines turn out.

To compete with the spirited action of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, in obtaining grounds at Daggenham, the Aero Club has taken a stretch of the sea shore at Shell-beach, Isle of Sheppey, the spot where the Angles first located themselves, and where St. Augustine landed. It is 100 miles from London, and has hardly ever any calm days ! Sheds for twelve aeroplanes are being erected, and bungalows, and it is expected that soon Moore Brabazon, J. Humphries, J. McClean, Howard Wright and Eustace Short will be flying there.

Eight entries have now been made for the Daily Mail $5,000 cross Channel prize. The distance, 21 miles, is so little, compared with what is being done, that the prize seems certain to be won this year—if a sufficiently calm day is found. The entrants are Prince Serge Bolo-toff, Capt. Windham, Moore Brabazon. Antoinette Co., Lejeune, Pischoff, Voisin. and Fournier.

The Michelin Tire Co. has given England an aeroplane prize now. It is a $2,500 cup, and $2,500 in cash each year for five years. Also it is a prize which cannot be won—at any rate in its first year. Some prizes are not like that. For the first year it is for the aviator who shall fly the greatest distance in England

before sunset next March 31. In each successive year the distance of the preceding year must be doubled.

A government return shows that the actual cost of the first army dirigible, "Nulli Se-cundus," which ill-fated airship must have translated its name to mean "no second flight," and so got itself blown to pieces after its first trip, was $36,400.

Egypt.

Egypt is another part of Africa which caught the enthusiasm during the past month. Steps are being taken at Cairo to form an International Aero League.

France.

On March 28, Wilbur Wright left Paris for Rome, and on the 2nd of April was welcomed by the Italian king. A comic journal in Paris remarked that this was the "third crowned 'head' that the glorious Wilbur had shaken 'hands' with" ! Except for the visit of the King of England, the last four weeks at Pan were quiet. The accident on the 1st, when, after having made a spectacular flight, Wilbur descended to pick up Col. Yives y Vich, head of the Spanish Army Aeronautical Department, and broke his rear rudder, one of the propellers and some spars in restarting, caused ten days' delay for repairs. It was found that the accident was due to the springiness of the turf, which made the end of the starting rail fly up. A bed of ashes was laid down to obviate the trouble. But the manner in which the machine was brought down, after the mishap and damage, left a strong impression on every spectator not of the danger, but of the safety, of flying.

On the renewal of the flights on the nth, Wilbur rose from the ground without the aid of his catapult. While the weights were being fixed, the rope broke. Wilbur ordered his two mechanics, one at each end of the main cell, to give him a shove along the rail—and up he went beautifully. Twice, subsequently, he accomplished the same feat. Several days the weather was so rough that flight was impossible.

King Edward VII, who was at Biarritz, seized the first fine afternoon. It was the 17th. He was received by the Mayor of Pau, and Wilbur, Orville, and Miss Katherine were presented. His Majesty warmly complimented the two brothers on their great achievement, and took the keenest interest in every detail of the apparatus.

The two flights given before the King were among the most successful Wright has made. For several minutes he described small circles. In the second trip he took his sister as a passenger, and rose to a great height.

The 20th was the next notable day. On that day each of Wilbur's pupils, Count Lambert and Paul Tissandier, went up alone. Lambert flew for 21 minutes, and Tissandier 24. The French Parliamentary aviation group attended. They were so struck they all wanted to fly. Eventually they drew lots, and M. Joly, of the Basses-Alpes, vice-president of the group, and

M. Breton, of the Cher, won. After his three Italian monarch that a charge should be made for admission to the flights to be made at Rome, and that the proceeds should go to Messina.

The municipality of Pan has hired 400 hectares of ground from the Commune of Cau-bios-Loos at a rental of $400 a year. _ The track is 800 metres long and 50 wide, which is not so large as Morris Park. They are also putting up sheds for Voisin and Bleriot.

A Society for the Encouragement of Aviation has been formed at Cannes under the presidency of Prince Radziwill. The Society L'Ariel has obtained at La Napoule a fine stretch, five miles from Cannes, containing 810,000 square metres. The society has bought two Wrights.

Bleriot is getting his little racer in trim, but his best flight with it during the month has been km., with turns, at a height of about 15 metres. Prince Bolotoff has a 100 h. p. motor on the big aeroplane with which he hopes to cross the English Channel. Demanest has made several flights of 500 metres on the Antoinette V at Chalons.

Jacquelin, another famous French cycling crack, is building an aeroplane of his own invention. It has sixteen surfaces which move up and down in groups of four. A. E. Roche has issued a challenge to all the world to fly against him from Pau to Tarbes and back for $10,000. On the yth Santos Dumont had an accident with his tiny "Demoiselle" at Issey-les-Molineaux. He shut off his motor too suddenly, and came down heavily; but little damage was done.

So far no effort has been made to win the Monaco prize. The date for the final closing of the event has been extended to April 23, and there are thirty-five entries. On March 25 minutes in the air M. Joly said he had felt like being on a switchback while he was on the starting rail, but afterwards in the air he had a feeling of complete security. M. Breton's four minutes gave him the impression that he had been in an automobile with very high wheels.

During their spare time the Wrights worked hard on a new aeroplane, an exact copy of the old one. On the 23rd it was complete, and it was dispatched for Rome. There appeared to be perfect confidence in it; no trials were made, except as to the engine. A Spanish military delegation of ten officers visited the grounds, but a hurricane was blowing. The same evening Wilbur's $50,000 contract with France to teach three pupils having been fulfilled, Wright left Pau for Paris on his way to Rome.

The next day Lambert signalized his first flight without the presence of Wright by winning the Bronze Plaque of the Aero Club of France. The length of flight necessary was 250 metres. Lambert stayed up half an hour longer! Tissandier then went up, and did precisely the same! The success of the pupils, and the rapidity with which they learned, in all less than four hours of actual flying, has had the greatest effect in France.

It is understood that Wright will be in

Rome about a month. He has proposed to the Jacques Faure made his first flight in the dirigible with which he hopes to win this contest. He made several evolutions over the Bay; but suddenly the bamboo framework broke in the middle. The entire apparatus doubled up and fell into the sea, and was towed ashore.

For the Gordon Bennett Cup for balloons, which race takes place from Zurich on October 3, Switzerland, Germany, Italy, France and Belgium have entered three balloons, Spain two, and the United States, England, and Austria one each.

The big Clement-Bayard dirigible has been purchased by the Russian government. The airship has made several flights over Paris during the month. Adolphe Clement has decided to build himself another and still larger airship. It will have a capacity of 212,000 cubic feet, as against the 123,000 cubic feet of the present one.

Much interest has been *aken in the trips made by Count Henry de la Vaux in his small 700 cubic metre airship, the "Zodiac." The bag is inflated with ordinary gas, and when deflated the whole apparatus will go into a cart. One day at lunch it was suggested he should go to the Auteuil races. He had his little cruiser got out and inflated, sailed over the course, attracting more interest than the races, and was back home by five o'clock.

Germany.

^O n April 1 Zeppelin started to fly from Fricdrichshafeu to Munich and back, a total distance of 222 miles. With the Count were Major Sperling and several officers of the engineering corps, and the ship was manned by a crew of soldiers. Soon after the start something went wrong with one of the motors. Then a heavy gale and snow storm arose, and for eleven hours the party had a pretty bad time, and great anxiety was felt for their safety. Automobiles and squadrons of cavalry were ordered out to follow, but they were left far behind. A landing was, however, safely accomplished at Dingolfing, about 65 miles northeast of Munich, in a wind which was declared to be blowing at 35 miles an hour. Next morning Zeppelin resumed his journey, and was feted on his arrival at Munich. So soon as the airship was seen in the air approaching the city the school children were all given a holiday, and everybody else, from the Prince of Bavaria downwards, took one without waiting to have it given them. The royal family carried the Count off to luncheon and decorated him with a gold medal and gave him salutes with cannon. In the afternoon the return journey was made to Friedrichshafeu without incident. The dirigible has now been formally handed over to the government, and several successful flights have been made in it by men of the balloon corps.

On March 19 the "Zeppelin" beat all airship records of the kind by carrying 26 passengers 136 miles, at an average speed of thirty miles an hour.

Count Zeppelin has no son. That his name may be perpetuated, consent has been given by

the King of Wurtemburg for Baron von Bran-denstein, who has just married the Count's only daughter, to bear the name of Zeppelin.

Major Sperling tried a 24 hours endurance test on April 5th, but descended on account of weather after ten hours.

Two prizes have been put up in connection , with the Exhibition in the fall at Frankfort. Opel Bros., of Russelsheim, automobile builders, offer $5,000 for the first aviator who will fly from the exhibition to Russelsheim and back, 40 kilometers. The town of Scheven-ingen, a popular Dutch watering place, offers 2,000 florins for a flight from the exhibition grounds to Scheveningen.

Major Von Parseval has completed his monoplane but has not yet made a flight with it. It is constructed to rise from water equally with land, and the first essays are to be on Lake Scharmuttzel.

It is said that the Siemens-Schnckert airship will be ready in the autumn. It will have a non-rigid envelope of a special fabric that is being made at Augsburg, and with a length of 125 m. will nearly equal the "Zeppelin'' in size.

There are now twelve aero clubs in Germany, with a total membership of 4,500. Oddly enough, that of the Bas-Rhin is the more important. It has 1,360 members, against 1,235 in the club of Berlin.

A new club, the Oberschwabischer Verein fur Luftschiffanrt, has been started at Uln, in Wurtemburg.

Ascension Day, May 20, is to be celebrated at Berlin with an international balloon contest.

Hungary.

Following the formation of an Aero Club at Budapest, a number of well-known sportsmen have established an aviation section in connection with the Automobile Club of Hungary, and have applied to the authorities for the use of the military grounds at Teteny.

Russia.

The Aero Club at St. Petersburg has taken the title of the Aero Club of All the Russias. Van der Chkronft, official pilot of the Aero Club of Odessa, has purchased a "Voisin" for the use of the club.

The excitement of the month was the purchase by the government of the Clement-Bayard airship. I "he news was quite unexpected. It was supposed the delegation of officers was in Paris in connection with the aeroplanes that are building. It is now understood that Melvin Vanniman is to build a great portable steel and canvas shed in which to house the airship. It is to be ready by July.

Spain.

While the military authorities are sending delegations all over Europe wherever there is a flying machine to be seen, some native Spaniards are getting to work themselves. Designs by Lieut. Struch for an aeroplane are being carried out at Madrid. At Valentia an aeroplane is also being built by two engineers named Oliver and Delmas.

Sweden.

At Stockholm, a flying torpedo, invented by Lt.-Col. Unge, a German officer, is being manufactured for use by Germany in defence against airships. The torpedo is 4 in. in diameter, and carries a 4 lb. charge of gun cotton or dynamite. It weighs 22 lbs., and is equipped with machinery set in motion by the discharge, which actuates an aerial propeller.

Switzerland.

To meet the expenses of the meeting for the Gordon Bennett Cup for balloonists, at Zurich, a national subscription is to be opened in Switzerland. The gathering is to take place on the Plain of Schlieren. Already the authorities are considering how they can obtain and train the 600 men necessary for the inflation. The army has offered to provide 120 men capable of teaching the others.

TEST OF FRAMING WOOD

By A. Q. Dufour

The tests, tabulated below, were made with spruce from Washington and Oregon, and with elm from Michigan and Indiana. Testing scales were used, the pieces supported at the ends with the load in the centre.

Size of Pieces

Elm ... 1^x1^x12 ins.

Spruce . 1^x1^x12 ins.

Elm ... 1 1/16x1 1/16x12 ins.

Spruce . 1 1/16x1 i/i6xr2ins.

Elm ... ixrxi2 ins.

Spruce . 1x1x12 ins.

Elm ... 13/16x1^x12 ins.

Spruce . 13/16x1^x12 ins.

Elm . . . 34x-Hxi2 ins.

Spruce . ->4x-l4x 12 ins.

Elm ... 9/16x13/16x12 ins.

Spruce . 9/16x13/16x12 ins.

Breaking Weight , . or

Strain rie(.es

900 lbs. 900 lbs. 880 lbs. 760 lbs. 450 lbs. 600 lbs. 390 lbs. 475 lbs. 275 lbs. 280 lbs. 175 lbs. 175 lbs.

5TA oz. 4l4 oz. 434 oz. 37/s oz. 4 oz.

oz. 31/ oz. 3 oz. 2^ oz. 2'"4 OZ. 2>s OZ. 2 OZ.

Elm has a rather interwoven grain and does not split easily, but warps out of shape when under a strain or when it is not stiffly braced. It is good for ribs, etc., as tacks do not split it.

Spruce is very strong and stiff and does not easily warp. It will bend as much as elm without breaking, and springs back to shape again. It splits easily and will stand but little nailing. Holes for nails and bolts should be bored full.

An excellent rust preventive for guy wires and exposed metal parts is the ordinary commercial boiled oil. It has been found, after experiment, to be superior to several so-called rust-preventives.

It should never be used, however, for filling or preserving the thin cloth or fabric of the planes, as it has a rotting effect.

—Cleve Thos. Shaffer.

Aero Club of America.

Statistics that have been compiled by the Aero Club of America as a basis for determining the number of delegates to the F. A. I. Congress this fall, show that during 1908 ascensions were made to the number of 147, in which 197,329 cubic meters of gas were consumed and 363 passengers carried. The kilometers traveled total 14,495. These figures were compiled from the records of ascensions in Aeronautics, but do not include the ascensions under military authority.

A committee has been appointed to have charge of the Fulton Flight, composed of: Cortlandt F. Bishop, Arthur H. Billing, J. Parke Channing, Charles M. Manly, A. H. Forbes. Col. John Jacob Astor, and J. C. McCoy. Their fi.rst meeting has been held.

Replicas of the medals to be presented to the Wrights have been delivered to those members of the club who contributed toward the fund. Of the gold, silver and bronze commemorative medals to be awarded by the club for signal services, the first was awarded, a gold medal, to Alfred Leblanc for making at the time the second best duration balloon record. The second gold medal has been awarded Capt. T. S. Baldwin for his achievement in constructing the government dirigible.

Five aero clubs are now affiliated with the Aero Club of America: St. Louis, Ohio, New England, North Adams and Indiana.

The membership of the club is now 279, exclusive of honorary members. New members: Dr. J. A. DeMund, T. A. Hill. R. A. C. Smith, Joseph Brucker, A. R. Pardington.

AERO CLUB BANQUET.

The third annual banquet of the Aero Club of America was held on March 20th at the St. Regis. It was in many ways a notable event. It was remarkable for the smallness of the number of members attending, the obviousness of the engineering skill in the selection of the guests of honor, the perhaps unintended frankness of President C. F. Bishop's admission that the club is not accomplishing anything, not even in ballooning, and the strong-evidence it afforded that something is wrong at the club.

In his opening speech the president said: "When we started with the first banquet of this club three years ago it was a grave question whether we would be able to make the banquet an annual event." He looked around him anxiously as if feeling how nearly, so far as the rally of the members to his call was concerned, there might have been a very poor showing this year.

Of those present, a hundred and thirty odd, only a little more than a third were members of the club, and the whole number present would make only half the entire membership of the club.

Ranged on either side of the president at the guest table were Henry W. Sackett, Martin W. Littleton, John E. Parsons, Hon. Wm. Mc-Adoo, Robert Hobart Davis, James W. Osborne, Robert Lee Morrell, Col. John Jacob Astor, Peter Cooper Hewitt, Charles Allen Munn, and Victor D. Brenner. Above their heads hung a large model of Capt. Baldwin's "Dirigible No. 1." On the table were the Scientific American Trophy and the Lahm Cup. Nowhere in the room was there anything which celebrated the stupendous achievement of last year, the conquest of the air by the aeroplane. Out in an anteroom there was a model of the Wrights' machine.

Throughout his speeches President Bishop claimed great credit to the club for having been the first to certify that the Wrights had flown, and he regretted at much length that the brothers had had to go out of the country to find financial encouragement; but he did not add, as he might have done, that plenty of money was forthcoming in the club so soon as it had been shown that there was money to be made.

But what probably caused the most surprise was the entire absence from all the speeches but one of any reference to the great aeronautical accomplishments of the year. Curiously enough, every speaker admitted he had been looking up the Bible for inspiration, so there was a gratifying quotation of texts. But President Bishop showed that the club means to bear its part in the great work of solving the problem of mechanical flight; for he said, "Tonight I make the prediction that most of us here will live to see the Aero Club of America the strongest sporting club in the country." \nd his high scientific ambition was loudly cheered.

The only speech from which it could be gathered that the science of aeronautics had at last been brought from the realm of hope and fancy, was that of John E. Parsons, who described his going to see a flight by the Wrights. Later, moving pictures were shown of machines in flight. Looking on was Glenn H. Curtiss, the only man present who has yet done any flying, and who might have told things of real interest.

On March 29th, at the club, Evelyn. Briggs Baldwin gave an address on "The First Crossing of the Arctic Ocean,"and brought in a discussion of the use of balloons and aeroplanes in such expeditions.

The Aeronautic Society.

The regular weekly meetings have been held during the past month at the Automobile Club.

On the 17th, Hudson Maxim, the world-widely-known inventor of maximite and other high explosives, lectured before an enthusiastic audience of Aeronautic Society and Automobile Club members on "High Explosives and their Application in Aerial Warfare, and the Practicability and Impracticability of Their Use in Motors." At the conclusion of the talk Mr. Maxim calmly exploded nitroglycerin with a tack hammer, lit a cigar with maximite, burned a little dynamite and smokeless powder just to show his attachment for the dear things. At this point, however, some of the more timid hurriedly left to keep important engagements.

All sorts of difficulties were met with in the securing of a motor for the use of members in experimental work. Those available are too high priced, others cannot be delivered for a lonp- time to come and still others are deemed too heavy. Motor manufacturers are requested to send in details of their motors. What is wanted is a motor of about 40 h. p., or 35 to 50 h. p., weighing complete somewhere about 6 lbs. per horse power at the most. It is said that there is a sale for at least a hundred of these right awray.

At the meeting of the society on April 7 the committee of inquiry reported the result of their investigation about motors immediately available. It had been found that the only engine that could be delivered at once was one of the continental companies. It was agreed to purchase this motor and hold it for the use of members in rotation in the order of their application.

The following members subscribed towards the cost: Adrieu Beckert, A. B. Levy and Curt Schmidt, $20 each; Louis R. Adams, Lee S. Burridge, C. F. Blackmore, Joseph Berg, S. D. Conger, H. Chandler, O. A. Danielson, R. W. Jamieson, E. L. Jones, W. R. Kimbali, J. A. Kolleman, Charlec Kohrs, V. F. Lake, G. A. Lawrence, A. C '1 r.dCa, Dr. Julian P. Thomas, L. Vitoch, Alex. Williams and Dr. H. W. Wal-den, $10 each.

A second motor is to be acquired.

Aero Club of New England.

Each member is being asked to secure others. The Committee on Ascensions reports that thirty-two persons have registered for balloon ascents in the club balloons "Boston" and "Massachusetts."

Aero Club of Springfield.

The balloon "Springfield" will be delivered about May 1st and part of the purchase price has been already voted.

The cost of ascensions in the new balloon will be $120, and that sum will be divided between the three or four members who hire the balloon. Bookings will be made in advance, and one must apply ahead of time in order to be sure of a pleasant afternoon's sail up on the line of the comets.

The capacity of the new balloon is 56,000

cubic feet. A. B. Wallace, Jr., was appointed chairman of the membership committee, with power to appoint four members. The club is looking around for a suitable storing place for the balloon.

Amherst Aero Club.

The Amherst Aero Club is remodeling a barn for use as a housing shed for a hydrogen balloon, and a gas generating plant will shortly be installed.

Aero Club for Tacoma.

J. C. Mars, an enthusiastic aeronaut and promoter of aeronautic events, is trying to interest Tacoma, Wash., in the organization of the Aero Club of Tacoma with the idea of having the proposed club entering into the International Balloon Race to be held at the Alaska-Yukou-Pacific Exhibition this coming summer. Mr. Mars also proposes to start similar clubs in Portland and Spokane.

Women's Aero Club to be Formed.

Mrs. A. Leo Stevens, who has lately become a member of the "Stella Aero Club" of France, and Mrs. A. C. Triaca, with several other women of prominence, are organizing a ballooning club for women along the lines of the one recently formed abroad. This may prove a good way of getting rid of husbands, but whether it will work out as expected remains to be seen.

The idea of having women interested in ballooning was suggested by Mr. Stevens to Mr. Bishop, president of the Aero Club of America, some two months ago, but it is said Mr. Bishop refused to have anything to do with the matter, saying that the Aero Club was a scientific organization and did not care about the pleasure of ballooning. Mr. Stevens argued the claim that by getting the ladies interested more ascensions would be made and greater interest stimulated.

Another Aero Club for St. Louis.

On April 5th the Young Men's Christian Association of St. Louis held a preliminary meeting for the formation of an aero club at the Central Branch, corner of Grand and Franklin avenues. At this time an illustrated aero talk on "Air Travel To-day," was given by E. Percy Noel, a magazine writer and photographer who has witnessed the aerial achievements in this country during the past year and has had practical experience. Besides the large number of lantern slides, motion pictures showing the aerial craft in action will be exhibited.

The organization at the Young Men's Christian Association is an educational plan for which Erwin Rautt, educational director of the Y. M. C. A, and the Aero Club of St. Louis, is responsible. Those who join the club will be able to attend a lecture course during the months of May and June, with Albert Bond Lambert and II. Eugene Honeywell as instructors. Mr. Lambert and Mr. Honeywell were present to aid in the organization of the club.

Junior Aero Club Reorganizes.

Miss E. L. Todd, the originator and organizer of the Junior Aero Club, has decided to withdraw from active work in the club and the members will reorganize and continue under the same name. Walter H. Phipps is now president.

New Junior Aero Club.

Ten young men of the local Y. M. C. A. of Fond du Lac, Wis., who have been keeping in close touch with aeronautics, have organized a Junior Aero Club. The members have constructed airship and flying machine models which have been fairly successful.

Aero Club for Dayton.

The Aero Club of Dayton has just been incorporated. Following are the organizers: G. W. Shroyer, Dr. L. E. Custer, G. R. Wells, F. C. Carter, P. M. Crume, William Dennick.

Canadian Aero Club Formed.

The Aero Clnb of Canada was organized on April ist at Winnipeg to assist and promote practical aeronautics by encouraging Canadian inventors. The provisional executive committee includes Hugh John MacDonald, formerly Minister of the Interior, chairman, and P. H. McDonald, formerly secretary to Admiral Lord Charles Beresford. Five inventors with working models of airships promised the club to exhibit at an early date. Branches are to be formed in all Canadian centers.

NEW BOOKS

"Motor flugapparatc," by Ansbart Vorreiter, in Berlin. With 49 illustrations and drawings of completed flying apparatus. Published by Richard Carl Schmidt & Co., Berlin, W. 62. Price, well bound in cloth, 2.3 marks.

This book of the noted aero engineer, A. Vorreiter, issued as volume 36 of the auto-technical library published by Herr Schmidt's company, furnishes a fairly thorough account of this branch of mechanics. Without entering into theories, the work contains in the first part a compilation of the principles of construction of flying apparatus; in the part following, the three classes of gasless apparatus are illustrated by text and cuts. A great number of drawings and photos are reproduced of tested machines, and especially the systems Wright and Voisin are fully described. The little book, of fine appearance and written in a popular style by an expert who has seen himself almost all the foreign flying machines, should be highly recommended to everyone interested in flying sport and its technicalities.

The book is printed in German.

"The Force of the Wind," by Herbert Chat-ley. This interesting book, published by J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, is interesting to the aviator as showing the action of the wind on obstacles and its force. There are chapters

on: Practical Importance of Wind Pressure, Impulsive Effect of the Wind, Variations in Velocity, Stream Line Theory, Stress in Structures Due to Wind, Windmills, Train and Motor Resistance, Effect of Wind and Water. Scouring Effect of Wind. Many diagrams illustrate the text, together with formulae.

The book has 82 pages and is attractively bound in red cloth in imitation of leather. Obtainable through Aeronautics at $1.25.

Pour I'Az'iation, 400 pages, 40 illustrations, published by La Libraire Aeronautique, 32 Rue Madame, Paris, contains chapters gathered by d'Estournelles de Constant, by all the best known aviators in Europe. Among them are Bouttieaux, Painleve, Ferber, Saconney, Bois, Ferrie, Kapferer, Farman, Bleriot and also the Wrights. It is a useful book, whether for those who wish to learn seriously or those who wish to pass an interesting hour.

Dcs Helices Aericnnes, 62 pages, published by F. Louis Vivien, 20 Rue Saulnier, Paris, is a complete discussion of propellers by S. Drzewiecki. He deals at length with the general theory, and tells how to calculate the proper under all circumstances. Drzewiecki is an old authority on screws, and has spent many years in essays to perfect a propeller for aerial purposes.

The aero show of the Aero Club of California has been postponed to April 17th. The boys of the Los Angeles Poly. High School are building a glider patterned after the Wright machine, but containing some new features, to compete against the other gliders as the show arrangements are being made to launch from a catapult.

WANTED TO BUY—A light weight (25 h. p. or more) gasoline motor. Address E. F. Kumler, 6807 Aetna Road, Cleveland, O.

All balloonists going west should use the Wells Fargo Express. Mr. Huntington of that company has been very kind in assisting in the proper handling of the balloon outfits and has favored aeronauts in many ways. The kind treatment received through Mr. Huntington and the Wells Fargo Western Department has caused Leo Stevens to turn whatever business he can their way.

The best aeroplane yet! There is a man in Stamford whose model may be chucked off the roof in any fashion and it will right itself at once, without any deliberation at all. One observer even said it could be tied in a bag with a stone and still "come back."

Albert C. Triaca, proprietor of the International School of Aeronautics, has started the construction of a bi-plane fitted with a 40-50 h. p. water-cooled engine. The engine is provided with a special light carbureter and cooling device. The whole machine will be mounted on wheels. Some of the construction work is being done by Wm. C. Luttgen, the famous racing automobile driver, and A. C. Beckert of the Mercedes Company, both students of the school.

The machine will be only experimental and special pains will be taken to secure a simple control system. The machine is expected to be ready for trial at Morris Park during the first week of May.

Two gliders are now being built by students of the school, one for use with a catapult and one for gliding from a hill.

Desiring that the students be provided with the latest and most accurate aerial news, Mr. Triaca has arranged that Aeronautics, the technical magazine, will be given free to each student. Each week at the school, Aeronautics will have on a special bulletin board the latest news. From Europe each week will be posted the photographs and records of recent trials.

There will be given each Saturday or Sunday afternoon a practical lecture at the school by practical and scientific men. The first of the series was for members of Stevens' Institute, on Saturday, March 27th, by A. C. Triaca on the "Past, Present and Future of Aerial Navigation."

Some more scientific instruments will shortly be received for the use of the students. Among these will be a device for testing fabric. Mr. Triaca, beginning April 1st, devotes his entire time at Morris Park.

The wind-wagon for testing propellers is nearly ready for the use of the students. Lectures by Leo Stevens, with demonstrations, began the first week in April, using the new model hydrogen plant.

A permanent exhibition will shortly be arranged at the school, where radiators, carbureters and all accessories and appliances built by various manufacturers will be on show.

Messrs. Russell A. Alger and Frederick M. Alger of Detroit, Mich., have contracted for a Wright aeroplane. Another gentleman in Chicago, we understand, has an order in, as well as E. H. R. Green, of Texas.

HAVE INVENTED A FLYING MACHINE

on which a U. S. Patent has been granted. Comparatively small; automatically controlled; rigid as a ship; built on the lines of an automobile; strictest investigation invited; model to demonstrate; one square foot of surface to one pound of weight. Liberal interest to party assisting me in securing foreign patents and constructing full size machine.

COSMOS, 311 4th ST., UNION HILL, N.J.

"Aeronautics'" Library Bureau

Will Supply on the Shortest Notice All Books, Pamphlets, or Periodicals Dealing With Aviation, No Matter Where Published. It Is Also Prepared to Furnish Photographs of all Machines and Aviators, and Articles Either Technical or Descriptive Treating of the Art. Lectures arranged.

CAPITAL ^VANTED

to construct combination airship-aeroplane. Can be used to travel on land, in the air, or through the water. Carry 100 people.

Full information given.

Humbert Conte-Trastano d'Eufemia,

183 Thompson St., Room G-4, New York.

AERONAUTICS

Issued in conjunction with or separate from "Knowledge and Illustrated Scientific News"

Devoted to aerostation, aviation, meteorology, aerology, etc. Edited by Major B. Baden-Powell and John H. Ledeboer

ISSUED MONTHLY SUBSCRIPTIONS :

"Knowledge" including Aeronautics SI .90 "Aeronautics" alone .... ."5

Special rate for R years - 6.25

27 CHANCERY LANE LONDON, W. C. ENGLAND

When professional men and those of wealth don the overalls to build an aeroplane, things must be "looking up." This unique spectacle was seen at Morris Park the other Saturday.

About May ist the new 80,000-foot balloon "Cleveland," being built by A. Leo Stevens for Messrs. J. H. Wade, Jr., and A. H. Morgan, of Cleveland, will be christened at North Adams by Mrs. J. C. Hamilton, of Mt. Stirling, Ky. She and her husband will get in the basket and make the ascent just after breaking a bottle of wine on the anchor. The others of the party will be Messrs. Wade, Morgan and Stevens.

THOMAS E. SELFRIDGE

(Continued from pasjc 144)

His name stands with that of Lilienthal, who put his nerve and muscles against his lack of knowledge of the air, and paid the penalty; and with that of Pilcher, his disciple, who went the same road. And now it is Selfridge, who died in an accident which is mysteriously inexplicable as to its first cause, but no more indicative of a faulty principle than a burst tire on an automobile proves the automobile faulty. His death may save a hundred lives— certainly it has many lessons for him who would fly as the birds fly.

I am sorry I saw him when they took him crushed and bleeding from the wreck. I am sorry I saw that mighty engine of the air fail and fall. I would like to remember Selfridge as I saw him, sitting in the aeroplane, ready to start—eager, happy, smiling. But his memory, as a man, is not obscured by the blood that he shed or the manner of his death. Could I rightfully claim more than an admiring acquaintance with him, I would gladlv shoulder the extra grief for the greater wealth such a friendship must surely have been to those who had it.

A NEW LIFTING POWER DISCOVERED

for heavier than air machines. A novel mechanical device which continually draws the air from above, compresses same, and explodes it in an upward direction under cup shaped receptacles so arranged that the downward concussion also has a lifting power. While demonstrating with this device, L. II. Lane lifted 162 pounds by hand and foot power.

To handle this new power and build a motor run machine, we have formed a company under the laws of Arizona. Stock absolutely non-assessable ; par value $1.00 per share. Small block now selling at 25 cents per share. When sold, balance will advance to par. BUY NOW. Parties interested address :

LANE AUTOMATOUS AIRSHIP COMPANY 609 Pacific Building San Francisco, Cal.

WHEN YOU VISIT

MORRIS PARK

866 Morris Park Ave., near Morris Park.

don'l forge! lo visil lhe aeronauts' relreal

Morris Park Cafe and Summer Garden

Special lunch served al moderate prices. Private rooms for parties with ladies. All bottled goods sold as represented. Telephone, 239 Westchester. John J. Dragnett, Prop.

ADAMS-FAR WELL

THE WORLD'S LIGHTEST AND SIMPLEST

MOTOR

Self cooled by its own revolution

GET OUR CATALOGUE

THE ADAMS COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U.S.A.

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

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Variety of types and sizes in stock. Absolutely Guaranteed.

Send for Catalogue 19.

AH Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls on Hand.

R. I. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York

{Kfje Aeronautic S>ocietp

MORRIS PARK, WESTCHESTER, N. Y.

Join Now at the Opening of the Season.

MEMBERSHIP AFFORDS

WORKSHOPS—Where members may construct their machines without charge for space or facilities.

MOTORS — With which members may make their initial trials at the cost only of gasoline and care.

SHEDS — In which members may house their machines, rent free.

GROUNDS—Where members may try out their machines, learn the art of flying, and make flights.

EXHIBITIONS—To which all members are admitted free, and in which they have splendid opportunities to make their inventions known either in model or full scale.

STERLING BENEFITS.

Weekly Meetings — Held atlthe

club house of the Automobile Club of America, at which valuable discussions take place, and every assistance and encouragement given.

LECTURES — Well known scientists tell things worth knowing.

LIBRARY—Including a complete file of all aeronautical patents.

Experiment Eund — A fund is

forming for the work of investigation and experiment.

CATAPULT — Apparatus provided for starting aeroplanes that are wheel-less or for gliders.

Gliding Mound—For the practice

and exercise of gliding.

Twenty-one Members of the Society are now building Machines.

NO INITIATION FEE. DUES-$10 A YEAR.

WRITE SECRETARY FOR BOOKLET.

FORM OF APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP.

To the SECRETARY, The AERONAUTIC SOCIETY,

Morris Park, Westchester, N. Y.

I desire to become a member of the Aeronautic Society. If elected I agree to pay the membership fee of $10 per year, and to abide by the Rules of the Society.

Name..................................................

Profession or Occupation............................

Date..................1909. Address................................

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

THE LEADER OF BALLOON

AND AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTION

The keen Sportsman

of WIDE EXPERIENCE

USES A "STEVENS BALLOON."

ALL BALLOONS ABSOLUTE HYDROGEN

AND COAL GAS PROOF

Varnishing by

Improved electrical Process.

ONE TO FIFTY PASSENGERS

also representing Carton & laChambre, leading balloon builders of

Paris, France.

Special Patented RUBBER BALLOON FABRIC, (German and French.)

THESE FABRICS HAVE BEEN TESTED—NOT IN EXPERIMENTAL STAGE.

A. C. TRIACA AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVE FOR STEVENS BALLOONS.

TWO CENT STAMPS FOR REPLY.

Box 181, Madison square, New York

In answering: advertisements please mention this magazine.

Aerial Development Company

This compari)- is organized for the purpose of exploiting all business connected with aerial transportation, including the patenting of new devices, the purchase and sale of patents and patented apparatus, the establishment of laboratories for original research, the building of manufacturing plants for the construction of all types of flying machines and motors, the promotion of exhibitions, races, prize competitions.

•I Models and experimental work of all kinds to order.

f& Materials and appliances used in aerial transportation offered for sale.

flj Estimates furnished for the construction and trial tests of all classes of aeronautical work. Write for prospectus.

45 West 34th Street, New York. KIMBALL AEROPLANE, $6000 UP,

WITH GUARANTEE OF PERFORMANCE

present discussion of prizes for aeronautic contests recalls the FIRST aeronautic trophy ever given. It was offered in 1907, by the

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

which has consistently fostered the science since its earliest years. Important and interesting articles on aeronautics constantly appear in its pages.

MUNN & CO., Publishers, 365 Broadway, New York.

AERONAUTIC Having devote

PATENTS

o aeronautic patents, we are exceptionally well equipped lo advise and assist inventors. Valuable information sent free on request.

FOR SALE BY

BOOKS AERONAUTICS BOOKS

1777 BROADWAY, NEW YORK

AERIAL WARFARE, by R. P. Hearne, with an introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim. BMrst systematic popular account of progress made by the countries of the world in aeronautics. 57 views of airships and aeroplanes : Wright, Farman, Delagrange, Bleriot, Ferber, Zeppelin, Patrie, Republique, &c. Profusely illustrated. $2 66 postpaid.

TV/TOEDEBECK'S HANDBOOK, by Major 1VX H. W. L. Moedebeck and O. Chanute. The only handbook of aeronautics in English. All phases of aerial travel fully covered. Invaluable for the beginner and a ready reference for the aeronautical engineer. Data on screws, pressure, ballooning, physics, etc. Illustrated. $3.25.

PROBLEM OF FLIGHT, by Herbert Chatlcy.

Especially written for engineers. Outline of contents : ' Problem of Flight, Essential Principles, the Helix, the Aeroplane, Aviplanes, Dirigible Balloons, Form and Fittings of the Airship. Appendix furnishes much instructive information. 61 illustrations. Price, $3.50.

VUAR IN THE AIR, by H. G. Wells. The greatest fiction story in recent years. Unfolds a breathless story of aerial battle and adventure, a triumph of scientific imagination, possibly not beyond the realm of actuality. Illustrated. $1.50.

^STRA CASTRA, by Hatton Turnor.

This rarest aeronautical wTork in existence can be supplied to a few first inquiries at $15-All in perfect condition.

^AERONAUTICAL ANNUAL, by James Means. For years 1895, 1896 and 1897. Extremely rare. Illustrated.

$1.50 each.

TD ALLOONING AS A SPORT, by Major B. Baden Powell. A handbook of ballooning and guide for the amateur. Full instructions for the equipment and management of a balloon. Illustrated.

Price $1.10.

M AVIGATING THE AIR, by members of the Aero Club of America. Interesting record of ideas and experiences of 24 distinguished men. Contributors: Wright Bros., Chanute, Pickering, Rotch, Zahm, Stevens, Herring and others. 300 Pages, 32 Illustrations- $1.25.

Resistance of Air and the Question of Flying (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated.

Flying Machines, Past, Present and Future (A. W. Marshall and H. Greenly). Illustrated ..................................................................60

Paradoxes of Nature and Science (W. Hampson). Illustrated. Two chapters on bal-

Airships Past and Present, by Captain A. Hildebrandt; translated by W. H. Story.

Large 8vo., cloth, profusely ill. Latest book on motor aerostation........ 3.50

Aerial Flight: Aerodynamics (F. W. Lanchester). Large Svo., cloth, illustrated.

 

THE HELICOPTER

By C. H. CHALMERS, E. E.

In this paper, Mr, Chalmers gives valuable data obtained in his elaborate experiments. Subject is treated in an altogether different manner than in any other work. A new foundation is laid. Reprinted from Feb., 1909, issue. Pamphlet 25 Cents.

Proceeds of Sale to go to the Prize Fund. ••AERONAUTICS," 1777 Broadway, NEW YORK

Artificial and Natural Flight

By SIR HIRAM MAXIM." With 93 illus.

Cloth, illus., S vo., $1.75 net

A concise history and description of the development of flying machines. Description of his own experimental work. Explaining the machinery and methods whieh enable him to arrive at certain conclusions. Fully describes the work of other successful inventors. Chapter on dirigible balloons.

"AERONAUTICS,'* 1777 Broadway, NEW YORK

HOWARD RINEK, President

F. R.. BUCKMAN, Secretary &. Treasurer

THE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF THE

EASTON CORDAGE CO.

Beg to announce that after a year spent in experimental work, it is prepared to

BUILD AEROPLANES

either complete with power plant or without, at the option of the purchaser.

C Machines built of tubular steel from our own designs or from any special designs that may be submitted. C Correspondence solicited.

THE MACHINE DEPT., EASTON CORDAGE CO., EASTON, Pa.

What Kind of a MOTOR Do You Want?

Let us answer

1st, A reliable motor 2nd, A powerful motor 3rd, An enduring motor

CURTISS MOTORS

HAVE THESE QUALITIES

urtiss 8 cyl. Motor used in 'Silver Dart"

" THE KIND YOU ( lst' A m0t°r °f "freak" COnstruCtion-\ DO NOT WANT > 2nd' A motor of extremely h%hi construction.

3rd, A motor of unproven merit.

CURTISS MOTORS ARE NOT IN THESE CLASSES. Built in All Sizes. New Models of Highest Type and Greatest Efficiency. Send for Catalogue N. CURTISS MOTORS HAVE MADE GOOD

G. H. CURTISS MFG. CO., Hammondsport, New York

TWO GREAT FIRSTS

IN AERONAUTICS

ST. LOUIS MS HONEYWELL

RECORDS PROVE IT

^The longest voyage by a licensed pilot in the United States, in 1908, was made with the 2200 cubic meter "Yankee"—461 miles with two stops—a remarkable perform^ ance; 800 pound ballast aboard when landing.

HONEYWELL

BUILDER

If The greatest bal= loon trip of the year —850 miles, in com= petition—made b y the 2000 cubic meter balloon, "Fielding= San Antonio." Four American and two Foreign makes de= feated by wide margin.

HONEYWELL

BUILDER and PILOT

This picture from basket was made 3000 ft. altitude showing French staggared block system perfectly constructed, as all our balloons are made giving safety and strength.

AEROSTATS, AIRSHIPS AND INSTRUMENTS

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If HONEYWELL CONSTRUCTION Utilizes the latest and best materials-varnished or rubberized envelope with French=type valve, and Italian hemp or linen nettings. Cars equipped for comfort and convenience —light and durable. ........

FRENCH—AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

II. E. HONEYWELL, Director

r

Cottage Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.


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