Aeronautics

Volume 4 - No. 3 - 1909 March

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



HOWARD RINEK, President F. R.. BUCKMAN, Secretary & Treasurer

THE MACHINE DEPARTMENT OF THE

EASTON CORDAGE CO.

Beg to announce that after a year spent in experimental work, it is prepared to

BUILD AEROPLANES

either complete with power plant or without, at the option of the purchaser.

C. Machines built of tabular steel from our own designs or from any special designs that may be submitted. b ^

Correspondence solicited. V\

THE MACHINE DEPT., EASTON CORDAGE CO., EASTON, Pa.

What Kind of a MOTOR Do You Want?

{ 1st, A reliable motor Let us answer 2nd, A powerful motor ( 3rd, An enduring motor

CURTISS MOTORS

HAVE THESE QUALITIES

(1st, A motor of "freak" construction. do^ not^want \ 2nd, A motor of extremely light construction. 13rd, A motor of unproven merit.

CURTISS MOTORS ARE NOT IN THESE CLASSES. Built in All Sizes. New Models of Highest Type and Greatest Efficiency.

Send for Catalogue N. CURTISS MOTORS HAVE MADE GOOD

G. H. CURTISS MFG. CO., Hammondsport, New York

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

THE LEADER OF BALLOON

and AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTION

The keen Sportsman

of wide experience uses a 'STEVENS BALLOON."

ALL BALLOONS ABSOLUTE HYDROGEN

and COAL GAS PROOF

Varnishing by

Improved Electrical Process.

ONE TO FIFTY PASSENGERS

Also representing Carton &. LaChambre, leading balloon builders of

Paris, France.

Special Patented RUBBER BALLOON FABRIC, (German and French.)

THESE FABRICS HAVE BEEN TESTED—NOT IN EXPERIMENTAL STAGE.

S. B. BOWMAN AUTO CO., Aeronautical^Dept. A. C. TRIACA, mgr. AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVE FOR STEVENS BALLOONS.

two cent stamps for reply.

box 181, madison square, new york

Aerial Development Company

<J This company is organized for the purpose of exploiting all business connected with aerial transportation, including the patenting of new devices, the purchase and sale of patents and patented apparatus, the establishment of laboratories for original research, the building of manufacturing plants for the construction of all types of flying machines and motors, the promotion of exhibitions, races, prize competitions. <fl Models and experimental work of all kinds to order.

<J Materials and appliances used in aerial transportation offered for sale.

<J Estimates furnished for the construction and trial tests of all classes of aeronautical work. <I Write for prospectus.

45 West 34th Street, New York. KIMBALL AEROPLANE, $6000 UP,

WITH GUARANTEE OF PERFORMANCE

'"P'HE present discussion of prizes for aeronautic contests recalls the FIRST aeronautic trophy ever given. It was offered in 1907, by the

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

which has consistently fostered the science since its earliest years. Important and interesting articles on aeronautics constantly appear in its pages.

MUNN & CO., Publishers, 365 Broadway, New York.

AERONAUTIC Havin8 devoted especial attention V-< to aeronautic patents, we are excep-* rmn.Tmr, tionally well equipped to advise and

PATENTS assist inventors. Valuable informa-

tion sent free on request.

Scientific American Trophy, 1907

V^v,^- - ■——

AERONAUTICS

FOR SALE—Two complete captive balloon outfits, consisting of gas bag, net, valve, and car for 4 persons, controlled by motor windlass with clutch and brake, besides patent portable hydrogen gas works for inflation.

ALSO—One-man gas balloon ; one-man airship, 7 h. p. motor and gas works. Write for prices, inclosing stamp.

ALBERT C. TRIACA

If it is your great ambition

To explore the silver stars, And to be an airship sailor,

And go voyaging to Mars: Or to build a helicopter

That your lightest touch will rule, To the Chevalier Triaca

You will have to go to school.

He is licensed as a pilot

By no less than nations three, France and Italy the sunny,

And the Land of Liberty. And he means, we hear it whispered,

To prepare his classes soon For a School of Aeronautics

To be started on the moon.

AERONAUTICS

Published by

AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc. 304 No. 4th St.

Wm. Gettinger, Pres. St. Louis

E. T. Jones, Treas.-Sec.

Entered as second-class matter September 22. 1908, at the Posloffice, New York, N. Y.. under the Act of

March 3, 1879.

Vol. IV March 1909 No. 3

Aeronautics is issued 011 the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

One year, $3.00; payabie always in advance.

Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order, check or registered letter. Make all remittances free of exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $3.«>0 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

Important.—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure oroper credit.

Main Office 1777 Broadway New York

THE ARMY AERO APPROPRIATION

THE appropriation desired for military aeronautics has been ignominiouslj/ slaughtered. "Millions for defence but not one cent for tribute." Millions for one warship to be useless, or worse, in aerial warfare, but not half a million for an equipment which might be the means of the annihilation of an entire fleet.

The American public is like a flock of sheep. It follows the leader blindly to perdition. Not a single individual seems to have the nerve to co-operate with another to right the daily wrongs imposed by political task-masters. We damn the transportation "trust" and curse the "liquor traffic," condemn this and that indi-

vidually every day for a year and then go to the polls and vote for the same old thing all over again. However, this is digressing.

How many wrote to their representatives in Washington—as if it would do any good, anyway—urging favorable action on the bill? And more important this bill, even, than the President's new automobiles !

Another Congress will convene. Would there be any harm in addressing a letter to your Representative and Senator? Get your home papers to take the matter up.

Must a professional "lobbyist" be employed to wheedle out of our representatives what we dare not ask for ourselves?

"AERONAUTICS"' PRIZE FUND

Model and Glider Competitions Best Way to Develop New Ideas

r , , 1-11 announced in the February number of "Aero-It has been decided that the $75 kind y con- nam; be awarded as beiow: (Other prizes

tributed by Messrs. Burndge Chanute and tQ bc awarded as be indicated by the

Kimball towards the creation of a prize fund, donors )

The Chanute Prize.

Twenty-five dollars for the gliding machine mounted by a man having made the flattest descent, deducting the measured ascent and trend of the wind, if any.

The Kimball Prize.

Twenty-five dollars for the power-driven model exhibiting the best automatic stability in the wind, the speed and variations of which shall be measured. To determine this, not less than ten consecutive flights to be taken instead of selecting the more successful trials.

The Burridge Prize.

Twenty-five dollars for the power-driven model sustaining the greatest number of pounds in horizontal flight per horse power, the same to be accurately measured. In making the comparisons for awards, factors to be introduced to equalize the loadings per square foot.

Heard down-town the other day between two messenger boys:

"Aw, get out your parachute, you're going up!"

Aeronautics would be obliged if the person who unwittingly put some photographs in his pocket on Friday night, March 5th, at the Aero Club, would return them.

It may be of interest to note that Octave Chanute patented in 1906 the machine which was flown by A. M. Herring at Camp Chanute, on the shore of Lake Michigan, in 1896. Mr. Herring at the time was working for Air. Chanute.

The "Man of the Hour" appears to have been a man from the "World," who said he ' paid for the information" he got. Anyway, a burglar-proof lock has been put on the door and a new device to guard against jimmies. When is a moral theft not a theft?

The experiments are to be carried on by the inventors either at the Spring or Summer meet of The Aeronautic Society or at their homes; but in the latter case, attested by credible witnesses under rules to be formulated. The paper with drawings or photograph must be forwarded by experimenter for publication in "Aeronautics."

There are probably many shapes which will prove as efficient as the now classic "bi-plane." It sustains in horizontal flight 50 to 60 pounds per horse power, while the birds sustain from 150 to 400 pounds per horse power, as near as we can ascertain.

It is believed that the offering of prizes for models and gliders is the best way of testing new ideas, to be later developed into full-sized apparatus.

Will not others interested provide small prizes along this line? We appeal most strongly to those who are anxious to develop the art from "purely patriotic motives."

Wilbur says that human flight will have to be higher than that of birds, which is oftener below than above a height of 15 meters. He argues thai if anything goes wrong with the motor to stop it during flight, the aeroplane will fall in a course equal to a decline of one in eight; and, consequently, to avoid the inconvenience of alighting among trees or houses, the aviator must be up at a sufficient height to allow the machine a large soaring radius in the event of accident. He believes one could soar over the center of Paris, and, yet, after a mishap to the motor, alight safely outside the fortifications, since, assuming an accident to occur at an elevation of 1,000 meters, that height would admit of landing anywhere within a circle of 8 kilometer radius. This necessity of high flight will, he thinks, make it very difficult for the aeroplanist to find his way from place to place. He doubts if such a journey as from Paris to Tours could be accomplished even at the tenth attempt to learn the landmarks; and he fancies that in long town to town contests a competitor would spend more in learning the route than the prize might amount to. All the same, he is confident these difficulties will be overcome, and that trips, like that of London to Manchester, will be made in the near future.

Calendar of Events.

Mar. 19-27. Aero Exhibition at Olympia,

London, Eng. Mar. 23-26. Aeroplane Race at Daytona, Fla. May Exhibition of The Aeronautic Society

at Morris Park, N. Y. May Aero Exhibition, St. Petersburg,

Russia.

June 1. Herring must deliver Aeroplane at Washington.

June 5. Grand Prize P>alloon Race, Indianapolis. Starting at 5 p. m.

June 28. Wright Brothers must deliver Aeroplane, at Washington.

July 10. Aero Exposition at Frankfort, Germany, till October 10.

Sept. Gordon Bennett Balloon Race at Zurich, Switzerland.

Oct. Hudson-Fulton Celebration, New

York.

Oct. 4. Aero Club of St. Louis Balloon Race.

B

HE A. E. AS VORK

1 he work of the Aerial Experiment Association for the month of February has indeed comprised an interesting series of eventful experiments.

As has already mentioned in "Aeronautics" fur January, most of that month was spent in preparatory work, the actual tests of which took place in the latter part of February.

On February 22 the first tetrahedral structure, propelled by its own motive power, was

The centre section is of very open construction, this being necessitated to provide a suitable place for the motor and aviator. The motor employed is the one which has already been used in the Silver Dart, being especially designed for the Association by the G. H. Curtiss Mfg. Co.—an 8-cylinder, water-cooled, V-type, 3^4x4-in., which develops 35 h.p. at 1000 r.p.m. The propeller is of 10 ft. diameter and 13 ft. pitch, made from a solid block of

BE nw e p. photo

CYGNET II.

experimented with on the ice at Baddcck Bay. This structure, 'Drome No. 5, Bell's "Cygnet II," somewhat resembles the huge tetrahedral kite "Cygnet I," which, in December, 1907, successfully carried into the air the late Lieut. Thomas E. Selfridge to an altitude of 168 feet over the water of the Bras d'Or Lake.

Cygnet II is made up of 3,690 tetrahedral winged cells which, when assembled, make a structure having a lateral extension of 16 meters on top and 12 meters on the bottom and 4 meters from fore to aft. The weight of the machine, including aviator and engine, is 950 pounds.

whitcwood. This is driven by a l/2-\n. roller chain and geared down in the ratio of 18-24, engine turning 24 revolutions to the propeller's 18.

The horizontal control is of the simple plane double-decked construction, and is hinged in the same manner as in our former aerodromes and supported by a truss which extends 12 ft. out from the main structure. The vertical rudder is mounted in front of the machine and is also supported by the same truss. Both the horizontal control and vertical rudder are controlled by the one steering wheel, which is mounted on a shaft capable of being moved in

a fore and aft direction in the usual manner adopted by the Association.

The aviator sits directly over the lower front edge- of the machine, and the balance is such that the center of gravity of the machine as a whole comes about 15 cm. forward of the geometrical center of surface, excepting the front control. The Cygnet II is mounted on three sledge runners to facilitate smooth running over the surface of the ice.

As before mentioned, the first trial took place on February 22. The experiment was, however, brought to a sudden end by the shearing of the propeller shaft, the propeller

trial was encouraging, although no decisive lift was manifested.

Weather permitting, experiments with the two aerodromes will be conducted daily as long as the ice lasts, for on this we depend for launching grounds and, incidentally, for a smooth landing place.

Editor's Note.—On going to press, dispatches record five more flights. "After four short flights, lMr. McCurdy decided upon a longer excursion. Starting from about a quarter of a mile below Dr. Bell's laboratory and running for a distance of seventy-five yards on

Silver Dart.

being violently thrown to the ice and broken. This accident occurred after the machine had but run on the ice a distance of 100 ft., so that data as to her lift was not obtained.

On the following day, February 23, 'Drome No. 4, McCurdy's "Silver Dart," was prepared for a trial. A short flight of one-half mile resulted over the ice at Baddeck Bay. This flight will be memorable in that it is the first flight of a flying machine in Canada.

On February 24 a second flight was made with the Silver Dart, in which a distance of four and one-half miles was easily covered at a speed of 40 miles an hour.

During the afternoon of this day a second experiment was made with the Cygnet II. The

the ice, the Silver Dart ascended into the air to an elevation of about twenty feet.

"Keeping along the shore, it flew partly over the town of Baddeck and for a distance of two and a half miles beyond. Making a circular turn at Stoney Island, it came back over the same course and made a beautiful landing within twenty yards from its shed. McCurdy covered a distance of over twelve miles in the flights. The long flight lasted 11 minutes 15 seconds, a new record for the A. E. A.

"Mr. McCurdy said in landing: 'The Wright brothers have my greatest respect for remaining in the air for two hours and twenty-two minutes. I hope to make longer flights yet.'''

Trial will be made for- the "Scientific American" trophy.

HOW TO LAY OUT A PROPELLER

By R. W. Jamieson

The accompanying sketches illustrate a method to be used for determining the angle of blades for screw propellers having any diameter or pitch ; also an apparatus designed for the purpose of projecting in outline one blade of a true pitch screw propeller having such form and dimensions as to travel at a uniform pitch speed. This device is useful as a guide to obtain a correct lay-out for propellers to be built. Also a table showing the angle in degrees for screw propellers ranging in diameter from 2 to 10 ft. and having a pitch or travel of from 2 to 10 ft.

The angles of any screw propeller blade having a uniform or true pitch change gradually for every increased diameter. In order to give a reasonably clear explanation of the apparatus herein shown it will be necessary to review in a primary way some of the definitions or terms used in connection with and applied to screw propellers.

PITCH.

The term "pitch,'' as applied to a screw propeller, is the theoretical distance through which it would travel without slip in one revolution, and as applied to a propeller blade it is the angle at which the blades are set so as to enable them to travel in a spiral path through a fixed distance theoretically without slip in one revolution.

PITCH SPEED.

The term ''pitch speed" of a screw propeller is the speed in feet multiplied by the number of revolutions it is caused to make in one minute of time. If a screw propeller is revolved 600 times per minute, and if its pitch is 7 ft., then the pitch speed of such a propeller would be 7x600 revolutions, or 4200 ft. per minute.

UNIFORM OR TRUE PITCH.

A true pitch screw propeller is one having its blades formed in such a manner so as to enable all of its useful portions, from the portion nearest the hub to its outer portion, to travel at a uniform pitch speed. Or, in other words, the pitch is uniform when the projected area of the blade is parallel along its full length and at the same time representing a true sector of a circle.

All screw propellers having a pitch equal to their diameters have the same angle for their blades at their largest diameter.

(See Table of Pitches.)

PITCH NOT UNIFORJl.

A screw propeller not having a uniform pitch, but having the same angle for all portions of its blades, or some arbitrary angle not a true pitch, is distinguished from one having a true pitch in the variation of the pitch speeds that the various portions of its blades are forced to travel through while traveling at its maximum pitch speed.

Take for example an 8-foot screw propeller having an 8-foot pitch at its largest diameter. If the angle is the same throughout its entire blade length, then all the portions of its blades approaching the hub from its outer portion would have a gradually decreasing pitch. The 2-foot portion would have a 2-foot pitch ; the 3-foot portion a 3-foot pitch, and so on to the 8-foot portion which would have an 8-foot pitch. When this form of propeller is caused to revolve, say 500 r.p.m., the 8-foot portion would have a calculated pitch speed of 8 ft. by 500 revolutions, or 4,000 ft. per min.; while the 2-foot portion would have a calculated pitch speed of 500 revolutions by 2 ft., or 1000 ft. per min. Now, as all of the portions of this type of screw propeller must travel at some pitch speed, which must have for its maximum a pitch speed in feet below the calculated pitch speed of the largest diameter, it follows that some portions of its blades would perform useful work while the action of the other portions would be negative—resisting the forward motion of the portions having a greater pitch speed. The portions having a pitch speed below that at which the screw is traveling cease to perform useful work after their pitch speed has been exceeded by the portions having a larger diameter and a greater pitch speed.

We might compare the larger and smaller diameter portions of this form of screw propeller, to two power-driven vessels connected witli a line, one capable of traveling 20 miles per hour, the other 10 miles per hour. It can be readily understood that the boat capable of traveling 10 miles per hour would have no useful effect to help the one traveling 20 miles per hour, as its action would be such as to impose a dead load upon its progress.

SLIP.

The term "slip," as applied to a screw propeller, is the distance between its calculated pitch speed and the actual distance it travels through under load, depending upon the efficiency and proportion of its blades and the amount of load it has to carry-

The action of a screw propeller while performing useful work might be compared to a nut traveling on a threaded bolt; little resistance is offered to its forward motion while it spins freely without load, but give it a load to carry then it will take more power to keep up its speed; if too great a load is applied the thread will strip, and so it is with a screw propeller gliding spirally on the air. A propeller traveling without load on to new air might be compared to the nut traveling freely on -tin holt. It would consume but little power and it would travel at nearly its calculated pitch speed, but give it work to do then it will take power to drive it. If its volume of blade dis-

placement is small in proportion to its load it will slip and lag back from its pitch speed, and it will slip more and more in proportion to the load applied, until it has no forward motion Then its action will be all slip and the work done will be wholly through the reaction from the air being projected back from the screw.

perform useful work, it follows that the useful work done by them must be through the action of their blades as they advance on to new air, gliding in a spiral path carrying a given load, much the same as an aeroplane sup-

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When a propeller is caused to slip or fall below its calculated pitch speed, it is because As screw propellers to be used for aeroplane of the inability of its blades to carry the load or dirigible balloon work must travel through and not having sufficient volume or sustaining a long distance in a short space of time to surface to hold it from slipping.

RONAUTICS

99

There is a reaction caused from the propeller projecting air backward when it slips, which, together with the supporting effect of the blades, combine to produce useful work or pull on the object to be carried.

A screw propeller working under load approaches more closely to its maximum efficiency as it carries its load with a minimum amount of slip, or Hearing its calculated pitch speed.

It has been pointed out by experiment that certain forms of curved surfaces as applied to aeroplanes will lift more per horse power, per unit of square foot, while on the other hand it has been shown that a flat surface will lift more per horse power, but requires more area of surface to do it.

ing a line to scale in feet. (See Fig. i.) At the end of this line draw another line to represent the desired pitch in feet. (See Fig. 2.) Draw a line from the point on the last line representing the pitch in feet to the beginning of the line representing the circumference. (See Fig. 3.) For example, if the screw to be laid out is 7 ft. in diameter and is to have a 7-foot pitch, the circumference of such a screw would be 21.09 ft. Draw a diagram representing the circumference line and pitch in feet. (Sec Fig. 4.) If this diagram is wrapped about a cylinder (see Fig. 5), the angle line will represent a true thread 7 ft. in diameter and 7 ft. long, and the angle for the thread in this case will be 1754 degrees.

Since the areas of circles decrease as their

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As a true pitch screw propeller is virtually a rotating aeroplane, a curved surface may be advantageously employed when the limit of size prevents using large plane surfaces for the blades.

Care should be exercised in keeping the chord of any curve to be used for the blades at the proper pitch angle, and in all cases propeller blades should be made rigid so as to preserve the true angle and not to be distorted by centrifugal force or from any other cause, as flexibility will seriously affect their pitch speed and otherwise affect their efficiency.

Numerous methods may be employed for determining the angle for any screw propeller having a given pitch.

The systems herein shown are simple and will give good results.

To find the angle for the proper pitch at any point in the diameter of a propeller, determine the circumference by multiplying the diameter by 3.1416, which represent by draw-

diameter becomes less, it follows that if a propeller is to travel at a uniform pitch speed, the volume of its blade displacement should decrease as its diameter becomes less, so as to occupy a corresponding relation to the circumferences of larger diameters, and at the same time the projected area of the blade must be parallel along its full length and should represent a true sector of a circle. (See Fig. 6.") Let us suppose a 7-foot circle to be divided into 20 sectors, one of which represents a propeller blade. (Sec Fig. 7.) If the pitch is to be 7 ft., then the greatest depth of the angle would be 1/20 part of the pitch, or 42/10 in. (Sec Fig S.) If the line representing the greatest depth of the angle is kept the same width as it approaches the hub, the pitch will be uniform. (See Fig. 9.) If the blade is set at an angle so its projected area is 1/20 part of the pitch, and if it is moved through 20 divisions for one revolution, it would have a travel of 7 ft. (See Fig. 10.)

This system of finding the angle for the blades will give the same results as the one heretofore shown.

Fig. 12 illustrates an apparatus for projecting one-half of a screw propeller blade in outline. The device is capable of developing screw propellers having any desired pitch or diameter. In the illustration the center portion "A" represents the hub, which is movably mounted on two upright arms which are provided with a scale in inches so the hub portion may be adjusted to any size for one-half of the propeller diameter.

At the lower ends of the arms is provided a platform on which is mounted a protractor to obtain the proper angle in degrees. At the center of the protractor is mounted an adjustable cross-bar, or pointer, capable of being locked at any degree. This cross-bar represents the end of a propeller blade. From the cross-bar to the hub portion is stretched elastic cords or wire which represent the outline of a propeller blade. In order to obtain a uniform pitch with this device it is necessary to keep the cords or outline of the pro-

peller parallel from the hub to the propeller end.

Fig. 12 also illustrates a table showing angles for the pitch of propeller blades at their various diameters. The figures at the left of the table represent the diameter of the propellers, and above the table are shown figures to represent the pitch of propellers in feet. Opposite the figures in the squares are shown the angle in degrees for the pitch of the blade at the diameter and pitch opposite each figure, shown at the margin of the table. For example, a J-foot screw with a 6-foot pitch, the angle at the greatest diameter will be 15 1/4 degrees. It might be thought desirable by some to make the propeller blades narrower nearer their ends, for mechanical reasons, or to give the portion nearer the hub a wider blade displacement. This can be done with a uniform pitch screw, providing the proper angles are maintained throughout the blade.

Editor's Note.—This lecture was delivered by Mr. Janucson before the Aeronautic Society and the apparatus described was presented by him to the Society, and is now at Morris Park for the use of members.

>___

January 31. Burt Addis made a trip of 14 miles at Los Angeles, Cal., leaving the balloon grounds at 2.10 p. m. in the "Angelus," 17,000 cubic feet capacity, and landing 58 minutes later in the foothills of the Santa Monica mountains, north of the starting point. The "Angelus" was built by Thomas S. Baldwin in Los Angeles and had been in storage three years. A weak spot in the envelope had been repaired before inflation, in which a mixture of hydrogen and oil gas was used, but the patch leaked so that the descent was made without opening the valve. A height of 7,500 feet was attained over the city of Los Angeles.

February 14. Roy. Knabenshue, Paul Cowles and George B. Harrison in the "United States," from the Chutes park balloon grounds, Los Angeles. The ascension was made at 3.20 o'clock on a warm, clear afternoon, while a blizzard was raging east of the Rockies. The "American," with A. E. Mueller as pilot, followed the "United States," and from a height of 4,000 feet, Mr. Knabenshue took a photograph of the other balloon in the air 1,000 feet below him. From the "United States," islands 75 miles away, could be seen with the Pacific stretching beyond them, while in the other direction snow-capped mountain ranges were plainly visible. Beneath the balloon lay in sharp contrast to the snow on the mountains green fields or orange groves. The "United Stales" was brought into a current which brought it within three miles of the ocean, when a descent was made to a land

current carrying the balloon eastward. At 6.40 o'clock a landing was made on a ranch three miles from Santa Anna, after a trip of 34 miles. Mr. Cowles, who lives in San Francisco, is the western superintendent of the Associated Press, and Mr. Harrison is the aeronautic editor of the "Los Angeles Herald."

February 14. A. E. Mueller, W. D. Fuller, J. D. Minster and Bruce Moore in the "American," at Los Angeles. After ascending at 3.30 o'clock, some time was spent over Los Angeles, mainly at an altitude of 3,300 feet. The balloon was allowed to drift eastward and at 7.20 o'clock was brought down on the condensation of gas at Los Xietos, 17 miles from the starting point, where it was anchored for the night. While waiting for orders from the balloon grounds the following morning, Mr. Mueller utilized the balloon as a captive to give rides to 200 persons, including a woman 82 years old and the pupils of two schools who were given a half holiday to see the balloon. In the afternoon Mr. Mueller with Jack Adams, of Los Angeles, and Eugene Brown, of Peoria, 111., made a brief ascension, landing six miles from Los Nietos.

February 28. P. A. Van Tassel and C. C. Bradley made an ascent from Berkeley, Cal., in a 50,000 cubic foot balloon. The landing-was easily accomplished after an hour's trip at a ranch four miles east of Crocket, Contra Costa County. The highest altitude reached was 15,000 feet. The ascension was made under the auspices of the San Francisco Aero Club.

GRIST FOR THE MATHEMATICAL MILL

By James Means

The members of Congress have it in their power to give to the United States an in strnment of war of great importance.

If the Sixtieth Congress were to make an appropriation for aeronautical purposes, let us see what could be done with a portion of it. Let us examine the matter and ascertain whether or not such a use of money would be a good business proposition for the Government, i.e., a money-saver.

For three years past the appropriations made by Congress for the Naval Service

r

and for the support of the Army have amounted to more than one hundred and seventy million dollars per annum. Future appropriations are likely to be larger.

The aerial machine now enters as a new factor which must be reckoned with by all military authorities. It is certain that in the next few years all of the nations will find it necessary to expend large sums of money for aerial equipments. For the single purpose of preventing waste in such expenditure an adequate supply of data is absolutely necessary.

The progress in flying machines up to the present time has been made under very hard conditions; lack of data, equipment, money, lack of everything save the enthusiasm, in-

telligence, devotion and courage which have characterized the once derided workers.

In the development of the motor-propelled aeroplane there are two lines of work, distinct, though converging, to be carried on:

1. Improvement in stability.

2. Improvement in efficiency.

In most branches of physical science rapid progress dates from the time that the mathematicians came in as ma-ters. In the branch we are now considering the time is

1

not yet ripe for the mathematicians to do their best work, for, as Huxley said: "What you get out of the mathematical mill depends upon what you put into it." Thanks to the labors of Lilienthal, Chanute, Maxim, Langley, Zahm, Turnbull, and others who have published the results of their laboratory and field work, we have something to put into the mill; yet it is far from being enough.

I shall try to show that if the money required to build one torpedo boat were devoted to supplying grist for the mathematical mill, the money would be well invested.

In a future article I shall discuss the subject of stability; in the present paper that of efficiency. I consider that stability is partially dependent upon efficiency.

Let us suppose that we were provided

The Curtiss Motor Ice Boat

with a laboratory, a large open field and a railway, in short, an equipment in many respects similar to that invented and used by Sir Hiram Maxim* in the early nineties. Suppose the sizes of apparatus used were reduced to correspond to the one- or two-man machines of today. Suppose that the methods invented by Maxmi were taken as a basis, thus starting, as we may say. where he left off. Suppose that for the time being, the subject of stability were left to other experimenters and the researches confined to the subject of efficiency. Could we achieve good results? Should we have a money-saving establishment ?

Attention should here be called to the experiments made by Air. Glenn II. Curtiss of Dr. Bell's Aerial Experiment Association at Ilammondsport, New York, last year. He made an ice boat propelled by an aerial screw to test his motors and pro-1 ellers. The machine was ideal in many respects and capable of indefinite development. The only difficulty with that kind of apparatus is that of finding smooth ice whenever it is wanted. Maxim's railway comes nearest to supplying the place of ice and if a light narrow-gauge railway is laid in a large circle and Maxim's devices are employed, the work inaugurated by him may be resumed.

It is obvious that experiments made by the Maxim method are less likely to result in loss of life or limb than experiments made in free flight. It is also plain that the expenses of breakage are less than in actual flying.

What are some of the indispensable data which may be brought entirely within our reach by the Maxim method?-

1. In regard to sustaining surfaces.

(a) Lift and driit of different forms and areas under wide ranges of speed and variations of angle.

(b) Changes of centre of pressure at varjdng speeds and angles of incidence.

(c) General desirability of different fabrics.

(d) Relations between motive power and area of sustaining surfaces.

2. In regard to propellers.

(a) The efficiency which is dependent upon form.

(b) The efficiency which is dependent upon size.

(c) The varying efficiency at varying speeds.

(d) The strength and durability of material.

3. In regard to the complete machine.

(a) The centre of effort.

(b) The centre of air pressure at varying speeds.

(c) Lift and drift.

In advocating the adoption of the Maxim method I do not lose sight of the facts that the most accurate results will be reached when the air is calm or nearly so and that the eddies and whirls of air which must be encountered by the aviator in windy weather bring in entirely new conditions. These must be met and there are many reasons for thinking that increased efficiency of machines as a whole will give man a greater mastery of disturbed air than he has yet obtained.

Briefly the argument is this:

Flying machines must be built.

Money will be expended.

Progress must be made.

We lack the data necessary to progress.

Precise measurements cannot be obtained when machines are in free flight.

The conditions for testing under the Maxim method are unquestionably nearer to the actual conditions in free flight than can be found by any other method.

So long as we lack the requisite data, a portion of the money expended for flying machines will be wasted.

There can be no more economical way of gaining the needed knowledge than by making exact measurements under the most favorable conditions obtainable.

*In the Century Magazine, N. Y., January, 1895, Sir Hiram Maxim gives a full description of his equipment. He says, "I constructed a railway track 1800 feet long (9 feet gauge) over which the flying machine could he run at a high velocity, not only for testing the lifting power of the aeroplane and the thrust of the screws, but also for ascertaining the exact centre of the lifting effort, so as to enable me to balance the machine. Steel springs were interposed between the axle-trees and the body of the machine, and levers were so arranged that the whole apparatus became a veritable weighing-machine or platform scales. When the machine had reached a fair degree of perfection, it was found impossible to run it over the track at anything like full speed without danger of its leaving the rails; so I found it necessary to provide an inverted track. This was of 3x9 Georgia pine placed outside and above the steel rails. Four additional wheels on outriggers were provided, and so arranged that when the machine was lifted one inch clear of the lower steel rails they engaged the upper track. Upon running the machine at three-quarters power, it was found that three of the wheels were lifted off the lower track, while when it was run at full speed all four of the wheels were lifted from the steel rails, and the machine ran along the upper track without touching the earth at all." Sir Hiram also states that the "speed of the machine was from 3fi to 37 miles an hour; the screw-thrust while running was 2000 pounds; the actual horse-power, with 320 pounds steam pressure, was 363; the total weight of the machine, with water, fuel and three men on board was a little less than 8000 pounds.

COMMENTS ON MR. JAMES MEANS' ARTICLE ON

GRIST FOR THE MATHEMATICAL MILL

By W. R. Turnbull.

Air. Means' article is certainly timely. The unthinking "public" has run off with the idea that the problem of aerial navigation has been solved; this is not so by any means. Lilienthal demonstrated that a man's weight and more, could be carried mechanically by the air, Langleydemonstrated that adynamic machine could be carried by the air, and the Wright Brothers have demonstrated that the two could be combined. Nothing more has been achieved.

The present-day aeroplane is on a par with the present-day dirigible, each has its speed limitations at about 40 miles per hour, each must be operated in a virtual calm (i.e., it is not practical with wind velocities of over 15 miles per hour) and each loses in efficiency tremendously at higher speeds of operation. (On their own statement the Wright Brothers' machine can only be driven at higher speeds by the use of greatly-increased power.)

All careful students of the problem have cut the dirigible "out of the running," but is the aeroplane, as we have it today, much better?

The aeroplane so far developed, is a direct refutation of "Langley's Law" which states that the higher the speed of the aeroplane, the less power is required to drive and sustain it. Here is one thing that requires the most careful investigation, and while I hope in the near future, to either confirm or refute this "Law," I realize it is

a matter more fitted to the resources of a government, than an individual.

Aly own indirect experiments all point to a refutation of the "Langley Law," but I do not consider them in any way as conclusive; and this is only one of several important points that must be cleared up before we can put the subject on a scientific basis.

The present aeroplane is not a flying machine in its broadest sense; it is a soaring machine made possible by the marvellously light motors that have been developed. A

soaring machine is necessarily impractical in a gusty wind; it is not a solution.

The dynamic machine that will really solve the problem of aerial navigation will be one independent of the constant gusts and eddies of the atmosphere, that can rise and fall at the will of the operator, and be driven at a high speed in any direction and at any time. I believe that the present aeroplane is not conceived on correct principles, and until the correct principles are discovered by painstaking research work, development will be at a standstill.

Just as soon as we have the correct underlying principles of sustentation and propulsion, of efficiency and stability before us, it is immaterial how crude the first machines may be—we will then have the "grist for the mathematical mill"—development will be instantaneous and continuous.

We cannot build on sand; let us have the research work for a foundation.

By Dr. A.

Air. Aleans's plea for a Federal aeronautic laboratory seems both opportune and reasonable. Such a laboratory would do for aerial navigation what the model basin at Washington is doing for marine navigation. It would determine by means of accurate instruments, in the hands of trained observers, the aerodynamic data needed by engineers and inventors, for all kinds of models of hulls, framing, sustaining and propelling surfaces. It would furnish physical constants, laws and formulas, of permanent value to men whose energies should remain free to apfily such knowledge to the advancement of intportant industrial arts.

There is no doubt that a liberal appropriation for military aeronautics would quickly lead to the development of such a laboratory as Air. Aleans has suggested. It is the wish of the Signal Corps not only to purchase air craft,

F. Zahm

but likewise to stimulate inventors and manufacturers, particularly in America, to produce the best possible. They would be furnished with physical data, they would be offered an ample testing place, with ample ground and machinery for repairs or construction, they would be offered rewards for the best designs, and a market for air craft of every type as soon as efficiency was demonstrated. Such an institution would be the center of aeronautical inspiration and activit}', where the inventor, the manufacturer, the scientist and the soldier would mutually stimulate and assist one another. It is therefore to the interest of every lover of aeronautics to advocate and strive for an appropriation for the Signal Corps liberal enough to realize Air. Aleans's laboratory as an auxiliary part of the regular military aeronautic establishment.

THE AERONAUTIC SOCIETY BUYS CURTISS FLYER.

G. H. Curtiss to Fly at Morris Park Volery.

AERONAUTIC SOC'IKTY oma1ns FIRST AEROPLANE. EVER SOLD IN All ERICA.

Xcw York City is to take the lead in dying. Some real flying by an American in an American built machine is to begin here in May.

There is every prospect, those in the know say, that the eyes of the world, which are now directed towards Pan, in France, will in a few weeks be turned upon New York as the center of the greatest flying achievements. America is no longer to be left only teaching the Old World how to fly; some big things are also to be done at home.

An announcement was made at the meeting of the Aeronautic Society on March 3d that the Society had completed a contract with Glenn H. Curtiss for the purchase and exhibition of an aeroplane at the Society's exhibition at Morris Park in May.

This is an historic event. P>y this step the Aeronautic Society becomes not only the first aeronautical body in America to purchase an aeroplane, but they also actually make the first purchase of the sort ever made in America. The machine is moreover the first flyer evet made for sale in this country. It is also interesting to know that the first flying machine to be purchased in the United States should be made in the Empire State and should come to the metropolis.

THE MACHINE.

The flyer will have a spread of 30 feet, with a depth of 4 feet. The supporting surfaces will be parallel and spaced 5 feet apart. The vertical rudder will be placed in the rear, and there will be a horizontal rudder both in front and rear. A new and partly automatic device for maintaining equilibrium will be employed, consisting of movable surfaces between the supporting planes. The surfaces will be made of the Baldwin combination rubber-silk cloth. The woodwork will be spruce, as usual.

An automobile steering wheel will be used

on which is located the spark advance and throttle. By pushing back and forth, the wheel raises or lowers the horizontal controls.

The engine- will be a 25 horse power, 4 cylinder, driving direct a 6 foot laminated wood propeller of new design, unity pitch, at 1,200 revolutions per minute. The engine differs little from the ordinary Curtiss engine. There are double valves in the head with a single push rod and the construction is a bit different. Lightweight alloy crank case, a hollow shaft, light pistons and connecting rods, and a homogeneous copper water jacket, will be employed.

A double system of launching will probably be adopted; either a falling weight or a spring will be used to launch the machine along a track. The machine will be comparatively small and light, the weight to be 600 pounds, and the speed 40 miles per hour.

In competition with Mr. Curtiss at the exhibition there is expected to be several machines belonging to members of the Society; among them, those of Wilbur R. Kimball and Fred Shneider. Both the latter machines are now awaiting favorable weather for trial at the Morris Park Volery.

Misstatements have appeared in ..the papers in regard to the purchase of the Curtiss machine. It was given out that the machine had been bought of the Curtiss-Herring combination. The Aeronautic Society states emphatically through its secretary that the purchase was agreed upon with Mr. Curtiss some time before the big combination was made possible.

KIMBALL AEROPLANE.

Christened by Miss Anna Held.

In Europe they designate their machines by numbers. Here in America it seems likely we shall give them names. The Doctors Wright use neither numbers nor names. But the Aerial Experiment Association names its machines—the "June Bug," "Loon" and the "Silver Dart,'' etc., and that is a far more attractive and popular fashion. Flying machines have a something that is akin to a personality, and giving them names, even if it does not help us to realize their individuality, and perhaps it may, at least it helps in a curiously subtle way to popularize them.

Wilbur R. Kimball has decided to give his biplane the name of "N. Y. No. i." The naming ceremony took place at Morris Park on March 14. It was probably the first christening of an aeroplane in the history of the world. Miss Anna Held, assisted by President Lee S. Burridge and a large company, officiated, and the function was a great success. Miss Held was invited because she is nightly making a realistic stage flight, and celebrating the aeroplane in song.

Mr. Kimball's aeroplane is a new type. It has two striking features that distinguish it from all previous forms. The first is the entire absence of rear cell, rear rudder, or any stability surface whatever at the back beyond the main body. The second is the use of eight propellers. It has two other special devices that also attract attention at first glance. One of these is a new form of vertical rudder, consisting of four long, narrow upright planes, working like the slats in a Venetian blind, at the rear edge of each end of the

referred to measure 4 feet by 4 feet. The narrow vertical rudders spoken of are 9 inches wide and 4 feet 6 inches long.

The front horizontal rudder is an open cell of two planes, measuring 12 feet by 2 feet 6 inches, set 3 feet apart, and 9 feet 9 inches ahead of the main planes.

The motor is a specially designed aeronautical type of two cycle engine, with four cylinders of 4 inch bore and 4 inch stroke, water cooled, 41 horse power, and weighing with magneto 130 pounds.

Transmission is effected by means of a small steel endless cable, specially made by Roebling for this purpose, and remarkable both in structure and result. This cable, which is only one-eighth inch in diameter, is composed of 114 fine wire threads twisted in six strands of nineteen wires each, and is as flexible as a silken cord. It runs in a V-shaped groove across rims, 20 inches in diameter, affixed to the propellers, over the top and back along the bottom, thus getting a double fric-

main cell. The other is four horizontal extensions of the main surfaces, two at each end, which are articulated along one edge only to the frame of the cell, and may be raised or lowered through a long arc. at the will of the operator, as currents affect his lateral stability.

Although it is very close to the ground, much closer than any biplane yet built, the machine is very beautiful to the eye.

Its entire length from front to back is 18 feet 9 inches. The main supporting surfaces are parallel, and measure 37 feet in width by 6 feet 6 inches in depth, and are 4 feet 2 inches apart. They convex upwards with a shallow curvature of about 1 in 26, flattening naturally a little at their rear, where they extend about t8 inches beyond the framework. This depth of 18 inches is flexible, and is built up of wooden laths resting on the main spar and sewn into the cloth. The horizontal extensions

tional bite on the rims, and so dividing the torque and tension on the propeller structure. The tensile strength of this small cable was found by tests to be no less than 2,000 pounds. Tests also have shown that a pull of 80 pounds to 90 pounds is sufficient to turn the propellers. When working at its average speed, the cable will travel at the rate of 7,500 feet per minute, or nearly 86 miles an hour.

The propellers themselves are four-bladed. and were designed and constructed by Mr. Kimball as the result of several years of experiment. They are particularly adapted to the cable transmission by having the supports for the driving rims built in as a part of the whole. They are of fine, clear grain spruce, with metal hubs working on R. I. V. ball bearings. They are 3 feet (0 inches in diameter, and are pitched to 4 feet. While the engine rims at t.400 revolutions per minute, the propellers will turn at

1,000. They are placed in a row, blade-end to blade-end, between the main surfaces, the entire length of the cell.

The chassis is carried on three 26 inch pneumatic-tired wheels, and has no skids. A smaller wheel, 20 inches in diameter, is under each extremity of the main cell, not touching the ground when the machine is level, and intended only to save the cell in landing. Rising will be effected direct from the wheels.

Spruce has been used throughout for the framework. The cells are covered with unbleached sheeting, coated with a special size, and varnished with a liquid rubber.

In the mechanism of operation everything has been schemed out to allow of its readily becoming involuntary on the part of the aviator. The operator sits in front of the engine on the fore edge of the lower main surface. At his right hand is a lever actuating the front rudder, and working upwards and downwards, the same as the rudder itself. At the left hand is a lever operating the vertical rudders, and also the front wheel of the chassis, and working right and left, the same as the rudders and the wheel. The feet rest on a horizontal lever, pivoted in its center, which controls the horizontal extensions of the main cell. At the side of the right foot, within easy reach, is a short lever, by means of which the current of the magneto can be interrupted and the engine stopped. Near the left hand, on a sector like that of an automobile steering wheel, is a simple gear by which the engine can be directly controlled. The cylinders of the motor are coupled up in pairs alternately, and a movement of the knob on the sector will put either pair in or out of action, or open or throttle both pairs.

For ease of transportation, the anpartaus is made up in five sections, which, though absolutely rigid when together, are readily sundered. The covering is laced at the joints.

Mr. Kimball claims that his system of vertical rudders at the ends of the main cell will be more efficient than warping the ends of the cell, and that he will be able to utilize far more of the efficiency of his engine by having its power spread over the whole of the supporting surfaces by his eight propellers.

Bokor Triplane

Another new machine nearly completed at the Morris Park grounds of the Aeronautic Society is the triplane of Morris Bokor.

The supporting planes measure 28 by 6V2 feet. The distance from the lower to the second plane is 5 feet, and to the upper 6 feet. The arrangement is similar to that in the model illustrated and described in the December. 1908, issue. The lower surface is in two parts, which are movable in opposite directions for the purpose of securing lateral stability. The framework which holds the motor and which may be called the "car.'' is practically a pendulum suspended from the planes. The system of planes is pivoted at the top of this car so that when a gust of wind strikes either extremity of the planes, the whole system tilts, while the car remains in a vertical position.

The tilting of these planes automatically raises and depresses the two halves of the lower surface. In front is a double surface horizontal rudder 14 by 2l/2 feet. In the rear are two V-shaped cells, one behind the other, and in the center of the rearmost one is placed a vertical rudder. From the front edge of the surfaces to the front edge of the horizontal rudder is 12 feet, and the extremity of the tail is the same length from the rear edge of the surfaces. Spruce is used for the beams and struts and hazel wood for the ribs. The beams have two rectangular air cells running throughout the entire length, and, while quite large in cross section, are very light. The total surface is 570 square feet, which includes the tail cells and the horizontal rudder.

Two 8-foot propellers, 6y2 foot pitch, will be driven by chain at 700 revolutions per minute from an ordinary automobile engine running at double the propeller speed.

The machine will be mounted on four wheels, all of which are to be rigid. Steering in the air will be done by two levers. The operator sits directly over the engine.

Beach, Triaca and Lawrence Aeroplanes.

A. C. Triaca has just started the construction of a 50 horse-power biplane at Morris Park. A great secret is being made of the construction and form, but the promise is that it will be an example of mechanical perfection. A propeller has already been ordered from abroad, and it is possible that the machine will approximate the type Voisin Brothers have made popular in Europe.

S. Y. Beach, the aeronautical editor of the Scientific American, has the framework and motor of his aeroplane completed, and as soon as the canvas is in place, will be ready for trial. The longitudinal framing resembles the Vntoinette aeroplane. This V-shaped construction has been used in all the gliders experimented with by Mr. Beach and Gustav Whitehead. In front are two large parallel horizontal supporting planes. The chassis has four wheels and the motor is a soecial 50 horsepower motor designed by Whitehead. Rope drive will be used to transmit power to two 8 foot propellers, 4 foot pitch. Horizontal rudder at rear end of body framework and twin vertical rudders also at the rear. A pair of folding wings are attached to the middle of the body framework, back of the main planes. The machine will be brought to Morris Park as soon as completed.

George L. Lawrence has seen the construction of his machine at Morris Park.

Unique Glider Built by L. R. Adams.

Louis R. Adams, founder and first president of the Long Island Automobile Club, well-known automobilist, a founder and director of the Aeronautic Society, has just finished at Morris Park the construction of a most unique gliding machine.

The glider as built has a spread of 16 feet and a depth of 4V2 feet front to rear. The upper and lower surfaces are spaced vertically about 4 feet apart. The lower surface is entirely covered with unbleached muslin, while the upper surface is left free of covering for about 2 feet from each extremity.

The two sustaining surfaces are held apart by'two vertical braces and also by two "spreaders." These latter are at an angle of about 35 degrees with the horizontal and extend from the front edge of the lower surface to the rear edge of the upper surface, and the vertical braces extend from the rear edge of the lower surface to the front edge of the upper surface. The front of the upper surface is in the center of the machine from left to right, nearly above the exact rear edge of the lower surface. The whole apparatus can instantly be "knocked down" by removing the two spreaders and the two braces. The machine then comes together flat and may be easily carried in one hand.

ladded, will increase the weight a very little. I The hickory ribs are spaced about 18 Inches apart. The long rods, which form the Inain parts of the structure, are of half-inch lound hickory. The ribs extend beyond the rear main rod from 2 to 4 inches. The [spreaders work on ratchets which are screwed [to the vertical spreaders. The operator may, fty pulling down or pushing up on the 35-de-Iree spreaders, change the angle of incidence.

Another New Prize.

I At the March 4th meeting of the Aeronautic Society there was announced the new prize of A. C. Triaca, director of the International School of Aeronautics, of $100 in cash to the tviator covering at Morris Park 500 meters in Ihe fastest time. The machine must be assembled at the grounds of the society and rnounted on wheels. The 500 meters will be

measured, beginning 200 meters from the starting line, and the machine must land within 200 yards from the 500 meter mark.

This prize makes $700 in prizes offered by Mr. Triaca. This amount includes a $100 gold medal for the longest flight by a member of the Italian Club on an Italian machine; the same for the Aero Club of France and the Aero Club of America; same gold medal for the woman making the longest balloon ascent in the world, for the most efficient propeller produced by a member of the Aeronautic Society or of any other international club, and for the most efficient type of motor in 1909.

Aeronautic Society Exhibition.

Plans are rapidly nearing concrete form for the Society's second exhibition at its Morris Park Volery- At a recent meeting of the Society, $4,000 was voted for preliminary expenses. A committee has been appointed to

arrange and conduct the affair, and daily meetings are being held.

In addition to the flights by G. H. Curtiss in the aeroplane the Society has purchased, there will be gliding contests for the Chanute prize announced in this issue, and the Chanute trophies not awarded at the last exhibition; model contests for the Burridge and Kimball prizes, just announced: "wind-wagon" contests, in which one member of the Society has already entered a wind wagon of new design to be built by G. H. Curtiss and equipped with one of the new type Curtiss water cooled engines; a dirigible balloon, and, perhaps, some more hot air balloon ascents. There is also talk of having a balloon race, the aerostats to be filled with hydrogen gas, compressed in tanks and shipped to the grounds.

In addition to the catapult now at the Park for the launching of gliders under known conditions, a high mound will be provided for those who do not take to the catapult idea,

THE ORVILLE WRIGHT DISASTER

[Editor's Note.—Mr. Clime, the photographer of the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, was the only witness close to spot where the accident occurred, and at the request of the Aerial Experiment Association he dictated what he saw. The subject was discussed by Dr. A. Graham Bell and Messrs. F. W. Baldwin, G. H. Curtiss, J. A. D. McCurdy and Gardiner H. Bell. The discussion was recorded in the Bulletins of the Aerial Experiment Association, from which files the following is taken.]

By W. S. Clime

There was a crack like a pistol shot coming from above. Looking quickly upward I saw a piece of a propeller blade twirling off. Realizing instinctively that something terrible was about to happen, I stood riveted to the spot for a moment with my eyes on the machine. For a brief period it kept on its course, then swerved to the left, and with a swoop backwards in almost a perpendicular maimer, it fell lor half the distance to the ground. Then it suddenly righted itself, regained for an instant its normal position, only to pitch forward and strike on the parallel planes in front for altering the elevation. * * * The terrific impact instantly reduced the structure to a mass of wreckage. It was apparent that the machine was partially inverted, the skids being on top, and the machine lying in a position at right angle to its course when the accident occurred.

Dr. A Graham Bell

Dr. Bell says that from an examination of the plane surfaces of the Wright aeroplane, he thinks that the center of gravity was not further forward than the center of surface of the whole machine, including the front control, and may even have been a little behind it, in which case a stern dive might be expected to begin with, followed by an oscillation bringing about a front dive just as Mr. Clime describes it, although other observers do not seem to have noticed the stern dive alluded to by him. Dr. Bell suggests that two propellers be used but concentrate, with two engines, and that movable parts of the machine should be kept inside and in front of the operator as much as possible. If the vertical rudder could not be placed in front, a mirror might be used.

The immediate cause of the disaster was the loss of headway, the greatest danger the aviator has to fear, dangerous because the machine is not properly balanced when headway is lost. With the center of gravity far forward, a correct balance is difficult and when headway is lost, the machine turns head down and dives. The tendency of progress at Hammondsporf has been to advance the position of center of gravity for the purpose of properly balancing the machine while it has headway. The question is raised, does this prove that changes of equilibrium should be balanced by action of movable surfaces rather than by changes in the position of center of gravity? Dr. Bell suggests the consideration of the question whether this advancing of the center of gravity increases the danger to the aviator in the event of loss of headway. He submits three propositions. (i) A machine properly balanced when it has no headway becomes unbalanced when headway is gained, and climbs. (2) A machine properly balanced when it has headway becomes unbalanced when headway becomes lost, and dives. (3) The aviator can steer down to correct a climb because there is headway, but cannot steer up to correct the dive because there is no headway.

The front control cannot operate as a rudder without headway, merely offering passive resistance to turning movement that produces the dive. The front control without headway cannot prevent turning movement of the head-heavy machine but only retards it so that it takes a longer time for the head to turn vertically downwards. Condition of machine without headway considered in detail—effects of change in position of center of gravity, center of pressure in geometrical center of surface, balanced when center of gravity and center of surface are in the same vertical line; if center of gravity in front of center of surface, machine tends to turn completely over in front and the head points towards the ground, and without headway no front control can prevent it. The most that it can do is to retard the turning movement. By using a large front control far removed from the main surfaces, the turning movement may be so retarded that steering headway may be regained before a dangerous angle of inclination has been reached.

Aero Show at Los Angeles—Ferris $1,000 Balloon Cup—Trophy for Knabenshue.

The Aero Club of California has arranged for an aeronautic show in Los Angeles, March 20 and 21. About twenty members of the club have entered models of various types of machines, and there is one complete aeronef, that of J. S. Zerbe. The signal corps of the National Guard of California will co-operate, its balloon squad having entered a model of a dirigible balloon.

Membership of the Aero Club of California has nearly reached the 150 mark, although the club has been actively organized less than five months. Public meetings are held twice a month in a prominent and centrally located hall to further general interest in Los Angeles. A different phase of aeronautics is discussed at each meeting and addresses explaining types of aircraft and illustrating the progress made throughout the world are delivered by members of the club. At the first meeting of the series addresses were delivered on "Progress in Aviation," by J. S. Zerbe; "Significance of Aeronautics," by H. La V. Twining, and "Public Interest in Aeronautics," by G. B. Harrison. Moving pictures and other views on aeronautic subjects will be among the features of future meetings.

The Los Angeles Herald, which maintains a regular department on aeronautics, has presented to Roy Knabenshue a loving cup valued at $100 in appreciation of his achievements in aerial navigation. The Herald has given numerous cups to promote interest in golf, amateur athletics and similar lines, and the presentation to Mr. Knabenshue was accompanied with the hope that recognition of his achieve-

ments might prove a stimulus to encourage others to further the cause of aeronautics. Mr. Knabenshue has presented a silver cup to the Aero Club of California, to be given to the member of that club who first flies an aeronef a distance of 500 feet.

Frank Leroyxez, of Los Angeles, is building two balloons of a capacity of 35,000 cubic feet each, which he will use for pleasure trips and rental purposes. One, nearly completed, will be christened the "Los Angeles" by Miss Anna Lyons, who is a member of the Aero Club of California.

Dick Ferris, of Los Angeles, owner of the "United States" and "American," has given orders for the designing of a $1,000 trophy for the purpose of stimulating long distance ballooning. It will be given to the balloonist who first covers 1,000 miles east from Los Angeles, to be held by him until his record is bettered, and to go permanently to the first aeronaut who shall make a transcontinental aerial trip, which Mr. Ferris believes is to be proved feasible within the next five years. Mr. Ferris himself expects to take one of his balloons in the spring for a trial at an eastern trip, and Charles A. Coey, of Chicago, who is spending the winter in Los Angeles, is getting the Bumbaugh balloon, "Chicago," in shape for a similar undertaking. G. L. Bumbaugh will accompany Mr. Coey as pilot.

Weekly Ascensions in Los Angeles.

Experimental flights with the airship and the aeroplane now being constructed at Chutes Park by Roy Knabenshue will soon begin. The captive balloon which will be put up at the Chutes is to be handled under the auspices of the California Aeronautic Society. It was organized in December, with Dick Ferris and

J. B. Lehigh at its head, to promote interest in California winter aeronautics.

A novelty planned by the company is in its announcement that it will take any person up at any time desired for a short or long distance voyage. The only requirements are some assurance that the person is able to take the trip and the payment of a fee of $100.

ASCENSIONS TO ORDER.

"For this fee," said Dick Ferris, who is general manager of the new company, "we can arrange a balloon ascension on short notice. You may telephone to the Chutes and order the balloon just as you would telephone to a garage for an_ automobile. We have two of the best pilots in the United States—Roy Knabenshue and A. E. Mueller. Then I think we have the finest place in the world for a pleasure trip, and we hope to see one taken every month in the year. It will help emphasize the difference between Southern California and the East."

The "Sirch Transport."

It sometimes happens that in the abandoned first principles of an art there is found a simple means of overcoming the limitations of the most highly developed apparatus. This is true of the Sirch "Transport," designed by Charlemagne Sirch, an electrical engineer well known throughout the United States, and president of a Los Angeles company which manufactures electrical apparatus invented by him and sold throughout the world.

It will be remembered that the first form of balloon to get in the air, the "Montgolfier," was inflated over a straw fire and therefore supposedly filled with heated air.

It occurred to Charlemagne Sirch that these balloons thus inflated contained the products of combustion—chiefly carbon dioxide with some free carbon in the form of soot—which is a gas having vastly different properties than (and almost twice the weight of) air. Seeing in this possibilities of overcoming the objec-tional features of hydrogen, including the expense of securing this gas and the difficulty of making hydrogen in quantity within any degree of its theoretical purity and buoyancy, also the danger of poison by inhalation and of explosion, the inventor, who had been so fortunate as to see a copy of Langley's paper on aviation soon after it was written, devoted some years to designing air craft in which an envelope containing pure air heated by radiation afforded a safe means of sustentation.

A number of models of craft employing this principle were built, including fly-abouts and dirigibles of various sizes. The large Sirch Transport is a dirigible somewhat over 240 feet in length and 45 feet in its maximum diameter. The envelope is partitioned into six sections, each of which is independently heated or cooled. It is found that upwards of 80 per cent, of the heat contained in the fuel of the engines operating the two propellers, is contained in the exhaust. Knowing the specific heat of air and the number of heat units con^ tained in the fuel consumed per hour, a simple

calculation shows that much more heat is generated than could possibly be used in sustentation. However, each compartment of the envelope also contains an efficient type of Bunsen burner located in a radiator of ingenious design; this is to be used when the engines are idle or in manceuvering.

The various sections are constructed of different materials according to the strengths required. The canvas and muslin are fireproofed and treated with a solution of gelatin and ammonium bichromate, which becomes hard and impervious after once exposed to the light. Running in longitudinal seams, sewn in the canvas envelope are wires of great tensile strength trussed outward and gripped every 22 feet by small castings (termed hangers), into which the extremities of the truss rods are bolted, making a rigid envelope. Extending through the center of the envelope is a spine made up of 4J/2 inch tubing sections each 22 feet long, connected by cast couplings, which also serve as hubs, to which are bolted the inner extremities of the truss rods—like spokes.

At the fore and aft ends of the envelope the central tube projects and to its ends the wires are secured by turnbuckles. This hub also forms a means of suspension for the direct connected propeller motors at the extremities of the bag, thus achieving what all designers have found desirable. The engines are two cycle and reversible; each is enclosed in a small cab containing room for the engineer. A small companionway extends from end to end beneath the bag. Situated almost midway between the ends of the ship are two large metal frames containing reefable aeroplanes manipulated from the large metal piiot house located beneath them and just under the bag. In this pilot house is also a bench containing levers for operating the valves and burners m all compartments. There is also a centrifugal air compressor which is connected with the large central tube in the envelope so that by pulling a wire a blast of cold air can be admitted into any compartment through a valve in the hub. These features have been covered in the principal countries by patent applications, and there are also a number of ingenious details to which space will be given later. The importance of the discovery that the calculations of the so-called fire balloons should have been based on a carbon dioxide mixture weighing approximately 1,000 gr. per cubic foot (reduced to the conditions under which air weighs 527 gr. per cubic feet) is apparent when it is considered that it is possible to achieve almost twice the sustaining force by employing air heated by radiation.

[Note.—Even the calculations in Major Moedebeck's Hand Book are based on pure air, and only one page out of 500 is devoted to this abandoned phase of the art. Pettigrew, and, in fact, all prominent writers on the subject, have stated that the principle on which the Montgolfiers depended, is "incapable of Eurjher improvement."]

A curve plotted by Mr. Sirch after calculating the per cent, buoyancy of air at temperatures rising to 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit shows

that air at approximately 440 degrees has the same buoyancy as hydrogen gas. The—niate-ia]s__nsed in the construction of the Sirch Transport-consist-entirely of canvas and similar—textiles and metal, the latter being principally, a^inagnesiurn aljnminum alloy; there is -fte-^wrrcKt^rllc-OT-rubberused anywhere. .3Pb-ese t^aterials have been subjected to a temperature of 440 degrees without damage, although it is designed to raise the temperature only about 100 degrees over atmospheric. The textiles used which are subjected to a high temperature exhibit a remarkable immunity from the effects of heat. Ay Montgolfier balloom of £5,000 cubic_ieet capacity constructed of light muslm, unfilled and untreated with any impervious coating, is inflated in less than ten minutes by a flame of about two quarts of gasolene and a little pine wood, and rises to 1,800 feet. The practice is to entirely deflate the bag and then permit the flame to roar into it from a smoke stack 18 inches in diameter. The hot gasolene flame sometimes rises 12 feet inside the bag, and yet a great many ascensions can be made with such a balloon.

of this craft lies in its ability to make headway without the propellers; this is by virtue of the fact that the buoyant force is under control and may be turned on gradually, so that when the craft is slowly ascending the large upper surface of the aeroplane presents to the air above it an obstruction in the shape of an inclined plane. This causes the ship to advance. By reefing the planes and cooling the air and thus alternately descending and ascending, it is possible to "tack" in a vertical instead of the nautical horizontal method. "Possiblv such a craft, without engines, will be the 'freighter' of the future." The contents of the envelope in this machine will lift about 65 pounds per degree of temperature rise. The comparative efficiency of this type with the only other craft of importance employing rigid envelope shows that while the Zeppelin has a buoyant force of 24,000 pounds, more than three-fourths of this is consumed in carrying its own structural weight. The Sirch 'transport is designed to weigh only a little over a ton and as may be easily calculated, it will lift many times its structural weight.

C. W. SIRCH AND MODEL DIRIGIBLE

In manceuvering with this "transport" it is necessary only to heat the air sufficiently to rise above obstructions. Either end can be elevated or lowered by warming or cooling the air in the compartments situated there. Tlie-propellers located fore and aft, of which one. draws and the other drives the apparatus, are smaller and travel at a higher rate of speed than any heretofore employed, Sirch Joeing of the opinion that the loss due to high speed will be compensated for in more than one way; in this he-has been borne out by the -designers of the Clement-Bayard. The engines are built up of a system of units of six horsepower each, so that more cylinders can be added as required. The engine cabins are connected to the pilot house by telephone and the craft will be further equipped with incandescent and search lights. It will also carry wireless equipment.

The entire craft being rigid, is designed to soar if need be. Another interesting feature

The use of air disposes at once of the costliness of hydrogen, danger from inhalation, explosion and fire, leakage and replenishment in transit, ballast and the difficulty of obtaining a supply requiring a generating plant.

Junior Aero Club at San Francisco.

A Junior Aero Club has been formed at 64 Fifth Avenue, San Francisco, by Virgil Moore, who is instructing the members in the principles of ballooning and in the flying of kites. A contest for distance is being planned for pilot balloons filled with hydrogen gas. These will carry notes asking the finders to return them to the club. Prizes will be offered for the greatest distance covered and for the most ingenious arrangement for the disposal of ballast during the ascent.

BIGGEST AERO COMBINE OF THE WORLD.

Herring and Curtiss Join Forces — Prodigious Profits Prophesied by the Promotors

Announcement was made on March 3d that a syndicate had been formed, with a capital stock of about $360,000, to acquire A. M. Herring's patents pending in the United States and the G. H. Curtiss Mfg. Co. The European patents are still available for sale.

The syndicate was started by Cortlandt Field Bishop, who interested several of his wealthy friends. Failing last year to interest the Wright Brothers in the plan, the next best thing seemed to be to secure to the combination the patents and services of A. M. Herring and the valuable property of the Curtiss concern.

Mr. Herring obtains for his share 51 per cent, of the total. Mr. Curtiss is to be the general manager. The controlling factors are A. M. Herring, G. H. Curtiss and C. F. Bishop, the latter representing the money interests.

At a meeting of The Aeronautic Society, held the same evening, Mr. Herring stated:

"I had a proposition like that of the Wrights to go abroad. There was a syndicate of men abroad who would offer $100,000 to continue experiments, with all facilities. The original suggestion of the present syndicate came from Mr. Bishop; as America produced the aeroplane, he believed the people in America working seriously to be the ones who should have proper encouragement. j

"If I could associate myself with the propen people and get the proper facilities—talking that over, it occurred to me that about the best consolidation we could make would be' with Curtiss. If I could get money enough together to be able to add to that a factory capable, if necessary, of turning out a hundred aeroplanes a year, we thought we would try our hand. That arrangement was concluded to-day."

In answer to various inquiries made of Mr. , Herring at the meeting, he said he could not ' make public demonstrations on account of' the patents pending. He gave some advice on first trials to those intending or hoping to fly, and after telling of the thousands of currents and whirlpools in the air, the up and down air streams, etc., and their effect on a machine during flight, concluded by saying: "I believe that I have found a method of holding the machine steady, no matter

what these variations in the air are. The machine I am to deliver to the Government weighs approximately 200 pounds, will carry two people, and has a spread of 22 feet. I was the first one to fly in a gliding machine having two superposed surfaces—in 1896."

Mr. Herring prophesies a wonderful advance in the price of the stock and compares future quotations with the sky price of Bell telephone stock. On a basis of the above-mentioned capitalization, it is stated by the promoters that 6 per cent, can now be paid, as the business of the Curtiss plant in engines and motor-cycles assures this much.

The machines put out by the new combination will be called the "Curtiss-Herring" aeroplane and will sell at $7,500, which includes teaching the purchaser or his operator.

Last fall the suggestion of an organization to take the Curtiss' plant was made by one of the members of the Aeronautic Society, but nothing came of it.

The Herring Motor and Government Aeroplane.

The motor which A. M. Herring will use on the United States Government flyer is, perhaps, the most interesting motor in the world. One can certainly say, "built like a walch^—14—is^—Hideed.—a—wjjrk of art^,.^--^ It has five treated Chnmie mclcel steel1, cylinders set radially around a single shaft. The hollow one-throw crank is" also tempered Chrome nickel steel. The push rods are adjustable and locking. The cast crank case, which is about one-sixteenth inch in thickness, is of a special aluminum alloy prescribed by Herring. This alloy has nearly the same strength as mild steel. Both iidet and exhaust valves are in the cylinder head, positively operated. The ignition is by make and break spark, with variable timing, changing for all cylinders by one lever. Two spark coils are used, one for three cylinders and one

1 for the other two. The weight of these is but one-quarter pound each. There is a car-

jbureter for each cylinder, each one weighing, but half an ounce. _ ^

The total weight—of the engine, including McAdamite cast flywheel, spark coils, carbureters and part of the containing frame, is but 25 pounds. Eighteen horse power will be the average, though the motor develops 22

horse power. In flying, each motor is expected to give but 7 to 8 horse power, sufficient for flight.

As has been stated previously in Aeronautics, the 200-pound flyer will have two engines. (See November, 1908, issue for description and 'record of trials.)

The Rinek Aeroplane.

The machine department of the Easton Cordage Company, of Easton, Pa., has just completed an aeroplane of biplane t}rpe under the direction and from designs of C. Norvin Rinek, which although following the general lines of the Yoisin type of machine recently exploited by Farman, Delagrange and other French aviators, differs very materially in detail and method of construction.

The machine is composed of one principal cell 10 meters in width and 2 in length formed

The wings of the aeroplane are covered with rubbered silk cloth, weight of which is about 1^4 ounces per square yard. The curve given to the front plane and also to those of the rear cell is about 1-14.

In addition to the main planes, smaller moveable planes or tips (not shown in photograph) are attached to the ends of main planes, and so connected that they can be operated either separately or in connection with the vertical rudder. The objects of the tips being to increase or diminish at will the angle of either the right or left hand side of the main plane, the aviator being able to lift or depress either side at will.

The mechanical controlling devices for operating the rudder balancing planes and movable tips, are placed immediately in front of the aviator, and designed so as to relieve

Rinek Aeroplane.

by 2 superimposed planes. At the back is a smaller cell 3 meters in width and 2 in length. This is the tail and is joined to the first by means of steel tubing.

The body or car of the machine is placed in the middle of the lower front plane and is joined to same by means of stibtsantial aluminum castings. This in turn rests upon the chassis or running gear.

With the exception of the "fuselage" or car, the machine is built entirely of steel tubing and weighs complete without the motor about 700 pounds.

Head resistance in regard to wires, braces and turnbuckles has been reduced to a minimum; wire tightening being effected by a device which weighs complete about 2 ounces.

him of considerable effort while guiding the machine.

The power plant, situated in the rear of the "fuselage" consists of a 4-cycle water-cooled gasoline motor capable of delivering 60 brake horse power at normal speed of 1,200 revolutions per minute.

The propeller, a combination of steel and aluminum sheeting of an unusual design, furnishes the actual lifting force.

The Northampton County Country Club, situated about four miles from Easton, has granted the use of its golf grounds for the experimental trials, and the machine will be taken out to the Club grounds the early part of April.

Aeroplane at Daytona Beach.

The famous racing beach, Ormond-Daytona, will see on March 23d, for the first time, an aeroplane sailing in the air above it. The beach is known throughout the world as the home of broken records, a result of the work of drivers such as Marriott, Demogeot, Hem-ery, Curtiss, MacDonald and Bernin.

Carl Bates, whose aeroplane is shown in this issue, has already been at the beach for some time practicing and getting his wonderful little machine tuned up for real flights. Roy Harroun, also of Chicago, whose light 8-cylin-der motor was seen at the last Aero Club Show, is expected to be there at the time with a 40 horse-power aeroplane; likewise Horace B. Wild with his dirigible, if it can be arranged. There are 22 events scheduled for the meeting; stock car and piston displacement races, Van-derbilt Cup race, motor-cycle marathon for 100 miles, bicycle races, etc., a carnival of speed.

Split in the Aero Club of St. Louis.

By E. Percy Noel.

Although the annual meeting of the Aero Club of St. Louis was held February 8, the Board of Governors, which was then elected, had not on March 4 met to elect its officers for this year nor had any action been taken by the club in regard to the purchase of a balloon for competition in the Indianapolis race, or for the much talked of exposition of aeronautics and balloon race, which the newspapers have been led to believe was scheduled for October 4. Moreover, it is very much of a question whether the club will take any favorable action in regard to the latter events. Yet it is very probable that these events will take place. To bring this about, the organization of another club must be accomplished, which will consist of all the practical aeronauts now the members of the Aero Club of St. Louis. It will leave the

Bates Machine.

Bates Aeroplane.

In response to criticisms that it is impossible to fly with 10 horse power, with which the machine is equipped, Mr. Bates states as follows :

"In conducting some laboratory experiments with propellers and curved surfaces, I proved that it was possible to carry (by the aeroplane principle) 80 to 100 pounds weight per horse power, and that 50 to 60 pounds per horse power would be easily accomplished.

"I expect a good many experimenters doubt the possibility of flying with only 10 horse power because so few of them have done any research work to learn how little horse power is really necessary when the power is properly used."

old club without a single member with aerial experiences. The Aero Club of America will then, undoubtedly, cancel its affiliation with the "dead duck" and place their trust in the club of active men.

There are now two factions, if they may be so called, within the Aero Club's membership. One of these knows and feels little of the spirit of aeronautics—the pressure of a great something that is with a constant acceleration of movement sweeping everything before it. This part of the club regards the organization merely as an aid to the success of St. Louis as a city, rather than to St. Louis as an aeronautic center of scientific and sportive importance. The other party stands for aeronautics for itself, and is in favor of doing anything within the range of possibility to increase the importance of the club as

an aero club rather than as a civic organization. The first might be called the civilian and the other the aeronautic party.

The "aeronautics," perhaps, realize that in advancing the club as a real aero organization they will best promote the interests of St. Louis as a city. They know that an aero club that is not an aero club much more than in name will soon be found out, and that then it will only be the laughing stock of other cities. Some of them think that even now little towns like Canton, O., and North Adams, Mass., smile up their sleeve when the Aero Club of St. Louis is mentioned. The aeronautics beiievc that by adopting a truly aeronautic policy the club will not only command respect now and ultimately, but that it will help to make St. Louis more of a great metropolis.

That there must be some co-operation between the civic organizations and the Aero Club is a foregone conclusion, for what benefits the Aero Club benefits the city. However, the Aero Club is not necessarily benefited by what helps the city. The consideration that what is good for the city is good for the Aero Club seems to have been the policy from the inception of the club, but what has been officially done so far has been for the city first and then for the Aero Club, with perhaps little concern about the latter. It is a continuance of this policy that the civilian party favors.

About the tone of the Aero Club, there has been nothing to indicate to those far enough on the outside—far enough away to fail to appreciate the lack of activity here— that the Aero Club of St. Louis is anything but a great aeronautic organization. The members and officers, representing as they do, the best of city's wealth and position, have been a great argument for the club's prestige. The importance of aeronautics, as a science, as a sport and as a commercial possibility, is sufficient inducement—if there were no other—for men of this caliber to be its officers and members.

That this condition will continue to exist is not a matter for doubt, but that there must be more of the spirit that the aeronautic party advocates is a pressing business, indeed. Without this the club will die. An organization of aero import cannot exist in a city of the size of St. Louis, and of such great strategic advantage as a ballooning center, without a thorough consciousness of its practical place in the aeronautic world and without making every effort to carry out an aggressive aeronautic policy.

The situation is somewhat analogous to that existing when the Aeronautic Society, in New York, was formed by the active members of the Aero Club of America, who found that their efforts to promote the science were frustrated by one or two of the officers who seemed to have entire control of the club's affairs.

Albert Bond Lambert and H. Eugene Honeywell, St. Louis sky pilots, forwarded their entry as a team in the first annual championship

balloon race to the Aero Club of America. The entry was made by the aeronauts personally, as no action has been taken by the Aero Club of St. Louis to place a balloon in this distance contest, which starts from Indianapolis, June 5. The race is the same which the local clubs recently decided not to hold here.

Previous to the Indianapolis race Mr. Lambert and Mr. Honeywell will probably make a trial trip from Indianapolis in order to familiarize themselves with the conditions of the start. In this ascension the 40.000 cubic foot balloon now being built by the Aero Club of St. Louis will probably be used.

So far the club has not made any entry in the Indianapolis race and no balloon has been ordered for the purpose. Albert Bond Lambert and H. Eugene Honeywell have entered the race as a team, but not as representatives of the Aero Club. It is possible that if the club wishes them to represent it, they will do so, but if it lakes no action in the matter they will go in for themselves.

The Dufour Aeroplane.

Albert Q. Dufour, of Milwaukee, has under construction an aeroplane along the general lines given below. A number of details have been changed during course of the work and certain experiments are now being conducted which are not mentioned in this description.

LI

     

DUFOUR \

   

AFRO- ^

   
 

\

The machine is of the superposed type, with the main surfaces 6V> feet deep by 33 feet spread, spaced 6 feet apart. There are two horizontal rudders in front, each 3 feet by 7V2 feet, placed side by side with a horizontal distance of 4 feet between them. These can

he operated separately or together and take the place of the warping of the surfaces.

The superposed-plancs' tail measures 6l/z feet by 8 feet, with a vertical rudder between them.

Two 7-foot propellers will be placed in the rear, to be operated by a 14 horse power (brake test) double opposed two cylinder motor, made by Charles E. Duryea, the famous automobile engine maker. Several engines of this type, air cooled, were made by Air. Duryea some years for aerodromic experiments.

The ribs will be made of elm and the balance of the framework of spruce. The machine will be mounted on a combination of skids and small wheels. The estimated weight with operator is 625 pounds.

"And if it doesn't fly, it can run on the ground and make a big noise." That's what Mr. Dufour says, anyhow.

Hudson-Fulton Celebration.

The Hudson-Fulton committee appointed by the Aero Club of America met at the club on March 5th to discuss plans for the celebration in the fall. William J. Hammer, who is chairman of the Aero Club's Committee and also a member of the Hudson-Fulton committee of the Aeronautic Society, presided. The other members of the Aero Club's committee are Messrs. Cortlandt F. Bishop, Alan R. Hawley, Chas. Jerome Edwards, J. C. McCoy and Augustus Post, and the members of the Aeronautic Society's committee are Win. R. Kimball, chiarman; A. C. Triaca, William J. Hammer, Lee S. Burridge, Louis R. Adams, Dr. Wm. Green and E. L. Jones. Hon. James M. Beck, Theodore P. Gilman, Peter Cooper Hewitt and Hon. Wm. Berri are the Aeronautical Committee of the Hudson-Fulton Commission.

At the meeting of the Aero Club's Committee, Chairman Hammer presented a report recommending: 1st, The holding, during the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, of an International Aeronautical Congress; 2d, An International Aeronautical Exhibition of Balloons, Airships, Kites, etc., Instruments and Appliances connected with Aerial Navigation, Models, Books and Papers, etc., dealing with the literature of the subject, Photographs, Maps, etc.; 3d, to invite the distinguished aviators and balloonists of the world to attend the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, and, if possible, take an active part in the proposed flights, Aeronautical Congress and Aeronautical Exhibition. President Bishop also suggested as the 4th recommendation the holding of a spherical balloon contest preceding the New York-Albany flight for the World prize; this balloon race to take place from Central Park or some spot adjacent thereto. These recommendations were approved by the committee and subsequently by the board of directors and Mr. Hammer was requested to

see Hon. James M. Beck at once and endeavor to secure not only the hearty approval and co-operation of the Hudson-Fulton Committee, but also a substantial sum for carrying out the plans and for offering a suitable prize for the balloon race. We understand that Mr. Hammer has already had an informal conference with Chairman Beck of the Hudson-Fulton Aeronautical Committee, who expressed himself as favorably impressed with ■ the plans proposed, and he promised to assist the matter as far as possible and said that, while the appropriation thus far received from the state had been very inadequate and the National Government and the City of New York had thus far given no appropriation whatever, he had strong hopes of securing further appropriations from New York State and elsewhere, which were absolutely necessary in carrying out the plans of the Hudson-Fulton Commission, and if this assistance was forthcoming he anticipated that a substantial sum would be placed in the hands of his committee for carrying out the aeronautic features, which bid fair to be one of the most important and interesting of the entire celebration. The Aeronautical Committee of the Hudson-Fulton Commission had passed favorably upon the holding of aerial events, and at the request of the Aero Club of America had consented to having the competition for the New York World's New York to Albany prize held under the auspices of the commission. Mr. Beck called attention to the report of his committee on the subject and said he had purposely stated that the committee wished the co-operation not only of the Aero Club but of any aeronautical organization in New York City. This embraces the Aernautic Societies' Committee, which was appointed at the suggestion of the ITudson-Fulton Committee and it has already held meetings and is formulating a plan for co-operating with the Hudson-Fulton Committee, and have already officially extended the full use of their aerodrome and workshops, etc., at Morris Park for elimination and other trials in connection with the New York to Albany flight and other aeronautical features of the celebration.

a sentiment "aeronautics" endorses.

"Certainly the aeronautic societies ought to get together and co-operate to make the aeronautic contest the unquestioned feature of the whole Hudson-Fulton Celebration."—Extract from letter of Hon. James M. Beck, Chairman Aeronautic Committee, Hudson-Fulton Commission.

To Aero Motor Manufacturers.

The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain requests through Aeronautics that manufacturers now making or about to put on the market aeronautical motors, communicate with the society, giving particulars in regard to their motors, for the information of members. Ad-dres T. O'B. Hubbard, assistant secretary, 53 Victoria St., Westminster, London, S. W.

Aero Show at Newark.

The International School of Aeronautics and the aero department of the S. B. Bowman Auto Company joined in an aeronautical exhibit at the automobile show held in Newark, N. J., the week ending February 27. The work of the school was shown by many models, some of which were constructed by the students, both those taking home study and resident. The Bowman Company exhibited various instruments, magnetos, radiators, etc., suitable for aviation and aerostation, and a Stevens' balloon, for which the company is agent. Also the new type Curtiss 4-cylinder vertical water-cooled motors were represented and attracted considerable attention. The Bowman Company, of which A. C. Triaca is the aeronautical manager, as well as head of the School of Aeronautics, acting as agent for the Curtiss' motors, called attention to

Among those who will take a try with the glider are: John Longacre, Wilson Potter, Craig Biddle, Dr. C. PI. Hart, George E. H. Brooke, W. R. Furness, Edgar Scott, Alexander Sellers, Jr., E. T. Price, V. S. Mercer, Charles Farmuu, Edgar Church and A. W. Hansell.

Another "Development" Company.

The National Aeronautical Development Company, Ltd., that has just been organized in Washington, D. C, and of which Edward H. Young is one of the prime leaders, was formed for the commercial end of the art, also to promote public interest in the same, and it stands ready to furnish any desired part of a machine. The company is prepared to give estimates, furnish work upon estimates, and guarantee workmanship.

It is at present exploiting a new aerial propeller which "gives a result of 50 pounds

The Newark Aero Show

the fact that the factory could barely turn these motors out fast enough to meet the demand.

Coey to Cross Continent.

C. A. Coey, president of the Chicago Club, is expecting any day to leave Los Angeles in the big balloon "Chicago" with Captain G. L. Bumbaugh on an attempt to cross the various ranges of mountains on the Coast and continue on east as far as possible. If a thousand miles is covered he will win the $1,000 cup just offered by Dick Ferris.

No Glider Flights.

Because of the snow storm the trial flights with the new Wittemann glider, scheduled to take place on the grounds of the Philadelphia Country Club. March 7th, were postponed until some clear day.

More than a score of prominent Philadelphia clubmen are interested in this aviatic experiment, and there was keen disappointment when the trials had to be put off. The glider arrived from the manufacturer last Thursday, and a few demonstrations were given with it by Mr. Wittemann on Friday.

thrust to the horse power. With this propeller an experimenter can use an engine of 15 horse power where he now has to have 25 or 30. We also can furnish any special parts to aeroplanes upon specifications furnished."

Besides silent partners whose names are withheld, Mr. Young and F. L. Rice will openly manage the business.

Mr. Young is experimenting with tetrahe-dral kites combining the experience of Geo. A. Spratt and M. JMoulliard, in combination with the curve used by the Wright Brothers.

"In other words, it is that of an inverted compound concaved curved cells, in each of the parts of which the lifting surfaces are composed. I use the tetrahedral principle of construction, because the ratio of weight to the surface always remains constant. I use three poles or tubes in my framework of construction, based by the truss system. The princi-ciple by which this compound* curved cell operates is that the cylindrical section keeps the machine constant and in equilibrium to the direction of flight (this method causing great stability in my machine), and the compound curved surface causing an increased lifting ability over that of a plain straight surface, an increase of about 100 per cent, in ability.

I brace the skeleton of my structure. My basis which I work from is that of a io-mile wind, which gives a lifting pressure of about I pound to a square foot surface. With my compound curves I get 2-pound lift to a square foot in a io-mile breeze.

"To give a concrete example of what my machine will do in a io-mile breeze,—the construction of which is simply composed of three poles or tubes, 10 feet long, braced with No. 14 piano wire, covered with closely woven calico, trussed as before described—it gives me ico square feet of surface, 200 pounds of lift and only weighs about 10 pounds. With a 20-foot structure I get just double these figures.

"As is well known, the tetrahedral principle is the strongest structure known."

Louisiana canebrake is used in the construction, braced with Bessemer steel wire. The lifting surfaces are composed of close woven cambric and canvas. The cell structure weighs 50 pounds, can stand 2,500 pounds tensile pressure, and has 600 square feet of lifting surface. Owing to great head resistance the device will not travel very fast but the inventor claims great lift.

The Balloon Hoax, or Buying Balloons by Catalogue.

Edgar Allan Poe's story, "The Balloon Hoax," is a most interesting literary "fake," but it does not compare in imagination with the fake perpetrated by a so-called balloon builder in St. Louis. This man has issued a very elaborate catalogue which seems to show unending buildings where balloons and airships are made. There are large illustrations of "a section of our valve, loading, appendix hoop, basket, toggles, bulleyes, airship frames, etc., workshop"; "balloons in the varnish and testing room"; of airships and balloons in the air which are claimed to have been made by the concern issuing the catalogue. Those who are familiar with the balloons and airships in the country, seem to recognize in one of the pictures the famous "Pommern," the winner of the St. Louis Gordon Bennett race, and which was built in Germany. The name of the perpetrator of the catalogue in question, however, appears on the balloon, as well as on the side of an airship which one is likely to recognize as having been that of Jack Dallas at the St. Louis airship races. Still another photograph "showing construction of airship bags" has the name of the fakir in question on the side of the envelope. This airship envelope might be recognized as that of Beachy's airship. A not-very-close examination of the picture gives one the impression that the name of Beachy has been painted out on the original photograph and the name of this alleged "manufacturer" painted in in its place. The same man claims in this catalogue to have built the balloon "Chicago," which G. L. Bum-baugh states was built by him. The lettering

of the name of the "Manufacturing Co./' which appears on the picture of the balloon "Chicago," looks-as if it might have been painted on the original photograph. The basket of the balloon "Chicago" is claimed to have been constructed by this "concern," while at the same time it was actually built by Wm. Huke, the basket maker, of St. Louis,

In these days of business integrity, one is easily led astray. If one intends buying a balloon, it might be well to ascertain if the "manufacturer" has previously built a balloon. Balloons should never be ordered from the catalogue. They all look fine on paper. Find out what experience the builder has had.

U. S. Government Medal for Wrights.

After the provision had been stricken out when the Military .Appropriation Bill was considered by the House of Representatives, on March 3d, the House passed the Senate bill giving to Orville and Wilbur Wright, War Department gold medals. The medals will cost $300 and when made will be presented by the new Secretary of War.

Smithsonian Medal for Wrights.

The first award of the gold medal recently established by the Smithsonian Institution in memory of the late Secretary Samuel Pier-pont Langley and his contributions to the science of aerodromics is made to Wilbur and Orville Wright. The Board of Regents of the institution has adopted the following-resolution :

"Resolved, That the Langley Medal be awarded to Wilbur and Orville Wright for advancing the science of aerodromics in its application to aviation, by their successful investigations and demonstrations of the practicability of mechanical flight by man."

Following the establishment of the Langley Medal, Secretary Walcott appointed the following-named gentlemen of known competence in the subject of aerodromics as a committee on award, announcement of which is hereby made: Mr. Octave Chanute, of Chicago, chairman; Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, Major George O. Squier. U. S. A., Mr. John A. Brashear, of Allegheny, Pa., and Mr. James Means, formerly editor of "The Aeronautical Annual," Boston.

The Langley Medal was founded "to be awarded for specially meritorious investigations in connection with the science of aerodromics and its application to aviation." The original design to be used for this medal was made by Mon. J. C. Chaplain, of Paris, a member of the French Academy. The medal bears on its obverse a female figure, seated on the globe, carrying a torch in her left hand and in her right a scroll emblematic of knowledge and the words "Per Orbem." The reverse is adapted from the seal of the institution as designed by Augustus St. Gaudens, the special inscription being inserted in the center instead of the map of the world. It is about 3 inches in diameter.

Wisconsin National Aeronautic and Signal Corps.

The first military aeronautic society in the United States has been organized by Dr. A. Rudolph Silverston, of Milwaukee, Wis., and has been chartered under the above title. The officers are as follows: Alderman I. H. Tarrant, president; Hon. John F. Donovan, first vice-president; Dr. Louis Fuldner, treasurer; Dr. A. Rudolph Silverston, secretary and consulting engineer.

The work of this corporation is military in character, following closely the rules and regulations laid down by the War Department for the guidance of the Signal Corps. This corps will be uniformed, with regulation equipment and outfit. The Wisconsin National Aeronautic and Signal Corps is endeavoring to establish branch corps throughout the state. The officers of this organization are in communication with the mayors of the larger cities, and will soon go on the lecture platform and start in with Madison, Wis., where the State University is located. It is expected to raise the membership this year to 1.500. The initiation fee is to be small. The organization will do its best to spread throughout the state a knowledge of aeronautics as an art.

Communication by Wireless With

Aerial Craft from Boston.

Chas. J. Glidden is having established in his apartments at the Hotel Somerset in Boston one of the most powerful wireless receiving apparatus in use, with a medium strength transmitter. The receiving instruments will have a capacity of receiving messages sent from all land stations and steamers within a radius of three thousand miles and the transmitters will cover a distance exceeding" one thousand miles, so arranged that the power can be increased to the maximum when desired. Mr. Glidden, hems' an expert telegrapher in the Morse and Continental codes, will be able to onerate the instruments to the stations on the Atlantic Coast and the ships on the Atlantic Ocean and in the Gulf of Mexico, not excluding some points on the Pacific and in Canada. It is not intended to use the transmitting instruments to interfere with the wireless traffic now afloat in the ether, but the principal obiect of the station is to establish communication with anv aerial craft that may be in the air this side of the Mississippi River. Anv balloon with a capacity of 40.000 cubic feet of gas, or more, will be able to carry the wireless transmitter and communicate with the station at the Hotel Somerset and it will be the first wireless station established for the nurpose of communicating with aerial craft. In the balloon "Massachusetts" Air. Glidden will use two trail rnpes, both of which will be bound with a fine wire and having a length of ^50 feet, and at an elevation of one to two miles above the earth ought to be able to receive messages from the most remote stations. The efficiency of the wire-

less increases as the height increases above the earth. That is, 100 feet above a mountain is no better than the same height above the sea level, but from a balloon 12,000 or more feet high with a 350-foot wire suspended from the basket, or even one of greater length if desired, some startling revelations are not impossible. The substitute for the ground connection, it is believed, has been discovered by a German scientist, in a wire with a plate attached that can be let down from a 1,000-foot elevation, thereby securing a height double that of the most powerful wireless stations, those on the Irish coast and at Glace Bay. These powerful stations send out a wave 12.000 feet long while the ordinary wave is about 1,300 feet in length. By use of the wireless in the balloon "Massachusetts"' it is expected that its position at all times would be known at the Boston station. The fixst experiment will be made on a trip starting at sunset and continuing for at least 24 if not 36 hours from either Springfield or Pitts-field. The balloon should travel far into Canada and possibly to the Coast of Labrador. The experiments will be watched by scientists all over the country.

Captain Baldwin and the New York-Albany Contest.

The "World's" $10,000 prize for a flight to Albany has created considerable discussion. Some objections have been made to our editorial last month to the effect that a competition between both gas and gasless apparatus would settle for the competitors the comparative usefulness of each type. We doubt this. No one ever saw the machine of an inventor fail, but what the inventor had a very good reason zchy it failed—that it was merely an error in construction and not in the design. That is only natural, of course, but it is hard to convince the flying-machine inventor of a failure.

Another light is thrown on the competition by Captain T. S. Baldwin. He "doubts if Albany can be made. It would take lots of gas and lots of power and one must figure on seven hours in the air. One would have to carry plenty of gasoline and have to keep injecting air in the balloonette to take care of the gas lost. All this means lots of gas and ballast. The ship ought to have a capacity of 50,000 cubic feet."

W. R. Turnbull's Prize.

The Aeronau-tical Society of Great Britain has awarded a bronze medal to Mr. W. R. Turnbull. of Rothesay, for the best paper presented to the society in the year 1908. Mr. Turnbull read his paper on the Efficiency of Aeroplanes, Propellers and Motors, before the society while he was in London last May.

The gold medal of the societv was awarded to the Wright Brothers for their successful aeroplane.

Newman Aeroplane.

P. A. Newman, secretary of the San Antonio Aero Club of Texas, is building an aeroplane which is said to approximate that of the Wright Brothers. Mr. Newman is a practical man, and his work, no doubt, will be of value. He has made towed flights on a Government reservation a short distance from San Antonio with an automobile as the means of force. Three or four hundred vards were covered when the rope broke. The towed flights were made with the idea of obtaining data as to the power required for the motor machines now being built. A corporation has been formed to build the machine and Mr. Newman is now located in Brownsville, Tex., where he has now about completed his second aeroplane. The motor is expected to arrive and to be installed by March 20. The machine is built of angle steel and will weigh complete about 850 pounds, for 720 square feet of supporting surface. The motor will be 50 horse power.

Sidney B. Bowman Auto Co. to Handle "Curtiss-Herring" Aeroplanes.

A. C. Triaca has secured for the aero department of the Sidney B. Bowman Auto Co. the selling rights in New York City for the new "Curtiss-Herring" aeroplanes.

This machine will approximate, it is said, the "Silver Dart" of the Aerial Experiment Association in design, but will be considerably lighter. The price has been set at $7,500, which includes the instruction of the operator. Deliveries to be made in three months' time, after a 4-mile trial at the works in Hammondsport.

The new concern will also put on the market at a price of $600 a glider and catapult for launching. This is for those who intend purchasing a power machine and desire practice in the air before hand, or for those who are working on their own designs. The glider will be shot from the catapult, with the operator on board, the same as a dart is shot from a bow. The power is supplied by a great steel spring.

Los Angeles Takes Exception to Wild's Story of His Trip.

In a communication to the magazine, a correspondent states that the hydrogen gas plant "was not a failure and Mr. Wild did not make the all-night attempts he claims." * * * "Through carelessness, Mr. Wild was compelled to leave without an anchor and for that reason could not avail himself of a favorable wind the next morning. Mr. Wild anchored over night in the San Gabriel Valley, although he did take the 'United States' over the mountain top early in the evening. Pie spent the time from 9 o'clock in the evening until 7 o'clock the next morning on the ground."

The Los Angeles Herald discusses the story of Mr. Wild in the January Aeronautics in a column article, stating that the night flight was made while asleep under an "apricot tree."

Express Rates on Balloons Reduced.

At a joint conference of the various express companies held on February 15th, the reduction of rate on balloons packed in their respective baskets was made in response to the request of A. Leo Stevens. The former rate was double the "merchandise" rate. For instance, the merchandise rate between New York and Pittsfield, or North Adams, is $r per 100 pounds and the expressage on baskets enclosing the bag and other paraphernalia is twice that, or $2 per 100 pounds. The rate just obtained by Mr. Stevens cuts the latter in half. The rate on the bag alone packed in canvas, or boxed or crated, remains at merchandise rate. For comparison, the rate on a row boat is four times merchandise, while a racing shell takes .eight times merchandise rate. This concession, will take effect commencing March 10, 1909.

The rate on airship frames with engines and other parts attached, not boxed or crated, is eight times merchandise rates; while the same securely boxed or crated is four times merchandise rate. No reduction was asked for or made on airships.

Amherst the First to Start Aerial Signs.

The freshmen of Amherst College are to have the name "Amherst" displayed in 35-foot white letters on a hish piece of ground near the college. This will enable aeronauts and aviators to locate themselves. So far as is known, this is the first time that any sign has been arranged for the convenience of aerial navigators.

Several Amherst men will attend all ascensions made at Springfield and other nearby places, assist in inflation, etc., in order to acquire practical knowledge of both the work and pleasure of ballooning.

West Side Y. M. C. A. May Teach Aerodromics.

A series of lectures are being given in the West Side Y. M. C. A., New York, with a view of finding out if a sufficient number of members can be found to warrant the starting of courses in aviation and aerostation. Not more than 25 are necessary for them to start a class. They call attention to their motor-boat classes, which were most successful. If the work is taken up in this way, they will, no doubt, be offered the use of the Morris Park grounds of The Aeronautic Society.

Scientific American Cup Rules Change.

It is likely that the rules for competition for the Scientific American trophy will be changed so that ihe competitor pays the expenses of a delegate from the Aero Club of America if the expenses run above $1.20 both ways. Thus, competition may be made at any time upon sufficient notice to the club. Before the end of the month the "Silver Dart" will, no doubt, be entered on behalf of the Aerial Experiment Association. Augustus T. Post may go to Nova Scotia as delegate.

Michelin Prize for 1909.

Rules have been issued for 1909, governing competition for the Michelin Cup.

The winner will be the pilot of the flying machine who flies the greatest distance exceeding 123.2 kiloms. in a closed circuit before January 1, 1910. Entries must be made in writing before 4 o'clock in the evening on the previous day, and additional notice must be given to the extent of 24 hours for every 1,000 kiloms. or parts thereof that the scene of the trial is distant from the headquarters of the supervising club. The entry fee is 50 francs on each occasion, and covers the whole day of the trial. The course to be marked out by three or four poles, and no side must exceed 2 kiloms. in length. Competitors must pass the mark posts successively and in the same order, always outside them and without couching them. The start which counts for the records will be timed from the passing of the first post in full flight, and the termination of the record will be the time of passing the last post in full flight. An official must be stationed at each post.

The winner for 1909 will receive the same prize as Wilbur Wright has done for 1908, viz., $4,000, and a bronze replica of the Michelin trophy.

Monster Hydrogen Plant.

The electrolytic process of alkali manufacture, in which an aqueous solution of the alkali metal chlorides is split up by the eLectric current into its component elements—sodium (or potassium) and chlorine gas—produces large volumes of hydrogen gas, due to the reaction between the alkali metal and the water. In the majority of instances this gas has been allowed to escape from the cells into the atmosphere, although in one or two of the Continental electrolytic alkali works a portion of the gas has been collected and compressed into large gas cylinders for sale. According to a recent issue of the "Elektrochemische Zeit-schrift," the parent electrolytic alkali company in Europe, the Chemische Fabrik Grieshehu Elektron, is about to collect and store the gas on a large scale. Plans for two large gasometers have been drawn up, and the erection of the first of these, with a capacity of 1,500 cubic metres (53,000 cubic feet), is to be proceeded

with at once, while a second larger gasometer, with a capacity of 5,000 cubic metres (176,000 cubic feet), will be erected, if the demand for the gas warrants such an extension. The two gasometers are to be erected on land adjacent to the company's electrolytic alkali works at Griesheim, near Frankfort, and it will be interesting to see what result attends this new venture of the Greishcim company. The success attending Count Zeppelin's recent voyages in the air, has aroused great interest in airship construction in Germany, and it is quite possible that the erection of large hydrogen gasometers at Griesheim may be followed by others elsewhere.

Aerodromic Patents.

Feb. 9, No. 911,784. To Walter D. Valentine, Altadena, Cal, for a combination dirigible balloon and ornithopter.

Feb. 9, No. 912,158. To Francis L. Orr, Omaha, for an aeroplane having a combustion chamber to release gases under the planes for lift.

Feb. 23, No. 913,517. To Christopher John Lake. Bridgeport, Conn., and Spencer Heath, Washington, D. C, for an "aerial vessel" which cannot be classified accurately from figure in "Official Gazette" whether there is a gas bag or not. Propelling apparatus is "tubular and is combined with planes made flexible and >o disposed about propelling apparatus that they may be inflated or deflated to a convex or concave form as desired." There are 49 claims to the patent.

The March Cover.

No more impressive illustration of the adaptability of the airship to sport and aerial warfare could be made than to show this fastest aerial yacht sailing at will over the streets of Paris. The photograph reproduced is of the "Clement-Bayard." for which the aeronautical department of the S. B. Bowman Auto Company, of New York, is the American representative.

Aerodromic Lectures.

In making announcement in our last issue of those who are in the field as lecturers on "Aerial Navigation," we omitted to mention the name of Mr. William J. Hammer, the well known consulting engineer who, we understand, has prepared an elaborate lecture on the subject.

Mr. Hammer is well equipped for this work, having followed the art for many years and being personally acquainted with many of the leading exponents, not only in this country, but in Europe where he has spent between seven and eight years.

Professor Bell has stated it as his belief that Air. Hammer's collection of aeronautical pictures is the most complete in the world. Many of these Air. Hammer has personally taken, some of them being taken from balloons in flight. Furthermore, Air. Hammer has

gained an extensive experience on the lecture platform, having given upwards of 100 lectures before the leading universities, colleges and scientific and other bodies on electrical engineering and scientific subjects. His lecture on radium has frequently been given before audiences of between 3,000 and 4,000 people. Feb. 10. The Aeronautic Society, George

Bold, and William J. Hammer. Feb. 15. West Side Y. M. C. A., Cortlandt F. Bishop spoke on the plans for the Hudson-Fulton celebration, after which he introduced Winthrop E. Scarritt who spoke on "The Experiences of a Tenderfoot in the Clouds." Feb. 19. Technischer Verein von N. Y., Wilbur R. Kimball, on "The Evolution of the Flying Machine." Feb. 22. Public School No. 5, Professor Fowler, on the general subject of aeronautics.

Feb. 24. The Aeronautic Society, Frederick Weinberg, "Light Motors."

Mar. 1. West Side Y. M. C. A., August T.

Post, on "The Practical Side of Aeronautics."

Mar. 1. Aero Club of America, Captain Howard Patterson, of the Nautical College, on "The Use of the Compass in Balloons."

Mar. 2. Columbia Aero Club, P. W. Wilcox, on "Aerial Warfare"; Ernst Wer-nal on "The Monoplane and Methods of Equilibrium."

Mar. 4. Franklin Institute, Dr. T. Chalmers Fulton, on "Gyroscopes"; and Russell Thayer.

Mar. 8. West Side Y. M. C. A., Wilbur R.

Kimball, on "The Evolution of a Flying Machine."

Mar. 10. The Aeronautic Society, Elmer A.

Sperry, on the "New Active Type of Gyroscope."

Mar. 15. Aero Club of America, H. Helm Clayton, of the Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, on "My Balloon Voyage from St. Louis to Asbury Park in the Pommern, and the Use of Air Currents in Ballooning."

Mr. Clayton gave a graphic idea, by description and lantern slides, of the varying conditions incident to a balloon trip; the intense cold and profound silence of the upper air, the lonely journey through the night, the panorama of mist and fog unfolded to view in the early dawn, and the rapid and apparently motionless gliding of the balloon over rivers and mountains. Mr. Clayton also gave a comprehensive review of the recent rapid advance in the art of navigating the air by balloon, airship and aeroplane, and spoke of the wind systems of the globe and the possibility of using them in aerial voyages. Mar. 17. The Aeronautic Society, Hudson Maxim, on the "Application of High Explosives to Aerial Warfare." Mr. Maxim is, without doubt, the greatest authority of the world on high explosives.

Aero Club To Have Grounds.

Arrangements have been made with the Long Island Motor Parkway for the use of grounds adjoining the Parkway, where housing sheds can be erected and experimental work can be conducted. There are several thousand acres over which the aviators can fly without worrying about trees, roads or wires. As soon as convenient, Cortlandt F. Bishop, president of the Aero Club of America, and Messrs. Jefferson De Mont Thompson and A. R. Pard-ington of the Parkway company will go over the grounds and decide upon the definite location.

The Daily News of Chicago, each year conducts a series of lectures and delivers them free to the different schools throughout the city, illustrating them by magic lantern slides. This season they are showing pictures taken by Charles Andrew Coey of balloon incidents. The many requests for seats that are turned down show that the subject is an interesting-one. The view showing the anchor hooked around a bell pole in a farmer's yard, which gave the signal for the farmer to come out and help the aeronauts down, always creates applause.

The University of Toronto has no intention of taking up the subject of aerodromics, it says. Many stories have been given out by lecturers to the effect that this or that college is establishing a chair in aerodromics, but the colleges named seem to have a different opinion.

Who knows what the "Curtiss-Herring" aeroplane will look like? One of the concern says it will look like the "Silver Dart"; another says it will look like the Bates' aeroplane. And everyone is asking, who are the men with the money?

The G. H. Curtiss Mfg. Co. has been getting out a special motor for Captain Baldwin's 1909 season. The Curtiss company has put in a very elaborate equipment for the construction of aeronautical motors and more attention than ever will be paid this year to this class of work. The company has one of the three monographs in the country. This instrument connects direct with the explosion chamber and records the effect of the explosion, which enables one to adjust the valve action to a nicety. The mean effective pressure can also be determined, and the horse power developed, with its variations. A testing bench has been devised, with water-cooled brake for testing brake horse power on long runs. The Baldwin motor will be given a 100-hour brake test. The motor will be one of the new type 15 horse power. The engine will be run at low speed when it is placed in the dirigible, so that less water for cooling is required, and a smaller radiator can be used than if run at full power all the time.

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.

President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee

Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees:

Wm. J. Hammer. Ernest La Rue Jones.

By request of Prof. Cleveland Abbe, and with the consent of Dr. Carl Barns, the following article, published by Dr. Barns in "Science" for November 15, 1907, is presented

here as having an interesting relation to the ideas advanced by Professor Abbe in his paper printed last issue.

THE FLYING MACHINE.

By Dr. Carl Barus.

The fact that a machine of the aeroplane type built entirely of metal and canvas may be made to fly by the power of an ordinary steam engine judiciously constructed, was practically demonstrated some time ago by S. P. Langley. More would, therefore, be expected from the gas engine, if constructed with equal forethought. I have always had some misgivings, however, as to whether these experiments, into which so much devoted labor was put, actually met the real issue involved. It seemed to mc that they proved that the power available in case of the ordinary engine is just about sufficient to maintain flight and no more; whereas a really practical machine should be provided with a motor whose output of work per second and per kilogram of weight, could be made enormously to exceed the demands upon it, under conditions of smooth soaring.

If one is in search of a maximum of power combined with a minimum of weight, one involuntarily looks to some form of modern explosive and in particular to those which can be worked up into wicks or ribbons. These could be adapted for use in connection with the rocket principle which has so frequently stimulated the imagination of inventors, in a way to require the least amount of subsidiary mechanism. In fact, such expansion is virtually its own propeller. The only question is, how can this quite prohibitively excessive

power be controlled. In other words, how may the enormous per second expenditure of energy be reduced in any desirable amount at will, and compatibly with safety and the need of the operator?

Now it occurred to me that in case of the nitrogen explosives there may be a method of obtaining a continuity of power values within safe limits from insignificant amounts up to the highest admissible, by using some appropriate method of very cold storage. It is well known that at sufficiently low temperatures phosphorous and oxygen cease to react on each other, that fluorine is indifferent to hydrogen, etc. Is it not, therefore, probable that an explosive tendency will be toned down as temperature decreases; or that a molecular grouping which is all but unstable at ordinary temperatures will become stable at a temperature sufficiently low, and proportionately stable at intermediate temperatures? This is then the experiment which I would like to see tried, the endeavor to get a gradation of power values ending in prohibitively large maximum, by the cold storage of explosives. If it succeeds, it seems to me that a motor yielding per pound weight not only all the power needed in the flying machine under any emergency will be forthcoming, but that large amounts of the inevitably dangerous source of such power may be taken aboard for use en route. The lower temperature of the upper air would here itself be an assistance.

The unfavorable action of Congress on the appropriation of $500,000 for military aeronautics will necessitate suspending plans for developing aeronautical plants and securing dirigible balloons for the use of the Army this year.

The Wright Brothers' and Herring aeroplanes are to be delivered by June 2S and June r, respectively. Funds for the purchase of these machines were set aside last year, so they can be accepted at once on the completion of their contract.

Aero Club of America.

Tlie third annual banquet of the Club will be held on Saturday evening, March 20, 1909, at the Hotel St. Regis. Prominent speakers will be secured and the Wright Medals, which will be cast at the United States Mint, at Philadelphia, will be on exhibition for the first time on this occasion. It has been impossible to secure the presence of the Wrights at this banquet and the presentation of the medals to them will be postponed until their return from Europe.

challenge for bennett aviation prize.

At a meeting of the P>oard of Directors, it was decided to send a challenge for the Gordon Bennett Aviation Cup Contest which will be held in Paris during the coming summer for the cash prize of $5,000, mentioned previously. Wilbur Wright has declined to enter in this contest, but the Club has made one entry "for the reason that another aeroplane will be constructed which is expected to be capable of entering this contest and to be piloted by a member of the Club."

A design for a square die for the commemorative medal of the Aero Club of America has been adopted and the die will be prepared and medals struck off as the occasion requires. The first gold medal will be presented to Alfred Le Blanc, who, in the Gordon Bennett Balloon Race from St. Louis made the second best (at the time) duration ascent.

Charles Levee, pilot of the Aero Club of France, was awarded pilot license No. 19, and H. E. Honeywell, member of the Aero Club of St. Louis, license No. 20.

aero club dinner.

Col. Henry Sackett, Robert Hobart Davis, James W. Osborne and Hon. Martin W. Littleton, have so far promised to be the guests at the annual banquet on March 20th at.the St. Regis. At the banquet will be shown the Wright medals and national balloon race cup for the first time. Another feature will be the model of the Wright aeroplane and catapult loaned by the International School of Aeronautics. A wireless outfit will deliver messages to the toastmaster.

The Aeronautic Society.

The regular Wednesday night meetings have been held, as usual, at the Automobile Club and have been, as usual, well attended. There are always at least 50 members present at every meeting, with this number frequently swelled to 100.

On P'ebruary 10 George Bold gave an illustrated talk upon bis airship, and William J. Hammer told of seeing the first ascent of the first Zeppelin, giving details of construction, figures, and showing enlargements of the various Zeppelin ships.

On the 24th, Frederick Weinberg lectured on light motors. Mr. Weinberg was engaged in Germany on the construction work of the motors for the Gross dirigible, belonging to the German Government, and has been for some time with Emile Berliner in Washington, and his talk was exceedingly interesting and valuable. Dr. William Green, treasurer, Wilbur R. Kimball and Dr. J. P. Thomas, as well as Leo Stevens, related their experiences in the New England record balloon ascent made on Lincoln's birthday from North Adams. On this trip, perfect conditions obtained and the only reason for not extending the trip, after beating the New England records, was the darkness of the winter night.

The various committees were appointed at this meeting, as follows: Membership—L. R. Adams, Dr. William Green, E. T. Birdsall, David B. Carse and E. L. Jones; House—R.

E. Scott, F. S. Seagrave, Gus Beiswenger, J.

F. Boylan and Herman Bokor; Entertainment —William J. Hammer, I. M. Uppercue, R. E. Scott, Dr. Wm. Green and Orrel A. Parker; Technical and Contest—R. B. Whitman, A. C. Triaca, A. Leo. Stevens, William J. Hammer and Wilbur R. Kimball; Financial—A. A. Whitman, Dr. Wm. Green, H. H. Law, A. B. Levy and S. D. Conger; Investigating—David B. Carse, E. T. Birdsall, S. Y. Beach, H. C. Gibson and Earl Atkinson ; Publicity—William J. Hammer, L. R. Adams, W. R. Kimball, Dr. J. P. Thomas.

On March 3d it was voted to board in the second shed at Morris Park to accommodate the increased number of machines in course of construction and completed apparatus. Announcement was made of the $100 cash prize offered by A. C. Triaca, of the International School of Aeronautics, to the Society.

G. H. Curtiss addressed the meeting, after the purchase of a Curtiss aeroplane was an- / nounced.

A. M. Herring was also present and an- ^ nounced the acquiring of the Herring patents and the Curtiss Mfg. Co. by a syndicate.

On March 10th, Elmer A. Sperry delivered a lecture on the new active type of gyroscope and its various applications, including aeronautics.

The Automobile Club of America also sent invitations to its members for the second aeronautic evening given at the Club under the auspices of the Society. As before, the evening was a tremendous success and the great hall was filled.

FOREIGN LETTER

Automobile Clubs Take Up Aviation—At Vienna Automobile Club of Austria Will Build Its Own Airship—Dirigibles of Steel—At Brussels the Automobile Club Has Conflict With the Aero Club and Forms Aerial League. Baron Caters Flies Over Woods—British Army Wants a Wright — A King's Messenger Buys an Aeroplane — Aero Club Competes With League—Exhibition Surprises—Wrights Visited by King of Spain and Former Premier of England—-Wilbur Wright Tries for Speed Record. Miss Wright Makes Her First Flight—Henri Farman Starts Factory. Delagrange to Arrange Sky Lines—Contests at Rheims—Italy to Have Forty Dirigibles—Russia Buys Ten Wrights.

Note—Complete foreign news for the month is mailed abroad on the first. It usually takes ten days for the mail from various countries to reach us. This makes it impossible to assemble, set up, print and mail before the iOth of the month.

Austria.

Following the lead of active motorists everywhere, the Automobile Club of Vienna has taken up aeronautics with a will; also the members are readily putting their hands in their pockets, and bringing them out again well filled. The Club invited a distinguished officer of the army, Lieut-Colonel von Hall-born, to lecture to them, and he described a remarkable new system of constructing dirigibles of steel, with bodies 150 meters in length and 15 meters in diameter, and a steel net cast over the body to carry the car with 14 passengers and an engine of 150 horse power. Promptly the Club opened a subscription for building one such ship, which has been designed by Lieutenant von Walach. The cost of the ship complete is to be $55,000, very considerably less than the price of a Zeppelin.

-Another patriotic aeronautical body has been formed at Linz, under the title of the Northern of Austria Airship Association. At the first meeting, Feb. 8th, at which the Archduke Josef Ferdinand presided, no fewer than 105 members joined, and it was agreed that they should build airships to use for pleasure in times of peace, and loan to the Government in days of danger.

Everybody was on tenter hooks for the arrival of Henri Farman's old Voisiu, which an Austrian syndicate has purchased. They bought it because they were so anxious to have one at once, they could not wait for one to be built. Moreover, they wanted to have no doubt that their machine would fly. M. Legag-netix, the head of the syndicate, spent most of the month at Chalons taking lessons. lie made a brilliant start, flying over two kilometers at his first attempt, and then going on and doing five kilometers. But after that he

had a few mishaps, and so settled down to take things quietly and learn the art of turning without turning over.

Belgium.

In Belgium also the Automobile Club has come to the front during the past month. As in all other parts of the world, where they existed, trouble arose with the Aero Club, because it was devoted primarily to ballooning and could spare no enthusiasm for the greater, more difficult, and much more important, art of aviation. It was the Automobile Club that took up the cudgels in. Belgium on behalf of the flying machine, and then a battle royal began, for the Aero Club there, as elsewhere, claimed that it was the sole and whole authority who had the right to do anything for what it had done nothing for until woke up by the action of active aeronauts to whom ballooning was only a step in their education, as the alphabet is to the discovery of the great thoughts wrapped up in words. Naturally, the Automobile Club won out; and then it founded the National Aerial League of Belgium, and within ten days had enrolled a thousand members. The Due d'Ursec became president, and the Vicomte de Grunne vice-president. Within a few hours of its birth, the League offered prizes of $100 and $40 for machines made on Belgian soil.

At Mons, too, the Automobile Club of Haiu-aut has formed an aviation section, and has selected a big flat expanse of land at Casteau for its experiments. Antwerp, Brussels, Liege and the Ardennes, are all now hard at work. At Brussels two dirigibles, one of 8,000 cubic meters, and the other a small one of only 2,700 cubic meters, are building.

Baron Caters made a couple of most successful flights 011 Feb. 26th, at Brecht, near Antwerp. The first was a high, venturesome voyage of 300 meters over some woods. In the other, his companion was a young girl, and he flew more than 200 meters with her, but only about six feet above the surface. The

Baron is now constructing a very light machine, 210 kg. less in weight than his present one.

England.

Handicapped by having an utterly impossible place on which to learn how to use an aeroplane. Col. Capper, Lieut. J. W. Dunne and Mr. S. F. Cody are trying hard to keep from getting broken hearted over the new army aeroplane. Cody has not yet managed to make a flight of more than 50 yards just above the surface, and the surface is so rough that some damage always attends the landing. Laffans Plain is an excellent place for the training of cavalry and artillery, but the new apparatus must be pretty well built or it would never stand being dragged about for miles over land that is about as smooth as a rocky coast. There are many more suitable places; but, although it is now said to be wanting a Wright aeroplane, the British Government has been as blind as the Congress of the United States to the signs of the times and the meaning of the conquest of the air, and it will not even build a shed. It has only $68,750 allotted for military ballooning and aeronautical research, and the establishment of the balloon corps can leave but little for aviation. Col. Capper is almost the only officer with any enthusiasm left.

The new apparatus has now only one horizontal plane for its front rudder, and two horizontal planes have been placed in front of the rear vertical rudder, giving it almost a suggestion of the Voisin steering box. The warping arrangement of the main planes is also new, and the experts are very anxious to see it have a fair chance of being tried out.

king's messenger TO Tl.Y.

Much is being expected of Capt. Windham, one of King Edward's Royal Messengers, who founded, some time ago. a new body called the Aeroplane Club, and is having a machine built in Paris. He is a great enthusiast, and in his journeys over the world with diplomatic messages has taken the opportunity of studying most of the apparatus on the continent of Europe. He means having an aeroplane that will do its work. His contract is that it shall fly 400 meters before delivery. One of the chief features of it is that the seats, two, are pivoted, and by throwing himself to one side or the other, the operator will actuate his wing-tips for turning. England is looking to him as the next man to fly.

The National League has got over the opposition that was put up against it by the other clubs. Its first informal meeting was held on Feb. 17th, Rear-Admiral Brand presiding, and there was some talk of establishing an Aeronautical College. Some of the most prominent men in the country are among the vice-presidents. Among them are the Marquis of Salisbury, the Earl of Kinnoull, General Pren-dergast, Viscount Gormanston, and Dr. Rubic,

head master of Eltham College. The Aero Club has also started a League, called the Aero Club League.

After taking over four months to reply to its request, the British War Office has now informed the Aero Club that the authorities will have no objection to the use of military training grounds for aerial experiment—if the military training would not be interfered with, and they would make inquiries to that effect. So the club hopes to hear in time! But meanwhile the Aeronautical Society is forging ahead with the preparation of their own grounds at Daggenham, in Essex. Unfortunately that spot is awkwardly situated for reaching from London, except by automobile. It will be of little or no service to the practical man who wants to make use of his spare time.

signs Or changed times.

Aeroplanes are now on sale in the Strand. But they are not yet kept on stock in the windows.

The Aeronautical Exhibition at Olympia, which opens on March 19, promises to be a great success. The number of entries has surprised everybody, the promoters included. No fewer than sixteen full-sized aeroplanes, and a fully equipped airship will be shown. Among the machines will be Moore-Brabazon's, which will no doubt attract most of the attention because it belongs to an Englishman, and has already made several good flights in France, where Mr. Moore-Brabazon went for instruction.

Perhaps an even more striking sign of the changed times lies in the absence of a laugh. The French Aero Club Internationale de la Manche, whose object is cross-Channel flight-, wrote to the mayors of several towns on the south coast of England inquiring about suitable places for landing. All the letters were treated as if the requests were the most natural in the world. The first station of the club is to be at Boulogne, at a spot doubly interesting. It is to be upon the mound where Napoleon had his troops for his famous bluff about invading England, and where poor old General Andre Guillaume Resnier conceived the idea of carrying out the invasion by means of flying machines, and gave it up when he, at more than sixty years of age, broke his leg in throwing himself off the hill and trusting to his wings. Times have changed indeed in many ways. How interested Napoleon and the General would be could they but be members of this new club!

Some of the suffragettes tried to solve the problem of evading the police and getting to Parliament by using an airship. But the dirigible was an anti evidently. It let the wind take it in the wrong direction !

France.

The Wrights still hold the eyes of the world. Despite all that is being done in Europe, it has to be admitted that it is Wilbur Wright alone who is showing the real conquest of the air. Others are flying, but with a difference. Wright has shown that he can do

almost as he pleases in the air. The month, however, has been principally spent, since the first flight at Pan with the new made-in-France Wright engine, on Feb. 3, in teaching his pupils, the Comte de Lambert and Paul Tissandier, and in receiving distinguished visitors. Except on a few days, when snow was falling and the cold was intense, Wilbur has flown every day two or three times. It has been noticed that he flies with ever increasing enjoyment. His obvious relish of his half hour trips through the air have excited the greatest French enthusiasm. Twice he has had slight accidents at starting, due to defective placing on the starting rail; but they were of no account. The second one, indeed, only served to demonstrate most dramatically the entire confidence he has inspired. It happened on Feb. 22, just before Wilbur was going to take M. Louis Barthou, French Minister of Public Works, for his second trip—his first was at Le Mans on Dec. 31. M. Barthou saw the accident, but he laughed at danger, and readily took his seat beside the aviator, and went for a four minute spin. On landing he joyously proclaimed a new name for the aeroplane. It should, he said, be called "Skyauto !"

ex-l'remieu bai four astounded.

The first distinguished visitor was Mr. Arthur Balfour, former Prime Minister of England, who drove over from Biarritz with Lord and Lady Xorthcliffe, and Lord and Lady Wolverton, on Feb. 10. On that day snow fell heavily, and there could be no flight. Xext morning Mr. Balfour tried again. But again it snowed. In the afternoon, however. Wilbur turned out, despite the extreme cold, and made a pretty demonstration for ten minutes. Mr. Balfour declared he was greatly thrilled at the spectacle, and admitted he could not have believed the control of the apparatus was so perfect unless he had seen it. Mr. Balfour keenly wanted to make an experience himself, but the weather was so bad, Wright would not run the risk, and so had to disappoint him, and perhaps, in so doing, deprived him of the most attractive electioneering stunt the famous politician ever contemplated.

alfonso longs to fly

The next visitor was of still greater distinction. This was Alfonso XIII. the young king of Spain, who turned up at nine o'clock in the morning on Saturday, Feb. 20, and. became wildly enthusiastic. He took off his coat, and got into the machine, and afterwards was so excitedly delighted that he insisted in remaining in his shirt sleeves. He was received by Hart O. Berg and the Mayor of Pan, and, after shaking hands very heartily with the two Wrights and Miss Wright, asked every conceivable question, and made Orville tell him all about the accident at Fort Myer. Wilbur made a brilliant display for half an hour, doing every possible manneuvrc. After his return, and more questions had been answered, the king asked whether Wilbur would mind making another flight for him. taking one of his students with him. Count de Lambert was chosen, and after

a twelve minute flight, the machine was brought back almost to the king's feet. The young monarch admitted that it was the temptation of his life to make a flight; and he could hardly tear himself away. He was deliciously frank about it. He said that for reasons of state his ministers had begged of him to take no risk, and he had promised; but he had not realized then how difficult it would be for him to keep the promise. The queen had felt how tempted he would be, and so had made him promise her that he would keep his word—and what could he do! He couldn't see when he was ever going to get the chance. And he was certainly a badly disappointed king. At that early hour very few people were about, and Alfonso discarded all ceremony. The machine pleased him highly.

jnss wrigiit's fihst fly. Another interesting feature of the month was that Miss Wright made her first flight. This event took place on the 15th, and she soared around beside her brother for seven minutes. Before she would venture, however, the Comtesse de Lambert went for a five minute trip. Miss Wright made another voyage on the 23d.

The Wrights were also visited by Capt. Lucas Girardville. who was specially sent by the French War Department, and who made a number of trips and learned to drive.

wilbur tries lor speed.

Twice Wilbur made efforts to break the speed record for a kilometer: but his best time was only 55 seconds with the wind, and 63 seconds against.

Both Tissandier and Count Lambert quickly picked up the knack of steering. For a few days they held the levers for the straight runs, and Wright manipulated the curves. Later Wright became the passenger throughout long runs. Tissandier says that driving is the most fascinating sport he has ever tried.

Every day enormous crowds went out. and often waited for hours. At every flight Wright received stirring ovations. A part of the aerodrome has been fenced off, and spectators are charged admission.

By the 16th, Orville was well enough to begin sleeping at the sheds, and superintend the building of the new machine with which speed is to be obtained. Wilbur now describes his present apparatus as "a slow old thing suitable only for teaching." During the month he definitely denied two rumors. First, he was not thinking, he said, of discarding the starting rail. Xext. he had no intention of entering for the Monaco contest. Other engagements, he stated, prevented him; and no one had asked to be trained for it. On the 24th, Orville got into the air for the first time since his accident. With his sister, he went up in the balloon Icarus with the Marquis de Kergarion.

In honor of their work for aviation both Wilbur and Orville have been made Doctors of Technical Science by the Technical High School of Munich.

Fifteen Wright aeroplanes have been sold during the month by M. Michel Clemenceau,

son of the French Premier, who has the exclusive selling rights in France, and of whose company Prince Radziwill is the president.

It is said that Wilbur has arranged to go to Rome on March 20th to give lessons. Both brothers are also to visit London to receive the gold medals of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain and to exhibit to the War Office the possibility of the Wright machines. Rumor has it they are to give flights in Berlin during the summer.

The popular fashion in Paris just now is the "Wright Cap,"

Another feature of the month in France has been the reappearance of Santos Dumont, after a long silence. On Feb. 22d he made a

peller fixed in front. At the rear are horizontal and vertical rudders, the horizontal having pivoted tips. The operator sits in a canoe, and high above is a small keel to give lateral stability. Vellum-like paper is used for covering all the surfaces. When, at the end of January, Bleriot made his first trials in it, he found the new machine difficult to handle on account of its great speed, consequently he was not able to open up the full pace.

The advent of Maurice Farman, a younger brother of Henri, was quite striking. His first flight was effected in the private aerodrome of Esnault-Pelterie at Buc, near Versailles, and he made 300 meters at a height of six or seven meters. He had begun practising on the

few short flights at Issy-les-Moulineaux in a very small monoplane, which he has named the Demoiselle.

Bleriot has been dividing his time between watching Wilbur Wright and making skimming flights of about 600 meters in his small, fast racer Bleriot XI. The speed, made so far is somewhere near 75 kilometers an hour, but Bleriot hopes to do much better than that. On Feb. 18th he made a couple of trips in what was described as quite a stiff breeze.

uleriot's tiny racer There appears to be quite a contest between Bleriot and Santos Dumont as to who will succeed in evolving the smallest successful monoplane. At present the laurels are with Bleriot. The Bleriot XL, which was conceived as a racer, has a total supporting surface of only 13 square meters. In weight it is but 160 kg. Its design is wonderfully like that of the common dragon-fly, a long slender body with long narrow wings. The spread of the wings from tip to tip is 7 m. The frame is finely built up of longitudinal girders, part of it forming the radiator of the motor. The motor is a 7 cylinder 35 horse-power R. E. P., and driving direct a four-bladed pro-

XI

ground only the previous day. But in descending he cut off his ignition too soon, and the machine swooped down and was slightly damaged. A few days later he decided to make some alterations to the steering and has been working on that since.

Henri Farman has been chiefly engaged giving lessons to M. Legagneux, who purchased his old machine. During these lessons he made on Feb. 14th the longest flight, five kilometers, yet accomplished with a passenger. It is declared that he has accepted an offer of $6,000 for a series of flights at XTice in March. He has now gone into business with his elder brother, Richard, for the construction of aeroplanes for sale. A factory has been planned at Chalons.

gui froy laughs at accident

On Feb. 20th the monoplane R. E. P., piloted by M. Guffroy, came to grief. At the close of a flight of 400 meters, M. Guffroy drove into a bank in descending. The machine turned topsy-turvy and a blade of the propeller was knocked off. M. Guffroy was not hurt at all, and when he got up he declared his belief that the old motto, "More fear than danger,"

was meant for aeroplanes. His speed was So kilometers an hour.

Delagrange has been engaged by a company at Orleans and the municipality there to establish an aerial line between Paris and Orleans. The municipality has undertaken to erect the necessary sky sign posts along the route.

The French Government is considering the creation of a special order for the decoration 'of aviators. It is to be called the "Croix des Aviateurs."

j'arts wants a morris park.

Paris is now discovering that aviation grounds that are not close to the city are not serviceable enough for their inventors, and so the Press is appealing for an aerodrome on the fortifications of Paris between the Neuilly Gate and the Ternes. They are hankering-after a place like Morris Park.

No one has yet made any attempt to win the Monaco prize by flying across the bay and back. M. Jacques Faure hopes to win with a dirigible, and has been making investigations of the wind currents with a balloon.

The Ligue Nationale Aerienne opened its school at Juvisy at the beginning of the month. Capt. Ferber is in charge of the practical side, and many distinguished men, such as Ernest Archdeacon, Breguet, Renard, Levavasseur, and Drzewiecki, deal with the technical side. Ten pupils were selected to be trained as teachers. The first of them, the Viscount de Puybaudet, after the Voisin had been explained to him. raised his horizontal rudder for a flight, and actually accomplished 600 meters at his first attempt. But when M. Des-Valliers tried to follow suit, he lowered his rudder at a critical moment instead of raising-it. and the machine pitched 011 to its nose, and threw him out. Several other little mishaps followed, and so it was decided, in ordei; to lengthen the life of the apparatus, to make the initiatory lessons on the ground longer before flight was ventured on. The Paris municipal council has given the Ligue $4,000 and it is to be used as a prize for a 10 kilometer race from Vincennes or Issy-les-Mouli-neaux.

tests fixeo tor fheims.

The C. A. M. has decided that the great aviation week at Rheims in the autumn shall include an endurance test of 30 kilometers, a speed test of one lap, an altitude test, and another for passenger carrying.

Many more new prizes have been offered. The chief is the Coupe d'Aspremont, given by the Comte d'Aspremont to Nice for the best marine aeroplane, one which will start either from land or water. The prize is open to June 30, 1913. At Tunis $1,000 has been offered for a flight of 50 kilometers in an hour. The Mayor of Morsang-sur-Orge has given a prize of 3,000 square meters of land.

New clubs have been started at Asnieres, Picardie, Toulon, Orleans, Lyon, Vichy. The latter at once put up a prize of $2,000.

Coming suddenly upon the coast of the Mediterranean, two young aerostats of Bordeaux, MM. Etiennc Faure and Achard, made a precipitate descent to avoid the sea. The balloon struck upon a precipice, and M. Faure was thrown out of the car and killed. He was a cousin of Jacques Faure, who is trying for the Monaco prize. M. Achard escaped uninjured.

Germany.

An important association of technical aeronauts, called the Verein Deutscher Flugtech-niker, has been formed at Berlin. Dr. Huth is the president, and the vice-president is Hen-Grade, the only German who has yet built a practical aeroplane.

Major von Parseval has been selected professor of aeronautics at the great high school at Charlottenburg, to fill the chair recently founded.

Krupps, the big gun makers, are straining every possibility to discover some means of military defense against airships. So far, it has turned out two special guns, one that discharges explosive shells, and another that throws burning projectiles.

Almost the same day these were announced, Lieut. Gustav von Bohlen und Halbach, the young diplomat who married the daughter of the founder of Krupps, contributed $2,500 to establish an aeronautical professorship at Got-tingen University.

A project is on foot to establish a complete network of airship lines over the whole of the German Empire. Thirtv cities have already been designated as stations. Some of the leading financiers have the proposal in hand. Germany seems placing all its faith in dirigibles.

Zipfel made much progress at Berlin in the early part of the month with a Voisin machine, and on the 8th made a flight of 600 meters in what was considered quite a violent wind. But on the 16th, when venturing out again in a strong breeze, his machine was blown over and its left wing broken.

Preparations are under way for a great international aerial exhibition at Frankfort, to remain open through the summer.

Italy.

It is said on good authority that no fewer than forty airships are to be built for the Italian War Department during the next twelve months. A sufficient sum has already been appropriated, and six of the dirigibles will shortly be delivered. As many as possible arc to have part in the military manceuvers this summer. The news caused quite a stir in many of the Chancelleries.

Russia.

The Aero Club at St. Petersburg already numbers no fewer than 800 members. The Government, it is said, has ordered ten Wright machines.

THE POSSIBLE CAUSE OF THE ZEPPELIN DISASTER

By C. W. Sirch

The phenomena of electrical induction are well known; they have been studied and reduced to simple formula?, and can, therefore, readily be computed. It is known, for instance, that a current having a given frequency of alternations, requires a certain quantity of iron in the core of an electrical winding; the quantity of iron necessary diminishes as the frequency increases until a point is reached where the phenomenon of induction actually takes place without any iron—or with-what is known as an "air-core."

A machine for generating such a high frequency current has been designed by the writer and with it a strong spark can be readily made to appear at the extremities of a single circular "turn" of wire 10 inches in diameter, although the wire is held at a distance of one or more feet from the apparatus without any connection whatsoever thereto.

Lightning is an electrical discharge of a high frequency current and yet its inductive

UNCLE SAM: Stands America Where She Should.

John Bull: Stands England where she should? CARTOON DESIGNED FOR THE AERIAL LEAGUE BY MR. A. CARRUTHERS GOULD.

effects are little known even to the electrical engineer. That a powerful current can be induced in a "dead" wire or a metallic structure or even in a non-metallic structure, is not generally known, and yet it is to this phenomenon that the "freaks" or pranks of lightning are due. Lightning may strike an object inflicting no damage worth mentioning; and yet a person or object some distance away may be shattered by an induced charge.

The aluminum framework of the Zeppelin craft contained many circular paths capable oi generating such an induced current during the storm. While the loops were riveted it is well known that the oxide which forms on the surface of aluminum insulates the metal against electrical currents of low potential; a high potential discharge, however, would jump across this insulation, and as this framework was always surrounded by free hydrogen, it is very probable that the explosion may be traceable to this phenomenon.

AIRSHIP ENGINE—1_ have new, simple and compact construction in a 2-cycle double-acting 2-shaft air-cooled reciprocating gasoline motor for exploiting. A good proposition for somebody. Principals only. Address, JAM, c/o Aeronautics.

WANTED—Engine of _'5 or more horse power. Must be light weight, good condition. Lowest cash price. L. E. Dare, 216 W. 104th St., New York.

CAPITAL WANTED—A gentleman who has invented an aeroplane on practical lines— no freak—would like to communicate with a party of means to develop it. Has a model one-tenth full size. All communications respected and confidential. None but those sincerely interested wanted. Address, L. H. B., Evening Journal, Jersey City, N. J.

Nilson, Miller Co., of Hoboken, N. J., has been incorporated with capital of $25,000. They are located at 1300 Hudson street, in the shop formerly occupied by W. D. Forbes & Co.. and will conduct an engineering and general machine shop business, making a specialty of designing and building, to order, electrical apparatus, gasoline engines, etc., for commercial vehicles, marine and stationary use. Also experimental work and special machinery.

LAWS OF FLIGHT

By F W. Lanchester

The law of the pressure reaction for speeds such as may be usefully employed in aerial flight has been established experimentally, and is:—

(1) On a body of st.itat geometrical foim in given presentation the pressure reaction varies approximately as the square of the velocity, and as the square of the linear dimension.

The theoretical justification of this law is that the viscosity and elasticity of the fluid as quantities of which the resistance is a function, are without sensible influence. This is approximately true, firstly concerning viscosity, so long as the product of the linear size and velocity of the body is greater than a certain minimum value ; and secondly, as to elasticity, provided that the velocity does not approach too nearly the velocity of sound. In aerial flight as practised by birds or man, neither of these limitations applies so that the V-square law may be accepted as applicable. There is some correction required in regard to skin-Ji iction; in resistance of this kind it would appear that the index is somewhat less than 2, though how much at present we do not know.

In the relations of the pressure reaction on fitanes at small angles there is a law of great utility to be deduced from experiment, narnely:-

(2) For a given velocity the pressure varies directly as the angle.

This law only applies to the small angle, i.e., to one which, expressed in radians, the angle, its sine, and its tangent, are sensibly equal to one another. The law further does not apply to planes in apteroid aspect, in the extreme case of which the sine-square law of Newton can be shown to apply ; neither of these limitations seriously affects the validity of the law in relation to aerial flight.

A theory founded on the hypothesis of con-stunt szveep—that is, upon the assumption of a layer of air of defined thickness uniformly handled by the aeroplane—gives results in agreement with these two laws, but with a defect in the constant by which the quantities are related. This defect is accounted for and the theory is rectified by taking into account the cyclic component in the periptery; by this extension of the initial hypothesis complete harmony is established between theory and experiment.

The two laws so far established result in the fact discovered by Wenliam and rediscovered by Langley, that neglecting skin-friction and

other direct resistance the power expenditure decreases when the velocity is increased, and the law of friction less flight is established

(3) Neglecting skin-friction and other direct ■resistance, the h p. varies inversely asX ; or the resistance to flight vai ies inversely as V2.

The modifying influence of skin-friction and of other resistances varying directly as V2 results in the following laws, the proofs of which are given in the author's "Aerial Flight," Vol. 1, Aerodynamics.

(4) The total resistance to fight is least when the resistance due to aerodynamic support

^ y. 's equal to the direst resistance ( ccV-),-

hence this is the condition of greatest range on given fuel-supply.

(5) The fight zuilt be sustained for the longest time on a given supply of energy zchen the resistance due to aerodynamic support is three times the direct resistance.

(6) The speed of greatest range is

V3

( = r'3I5) ttmes the speed of least pozver.

(7) Neglecting '■'■body resistance" for aerodromes or aerodones designed for least resistance, the resistance is independent of the velocity of flight. In other words, the gliding angle is constant, or the pozver varies directly as the velocity of flight.

Cor. When body resistance is present the total resistance consists of tzvo parts, one of zuhich varies as the velocity squared and the other of which is constant.

(S) That, consequent on laws 4 and 5, these are best values of angle 3 (the angle of an aeroplane to the line of flight, or the angle of trail of a pterygoid aerofoil), and of the P. V2 relation, that correspond to the condition of least resistance. These, tabulated from theory, are found to be in harmony with experience.

♦Abstract of a paper read before the British Association at Dublin on September 8th, 190S.

The Curtiss-Herring combination has provoked an enormous lot of discussion and wonderment. A prominent member of the Aero Club said the other day that he would not invest in any company where the majority interest was turned over for patent rights without knowledge of what they covered or consisted. It seems certain, however, from a business point of view—and the promoters are business men—that those investing know for what their money is expended.

i.n

A REPORT OF GLIDING MACHINE TESTS

By G. A. Spratt

Last summer I constructed a gliding machine, the design of which is based upon original investigation ; T expected to obtain thereby automatic equilibrium without the addition of any special element for that purpose. I expected to obtain, also, easy and complete control while requiring a minimum amount of training. I believe, also, the curvature given the surfaces admits of glides at the slowest possible speeds. The tests, so far as carried, seem to substantiate these expectations.

The machine weighs 49 pounds. It has two surfaces, 21 feet by 4 feet, rigidly bridge-trussed as in the Chanute type of glider. It rests upon three short skids, one in advance of the others. A box-cell tail extends about S feet to the rear.

Much time was spent in experimenting with launching devices that seemed adapted to the locality and suitable to myself, and it was November before actual gliding began.

On November 4 a wind gust caught up the machine and operator while two spectators stood holding the tow line. An elevation of 6 feet was quickly reached before the machine was brought to a horizontal position, then the lever was pulled too far and as sudden a descent began, but was, luckily, checked in time to prevent any breakage.

In another attempt, about 15 feet advance was obtained 4 feet above the ground in about 10 seconds, but a slight break occurred in landing.

On November 10 four attempts were made behind an automobile. The tow line was 200 feet long and the glides ranged from short skips to one of 150 feet. The elevation was kept below 3 feet and the speed was estimated to be less than 15 miles per hour. There was no wind, and the settling of a thick fog prevented further trials.

On November 24 three trials were made behind an automobile with a little better success. One glide was made by a young man who had never before seen air craft of any kind. He had a good glide and managed the machine perfectly.

On November 25 the longest glide yet obtained was made facing a moderate breeze. It measured 450 feet, and a height of between 4 and 8 feet was maintained. Just as the machine mounted into the air, a side wind elevated the left wing and the machine was so easily righted that I was tempted to try steering. I set the course to the left and then to the right with the most gratifying results. The tow line was 500 feet long. A horse furnished the motive power, and by means of a stake and pulley the speed of the horse was doubled at the machine. The horse's gait was a fast walk.

Another nearly as long and equally successful glide followed this, in which I voluntarily rose to nearly 12 feet. Both glides were suddenly terminated, however, by the unexpected stopping of the horse, due to the driver's misunderstanding. A break occurred in landing this second time. On November 30 and on December 5 other trials were made with good results.

_ The factor of safety of the machine is insufficient because of the alterations that have been made m the under framing. Consequently, the intention has been to keep close to the ground, preferring to experience the frequent striking and breakage from this cause, rather than to risk a break at a greater height, although the higher glides are more apt to be better managed throughout because of a greater feeling of freedom and more room to correct deflections. In one of the early trials I unintentionally reached a height of 12 feet wihle watching a part of the machine.

The tow line is the most satisfactory method I have found for obtaining experience in the air. It should be long, kept as near horizontal as possible, and attached as near to the center of weight of the machine as possible. When used in this way it imparts speed' to the machine in its own general direction, but allows much freedom of control to the operator. It exerts no influence upon the poise of the machine and the operator's attempts to guide it meet with the same response, within limits, as they would in free flight.

The bridle of my machine is 9 feet long and formed by two lines which are attached to the framing at points 18 inches apart and at the same height. A releasing attachment is provided and is within easy reach.

Another advantage possessed by the tow line is its adaptability to almost any location when used simply to gain experience. Our meadow is small and contains gutters and a swamp, and to accommodate ourselves to the wind's direction, we have made attachments in three ways : we have towed direct, have guided the tow line around a pulley allowing the automobile to run indirectly toward the starting point of the aeroplane, and also used the pulley to multiply the speed of the automobile.

The sensation of flying, and the control_ of the machine can be learned safely and without risk of bodily injury by sitting on the machine protected from direct contact with the ground, and avoiding attempts to rise high until confidence is gained.

I expect to begin the construction of another glider on the same lines as soon as the weather permits such, work out of doors.

I wish to record here also gratitude for much encouragement and help received through many years from that kind-hearted, patient, and earnest worker and supporter of aeronautics, Mr. 0. Chanute.

RARE BOOKS

Balloon Ascension at Midnight

(Hall). 8vo, boards, 1902, ill. $3.50

History and Practice of Aeronautics (Wise). 8vo, cloth, ill., 1850 ......................$7.50

Travels in the Air (Glaisher). 4to, 1871, ill., cloth........... $7.50

Proceedings International Congress on Aerial Navigation, Chicago, 1893. 8vo, cloth, ill. .......................... $6.00

Travels in Space (Valentine and Tomlinson). !2mo, cloth..... $3.00

Sky-Larking in Cloudland (Myers) Haphazard Accounts of Perils and Pleasures of Aerial Navigation. 1 2mo, paper,

......................... $0-50

The Aerial World (Hartwig). 8vo,

cloth, 1875............... $4.00

My Airships (Santos Dumont). 12mo,

cloth, ill., 1904............ $2.50

Keely and his Discoveries

(Moore). 8vo, cloth, 1 893 . . . $4.00 Balloon Ascents (Trans, from Fr.)

12mo, cloth, 1874.......$2.50

Aerial Navigation (Mansfield). 12mo,

cloth, 1877 .............$6.00

Parakites (Woglom). 4to, ill., cloth,

1896.................... $2.50

The Polar Airship (Wellman). 8vo,

1906, paper.............. $1 .00

"AERONAUTICS," 1777 B'way, New York

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BOOKS

AERIAL WARFARE, by R. P. Hearne, with an introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim. First systematic popular account of progress made by the countries of the world in aeronautics. 57 views of airships and aeroplanes : Wright, Fannan, Delagrange, Bleriot, Ferber, Zeppelin, Patrie, Republique, &c. Profusely illustrated. $2 fin postpaid-

PROBLEM OF FLIGHT, by Herbert Chatley.

Especially written for engineers. Outline of contents : Problem of Flight, Essential Principles, the Helix, the Aeroplane, Aviplanes, Dirigible Balloons, Form and Fittings of the Airship. Appendix furnishes much instructive information. 61 illustrations. Price, $3.50.

A/TOEDEBECK'S HANDBOOK, by Major 1VX H. W. L. Moedebeck and O. Chanute The only handbook of aeronautics in English All phases of aerial travel fully covered. In valuable for the beginner and a rtady reference for the aeronautical engineer. Data on screws pressure, ballooning, physics, etc. Illustrated $3.25.

J^STRA CASTRA, by Hatton Tumor, This rarest aeronautical work in existence can be supplied to a few first inquiries at $15' All in perfect condition.

PALLOONING AS A SPORT, by Major B. Baden Powell. A handbook of ballooning and guide for the amateur. Full instructions for the equipment and management of a balloon. Illustrated.

Price $1.10.

VyAR IN THE AIR, by H. G. Wells. The greatest fiction story in recent years. Unfolds a breathless storj' of aerial battle and adventure, a triumph of scientific imagination, possibly not beyond the realm of actuality. Illustrated. $1.50.

AERONAUTICAL ANNUAL, by James Means. For years 1895, 1896 and 189

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Illustrated. $1 50 each.

MaVIGATING THE AIR, by members of the Aero Club of America. Interesting record of ideas and experiences of 24 distinguished men. Contributors: Wright Bros., Chanute, Pickering, Rotch, Zahm, Stevens, Herring and others. 300 Pages, 32 Illustrations. „;

My Airships (Santos Dumont). Illustrated. Crown 8vo., cloth.................. 1.40

Resistance of Air and the Question of Flying (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated.

12mo., 42 pp., paper........................................................80

Flight Velocity (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated. 45 pp., 12mo., paper.............8

Flying Machines, Past, Present and Future (A. W. Marshall and H. Greenly). Illustrated ............................................'......................60

Paradoxes of Nature and Science (W. Hampson). Illustrated. Two chapters on balloons as airships and bird flight. Svo., cloth, N. Y., 1907................... 1 50

Airships Past and Present, by Captain A. Hildebrandt; translated by W. H. Story.

Large Svo., cloth, profusely ill. Latest book on motor aerostation.......... 3.50

Aerial Flight: Aerodynamics (F. W. Lanchester). Large Svo., cloth, illustrated,

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THE HELICOPTER Artificial and Natural Flight

By C. II. CHALMERS. E. E.

In this paper, Mr, Chalmers gives valuable data obtained in his elaborate experiments. Subject is treated in an altogether different manner than in any other work. A new foundation is laid. Pamphlet 25 Cents.

Proceeds of Sale to go to the Prize Fund.

By SIR HIRAM MAXIM. With 95 illus.

Cloth, illus., S vo., $1.75 net

A concise history and description of the development of flying machines. Description of his own experimental work, hxplaining the machinery and methods which enable him to arrive at certain conclusions. Kully describes the work of other successful inventors. Chapter on dirigible balloons.

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If HONEYWELL CONSTRUCTION Utilizes the latest and best materials-varnished or rubberized envelope with French=type valve, and Italian hemp or linen nettings. Cars equipped for comfort and convenience —light and durable. .........

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HONEYWELL

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FRENCH—AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

II. E. HONEYWELL, Director

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