Aeronautics

Volume 4 - No. 2 - 1909 February

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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IV., NO. 2 TWENTY-FIVE CENTS FEBRUARY, 1909

International Balloon Races

Berlin, 10, 11, 12 October Point to Point Contest:—Winner llerr Meckel in the balloon Elberfeld made of CONTINENTAL Balloon Sheeting.

Gordon Bennett Race :—The Swiss balloon Helvetia, pilot Col. Schaeck, remained in the air about 72 hours, beating the duration record, heretofore of 52 hours, 32 minutes by not less than 20 hours. According to a telegraphic report from Col. Schaeck to the "Berliner Tage-blatt," the balloon behaved and preserved excellently in the storm and weather. The Envelope of the "Helvetia," which by this splendid result, made a duration record that has up to the present time been unattaiued by anyone, is made of CONTINENTAL Balloon Sheeting.

DIRIGIBLES

CONTINENTAL Balloon Sheeting

used in the Zeppelin, Gross, Ville de Paris, L,ebaudy, de la Vaulx, Repnblique, Renard, Parseval, etc.

CONTINENTAL CAOUTCHOUC AND GUTTA PERCHA COMPANY

Hanover, Germany

NEW YORK BRANCH = = . 1790 Broadway

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

Used bv Leading- Aviators.

Light in weight Strong and

Durable.

Variety of types and sizes in stock.

Absolutely Guaranteed.

AH Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls on Hand.

Send for Catalogue 19.

R. I. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York

AERONAUTICS

Main Office • 1777 Broadway New York

Published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc. Wm. Gettincer, Pres. E. Iv. Jones, Titus.-Sec.

304 No. 4th St. St. Louis

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postomce, New York, N. Y., under the Act of

March 3, 1879.

Vol. IV

February 1909

No.

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.

Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order, check or registered letter. Make all remittances free of exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.

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advance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

Important.—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure proper credit.

PRIZES IN AMERICA? YES, INDEED! BUT A LONG WHILE ARRIVING. NOTE HOW TIMES HAVE CHANGED.

Prizes Now Offered in America the Result of the Work of "Aeronautics"—the New Prize Fund of "Aeronautics" and the 'World" Prize-$112,025.

THE eighth wonder of the world—actually, money prizes in America! First there was our own little prize of $200.

Then there came Mr. Bishop's

$1,000.

Next, the beginning of "Aeronautics" prize fund with $75.

The "World's'' prize of $10,000.

The Lahm prize of $250.

The Daytona Beach $500.

And now, $100,000 for the invention after a 100-mile flight.

Total, $112,025. This is a good beginning. Limitations of Some of These.

But while we are starting, let us start right.

Will the Art be greatly benefited by a prize open for but two months and which can be competed for by both airships and

flying machines? An airship competing with a flying machine, an aeroplane for instance, seems like an absurdity—at least in the light of the present; and the World prize is not in the future.

The best record ever made by a dirigible is 38 miles an hour, and that is not entirely credited. The aeroplane has made a speed of over 55 miles an hour. Either let the World prize be divided: half for aerostation and half for aviation; or have it all for either. That would apparently b'" sensible. Then, make it available for competition during a whole year.

Mr. Bishop's prize is open only for aeroplanes. Who can say that the helicopter may not be evolved in 1909?

"Aeronautics" Subscription Fund.

In the Summer and Fall of 1907, it will be remembered, we endeavored to secure

5:5

$25 subscriptions to a $5000 prize fund, with a dozen offers as the result.

Within the month we have addressed letters to these same gentlemen; and [Messrs. Chanute. Burridge and Kimball have responded in the affirmative. The manner (if awarding the monies subscribed for the prize fund is now being considered.

Prizes the Result of Earnest Work by "Aeronautics."

Our pleas for prize money have brought down upon our heads the fervid damnation and insult of aero club members, and it is

now somewhat gratifying that the work begun in 1907 by this, the only journal in this country devoted to the new Art, has at last begun to be rewarded. Suggested and urged by this magazine, prizes in America are at last a fact. The Daytona prize was the outcome of conferences with the management of this magazine. Plans were talked over with Mr. Bishop early in 1907; and in the Summer and Fall of that year we devoted a great amount of time and energy in soliciting funds. The idea was suggested to various newspapers with always something like the following for our pains:—

Is.

SUNDAY EDITION— EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT

Pulitzer Building, park row N. y.

August 6, 1907.

Mr. E. L. Jones, Dear Sir:-

Yours of August 3d has been referred to me for consideration. The subjeot Is exceedingly interesting and we should be entirely •willing to cooperate so far as publicity Is concerned with any scheme such as that -which you have outlined, but It would not be possible for us to offer a prize at this time, Very sincerely yours,

Editor Sunday World.

Now that a sort of success has been achieved, no doubt others will take heart and continue the work. Don't rest because some results have been obtained. We shall ourselves go on persisting. We do

not forget that in Europe there is more than a quarter of a million dollars in aviation prize money, and additions are being made every week. We ought to have more in America. We must get to the front.

ARMY AERONAUTICS

IT is with a sense of shame that we have to record the aeronautical defection of the Sixtieth Congress, simpl}' because the majority of the political lights in the House fail to realize what will probably become the most important phase of military and naval science.

With Germany alone spending one million dollars on four Zeppelins and building costly floating docks for them.

With every foreign power, practically, equipped now with an "aerial navy," United States remains in the nick.

With a national subscription in German}' of two and a quarter million dollars for airships, we cannot devote a third of that to make even a moderate start.

With municipalities in France contributing to the National Aerial League fund, are we, the richest country on the globe, to get nothing?

With an American doing the work that is leading the Old World to the front, is the United States, the leading nation of the New World, to be left behind?

Some Congressmen are *****

The Military Committee of the House decided not to recommend an appropriation for aeronautical work. The House as a Committee of the Whole then passed the $500,000 appropriation, making the total appropriation for the Signal Corps. $750,000. When the bill came before the House for a final vote, however, on Feb. 2, the $500,000 amendment was defeated.

There is still a chance with the Senate Military Committee.

Let us urge again the writing of letters to your Senators. Use all the argument at your command. The Aero Club of Ohio passed a resolution on the matter and forwarded it to Washington. The Aero Club of America and the Aeronautic Society have been working hard, and there is still a possibility for success—perhaps even a probability, it is suggested.

Now is the time for those who are most interested in seeing the Art advanced and this country take its proportionate place, at least aeronautically, among the world powers, to do active work.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

By W. R. Kimball

In regard to information in reference to the air pressure against kites, aeroplanes, etc., almost any text book will give the table of wind pressure based on the Rouss-Smeaton coefficient.

This co-efficient varies a little with temperature and altitude, but for calculations it is sufficiently close to say that a wind speed of one mile per hour, or SS feet per minute, or 1.47 feet per second will exert a pressure of .005 pounds per square foot. That is to say, au air pressure resulting from a current of air flowing at the rate of 10 miles per hour would be the square

of 10 which is 100 times .005 which is .5 or one half pound per square foot. This is where the plane is vertical to the air current. As the One of the formulas in general use is as follows :

L = Kav- (fa) cog^^) 2 sin of\

1 + sin2^-

L = lift K = .00166

Where a = area in sq. feet and v = feet per see.

plane is tilted and the air current strikes it at an angle, more complicated formulas are brought into play depending upon the shape of the surface or number of surfaces and their position in regard to each other, and that makes it very difficult to give anything more than approximate figures.

An inexpensive substitute for the turn-buckle, in tightening guy ropes, is the ordinary bicycle spoke and nipple. The nipple being held suitably by a strip of metal, while the nubbed, or hub. end of the spoke will allow the guy wire to be fastened to it securely.—C. T. Shaffer.

HAMMONDSPORT WORK OF THE AERIAL EXPERIMENT

ASSOCIATION

By J. A. D. McCurdy.

On January 2, 1909. the "Loon" ('Drome III, or Curtiss's "June Bug,'' later placed on pontoons and renamed the "Loon"), fitted with its hydro-surfaces, was taken from the shed over to the head of the Lake. After she was placed in the water between her docks, the engine was started by Air. Curtiss and the operator's seat taken by Mr. McCurdy. At the signal to let go she started sluggishly forward, and after running for about 100 yards rose on her hydro-surfaces with the pontoons completely out of water.

Immediately it was noticed that instead of running smoothly as was anticipated, gradually gaining in speed, a tremendous commotion was created in the water by the hydro-surfaces, and the maximum speed attained by the machine seemed to be about 8 or to miles an hour.

The "Loon"

After running down the Lake for a short distance the machine showing no increase of lift, the engine was accidentally shut off by the breaking of an electric wire; there being no wind, however, she was easily towed back to the dock by means of a row-boat.

Newspaper men on shore reported that the machine was seen flying over the Lake and were very enthusiastic about what they thought a flight. Their impression, however, was derived from the fact that, although the boats themselves were out of the water, the}- didn't realize that the hydro-surfaces were still on the water.

We were satisfied by this time that the hydro-surfaces, as had already been suggested by Mr. Bell, were "ten times too large." They had been made to fit to the boats in sockets so that they could be easily removed. With the aid of this construction and the help of a saw, the hydro-surfaces were entirely removed from the boats.

The first trial had been made after five o'clock in the afternoon and it was, therefore, quite dark; but by the time everything was in readiness for a second trial the moon had come up and the whole Lake flooded with light.

i About seven o'clock the second trial of jthe "Loon" without hydro-surfaces was made. As she shot from the docks after the signal was given to let go, I felt a sudden jar and realized at the time that she

had struck something projecting from the docks, however thought nothing more about it at the moment, as in a second or two we were well out on the Lake. She had her old speed back again this time and, although not measured, seemed to be about the same as in former experiments (27 miles an hour).

The course taken was about half a mile down the Lake, turning and coming back. By this time the wind had risen to about, I should judge, 15 miles an hour, and so, before the row-boat could get up to me. I drifted to leeward of the dock about 100

feet. The machine was, however, easily towed to the dock, canal boat fashion, men walking along the shore pulling by means of a rope. No sooner, however, had we brought her abreast of the piers (the port pontoon being adjacent to the piers), than she began to sink, the starboard boat and wing going completely down in about 12 feet of water.

The boat had sprung a leak, that was a certainty, and it was a question among the men at the time whether the leak was caused by the jar as she was let go from the docks or whether I had run into some floating ice which was quite abundant. By means of rope and pries the "Loon" was hauled from the water without causing anjr damage to the machine, and investigation showed that the stern post of the starboard pontoon had been entirely ripped out by coming in contact with one of the posts of the piers as she was getting away. This left a hole about 16 inches high by 4 incites broad. While the machine was kept under way the water found no time to enter this hole but as soon as the machine was brought to a stand-still the water poured in and as it was comparatively dark it was unnoticed by the spectators.

The machine was left on the shore for the night and taken to the shed early the next

morning, January 3, where she was dismantled and put away for the winter.

The month of January has been consumed by the Aerial Experiment Association almost altogether in preparing for experiments rather than in actually determining aii}^ very eventful results. The Silver-Dart was crated and expressed to Baddeck, Nova Scotia, the early part of the month, but has not yet been reassembled. The Citizens of Baddeck, realizing the importance of the Association's experimental work in this country, felt that it would be a mark of appreciation to use their influence, as a town, with the Minister of Customs to admit, free of duty into Canada, the Silver-Dart. This request was granted.

The new Curtiss water-cooled engine for use in our machines (8 cylinders 3)4^4). has undergone successfully a series of hard endurance tests in the shop at Hammonds-port in which the brake H. P. for various speeds was determined. This engine has not yet arrived in Baddeck but is expected very soon.

Mr. McCurdy left Hammondsport January 7 and proceeded at once to Baddeck, where he was soon followed by Mr. Curtiss to co-operate with Dr. Bell and Mr. Baldwin.

THOMAS E. SELFRIDGE: A TRIBUTE By R. E. S.

Sweet peace at last doth soothe his restless heart

Beneath her brooding wing: Faint grows, and far, the noise of camp and mart, The trumpet's martial ring.

He dreamed the dream that, since the dawn of thought.

Has fascinated man; And faithfully and fearlessly he wrought

Upon the master-plan.

His country mourns his death: Fame rang his knell

On that eventful day— No less a hero than if hostile shell

Had ta'en his life away.

Ay. those who tend the watchfires on the heights

That mark the world's frontier. Honor the man who with the vanguard lights— The fearless pioneer!

CALENDAR

Feb. 20—Aero Exhibition at Newark, N. J.

Mar. 1—Lecture "The Practical Side of Aeronautics", West Side Y. M. C. A., New York.

Mar. ft—Wilbur 1L Kimball on "The Practicability of Flight", West Side Y. M.C. A.

Mar. 1.5—Entries for Cordon Bennett Balloon Cup Race.

Mar. 19-27—Aero Exhibition at Olympia, London, Eng.

Mar. 23-26—Aereoplane Race at Daytona, Fla.

OF EVENTS

Maj' —Spring Exhibition of The Aeronautic

Society at Morris Park, N. Y. June 1—Herring must deliver Aeroplane at

Washington. June 5—Grand Prize Balloon Race, Indianapolis. June 29—Wright Bros, must deliver Aeroplane,

at Washington. Sept. —Gordon Bennett Balloon Race at Zurich,

Switzerland. Oct. i—Aero Club of St. Louis Balloon Race.

THE HELICOPTER

By C. H. Chalmers, E. E.

in the May, 1908, number of "Aeronautics" I stated that I was conducting some experiments with aerial screws, and promised to make public such results as were obtained.

It occurred to me about a year and a half ago that I could make an air helix of large diameter, and of such design as would reduce the strains to tension strains almost entirely, and thereby greatly reduce the weight. After repeated trials

1 have designed and built such a screw 25' i// diameter which weighs complete 54 lbs. The active surfaces are 6// x 24" each, or a total of

2 sq. ft. of sustaining surface. The two half-

tone cuts herewith show two views of one blade, and one view of the complete blade-holding mechanism, together with the vertical driving shaft and its bearings and supports.

In order to make clear the reasons which have led the writer to the novel design of air helix herein described, reference is also made to figures, "A", "B", and "C", Plate VII.

Figure "A" simply represents the path of an aeroplane moving in a straight line or in a circle of so great a diameter as to be to all intents equivalent thereto. The Brothers Wright are able to support 50 to 60 lbs. per horse power. I think the aeroplane gives these results largely because it is working on air that is fresh in the sense that the air particles are not already moving downward when the sustaining surfaces strike them.

Figure "B" represents the ordinary air helix as is commonly used for an air propeller, and is usually 6/ to ior in diameter. So far as I am able to learn, the thrust or lift obtained from such devices ranges from 5 to 7 lbs. per horse power. I think this low efficiency is largely due to the fact that the active surfaces work on air particles which are already moving rapidly downward when struck, together with a lot of

detrimental eddies and counter currents at the center.

Figure "C" represents the sphere of action of my new type air helix. In the experiments so far made I have used an outside diameter of 25' and an inside diameter of 21/. It is therefore evident that what I have is two (2) aeroplanes moving in a circle of, let us say, moderate diameter. It would seem reasonable to suppose that the thrust or lift of such a helix would be better than the common or usual form, and yet not as good as the aeroplane. This is to be expected because my construction is a sort of hybrid helicopter and aeroplane The tables and curves herewith given show that the results also are much better than those obtained from the usual form of air helix and likewise inferior to the aeroplane. I notice by the daily press that Mr. Wilbur Wright has driven his machine in circles as small as 150 feet in diameter. If this is true, then it would seem hopeful at least that a still wider spread of my blades would make lifts of 50 lbs. or more per horse power possible.

->■

Jl

 

V \

   
 

■H

PL/IT £ M

Referring again to the half-tone cuts, the vertical shaft is steel in diameter and

eleven feet long. To drive this vertical shaft I put at its lower end a 2S// diameter by 8r/ face wood pulley, and by means of an 8// leather belt obtained the necessary power from a 500 volt direct current 15 horse power Electric Machinery Company motor. To get different speeds I used a rheostat in the armature circuit, and by means of a Weston ammeter and voltmeter measured the intake of the motor in

watts. Most of the readings were below the rated horse power of the motor, and I was obliged to place a piece of plank against the belt so that it would not run off. For these reasons I estimate that the power delivered to the blades was 75% of the motor intake. In order to measure the lift at the lower speeds the weight of the blades, shaft, etc., were counter-weighted by a heavy weight on a graduated arm.

The active surfaces, "D", Plate VIII, are cast

hub "J", 12" x 7" x 4" and two pieces of 1 )'2f' steel tubing, "I", about 18 gauge and io' Sv long. The tubes which are in the same horizontal plane, pass thru the spruce hub S" apart, and are sprung together at the ends and held by a steel forging, "K". In one end of each tube is a brass plug pinned to the end of the tube and the steel forging. The plug has a slit thru which passes the cable that holds the blades. The cable is fastened to a second plug which slides in the \o' W tube. A helical

aluminum, curved 1 to 12, thick in front, and each provided with two rudders, "E". The steel tubes, "F", carrying the rudders are \o" long and 2/s// diameter. The rudders, "E", are aluminum and are 10" x 5" x The total

weight of each blade with the rudders is 6y2 lbs. The four holes in each blade are carefully rounded to prevent cutting the wires, and the two on the thin rear edge are bushed with steel to keep them from tearing out.

The double wire bridle, "G", which is employed to hold and drive the blades is made up

spring pulls the cable thru the slit. The centrifugal force pulls the blades out in action and the springs pull them in when at rest The diameter when at rest is approximately n', while the diameter in action is 25' \".

The rudders were first made much smaller and set so that when they were horizontal the angle of the blades was 3 degrees. Great trouble from flouncing was experienced and I found that larger rudders and a larger angle were absolutely necessary. With a 5 degrees angle and 5"xio" rudders the motiou was

     

\0

 
 

1777"

 

of three No. 16 B and S gauge crucible steel wires passing thru each pair of holes in the blade. There are no joints in these six wires. The twelve ends are brought together, wrapped with a small wire, "H", made into a ribbon cable one wire thick and twelve wires wide, and this flat cable is fastened to a cylindrical plug inside one of the io' S''x 1 tubes, "I", which pass thru the hub, "J", on the vertical shaft.

In action the cable is therefore edge to the wind, and offers very little resistance to the air even at 150 miles per hour. The cable is 5' ^Yt." long, measured from the inside of the blade to the rigid part of the mechanism. The rigid part of mechanism consists of a spruce

steady, with apparently no tendency to flounce. Some experiments were made in calm weather and some with a stiff breeze blowing, but no particular difference was noted. The noise was startling and some curiosity seekers who refused to heed warnings of possible danger quickly fled when the blades got up to a fair speed. The sound would compare favorably with a Pullman sleeper full of fat men badly addicted to snoring.

I give below the readings on two runs of about one hour each.

The first run was with the rudders set for an angle of (> to 10 degrees. The results are platted in Plates IV, V and VI. We then reduced the angle to 4 to 6 degrees and took another set of

readings which are platted in Plates I, II and III.

In addition to the readings given and also platted, I pushed the speed up to 300' per second with a lift of approximately 104^ lbs. per square foot, but was not able then to get power readings at all, nor was it possible to take speed

To attempt to point out the possibilities of this new type air helix may perhaps be premature, nevertheless the writer feels that this self-folding construction where the active surfaces are held and retained in position by a single cable and automatically drawn in to a relatively

readings very accurately. The motor acted, however, as though it was under heavy overload.

I hope these data on high speeds may provoke discussion and arouse interest in the helicopter. I expect to design and build a similar set of blades with 5 sq. ft. instead of one, and shall be glad to send in the results later.

small diameter when at rest, offers possibilities in regard to the immediate future development of the helicopter.

It takes only a small stretch of the imagination to so modify my apparatus as.to permit of greatly increasing the diameter without increasing the weight to any great extent. This

Motor Intake in watts

READINGS WITH 4 TO 6 DEGREES ANGLE. PLATTED IN PLATES I, II, & III.

Motor RPM

Vertical Shaft RPM

Lift Total lbs.

Lift per H.P.

Vklocity of Blades

Ft. per Second

Miles per Hr.

Net H.P. applied to ver. shaft

1602

284

87

1 r

1402

264

78

11

2 111

330

90

l9

l825

292

87

l9

28Sl

362

108

30

2792

350

105

30

4107

424

120

53

8250

52S

156

100

Sioo

518

156

no

11070

590

180

119

10602

594

168

119

6.87

114

78

1

6

7.85

102

70

1

4

S.79

us'

So. 4

2

16

10.43

114

7S.4

1

S2

10.41

142

97

2

ss

10.75

13S

94

2

79

12.89

i57;i

107.2

4

11

12.13

205

140

S

24

13.58

205

140

S

1

10.75

236

162

11

"5

11.22

221

150

10

6

accomplished, an efficiency equal to the aeroplane, or perhaps far beyond, becomes not only possible, but highly probable.

There are two important considerations in this type of air helix. First, the centrifugal force must be made quite large as compared

Much has been written on the aerial propeller, but comparatively little has been given out in the way of actual data, such as tables and curves of results. In my own reading I have found almost no data of real performance at what might be termed "hurricane speeds."

READINGS WITH 6 TO 10 DEGREES ANGLE. PLATTED IN PLATES IV, V, & VI.

TM?l°r Motor Vertical

Intake p Shaft RPM

in watts lbs.

1405

249

72

0

2260

304

90

11

3380

360

10S

28

3320

354

102

28

3950

3S2

10S

34

35S0

37o

I OS.

34

7500

4S0

138

 

7070

462

141

70%

11700

55o

156

10S.6

11700

55o

159

10S.6

1,1ft Velocity op Blades Net H.P.

per Ft. per Miles applied to

H.P. Second per Hr. ver. shaft

0

94-fi

fi4-5

1.4

4.S2

11S

So)4

2 .23

S.30

142

97

3-37

S.46

134

91^

3-31

S.62

142

97

3-94

9-51

142

97

3.5S

9-93

iSi

123

7-5

9.92

185

126

7. oS

9.28

205

140

11.7

9.26

209

143

11-7

with the lift and drift. By so doing the blades remain more nearly horizontal and also more nearly radial. Second, the rudders on the blades must be carefully proportioned as to size, angle, and weight. With proper care in these respects a perfectly steady lift is obtained.

I am under obligations to Prof. B. F. Groat of the University of Minnesota, who has assisted thruout the experiments, and also to Mr. Octave Chauute of Chicago for many kind words of encouragement and helpful suggestions.

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.

President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahji. Chairman Gen'l Committee: War. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.

Publication Notice.

The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine, and at the earliest date possible, bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.

In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the informal addresses of the Gordon Bennett contestants and others were concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.

The seventeenth paper is printed in this issue: "Helicopters for Aerial Research.'' by Professor Cleveland Abbe.

HELICOPTERS FOR AERIAL RESEARCH.

By Prof. Cleveland Abbe.

Modern meteorology is making great use of the balloon and the kite as the means of exploring the upper atmosphere, and the resulting records are invaluable. It is a question in my mind whether we may not devise other

methods of carrying the self-recording- apparatus to great heights. The balloon carries the apparatus horizontally to great distances, so that it is liable to be lost or injured. The kite is limited in its range of altitudes and cannot make an ascension unless there be favorable winds at the earth's surface. Can not a small helicopter be devised that shall carry a light meteorograph weighing only three pounds to some great height and bring back the records without injury? Such an apparatus would not be carried very far horizontally because of the small surface exposed to the action of the wind. It can not be made so buoyant as to float in the water if, unfortunately, it comes down in lake or ocean, but a float and string may be attached. I think of something driven up, not by force of steam or compressed air, but by the rapid systematic explosion of some substance like dynamite which can be let into the explosion chamber in small quantities at regular intervals. Such explosions should drive a turbine shaft, or other machinery, causing the fan to revolve rapidly and raise the whole apparatus into the upper air at the rate of about six metres per second. The self-recording apparatus or meteorograph is to be carried at the top of the reservoir, and above that is the revolving fan. The vapor from the explosive escapes downward into a large chamber whose vent is below, so that its heat will not affect the record of temperature. Large side wings prevent the rapid rotation of the whole mass contrary to the rotation of the fans. When the maximum height is reached but little motor power is left. The weight of the apparatus is now considerably less than when it started at the surface of the ground. It begins to fall by its own weight, and the fans, therefore, reverse the direction of rotation, or may, in fact, be held stationary by proper device and act as a parachute, so that the fall to the ground, however rapid, may not be dangerous. The whole machine is thus kept in an upright position, and when it strikes the ground the lower chamber

whose walls consist of an elastic spring, receives the first blow and prevents any injurious shock. The following sketch suggests the simplest arrangement that has occurred to me, but of course all details must be settled by actual experiment. The general problem, however, is one that will, I hope, appeal to both professionals and amateurs who desire to assist Y' JtTLICffflTEJlTffi ni conquering this new field of ex-^ AERIAL RESEARCH ploration.

F=lIelicoidal fans. ]\1=]\1 eteorograph inside light wicker cage. R= Reservoir of explosive. T = ExpIosion chamber and gas turbine. SS=Tur-bine shaft. EE=Exit for explosive gases. AA-AA==Asbestos cloth covering spiral wire spring. The gases escape from this chamber at the vent V, and the spring takes up the shock when the apparatus strikes the earth. The upper part of the shaft is hollow and holds about iooo feet of fine fish line, to which is attached the Ball B If the apparatus descends into the water, this Hall detaches and floats until the observer finds it and thus recovers the apparatus. GG=Wings to diminish the rotation of the whole mass. Four such wings will also serve to protect the meteorograph from injury if the apparatus falls sidewise.

A. HOLLAND FORBES

The owner of the "Conqueror,"

The donor of a cup; He's never quite so happy as

When he is going up. In Germany the other day

(The thought will turn you pale"), He fell 3,000 feet, and still—

He lives to tell the tale.

The "Conqueror" will conquer yet,

And not belie its name; 'T will write upon the sky ere long

The story of its fame, For Mr. Forbes intends to go

And publish upon Mars A book about the Aero Club

And sell it to the stars.

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

THE LEADER OF BALLOON

and AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTION

the keen

Sportsman

of wide experience

uses a "STEVENS BALLOON."

ALL BALLOONS ABSOLUTE HYDROGEN

and COAL GAS PROOF

varnishing by

improved electrical Process.

ONE TO FIFTY PASSENGERS

ALSO REPRESENTING CARTON &. LaCHAMBRE, LEADING BALLOON BUILDERS of

Paris, France.

Special Patented RUBBER BALLOON FABRIC, (German and French.

THESE FABRICS HAVE BEEN TESTED—NOT IN EXPERIMENTAL STAGE.

ALBERT C. TRIACA,

AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVE FOR STEVENS BALLOONS. TWO CENT STAMPS FOR REPLY.

Box 181, Madison square, new York

THE "ANTOINETTE V." MONOPLANE.

By E. T. Tandy.

M. Levavasseur, the eminent engineer-inventor of the Antoinette Co. of Pnteanx, believes that in the "Antoinette V" he has reached the highest pitch of perfection yet attained. The trials of the new machine with her new motor are being anxiously awaited.

While properly classed as a monoplane, the Antoinette V might, from its appearance, be described as a "bird." It is indeed, remarkably similar in skeleton outline to some of the big winged insects of the tropics.

At the rear of each tip is a pinion or "winglet" to assure transverse stability in turning and in sudden changes of the air currents. These small wings, which are under the control of the aeronaut, are contrived to work in harmony so that when one sinks the other rises. Their influence is said to be more energetic than warping.

But it is in the structure of their framework that the wings are most remarkable. They are built on a central girder in a series of veritable bridges, enormously strong, designed on the principle of the

From the shoulders of a long, narrow, insect-like body, which in total length from the end of the propeller shaft in front to the point of the tail behind is 11.5 in., the two wings jut out 6 m. on either side, making a total wing measurement from tip to tip of 12.8 m., or r.3 m. more than the extreme length of the machine. At their tips they are 2 m. wide, and they broaden to 3 m. at the body. Covered" with fabric varnished and pumiced to great smoothness, they are trapezoidal in shape, and are fixed, as the wings of a soaring bird, something like a V very much opened out. The surface of each is equal to 25 sq. m. The angle of attack is 4 degrees.

construction of the Eiffel Tower of Paris, and fixed to a rigid base similarly tied with triangular transverse. The whole of this structure is of aluminum, and the weight is only 1 kg. per sq. m. of the wing's surface. The rigidity is absolute.

The dart-like body is constructed in the same way, and similarly covered. It narrows to a stem in front just behind the propeller, and tapers off to the rear, till, at <; m. from the propeller, it becomes simply a rod carrying the horizontal and vertical rudders and other steering gear.

Comfortably ensconced in mattresses, the driver sits as in a canoe, just behind the wings and far enough away from the motor

to escape the gas fumes. He controls the winglets with his left hand, the rudders with his right, and the motor with his feet. It is said that the whole of the tail behind him might be broken away, and he would still remain safe and undisturbed amid his mattress cushions. There is also provision for a passenger.

A new 1908 Antoinette 8 cyl. 55 h. p. motor, which was exhibited at the Paris Salon de l'Aeronautique, is now being installed in place of last year's model. In this new engine, the cylinder and valve case are all in one single piece of forged steel, and the motor is 5 kg. lighter though greater by 5 h. p. The radiator, or radio-condenser, which carries 12 litres of water, and will cool over 1 litre per minute, weighs 12 kg., eight-tenths of which weight

is in tubing spread out in the body just under the wings.

The propeller, which is driven direct, close to the motor, and has a nominal speed of 1,000 revolutions per minute, is two-bladed, the blades being of aluminum riveted on to arms of steel tubing. Each blade is 1.10 m. in length and has a pitch of 1.30 m.

In total lifting surface the Antoinette V measures 50 sq. m. Its total weight is 520 kg.

The whole is carried on a chassis consisting of a single, wheeled skid just under the motor, held by two tubes contrived as a shock absorber in the form of pump and piston, the front tube having a plan of 40 m. and the rear one 60 m. There are also skids to protect the wings and tail.

FIRST "AERONAUTIC EVENING" AT THE AUTOMOBILE

CLUB OF AMERICA

'God Fights on the Side that Has the Strongest Flying Machines and the Most of Them"—Every Home on the Aerial Firing Line. Hon. Col. Butler Ames and Hudson Maxim, Arouse Enthusiasm—Pass Resolution on Government Aero Appropriation—the Ames Aeroplane.

The great room of the Automobile Club of America was filled from wall to wall on February 9th with enthusiastic members of the Club and the Aeronautic Society by which the entertainment was arranged, though nominally under the auspices of the Club.

Orrel A. Parker, chairman of the Club's entertainment committee, introduced the speakers, prefacing the talks with an appeal to those present to do what they could to urge Congress to pass the aeronautical appropriation asked for by the Signal Corps, and calling attention to the fact that the Aeronautic Society was the first in the world to have an aviation park.

Hudson Maxim started the ball of enthusiasm rolling.

MR. MAXIM SAID IN PART

The one thing now most needed is a broader public knowledge of Aeronautics and the practical possibilities, probabilities and utilities of the flying machine, especially as applied to national defense. The only way to get Congress to generously support aeronautics is to educate Congress; and the only way to educate Congress is to begin with its parentage, the people. Every Congressman knows that he must please his constituents to retain his place. We need Congress on our side; and in order to get Congress on our side, we must have the whole public on our side.

There are no people who sympathize more strongly than do Americans with the progress of invention. No country in the world is prouder than America of its inventors; and no country in the world has greater inventors of whom to be proud. It is a well-nigh universal belief among the people of this country that American inventors should be encouraged and thereby kept at home instead of being obliged to go abroad for greater opportunities.

There are two wide fields of immediate usefulness for the flying machine—military operations and sport; and our military needs exceed those of any other country.

Future wars will not be decided, as heretofore, by artillery thundering from hill to hill. Napoleon's dictum that God fights on the side of the strongest artillery will no longer hold true. God will hereafter fight on the side that has the strongest flying machines and the most of them.

Although flying machines will not be able to carry any artillery, yet an army of raiders with the raiders' outfit will be able to reconnoitre and alight in defenseless places, destroy bridges, rip up railroads, cut communications, burn towns, blow up magazines, stores and powder mills. As in future wars these visitations may come any night to any inland town, no home will be safe. No longer will war be confined to restricted areas whence women and children may be

removed to places of safety. There will be no refuge whither they can fly from the Huns and Vandals of war.

Gunpowder can no longer effectually bar the invader. The aeronaut can laugh at forts, coast fortifications and battleships.

The warrior was the father of the sportsman, and the same fighting spirit that has conquered the tempestous sea with daring is with daring now conquering the sky.

Science has now over-leaped all barriers of national defense and science must be fought with science. We must have our fleets numerous enough and strong enough to meet and repel any invasion of our sky, and in time of war. around our entire national horizon aerial scouts and aeroplane destroyers by night and day must stand ready perched to fly to the attack. The flying machine will make it the intimate local concern of all citizens of the United States to prepare for aerial national defense.

A bill calling for an appropriation of $500,000 for aeronautical work has just failed to pass Congress. The bill ought to have been for $5,000,000, and should have been passed by a unanimous vote. $5,000,000 is less than half the cost of the latest battleship.

The world is moving fast. We cannot afford to be left behind. The time for recognition, financial support, and action, is now.

The entire people of this country should be aroused to our needs, and be made to appreciate that our needs are actual and not mythical; that our vast wealth and resources are not a war potentiality, but an enticement to invasion.

Why is it that the American Congress is so lacking in public spirit, so deaf and dumb and blind to the general welfare? The main reason is that Congressmen are less the servants of the nation than the representatives of their respective districts. They think our country so big and powerful, with wealth so vast, and resources so inexhaustible, as to render any measures for national defense utterly foolish and absurd. They confound wealth and resource with war potentiality.

The average Congressman looks upon the United States as a sort of big raft bound to float along the current of prosperity somehow. He believes that one's interest, like charity, should begin at home, and thus it is that we have much more state graft than we have state craft.

It is hand}' to blame Congress, but the people are more to blame than their Congressmen. The representatives who voted to aid Morse in his telegraphic enterprise were condemned and recalled for wasting public money on the foolish fanglc of a crank. The Congressmen who voted to aid Langley in his aeronautical work had to deny it on their home-going.

The flying machine by making the menace of war country-wide and by placing every town on the firing line and every home and every house under the aerial bomb, is destined to widen inland patriotism and to turn the attenion of Congressmen from state graft to united state craft.

COLONEL AMES.

Following Mr. Maxim, Hon. Col. Butler Ames, M. C, gave an illustrated talk on his aeronautical experiments, showing lantern slides of his apparatus in which last summer he made short flights at a speed of but 25 miles an hour.

Colonel Ames reassured Mr. Maxim that Congress has not yet failed to appropriate the money we have struggled to get through, although it failed to pass the House.

He then told in simple language just why an aeroplane was sustained in the air. "Sus-tentatiou is dependent upon the resistance of air. A plane is inclined slightly to the horizontal and forced through the air by a propeller. The air strikes the surface and is deflected downward. The lift is measured by the weight of the air displaced downward. Most aeroplanes have a relatively fixed angle of incidence. Peculiar things happen. For all variations in the angle of incidence from zero to 90 degrees, the center of pressure shifts from the forward edge to the center of surface. Lilien-j thai had the same difficulty that the Wrights' have—to keep the center of buoyancy oven the center of gravity. /

"If it shifts from the forward edge to the-center and back, any change in this anglfc changes the center of pressure, and the aviator has to shift his weight, or bring in other devices, as the Wrights do, to meet the change. The unstability of all aeroplanes today is the great difficulty. One has to balance forward and backward and to the right and left.

"Two problems present themselves; one that will utilize the energy of the motor, and the other to get a sustaining surface that won't tip over. A sustaining surface may be made which would not tip forward or backward by its being made to tip all the time."

Colonel Ames demonstrated this new principle by letting fall pieces of paper, which were live or six times as long as wide which in falling revolved about the longest axes, and drawing mathematical conclusions on a blackboard. Then, a detailed description of his machine was given, illustrated by slides.

Description of Apparatus.

The apparatus, the like of which may not be found in the three kingdoms, might be termed a monoplane, with the wings set at a dihedral angle and with a constant and

uniform revolution of the angle of incidence. Each lateral half is divided into three parts, separated by perpendicular circular surfaces. The section of surface between each circular divider is set at a different angle from that of its neighbor. From the motor to the extremity of each wing the arrangement of the surfaces might be likened to nearly a complete revolution of a screw. No two supporting surfaces on the same half of the apparatus have the same angle so that in revolving there would be no "dead center." These two great halves, or wings, revolve about axis at right angles to the direction of flight.

The 8-cylinder 4o-h.p, Curtiss motor is between the two halves, quite high from the ground, supported by four braces running out and down to a rectangular platform, on each side of which are two wheels. In the rear of the apparatus is a vertical rudder. The single propeller is in rear.

In experiments made in the Naval experimental basin at Washington, double the head resistance was found at 10 knots as at 5 knots, the increase always being in proportion to the velocity. The vertical lift increased always with the square of the velocity whether the surfaces revolved fast or slow. Without revolving them, there was no lift. The effect of revolving the surfaces is the same as that of the revolution of a baseball in an "up-shoot."

A detailed description of the apparatus with illustration is withheld.

ANTHONY WIRELESS DIRIGIBLE.

M. O. Anthony gave a demonstration of his wireless operating of dirigibles. At one side of the room was a fan-motor, and at the other the operating key. The fan was started, stopped and reversed by wireless across the room. Some details of the apparatus were given in a previous issue. A complete description is not available by reason of the invention being now in the Patent Office.

Following the speakers there were shown moving pictures of the earth from a balloon, the dirigible "Ville de Paris," the Dela-grange, Farman, June Bug and Wright aeroplanes in flight, and the Baldwin, Dallas, and Beachy dirigibles at the St. Louis airship races. Mr. Wilbur R. Kimball told of the work of the Society, its plans, and showed views taken of the grounds, machines, and of the exhibition on Election Day last:

At the conclusion of the evening, a unanimous resolution was passed urging Congress to pass the $500,000 asked for by the Signal Corps, on motion of Winthrop E. Scarritt and seconded by William J. Hammer; the resolution to go forward on behalf of both the Automobile Club and the Aeronautic Society. Mr. Scarritt asked each one present to write letters to Congressmen.

THE METRIC SYSTEM

We have frequent!}' been requested to give all figures in feet, inches, and so forth. This would entail an enormous amount of work every month, and the result would not be entirely satisfactory. The metric system is so much easier for computation that we hope that the English system will eventually fall into disuse. Many manufacturing concerns have adopted the metric system for saving of time. The Aero Club of America has also adopted the metric system for all numerical statistics.

Following is a convenient conversion table:

1 meter=3.28o9 feet.

1 kilometer=328o.o feet=o.62138 mile.

1 kilogram=2.2046 pounds.

1 foot —0.3048 meter. 1 mile=i.6o93 kilometers. 1 pound=o.453C kilogram. 1 kilometer per houi~o.2/78 meter per second.

1 mile per hour=o.44/0 meter per second. 1 cubic meter—35.3166 cubic feet. Degrees centigrade=5/9 (°F—32). Degrees Fahrenheit=o/5 (°C+32). Volume=4/37rrJ=cube of the diameter X 0.5236.

1000 cubic feet of hydrogen lifts approximately 68.627 pounds.

1000 cubic feet of coal gas lifts approximately 43.66 pounds.

1 square meter=io./6 square feet.

AEROPLANE FLIGHTS IN CHICAGO. Carl Bates Makes Actual Flights with Ten H. P. Motor—Enters for "Aeronautics" Prize.—The Harroun Machine.

We announced last month the first flights. The machine is a biplane having a front horizontal and a rear vertical rudder. Equilibrium is maintained by two movable surfaces, having a total area of 50 sq. ft., which extend beyond the lateral portions of the main planes and placed in the center line of resistance. The machine is mounted on three bicycle wheels with heavy coiled spring shock absorbers, and is self-starting.

center and operator in front. A single rocking lever held by both hands operates the front rudder, movable lateral surfaces and rear rudder, separately or all together.

In the trial, Mr. Bates states, one run was made across the field in a 24-mile wind and the machine got off the ground each time the front control was operated. The flight was a series of long jumps made in the one run. The front rudder showed a tendency to buckle, caused by a loosened wire, so that another trial was not immediately made. The aeroplane was out in the rain all night but being varnished all

Carl Bates' Aeroplane

The front wheel steers automatically. The main surfaces are 5 ft. by 18 ft., 5 ft. apart, made of spruce frames covered with oiled cambric; total aeroplane surface 260 sq. ft. The front horizontal rudder is 3 by 10 ft.; rear vertical rudder 2V> by 5 ft. All struts, braces and exposed beams are fish-shaped cross section. All corners of the machine are protected by curved wooden bumpers. Turn buckles, made of stove bolts, tightened with a screw driver, are used on each individual wire. Two hundred and seventy of these are used. The motor was made by Mr. Bates himself, air cooled, two cylinder, ten h. p. at 1,000 r.p.m., weighing about no lbs. There is one propeller of cast aluminum, driven by chain, in the rear; motor in

over, sustained no damage. The speed is about 40 miles an hour. "It fairly leaped from the ground and showed wonderful power, regardless of the fact that it has the smallest motor ever used in a flying machine." The weight of the aeroplane alone is 410 lbs., with operator and fuel, 550 lbs. The machine thus has a lift of 55 lbs. per h. p. Mr. Bates claims the efficiency is due to the principle employed in the propeller design, discovered three years ago while experimenting on propellers.

"You can put me down as entered for one of your $50.00 prizes, as I expect to cover the 500 meters before many more trials."

Roy Harroun has completed a biplane,

with a Harroun 8-cyIinder engine. Those who saw the aero show at the 69th Regiment Armory in New York, will remember, the Harroun motor exhibited there in a light racing car. Mr. Harroun, who is a practical mechanic, and from whom results may be expected, has worked with Mr. Bates in the laboratory and they feel that if one can fly, so can the other.

A FLIGHT FOR MINNEAPOLIS.

A. C. Bennett, of Minneapolis, has been able to make a short flight with an aeroplane of the Wright Rrothers type, after one preliminary trial. This resulted in lessening the pitch of the propeller and increasing the angle in the planes, which enabled Mr. Bennett to fly on the second trial.

The machine has one propeller, nearly flat surfaces, and a rebuilt air-cooled motor, with a carburetor designed by Mr. Bennett himself. Just now, all efforts are being put towards learning how to i\y. Complete details will appear in a subsequent issue.

CHANGES IN THE SHNEIDER AEROPLANE.

The Fred Shneider aeroplane, which has been at the Morris Park volery of The Aeronautic Society since Xmas, has been changed into a practically new machine.

The wheels have been taken off and the running gear replaced by skids. This was necessitated by the ice and snow covering the ground and the desirability of starting the machine from the snow by means of the catapult.

The entire rear structure, including vertical and horizontal surfaces have been removed and there has been substituted a double-surface vertical rudder, similar to tiie Wrights, about 0-10 feet from the rear edges of the main surfaces. This rudder is hinged vertically at the end of the braces.

Tiie structure in front also has been replaced by a double-surface horizontal rudder, each surface 15 by 2V2 feet, somewhat similar to tiie Wright horizontal rudder. This is about 11 feet from the edge of main surfaces. This front rudder can be twisted approximately as provided for in the new Wright patent described last issue.

The center propeller has been taken off entirely and the other two changed into disc propellers, yV2 feet diam. The disc propellers, in a short trial of running the motor, seemed to do as well as the previous ones but the efficiency was not measured. The diameter of the discs is 18 inches.

The two small equilibrating planes at the ends of the wings and between the main

surfaces have been taken out as they interfered with the propellers. To take the place of these, triangular movable horizontal surfaces have been added to the rear edges, both upper and lower, at the extremities. These "tips" are 6 feet in length where they join the rear edges and 36 inches at the apex of the angle. The 36-inch side is an extension of the line, front to rear, of the end of the main surfaces. The upper and lower tips on each end are connected with a rod.

Trials will begin as soon as the grounds have dried out after the snow and frost.

MR. METZGER TO RESUME FIELD WORK IN JUNE.

John Metzger, of Norwood, O., will begin his field aeronautical work in June. Mr. Metzger has a good-sized shop exclusively for aero experiments and considerable work is expected to be accomplished this year.

The 2S8 sq.-ft.-surface motorless machine, which was put in the field last September, was a little disappointment as on account of the wind not blowing when it was wanted, and when it was convenient, few trials were made. However, it was able to make, alone, six glides over distances up to 500 feet. The experiments were ended by the wrecking of the machine while being launched. By reason of the accident, Mr. Metzger was not able to determine whether the "wonderful" stability shown by the machine, weighing 150 lbs., and travelling without an operator against a wind of probably 8-10 miles an hour, was due to inherent characteristics of the machine itself or favoring circumstances—probably both.

W. H. AND MRS. MARTIN AND THE BOYS MAKE TOWED FLIGHTS AT CANTON.

After experimenting with models, equipped with a spring motor strong enough to fly them up to 80 feet, starting from rest in the hand as a bird would be let go, balancing automatically, laterally and fore and aft, W. H. Martin, of Canton, has constructed a glider of 230 square feet supporting surface to 176 pounds of weight.

The balancing planes each have 75 sq. ft., and horizontal rudders each 12 by 3 ft., with balancing planes on them (acting as vertical and horizontal rudders), of from 15 to 20 sq. ft. There are vertical and horizontal rudders both in front and rear, steering right, left, up or down.

Thus far, a horse has been used to tow the machine into the air. Mr. Martin's two bovs, aged ten and sixteen years, have taken rides and claim it "beat coasting with a sleigh all hollow." Mrs. Martin can properly lay claim to be the rfirst woman in America to make a power flight, even if

the power did come from outside the machine. The flights of the boys were from 200 to 300 feet and the height attained in M,rs. Martin's flight was between 30 and 40 feet.

At present, the glider is equipped with sleigh runners, but wheels can be easily added. B3' covering the rudder bar and its bracing, the lower part of the machine will be transformed into a boat for starting or landing in the water.

Mr. Martin says that "Aeronautics" lias been of value to him.

LAURENCE LESH IMPROVING.

L. J. Lesh, who broke his ankle in a gliding flight at the exhibition of the Aeronautic Society on Election Day is still in Hahneman Hospital in New York. After passing through many operations, his wounds are now slowly healing. He was removed from the grounds on the day of the accident to Fordliam Hospital, where the bones were set. After having his bones set at Fordham Hospital and being there some time, he was removed to Hahnemann Hospital. An X-ray photograph was taken, which showed the bones improperhr set. This necessitated the numerous operations since.

ACTIVITY IN LOS ANGELES.

Roy Knabenshue made his seventy-sixth flight with his 1908 dirigible at Los Angeles, Dec. 27th. The fifteen flights he made in November and December at Phoenix. Ariz., and Los Angeles, were made exactly according to schedules previoush' announced. One of them was made at night when Knabenshue sailed over the business section of Los Angeles and dropped a mock bomb on the City Hall to prove that a dirigible could pick out designated points at night. He is planning two twenty-five mile flights and return at Los Angeles; one to the summit of Mount Wilson, 5,000 feet high; and another to the ocean with a "landing" on the water.

Knabenshue has made his home in Los Angeles where he opened in November the first airship store in America on a prominent business street. He is also handling Curtiss engines and motorcycles for Southern California. He has placed the management of his exhibition dates for next summer in the hands of "Dick" Ferris, a prominent theatrical manager. Mr. Ferris is the owner of the balloons "United States" and "American," and recently spent $2,500 in efforts to send them to the Mississippi valley from Los Angeles.

Captain Angustc Mueller, who made the second attempt with the "United States" November 23, effecting a landing near Eh-

renberg, Ariz.. 220 miles from Los Angeles, is convinced that definite eastward currents exist from the Pacific, coast, and that it is possible to travel to the Mississippi river. He attained an altitude of about 22.000 feet 011 the trip, and found that the desert air has a tremendous uplift. The easiest exit from the coast on an ascent from Los Angeles is apparently through the San Gorgonio pass between the San Bernardino and San Jacinto ranges and toward the Imperial desert country and the Salton sea. Nearly all the balloons which have been sent up from Los Angeles have tended that way. Captain Mueller believes from his observations that the tendency in the winter months will be toward the Gulf of Mexico, and in the summer rather northward through Nevada and Utah. In any event the thought of conquering the desert in a few hours which claimed perilous months from pioneers inspires aeronauts, and Los Angeles Aero Club members believe it will tempt many to come to that city for winter ballooning.

Dick Ferris plans to send one of his balloons eastward again soon, with Mueller in charge, in the hope of making a 2,000-milc journey from Los Angeles. His efforts have aroused a great deal of interest in that city, but so far he has done all the financing himself. The Los Angeles "Herald" is among the dailies of the country to maintain a weekly aeronautic page.

"There are dirigibles under construction in every back yard and if 3-011 want to keep in touch with what is doing, take my advice and move the sanctum to Los Angeles."

RULES APPLYING IN GENERAL TO ALL AVIATION CONTESTS HELD BY AERO CLUB OF AMERICA.

Even- contestant by the very fact of his entry for cups or prizes of the Aero Club of America agrees to accept without appeal its decision and further pledges himself in advance not to carrjr the matter to the Courts.

The Aero Club of America declines all responsibility for accidents which may happen to cither contestants for prizes or to their apparatus or to third persons.

These conditions arc accepted by evetw person entering for a race and by the very fact of his entry he agrees to these conditions without reserve.

All contests for prizes and records generally must take place between ten A. M. and sun set.

THE RINEK AEROPLANE.

The aeroplane, nearly a duplicate of the type made popular by Delagrange and Far-man, which has been building for some time bv Messrs. Howard and J. N. Rinek. at Easton, and which we have mentioned sev-

eral times previously, is expected to be tried out now in a few days. Trouble has been experienced in securing a suitable motor. An eight-cylinder air-cooled motor was found to be unsatisfactory and a water-cooled motor has been substituted. In the next issue, we shall give the details of the machine.

A TECHNICAL COURT FOR INVENTORS—A GOOD SUGGESTION. WHO WILL UNDERTAKE IT?

"As a subscriber 1 would like to suggest— if there is no such body—a commission

under the authority of.....................

of three or five men, say like Mr..........

or Air................................. to

whom the poor inventor or those having ideas for flying machines could submit their plans for criticism: men of such honor that they could be trusted and of such scientific ability that their opinions would be weighty.

"For instance there is a man in this town who has studied this problem for years, and believes, with a number of his friends, that he has the principle for the coming successful flying machine, one that would be as much of an advance over any present mode of travel as steam cars were over the horse or canal boat.

"Some moneyed men told him that if he would get a favorable opinion from Mr.

...................., they would back him

for building a machine.

"He wrote to Mr...............offering

to submit drawings and description. He promptly answered, saying that he did not give opinions on others men's ideas, for which we cannot blame him. But a commission such as 1 suggest, having somewhat of authority behind it, could show many a poor fellow his error, or encourage him to persist; or if he had a thing of merit their favorable opinion would secure capital with which to develop his machine.

"—Ford G. Birchard."

SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS HAS NEW BUILDING.

The International School of Aeronautics has removed from the Club House at Morris Park to the old sales building which has been completely fitted up for the school. It is now provided, in addition to its previous very complete equipment, with a small hydrogen plant built by Leo Stevens; sewing machine, varnish, etc., for building model balloons and dirigibles; a launching tower for models; glider for the use of students, with catapult; and carpentering and machine tools.

A wind-wagon for testing propellers is in course of construction, with a De Dion motor, special Lavalette-Eisemann mag-

neto and G. and A. aero carburetor. It is being built by Messrs. Luttgen and Miller of the Mercedes Company. A 22-foot gas-inrlated model of the "Clement-Bayard" will soon be completed.

Saturdays are field days for the school and on these days and Sundays there are numerous visitors. A. Leo Stevens instructs in aerostation on these days. Among the twenty-five new pupils during the last month are Luttgen, Strang, and Robertson, the famous automobile drivers, and Manuel Jarny, manager of the Lavalette magneto agency.

The school will exhibit at the automobile

show in Newark, February 20th.

WHO WANTS AN AIRSHIP AT

$1,250,coo?

Many will remember the extensive patents taken out some fourteen years ago by Edward Joel Pennington, of Racine, Wis. These patents have now been taken and exploited by the Aerial Transit Company of America. In addition to the airship at a million and a quarter, Thurlow Weed Barnes, who is also connected with the company, is working on the "very best aeroplane" which, he says, will sell for but $2,500 and go a "thousand miles at high speed."

The airship is planned to have a cigar-shaped double-skin gas chamber, with a large vertical fin extending its entire length on the to]i. In the rear of the fin is the triangular vertical rudder, about on the axis of the vertical rudder, about on the axis of the gas chamber is a horizontal tail or rudder, having a plane view like the tail of a bird. Extending the length of the gas chamber, on each side coincident with its axis, are large horizontal planes.

In front of the airship, on the axis of the gas bag, is placed the large fonr-bladed propeller. On each side, arranged in the plane of the large horizontal surfaces, are five screws whose planes are horizontal. Any or all of these may be used to raise or lower the ship, or turned till their planes are vertical, propel forward or backward.

Suspended from the gas chamber, which will be inclosed in a steel shell, is a large car. to he provided with staterooms and berths, dining room, kitchen, observatory, and many of the comforts of the ocean liner. So far as possible, all the furniture and fittings will be hollow and filled with hydrogen gas.

The ship is to be 1000 feet long over all, the gas holder 700 feet in length and So feet at its greatest diameter. It is to be built by Lewis Nixon, of shipbuilding fame.

Of all schemes for aerial locomotion, this optimistic project is by far the most comprehensive. If all the plans of all the aeronautical inventors of America were realized in 1909 what a wonderful sky we would see!

BALDWIN DIRIGIBLE ARRIVES IN GERMANY.

The "California Arrow," which Captain Thomas S. Baldwin, the builder of the Government Dirigible No. i, sold to Captain A. Hildebrandt, of the Imperial German Army while he was in America in the Fall of 1907, has arrived. Captain Hildebrandt was impressed with the performance of the airship during the St. Louis airship races and at that time made a tentative purchase, but the airship remained in the country until a short time ago when final payment was made and the apparatus shipped.

BALLOON RACE FOR ST. LOUIS.

The Aero Club of St. Louis proposes to hold a balloon race from St. Lotus during the week of October 4th. This is in connection with the Centennial Celebration of the Incorporation of St. Louis as a municipality. The weather conditions at that time as shown by the International Balloon Race of 1907 are particularly favorable for a long distance balloon race.

GRAND PRIZE BALLOON RACE.

The Aero Club of America in connection with its affiliated aero clubs in the United States, will hold its first Grand Prize Race in Indianapolis on Saturday, the 5th of June, 1909. This date is chosen as it is two days after the full moon of that month and the Weather Bureau advises that on that date a wind from the West may be expected. Such a wind will carry the balloons in a similar direction to the course followed by the balloons in the International Balloon Race from St. Louis in 1907. The winner of the contest will be esteemed the national balloon champion of the United States. This race is planned upon the lines of the annual contest held in France to determine the national balloon champion of that country. Only pilots of the Aero Club of America will be allowed to compete in this contest. There are at present eighteen of these pilots and it is probable the number will be increased before the date of the race. The race will be held under the immediate direction of the Indiana Aero Club recently organized, which will soon become affiliated with the Aero Club of America. The contest will begin from the grounds of the Indianapolis Motor Parkway and a large force of men have been put to-work to prepare the grounds for the balloon race. These grounds are situated three miles North of the center of Indianapolis. Indianapolis is one of the greatest railroad centers of the country. This contest is limited to balloons of 77,000 cubic feet capacity with a five-per cent, allowance or under and will

be conducted according to the Rules of the International Aeronautic Federation.

The prize will be a gold cup not to exceed $1000 in value and it is expected second and third prizes will be offered by organizations in the city of Indianapolis. The entrance fee will be $25 which will repaid in case the contestant starts. Entries close promptly at noon on May 1st at the Aero Club office. It is believed that if a contestant is fortunate enough to catch a current from the Southwest the famous record made by John Wise will be eclipsed and the probabilities are that the contestant would reach the St. Lawrence valley. The Weather Bureau assures us that this is a possibility.

It had been originally intended to hold this race in the Autumn, but in view of the Fulton Flight Contest to be held in New York next Autumn under the auspices of the Aero Club of America it would be impossible to hold these two important events at the same time.

The Aero Club of America while recognizing that special balloons do not arouse the public interest as much as mechanical-propelled flying machines do at this time, still believes that from a sporting point 01 view there is still great public interest in balloons and desires to encourage contests of this nature as well as promote aviation.

As a result of the selection of Indianapolis, an aerodrome is now being_ erected 011 the motor speedway, and $2000 will be spent in running gas pipes to the grounds. Carl G. Fisher, president of the Prest-O-Lite Company is at the head of the project.

GORDON BENNETT BALLOON RACE.

The Swiss club has settled upon Zurich as the starting point. At the last .-.ession of the F. A. I. the date of closing of entries was extended to March 15. A team of three representing Italy has already entered.

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION CONTEST.

Albert C. Triaca will make entry for th■■ Gordon Bennett aviation prize on behalf of Italy, as he cannot represent America on account of the nationality requirement. The aeroplane will possibly be built by L. Chau-viere. a prominent French builder, and equipped with a Clement motor. Entry has also been made by him in the Grand Prize balloon race of the Aero Club of America.

3ALLOON RACE FOR SAN ANTONIO.

The San Antonio Aero Club of Texas is now a little over a year old. and has about 125 active members, which will be increased

to 200 during the next three or four months. The Club is anxious to have an international balloon race there this Spring or Summer, believing San Antonio to be the best place on earth to start from to make a long record trip. "Some of those in ballooning are in it for the sport, and the height of their ambition is to set a pace for the other fellow. Heretofore, they have been very much handicapped by lakes, large forests, etc., which was certainly the case at the Chicago races, July 4th."

The advantage this place has, from a starting standpoint, is the prevailing wind in June, July, August and September, which, at an altitude of ten thousand feet or more, should carry the aerial navigator into Pittsburg or New York. A record of from 1000 to 1500 miles can be made without crossing any large bodies of water, forests, or ranges of mountains. The Club claims that less sand would have to be sacrificed in making a long distance record from San Antonio than from any other place in the world, as there would be no danger, if the races are held at the proper season of the year, of the balloons being driven out of their course, due to meeting a norther, or other changes of air currents.

Another important factor is, good gas. Dr. Frederick J. Fielding, President, has had a pilot balloon made holding about 750 cubic feet of gas with which he carefully tested the lifting power of the gas, which is manufactured from oil, at from 42 to 43 pounds to the thousand cubic feet. The capacity of the gas plant could accommodate from six to eight balloons.

"The members of our Club agree that if we have races at all, we want to invite the most celebrated aeronauts of this country and Europe to participate and go for the long distance record, but we want to be positive that we have the quality of gas and every facility that will aid us in assuring our aeronautic friends that they will have every advantage of making a long distance record, before we decide to have the races."

The Club will offer at least $2000 in cash prizes; say $1500 for the longest distance and $500 for the endurance, to be paid in money or trophies of same value, at the option of the winner.

AERONAUTIC DIVISION OF N. Y. STATE NATIONAL GUARD.

Lectures upon military aeronautics have been given at various times before various branches of the N. Y. State National Guard and it was planned in time to create from its Signal Corps an Aeronautical Division. Col. F. T. Leigh, who is in command of the Signal Corps in New York, will accept in the regular course the offer made by A. Leo Stevens to Governor Hughes of a

spherical balloon, equipment and services. The National Guard is dependent upon the generosity of the State or private citizens in a matter such as this and those interested are welcoming in anticipation the formal acceptance of the generous gift.

"AERIAL DEVELOPMENT COMPANY" FORMED.

A company has been formed by Wilbur R. Kimball with powers to do almost anything connected with aeronautics, except run an aerial "railway." Among those associated with him in this new company are; F. S. Seagrave, S. G. Conger, Louis R. Adams and Lee S. Burridge. The company will acquire any patents which may be found of value, construct flying machines or airships on its own design or according to specifications; advice will be given in the construction of machines, experimental work be undertaken, exhibitions managed, materials, motors, and other appliances sold.

The aeroplane now under construction by Wilbur R. Kimball will be finished and put into the air at the earliest moment.

This is the first company to be formed, in America at least, that will take hold of and exploit commercial patents.

AERO DEPARTMENT OF THE SIDNEY B. BOWMAN AUTO COMPANY.

An aeronautical department has been established by the Sidney B. Bowman Auto Company, American agents for the Clement-Bayard dirigible, with Albert C. Triaca as manager, at the company's present place, 49th St. and Broadway.

The agencies heretofore held by Mr. Triaca for the Antoinette motor, Chauviere aeroplane and construction work, Hue instruments and Mallett balloons, have been turned over to the partnership wijth Sidney Bowman and to which is added the Clement-Bayard dirigible agency for the United States, and that of Curtiss motors, and Stevens balloons for the United States and Canada.

The company will handle supplies of all kinds for the construction of flying machines, dirigibles or balloons. From the best factories have been ordered special light carburetors, radiators, fabrics, wood framing and struts, joints, etc., to be Kept in stock. Estimates will be furnished for the building of machines and advice given. Orders will be taken for domestic and imported dirigibles and aeroplanes.

For the first time, there will be established a regular scries of balloon ascents twice a wee.v, from either Pittsiield, North Adams or other cities, as customers may elect, at a cost of but $40 to $60 per trip per passenger, according to the balloon

Have Made Good

The Scientific American Trophy was won with a "Curtiss" motor.

The United States Government's dirigible balloon, which was successfully demonstrated at Ft. Myer and later at the arm)' maneuvers at St. Joseph, was equipped with a "Curtiss" motor.

The aeroplane, "Red Wing", the first heavier-than-air machine to make a public flight in America, was propelled by a "Curtiss" motor.

Dr. Alexander Graham Bell's tetrahedral aerodrome has a "Curtiss" motor.

Captain T. S. Baldwin, who always "gets back" in his dirigible balloon, uses "Curtiss" motors.

Roy Knabenshue's new three passenger airship is driven by a "Curtiss" motor.

J. Newton Williams' helicoptere, the only flying machine of this type to get off the ground in America, had a "Curtiss" motor.

In fact, every aeronaut who is making a success in this country has adopted a "Curtiss" motor.

Our motors give the greatest power per pound weight consistent with reliability. All tyles—one to eight cylinder, two to one hundred horse-power, air and water-cooled.

ASK FOR AERONAUTICAL MOTOR CATALOGUE.

Hammondsport. N. Y.

G. H. CURTISS MANUFACTURING CO..

O. L. BUMBAUGII

1029 N. ILLINOIS STREET — INDIANAPOLIS, Ind.

DESIGNER — CONTRACTOR — OPERATOR. — CONSTRUCTOR. AIR SHIPS AND BALLOONS

Builder of Coey's "CHICAGO" the largest spherical balloon in the world.

No connection with any othj&r concern.

RARE BOOKS

Balloon Ascension at Midnight

(Hall). 8vo, boards, 1902, ill. $3.50

History and Practice of Aeronautics (Wise). 8vo, cloth, ill., 1850

......................... $7.50

Travels in the Air (Glaisher). 4to, 1871, ill., cloth............. $7.50

Proceeding's International Congress on Aerial Navigation, Chicago, 1893. 8vo, cloth, ill. .......................... $6.00

Travels in Space (Valentine and Tomlinson). l2mo, cloth..... $3.00

Sky-Larking in Cloudland (MyersJ Haphazard Accounts of Perils and Pleasures of Aerial Navigation. 1 2mo, paper, ......................... $0-50

The Aerial World (Hartwig). 8vo, cloth, 1875................ $4.00

My Airships (Santos Dumont). 12mo, cloth, ill., 1904............ $2.50

Keely and his Discoveries

(Moore). 8vo, cloth, 1 893 . . . $4 .00

Balloon Ascents (Trans, from Fr.) 12mo, cloth, 1874......... $2.50

Aerial Navigation (Mansfield). I 2mo, cloth, 1877 .............. $6.00

Parakites (Woglom). 4to, ill., cloth, 1896 .................... $2.50

The Polar Airship (Wellman). 8vo, 1906, paper...... ........ $1.00

"AERONAUTICS," 1777 B*way,{New York

AGENTS U. S. A. AND CANADA

CLEMENT-BAYARD, France,

The Fastest and Most Luxurious Airship

M. MALLET, France, Aerostats-Dirigibles

L. CHAUVIERE, France,

Aeroplanes, Wood Propellers, Supplies

ANTOINETTE, France,

The 8-1 6 Cylinder Aviation Motors

HUE, France, Scientific Instruments for Aeronautics LEO STEVENS, New York,

AERO SUPPLIES for Balloons, Dirigibles, Aeroplanes FABRICS for Balloons and Aeroplanes PROPELLERS, Wood and Metal

Extra Light MAGNETOS, CARBURETERS, LUBRICATORS, RADIATORS

ESTIMATES Given. MODELS, GLIDERS, and FULL SIZED MACHINES MADE in our SPECIALLY and FULLY EQUIPPED SHOP.

BALLOONS Loaned. ASCENSIONS Prepared and conducted

by LICENSED PILOTS

MAILED AT REQUEST

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FOR SAIVE—Two complete captive balloon outfits, consisting of gas bag, net, valve, and car for 4 persons, controlled by motor windlass with clutch and brake, besides patent portable hydrogen gas works for inflation.

ALSO—One-man gas balloon ; one-man airship, 7 h. p. motor and gas works. Write for prices, inclosing stamp.

used. All a customer will have to do will be to telephone the time and place and the balloon will be found already inflated, tinder the superintendence of Messrs. Triaca, Stevens or other regular pilots.

AERONAUTIC SOCIETY TO SPRING SURPRISE.

In two weeks or so The Aeronautic Society promises to spring something in the (way of a sensation for its Spring exhibition. Plans, which would be disarranged by publicity, have now been completed. Perhaps it may be a Wright aeroplane?

FEDERATION OF COLLEGE AERO CLUBS.

An attempt is now being made by the Columbia University Aero Club to have the various large colleges and universities in 'the countries start aero clubs, all to be joined in a federation. Starts are to be made with Amherst, Johns Hopkins, Harvard. There is already an organization at Columbia, as has been noted in previous issues.

AERONAUTIC LECTURES.

Business is "picking tip," as it naturally should in this new Art, with the lecturing profession. The "Aeronautic Lectures Bureau" had one lecture at the Quill Club in January and is to have another at the West Side Y.M.C.A. on February 15. This Bureau is the first one of the sort to have been started.

H. H. Clayton recently made a lecture tour which proved successful. R. E. Scott, a classmate of Lieutenant Selfridge, started the middle of February on a tour of the South, giving illustrated lectures on aeronautics. Wilbur R. Kimball and A. C. Triaca both have lectures prepared, accompanied 'by lantern slides and moving pictures of flying machines in action. Lectures can be arranged at an)- time and place through "Aeronautics."

CONGRESS VOTES MEDAL TO WRIGHTS ? ? ? ?

Congress voted a $300 gold medal to the Wrights in recognition of the succc.-s of their year's work—and "reconsidered." Dayton will give a reception to the famous brothers upon their return in April, and the A. C. of America will then award its two gold medals. It seems like a reproach for America to formally recognize the Wrights, after Europe has already done so.

AERIAL NAVIGATION IN MASSACHUSETTS IN 1909.

By Charles J. Glidden

Massachusetts in 1009, as in 1908, will lead the country in aerial navigation. There were last year 68 ascensions and 179 persons made voyages in the air without mishaps.

Clubs with nearly 400 members have been organized in Boston, Pittsfield, North Adams, Springfield, Worcester, Amherst College, and in Hartford, Conn., the latter Hub using the Springfield park for ascensions.

The balloons owned by the clubs are as follows: Aero Club of New England—the '."Massachusetts" of 56,000 cubic feet capac-itv and the "Boston" of 35,000 cubic feet; Aero Club of Pittsfield—the "Heart of the Berkshires" of 35,000 cubic feet; North Adams Aero Club—"North Adams No. 1" of 35,000 cubic feet and by Dr. Randall of North Adams, a balloon of 20,000 cubic ■feet; Springfield Aero Club—the "Springfield" of 35,000 cubic feet; Aero Club of Hartford—the "Hartford" of 35,000 cubic feet; and the aero clubs of Worcester and Amherst are contemplating the purchase of balloons to be named respectively the "Worcester" and the "Amherst," each of 35,000 cubic feet.

Ascension can be made on short notice at Pittsfield, North Adams. Springfield, Fitch-burg, Nashua and Lowell.

The Aero Club of New England has affiliated with the Aero Club of America and members of the former club qualifying as pilots will be issued certificates by the Aero Club of America and become international pilots. This club will have a permanent custodian to care for its balloons, an expert who will assist in the rigging and inflation at all ascensions.

The New England Club has fixed the prices to its members and friends for ascensions in its balloons as follows: One passenger, $(15; two passengers. $35 each, in the balloon "Boston." In the "Massachusetts," $125 for one passenger, $0o each for two passengers and $40 each for three or more. These prices include all expenses except the expenses of the passengers to the ascension grounds and return home, the pilots of this Club and affiliating club making no charge for services.

Trophies offered for 1009 were given in the last issue.

The Aerial Navigation Company still has under consideration the size of dirigible best suited for service, and 1 would not be surprised in May to see at least three passengers in a dirigible of the Count Zeppelin pattern over Boston headed toward New York.

Nothing is known of any contemplated movement to operate aeroplanes in Massachusetts during the year, all interested in 'the navigation of the air preferring first to acquaint the public with voyages in the well-established spherical and dirigible airship.

The New England Club's committee on balloons and ascensions now has 40 applications for ascensions and it is safe to predict that daily ascensions will be made somewhere in Massachusetts from May first to the close of the season in November.

NEW AERO JOURNAL.

The Automotor Journal of London has for a long while devoted more or less space to serial locomotion and lately has set aside a greatly-increased number of pages. They have now decided, however, to publish a separate weekly journal called "Flight," of which several numbers have already appeared.

367 AERO PATENTS IN U. S. A.

It is of interest to note that 367 patents have been issued by the United States Patent Office for airships, balloons and flying machines. This number does not include balloons for advertising purposes and •the like.

THE LAND OF BIG AIRSHIPS, BIG TREES, AND OTHER THINGS.

Announcement is made by the Samuel Montgomery Aerial Navigation and Promotion Company, of Stockton, Calif., of the offering ot stock for sale at One Dollar per share m the "bpider blying Machine" invented by Samuel Montgomery. A cheerful and "uplifting'' prospectus is issued, dealing with the prohts to accrue through transportation of mail, etc., amusements, health to invalids, prospecting, fishing, etc., not omitting the transplanting of the cowboy by the flying machine. No details of the machine are given in the prospectus beyond stating that a flash stem boiler with a no-dead-center steam engine will be used. The advantages of the early purchase oi stock is, of course, duly commented upon.

Enter—the "Commercial Aerial Navigation Company," of San Francisco. An airship will be started in the Spring at some place in California by this new company. The usual gas bag will be employed, of silk, vulcanized, and inclosed in a metallic case An elevation view of the bag shows it to be "panatela-shaped" while from the top, looking down upon it, it has the shape of an elongated rectangular parallelogram. Being

much wider than it is high, it is expected the bag will act as an aeroplane. Extending outwards at each side, near the front and near the rear, is a framework inclosing four horizontal superposed planes. Underneath in the rear is a double-surface horizontal rudder. Two propellers on each side, front and rear. The car for passengers is close up underneath the bag.

Joseph Midland of San Diego, Calif., has invented a "very powerful flying machine that is capable of crossing the ocean or travel any distance and carry several passengers." A 30-h.p. machine is planned to carry 6 persons, 40-h.p. machine for 9 persons, 60-h.p. for 18 persons and 100-h.p. for 26; passengers to average about 155 pounds each. The inventor claims that this machine, compared with the Wright aeroplane, will carry three times more weight per square, foot of supporting surface and be from 4 to 8 times more efficient. Patents have been applied for and the inventor is now desirous of securing capital.

TRADE NOTES.

Five balloons have been sold from the Stevens' factory during the month. A small one to H. J. Pain of 6500 cubic feet; a 1600-cubic meter balloon to the Springfield Aero Club, and another of the same size to the Aero Club of New England, instead of the 2200-qubic meter balloon mentioned last month. This will be called the "Massachusetts" and will be on the same lines as the "Boston" which made so many ascents last year. The fourth was to a Mr. Murray of the N. Y. Calcium Light Company, and the fifth to the Philadelphia Aero Recreation Society, mentioned under "Club Notes."

Albert Clement, the noted driver of the Renault cars, and Maurice Defresnois who run the Plaza Garage in Brooklyn, have obtained the agency in America for the "De Marcay" airship. (See February, 1908, issue for description.) This unique airship made some successful trials last Summer in France. It is unique in that the bag is divided in the center making a space for a four-bladed propeller to turn, whose axis is coincident with that of the bag.

Some very extravagant promises are made by the gentlemen named above; the greatest of which is a trip from New York to Chicago with eight passengers, leaving New York early in the morning and arriving in Chicago late in the afternoon. The start to be made fmtn the Chateau des Beaux Arts, at Huntington, L. I. Demonstrations are planned over New York, Washington, and Albany. The dirigible will be equipped with a 120-h.p. motor.

Many inquiries have been received for a rust preventive. There are many methods, among them being the treatment of girv wires, etc., witli paraffine solutions.

Another preparation which has been successfully used for years in this particidar field is known commercially as Anti-Rust, prepared for the market bv F. L. Melville, New York City, 192 Front Street. This product is semi-liquid in form, easily applied and not affected by changes of temperature. It is readily removed from the surface treated without resorting to the use of benzine or other cutting agents. Anti-rust has given good results under all manner of severe tests, notably in the protection of iron from the corroding influence of salt water and in long-continued open-air tests.

A new gas-tight material has been perfected bv C. E. Conover & Co., 101 Franklin St., New York. Thev have a method of treating any fabric, silk, cotton, etc., by which it is made gas and water-proof. Any weight may be had and the cost falls below that of the combination rubber and cloth vulcanized.

AERO PATENTS

Aeronautic App., G. A. Metcalf, 908,794; Airship, W. Rumble, 909,681; Balloon or Airship. A. F. Godefroy. 909.397; Aerial Navigating App.. J. Bernard, 910.488; Airship, P. Hochstrasser, 910.683; Flying Machine, H. Bea, 910,773.

PHILADELPHIA COUNTRY CLUB STARTS GLIDING.

Several members of the Philadelphia Country Club have become interested in gliding flight and have purchased from f. and A. Wbtemann the first glider. Air. Wittemann will shortly go to the Quaker town to give the first lessons.

ERROR.

On page 34 of the Januarv number we referred to the aeroplane of ''Horace B. Wild. Carl Bates, and Mr. Yaeger." This was erroneous, as Mr. Bates constructed the machine entirely himself and on his own designs.

"AERONAUTICS"' PRIZE.

The flving machine prize of "Aeronautics" has attracted considerable attention and inriuiries are coming in rapidly. The difficulty with prizes offered abroad is that the flights must be "officially controlled." while with "Aeronautics' " prize it is only necessary for the flight to be witnessed by three persons, one of whom must be the representative of a local newspaper. This makes it very easy for any one to compete in any

part of the country. The contest is open to any class of gasless apparatus, whether aeroplanes, helicopters or ornithopters.

Carl Bates, of Chicago, was the first to enter.

"AERONAUTICS"' PRIZE FUND.

Subscriptions in any amount are earnestly solicited toward the creation of a prize fund for the encouragement of aviation. Every subscription will be announced in the magazine and each donor will be expected to state the way in which he thinks the funds obtained should be awarded. The opinions of each of the subscribers to the fund will be sent to the others in order to arrive at a system of awarding which will be in accordance with progress.

We are pleased to announce the following subscriptions:

Lee S. Bnrridge............$25

O. Chanute ............... 2^

Wilbur R. Kimball......... 25

The National Aerial League in France receives almost daily subscriptions to its fund, in varying amounts, from $20 to $rooo each. Surely America can do better. If not to interest in the Art, can we not appeal to your pride ?

FLYING MACHINES AT DAYTONA

BEACH—$500 PRIZE.

Senator AY. J. Morgan is offering $500 to be competed for by flying machines at the Daytona auto races March 23-26, awarded to the one making the fastest time over one mile straightaway. In addition to this $500, the prizes of "Aeronautics" and C. F. Bishop can, of course, be competed for at the same time, making a total of $1700 offered.

THE "WORLD" GIVES $10,000 FOR MOTOR AERODROMICS.

On Jan. 31 the New York "World" announced that it would give a $ 10,000-prize for a trip from any point in Greater New York to within ten miles of the Capitol at Albany during the week of the Hudson-Fulton celebration in the Fall.

The contest is open to either airship or flying machine and the prize will be awarded to the competitor making the fastest time. The distance in a straight line is 150 miles, but the allowance of ten miles at the Al-ban\- end and the privilege of starting from any point in Greater New York reduces the distance as much as fifteen miles.

The "World" has arranged that the contests be held under the rules of tiie Aero Club of America., yet to be drawn, and judged by its contest committee.

Capt. Thomas S. Baldwin was the first to enter unofficially with a new dirigible.

His entry was followed by that of Charles J. Glidden on behalf of the New England Aerial Navigation Company, which will probably have a Baldwin dirigible in the Spring; and that of A. Leo Stevens and Carl F. Myers. The Sidney Bowman Auto Company is endeavoring to arrange for a small racing Clement-Bayard dirigible, with a high-power motor to be imported for the contest. Following these were numerous doubtful entries. None of these are as yet official as rtdes have not yet been devised.

TRIPS MADE HERETOFORE BY AIRSHIPS AND FLYING MACHINES IN COMPARISON.

Wilbur Wright (American) in aeroplane. Dec. 31, 1908, flew for 2 hours 20 min., and covered, officially, 77 miles, though distance was probably nearer 100 miles.

The "Zeppelin III" airship (German) made 211 miles in 7 hours on Sept. 30, 1907; and the "Zeppelin IV" made 233 miles on July 1, 1008, in a 12-honr trip.

The "Parseval" (German) made an 11hour trip on September 15, 1908.

The "Gross II" (German) covered 497 miles in a 13-hour trip September 11, 1008.

The "Bayard-Clement" (French), on November 1, 1908, made 124 miles in a trip of 4 hours 53 minutes.

The "Ville de Paris" (French) made 162 miles in an 8-hour 13-minute trip January IS- 1908.

This prize comes at a most opportune time—just at the awakening of the American people to the fact that dynamic flight is even a possibility. It is destined to do more for this country in this respect than has heretofore been done even by aeronautical organizations. With some changes this prize can be made still more valuable and profitable to the Art.

QUEENSBORO BRIDGE CELEBRATION PRIZE.

The Queensboro Bridge Celebration committee will shortly offer a substantial prize of some nature, but up to the present no definite plans have been laid. The story published in a Metropolitan daily was a little premature.

F. S. LAHM GIVES $250 FOR MILE FLIGHT.

At the banquet of the A. C. of Ohio, mentioned elsewhere. F. S. Lahm announced the offering of $250 to the aviator who flew a mile from Canton. This is open to anyone.

TRIACA GOLD MEDAL.

Mr. Albert C. Triaca has agreed to give a gold medal of the value of one hundred dollars to the Aero Club of America to be awarded to the member of the Aero Club of America who makes the longest aeroplane flight as pilot during the year 1909.

$1000 A MILE FOR AN AEROPLANE— THE LARGEST FLYING MACHINE.TRU-' W. R. Timken, of the Timken Roller Bearing Company, has offered to William H. Martin, of Canton, O.. $100,000 for his invention if he can build a machine to fly from Canton to Cleveland and back, a round distance of 100 miles; or $10,000 for the invention if Mr. Martin can fly to Massillon and back. Mr. Timken, who has made several balloon trips, offers this simply as a business proposition.

This is certainly a business-like offer, but if a machine can cover that distance surely it has a value to the inventor of more than $100,000.

As Mr. Timken is willing to buy the invention of any one who can comply with the above, it is practically a prize—and the largest ever offered.

Dr. M. Souvielle, ex-Surgeon of the French Arm}' and member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, has formed an association for the purpose of bringing together pleasure seekers and scientists into Florida ; but what interests us is that this new association offers grounds for experiments in aerial locomotion combined with all the pleasures of out-door life in a beautiful climate.

ASCENSIONS

NOTE.—Name first given is always that of the pilot.

G. L. Bumbaugh, Dr. Goethe Link, and Carl G. Fisher, ascended from Indianapolis in one of Mr. Bumbaugh's balloons on Dec. 22, making a trip of 24 miles.

On Jan. 27, H. E. Honeywell, R. Wade Davis, and S. Von Pbul, left- St.- Louis in Honeywell's balloon "Dauntless" for a two-hour trip, landing safely at Bridgeton, Mo., 40 miles distant; after the drag rope came

near entangling the pedal extremities of a brindle cow.

H. E. Honeywell and party of four made a trip of 40 miles in his balloon "Yankee" on Dec. 11.

Feb. 12. A. Leo Stevens, Dr. J. P. Thomas, Wilbur R. Kimball, Dr. Thomas' son, Dr. Wm. Greene and H. A. Meixner made the record trip from North Adams by landing near Portland, Me., covering 160 miles. The balloon used was Dr. Thomas' Gordon Bennett winner "Pommern."

FOREIGN LETTER

Aero Club of France Loses Aviation Control—F. A. I. to Raise $240.000—$2,250,000 for Zeppelins — Aviation Increase in Germany — Aviation Chairs Established Development Company for Wrights — Excommunicated for Aeroplane Flight — Aviation Brings Pardon for Condemned Man — British Army Aeroplane Wrecked—Delagrange Buys Wright Machine Farman Disheartened —Russij{ Raises $25,000 by Subscription

Note.—Complete foreign news for the month is mailed abroad on the first. It usually lakes ten days for the mail from various countries to reach us. This makes it impossible to assemble, set up, print, and mail before the 20th of the month.

Argentine.

There is some talk at Buenos Ayres of organizing a meeting with a prize list of $40,000.

Belgium.

King Leopold's annual prize of $1,000 for the best book is to be given this year for a treatise on aerial navigation.

Backed, it is said, by Prince Albert M. Solvay, a wealthy manufacturer, is to build an immense shed at Jemeppe for dirigibles and aeroplanes.

with his Voisin biplane at Brecht on December 20th. made several leaps, one of which was of mm.

V- Vandcnberg, Antwerp, has built a flapping-wing machine weighing 600kg.

"Aero-Torpedo" is the name M. Lepouse, Brussels, has given his aeroplane which is equipped with a gas turbine. The machine measures only 5111. by 3m. and its weight is 75kg. Xo flights are yet recorded.

M. Jean Zakovenko, a Russian engineer at Brussels, says his aeroplane "Zako" will raise itself vertically, and can, therefore, be used in towns. But he also says it is only 50m. long! And also it will carry six passengers.

If. 41

4

Levick Photo

British Army Aeroplane. The photo does not show the horizontal "winglets" centered on tha outside struts.

The Aero Club de Belgique has instituted a prize of $4,000 for a Belgian machine that will fly 25km. The offer stands until July 31st next year. For a flight of 30m., $100 will be given.

The Automobile Club de Belgique has appointed an aviation committee and living contests are to be arranged in conn eel ion with the great exposition next year.

Baron Pierre de Caters, experimenting

England.

The V. A. I. began its sittings at the Hotel Ritz on January 11. Roger W. Wallace, president of the Aero Club of the United Kingdom, and also representing America, presided. Thirty-six delegates were present from their respective countries. At its first sitting, the protest of England against the award in the Gordon-Bennett Balloon Cup Race was dismissed,

78

A E R O N A U/T I C S

and the winning of the cup by Colonel Schaeck, Switzerland, was confirmed.

$240,000 TO BE RAISED?

At Tuesday's meeting it was agreed, if possible, to raise an international prize fund of $240,000, England, America, France, and Germany, each to contribute $40,000. The prizes are to be open for three years, and will consist of a gold Challenge Cup, $10,000. for aeroplanes; and a similar cup for dirigibles; five prizes of $20,000 for aeroplanes, and five of like amount for dirigibles; and a prize of $20,000 for a portable "garage." It was also decided that representation on the F. A. I. was to be proportionate to the aeronautical activity of each country, and not as hitherto according to the annual consumption of gas. The maximum for any country was to be 36: one voice for each 25,000 cu. m. of gas used in balloons; for dirigibles according to the weight lifted in flights of not less than 20km. in a circle: and for aeroplanes according to the number of machines that have made a flight of at least ikm.

An important point settled was the question of the control of aviation as a sport— whether by the Federation, or each country independentlv for itself; and. in each country, what body. On the motion of America, each country was left independent; and the controlling body was to be a single organization. This ended the dispute between the Aero Club of France and the Automobile Club, in which the Aero Club sought to act both in the Mixed Commission and independently. The Federation declined to recognize its independence. A committee of three naval, military, and legal, experts was appointed to inquire into the regulation of flight by international law.

BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE.

Cody's aeroplane for the Army which came to grief January 20th, made a short flight on Farnborough Common on January 9th, but never looked happy in the air. Tt seemed heavy in the stern. After altering the position of his radiator to rectifv the lack of balance, Cody made a flight of about 250 yards, when suddenly the lifting plane came adrift and the machine fell and was wrecked. Cody was not hurt. The papers suggested that the authorities ought to have gone to America and bought an aeroplane to practice with. A description of the machine was given in the November, last, issue. Subseciueutlv, the triangular tail was abandoned, the distance between the planes was increased to nine feet, and tin small vertical plane was moved down to the centre of the front of the main planes.

' The framework of the latest new Army aeroplane is to be made of weldless steel tubing by Rolls-Royce. The joints 'dll be welded without lugs by the oxy-acetylene process. The design is by Lieut. J. W. Dunne.

An aerial league, with objects like those of the Navy League, the advocacy of a big and efficient navy, has been formed. Stephen A. Marple is the secretary; and Col. H. S. Massy is taking active part.

J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon, who is experimenting with his Voisin aeroplane at the Champ de Chalons, France, made three flights on January 17th, flying about 500 yards each time at a height of 20 feet. January 18th he made his first attempt to turn. After a flight of 800 yards, he successfully turned round and flew back to his starting- point. Subsequently he made seven other flights. Lord Carnarvon has lent his park at Highclere Castle for the carrying on of the flights in England instead of France, and a shed is being erected.

A novel type of airship with two twin gas-bags side by side has been patented by W. Friese Greene of Brighton. It has a gyroscopic-balancing device, also used for steering, and four motors^ One drives the propellers, another the gyroscope; the other two are in reserve.

Brookland's motor track is to be prepared for aviation.

The aeroplane club has now 960 members.

F. R. Simms has acquired the English rights of the Voisin Brothers.

M. Surcottf. of the French Astra Company, is trying to form a similar company in England; and he savs he will deliver the first airship by sailing it from Paris to London.

Denmark.

The Aero Club of Copenhagen promises to be one of the most active on the continent. New members join at each meeting, and several are building machines.

France.

WRIGHTS GO TO PAU-NEW WRIGHT CO.-MORE

FLIGHTS.

When Wright took it apart at Le Mans, for the journey to Pan, his machine was weighed for the first time. Its weight was 364kg. Wright himself was also weighed. It was found that he was 71kg.—he had gained 8kg. during his stay at Le Mans. "Flying seems to fatten people, you see!" he remarked, with his well-known smile.

ITis last flight at Le Mans was to give a ride to M. Barthou, Minister of Public Works. This was just after winning the Michclin Cup. It was quite dark, and so the flight could be onlv for a few minutes. Afterwards M. Barthou expressed himself as more than delighted with his experience.

As a souvenir of liis stay among tliem, the memhers of the Sarthe Aero Club presented Wri^ it with a bronze by Carvin, "The Muse of Aviation," a goddess laying bare the secrets of flight possessed by birds.

Levick Photo Wilbur Wright

Wilbur spent New Year's Day in Paris, and on January 12th met Orville and his sister Katherine. The meeting between the two brothers—the one wdio had won world renown by his success, and the other who had met with an accident that had almost cost him his life—was very touching. The French papers welcomed Orville as "le glorieux blesse," the glorious wounded one.

The same day at dejeuner, M. Andre Mi-chelin handed Wilbur the $4,000, the money part of the Michelin prize. Wilbur, affectionately pressing his brother's hand, passed over to Orville half the roll of banknotes.

Later in the day, the formation of a French company, the General Aerial Navigation Company, was announced to take over the Wrights' patents in France. The directors named were Wilbur Wright, Baron Henri de Castex, and MM. Jeremie Boeckal, Edouard Bernheim, Henri Leaute, Hart O. Berg, Henry Kapferer, Henry Pear-tree, Eugene Mott, Gaston Moch, and La-zare Weiller. What the consideration to the Wrights was has" not been published. The capital of the company is $160,000, out of which $100,000 has to be paid to Lazare Weiller—out of which he has to pay the Wrights. Two firms have been selected to make the aeroplanes, the Chantiers de France, Dunkirk, and the Astra Company, Billancourt. and one hundred machines are being built. The selling rights have been acquired by Michel Clemenceau, son of the French minister.

Wright is having a new Leon Bollee motor built, and hopes to make voyages up to 150 miles with it. But he will not yet attempt going over houses, he says.

On the vast trial grounds at Pont-Long, they have built Wright a line aerodrome of wood and iron. On one side, are apartments for the aviator, a tiny flat, and rooms for his mechanics. On the other side, is a well-equipped workshop. It is about 10km. from Pan, and in front of it the moors stretch out for 50km. without any sort of obstruction whatever.

Wilbur reached Pau on January 14 with his three pupils, Paul Tissandier, De Lambert, and Alfred Leblanc. Orville and his sister followed the next day, and their train was badly wrecked in collision with another. Happily, both Orville and Miss Katherine escaped without injur)-. T. T. Lovelace and Lachapelle, Wilbur's mechanics, luckily also escaped in the accident.

Straightway, Wilbur installed himself in his new quarters, and began the reassembling of his machine. He sleeps every night in his rooms at the shed. They are more comfortable than those he had at Le Mans. Throughout the month, he did no flying.

Wilbur Wright began flying at Pau early in February. On the 5th his rudder was broken in getting off the starting rail, wddle he was accompanied by Paul Tissandier. The machine continued to fly, however, a few feet above the ground until the motor was stopped; then it sank to earth gently without harm.

On January 29th the two brothers and Miss Wright were the guests of the Mayor of Pau, M. Lassence, and after dinner were taken to a gala cinematograph exhibition and shown their own flights.

Orville has been benefited very much by his voyage and the change of climate.

An Englishman, Hubert Latham, has joined the Wrights as a pupil. He was introduced to them at Pau by Lord North cliffe, and he is going to try for the London Daily Mail Cross-Channel prize, which Lord Northcliffe has now increased to $5,000, and for which Piquerez, the explorer, will also make an attempt, it is said.

Rumor has it that the King of Spain, who recently bought two aeroplanes, intends to visit the Wrights at Pau to take lessons; failing that, he will endeavor to get Wilbur to go to Spain.

The Societa Aeronautica Italians has invited Wilbur to Rome to teach three Italian pilots.

Delagrange has ordered a Wright machine, and is going to experiment at Pau also.

The international contest at Monaco, for a prize of $20,000. for a flight across the Bay, round Cape Martin, and back to the Quay, a distance of about six miles, be-

came open on January 24th; but, so far, none of the entrants has put in an appearance. Four immense garages have been built, and also a "diving board," from which starts may be made, has been erected, for those who choose to use it in preference to the Quay, which is not particularly suitable.

Much amusement was caused after the Salon by a rumor that President Fallieres was purchasing an aeroplane for his own personal use. Thousands believed it. The most significant fact, however, was that no one thought the idea absurd!

Lieut. Henri Kapferer, the pilot of the "Ville de Paris," has received the Cross of the Legion d'Honneur for his work in aviation. The Wrights cannot receive this honor as it is available to Frenchmen only. The Government has decided to honor aviation further by the creation of one Commander, one Officer, and sixteen Chevaliers of the Legion.

C.A.M. TO CONTROL MOTOR AERODROM1CS.

It has been agreed by the Commission Aerienne Mixte (C.A.M.) that the control of aeronautical sport in France shall belong to the Aero Club of France only where aerostats without motors are concerned. All other events will be under the C. A. M.

Rules for this year's contest for the Mi-chelin Cup, $4,000, and a replica of the trophy, have been issued by the A. C. F. The prize will be awarded for the longest distance, which must be greater than 123.2km., accomplished during the year down to sunset on December 31st. The entrance fee is $10 each trial.

Count De Vaulx has received from a friend $2,000 as a single prize, "Le Prix de la Commission Sportative de l'Aero Club de France." for competition among all types of flying machines on a course of 170km. on some one day during the year.

M. Lortet, Paris, offers a kg. of solid gold, $680, for a flight from the centre of the town of Tarbes to a point 10km. away.

M. Andre Falize has increased to $400 his prize for a flight from the Invalides, round the Vendome Column and the Arc de Tri-umplie, and back.

M. Gustave Chapon, treasurer of the Lique Meridionale Aeronautique, offers $200 to the first self-starting aeroplane that will rise in the Gironde, and fly 100m.

The Aviation Commission of the A. C. F. offer $100, given by M. Lariviere, to the maker of the engine on the aeroplane making the longest flight up to June 30, and $40, given by M. R. Balsan, to the second longest.

Go-ahead municipalities, even, are aiding aviation here. The council of Hyeres has voted $100.

During the Mic-Careme this Lent the Queen of Queens is to traverse Paris seated on an aeroplane mounted on a car.

The Minister of War is seeking designs for aerial cruisers. The dirigibles are to be able to fly at 50km. an hour for 15 hours, carry six passengers, and rise to a height of 2000 in. The gas capacity is to be 6500 cm.; the total length 90m., height 20m., diameter 13m., prize of $1000 is offered for the best design.

Three aeroplanes of different types have been acquired by the League for students who desire to become pilots. Eighty pupils from the Polytechnic, 50 from the Central School, and a number from the Mining School, have joined the class. The Aero Club du Nord has opened a free course at Roubaix for its members.

Farman is said to have been much disheartened by his failure to win the Miche-lin prize. On January 5th, he sold his machine. The third plane was still attached, and he sold it as a triplane. The names of the purchasers have not been disclosed; nor the purchase price. At Chalons he has two or three new machines building. One is a triplane on lighter lines than the old one. The second is to be lighter still, he says. What the third is to be, he will not tell. He has just built a new shed at Bouy, near Chalons. It is said he has severed Ris connection with the Voisins.

Maurice Mallet is building a 10m. biplane for Maurice Farman, brother of Henri. Except for the rudder, there are to be no vertical surfaces.

Delagrange is going to try a heavy motor. He has had his machine fitted with a 50-h.p. Chenu weighing 150kg., and has made some short flights. Much interest attaches to his attempts at long flights.

Henri Fournier, the chauffeur, has bought an aeroplane.

M. A. Clement is building a 15,000-cu. m. dirigible with an 800-h.p. motor.

Aviation pilot certificates of the A. C. F. have been issued to Wilbur Wright, Orville Wright, Henri Farman, Delagrange, Ble-riot, Santos Dumont, Esnault-Pelterie, and Captain Ferber.

Rene Gasnier is again out experimenting at Fresne, near Bouchemaine, with the biplane, with which he had the accident in November.

new bleriot monoplane.

Bleriot went out at Issy on January 18th and in the soft ground the wheels of his machine were damaged. On the 20th he tried his new racer, No. 11, which is only 7m. long, with a spread of 7m., a lifting surface of 15 sq. m., and a total weight of 250kg., including Bleriot himself. He declared it difficult to manage—it was so swift.

A multicell biplane, weighing 250kg. without engine, designed by Farman and Neu-bauer, and built by the Zodiac Company is at Buc. It has elevator in front, and rud-

der behind, and is a^o steered by warping the main planes.

MM. Deschamps and Blondean, the motor-boat builders, are constructing twu aeroplanes which they will enter at Monaco, the}' hope.

The Touring Club of France has formed a committee on aerial touring. M. Leon Barthou is president, Leon Chaix and Paul Renard, vice-presidents, and Pierre Passion, secretary. Bleriot, Farman. and Kapferer. are among the members. They will deal with the questions of maps for aeronauts, landmarks, the supply of garages, laws, taxation, customs, regulations for voyages, rules of the road, sign-signals, etc. Its first act was to subscribe $20 towards the prize of the Aeronautique Club for the mechanic who accompanies the aviator who first flies 100km. from one city to another.

Last year 608 passengers started on aerial voyages from the A. C. F. grounds at St. Cloud; 125 were ladies.

Mine. Surcouf has started the Stella Club for lady aeronauts, and she thinks moonlight ballooning will be the popular fashionable pastime in the coming season. The ladies have been granted the use of the park and a balloon at St. Cloud.

New Aero Clubs have been started at Orleans, Vosgien, and in the Ardennes; and a branch of the League at Douai.

Negotiations are going on for an aviation week at Angers next September in place of the Grand Prix motor race.

Ernest Archdeacon is inducing aviators to learn Esperanto as an international language.

Germany.

Prince Henry of Prussia made a voyage in the Gross military dirigible on January 23d, cruising over Berlin for a couple of hours. Another Gross, a larger one, is being built.

The first aeroplane flight made in Berlin was made by Zipfel in a Yoisin on the Tempelhoferfeld on January 28th. Zipfel, after several unsuccessful days, made two circuits of about ikm. each; but he was only just off the ground. Prince Eitel Fritz. Prince Henry of Prussia. Princess Victoria Louise, and 50,000 other spectators were present. On February 2nd Zipfel made four flights each of nearly a mile at a height of from 20 to 40 feet. He did not, however, succeed in making turns.

The public subscription for the building of Zeppelins amounted to the colossal sum of $1,500,169, and has been made up to $2,250,000 byr the Government.

Orders have been given by the Admiralty for four floating docks for Zeppelins: two at Kiel, and the others at Wilhelmshafen.

At Charlottenburg, the great High School near Berlin, a Chair of Aviation has been founded; also at Gottingen University.

Ninety men are now employed at the Luftschiffbau Zeppelin Gesellschaft, Man-zell. making Zeppelins, under the supervision of Zeppelin's nephew, Count Ferdinand. The new dirigibles are of 14,000cm. gas capacity, and will cost $250,000 each. It is rumored, however, that the Government is beginning to have doubts about the use of aluminum because of difficulties as to wireless telegraphy. Count Zeppelin says no tests have yet been made.

The new Siemens-Schuckert dirigible building under the supervision of Capt. von Krogh will have a gas capacity of 12,000 cu. m. in ordinary non-rigid envelope 100m—by, 13m. diameter. The engines will be 5000 h.p.. and there are to be two, if Vnot three', passenger cars.

The military authorities are investigating the possibility of obtaining hydrogen from water gas at an expected saving of 75 per cent.

An armored motor-car to combat airships, has been built by Ebhardt of Dusseldorf. It carries a quick-firing gun which can be fired at very high angle.

On January 12th, the triplane Grade made a flight at Magdebourg. After a leap of 30-40111. at a height of 3-4111., it covered 300-400.

Herr Ruler, a well-known sportsman of Frankfort, has bought the German rights of Yoisin, and is building a factory at Frankfort to construct the Farman, Bleriot, and Delagrange machines. The citizens have already put up $25x00 for a show during the year. An aeroplane factory has also been started at Breslau.

A number of Rhenist-Westphalian merchants at Dusseldorf have applied to the Minister of the Interior for a concession for an aerial transport line between Berlin and Dusseldorf.

Capt. de Frankenberg. has devised a system of route signs. They are of letters and figures in white and black, illuminated by electricity at night, and are to be fixed to roofs, clock towers, church steeples, etc.

Italy.

It has been decided between the National Society of Milan and the Societa Aeronau-tica Italiana at Rome to hold an international meeting at Brescia between August 10 and September 15. Already $20,000 has been subscribed for prizes.

Russia.

The Council of War has granted 50.000 roubles. $25,000, to M. Tatarinoff for experiments in aviation.

Propellers have been obtained from Paris for a dirigible the Government is building.

M. Zatopp. civil engineer, has made a flight of 32m. at St. Martin de Craw in an aeroplane, the engine of which is said to use a form of glycerine as fuel.

According to General Kovanko, the Orthodox Church is opposed to the study of aviation. A mechanic who managed to make a flight was promptly seized by the priests on alighting, and, after a severe birching to drive the devil out of him, was excommunicated on the chance that some of the devil might still remain.

A public subscription is being opened for the construction of an aerial fleet. $25,000 has been put up in St. Petersburg.

Lebaudy Brothers are building a dirigible at Moissons for the Russian Government similar to "La Republic," 52m. long by 10m. diameter with a capacity of 3500 cu. m., and a Panhard 90-h.p. motor.

Spain.

King Alphonso has commissioned Captain Kindelan and another officer to visit France and America, and learn the latest.

Because he had made many valuable investigations in aviation a man named Fra-goso, condemned to death, has had his sentence commuted to 20 years' imprisonment.

A new society has been formed at Barcelona, Spain, under the title, Aerial Locomotion Association. The president writes expressing the keen desire of the Barcelo-nians to join in the world-wide devotion to aeronautics.

NEW BOOKS.

Elements d'Aviation, by Victor Tatin. (H. Dunod & E. Pinat. Publishers, Paris, 3 francs.)

Mr. Tatin has long been considered the foremost aviator in France. In i8j4 he assisted Prof. Marey in making the celebrated investigations into the mechanism of bird flight. In 1879 he produced a model aeroplane driven by compressed air with which interesting results were obtained. In 1896 he built, in connection with Dr. Richet, a steam model aeroplane which was expected to perform flights superior to those of Prof. Langley's model. He has published at various times quite a number of thoughtful and clever articles on flight and has now brought out a little book of 60 pages on the "Elements of Aviation" which has been received with such favor that a second edition has been called for.

After broadly stating the present status of the question, Mr. Tatin discussed the laws of air and the value of the various co-efficients, he then passes to the design of screws and indicates their mode of ac-

tion and efficiency. From these preliminary data he deduces the distinctive features which, to his judgment, should govern the design of a full sized aeroplane flying machine; and a fifth chapter describes what has already been done by other aviators towards solving the problem.

And yet, curiously enough, with all his knowledge, when he comes to the practical application of the principles which he has expounded Mr. Tatin commits a number of errors.

1st. He strongly favors the monoplane, partly because this is the prototype furnished by nature but mainly because he apprehends that the framing required to unite superposed surfaces will unduly increase the head resistance.

In point of fact the increased thickness of spars and the many stiffening guys required by a monoplane may well offer as much head resistance as the framing of a biplane, while the latter is more staple because of the shorter leverage of wind gusts. It is to be feared that Mr. Tatin has lead astray a number of French aviators who are having bad luck with monoplanes.

2d. He recommends an upward dihedral angle for the wings. This promotes automatic lateral stability in still air, but in a gusty marginal wind it produces side tip-pings which become dangerous. Experience has shown that wings arched transversely downward like those of the gull, which sails in strong winds, are safer than wings arched upward like those of the buzzard, which sails in light winds.

3d. He advocates the obtaining of fore and aft equilibrium by a tail placed behind at a considerable distance from the supporting surfaces. Experience has shown that the equilibrator (horizontal rudder) is more effective at the front because it then acts upon undisturbed air. Either method may, however, be used.

The book was apparently completed in June or July, 1908 and the. author reflected the then prevailing European opinion concerning Wright brothers in the following paragraph:

'AYe do not believe that we need say anything about the pretended results obtained by Wright Brothers. The secrecy

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BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

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will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or eolor. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revaruishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

Prices and samples on application ^^fl

sHBj Bwx78MTEwo¥no«rrepo' f^B*

so jealously preserved as to their experiments, or rather as to the apparatus with which they claim to have made flights for distances quite unapproached yet in Europe, their efforts to sell their pretended invention 'chat en poche' (English loq. 'cat in a bag'), at first disturbed us but finally left us sceptical and indifferent, and we believe this is all that is deserved by their unjustifiably mysterious ways."

Where, in August, 1908, Wilbur Wright began those magnificent flights in France, Mr. Tatin had to take this back, but he did it ungraciously. He added an appendix to his book in which he says that, this time, he believes the American reports to have been true and he congratulates the Wrights, but that their apparatus is deficient as a projectile because the man and motor are not enclosed in a hull and because its equilibrium is much more precarious than that of the French aeroplanes. Moreover, it is not the aeroplane of the future anyhow, and the French aviators will soon regain the lead.

For those who read French the book is well worth perusing. Aviators who are designing fiAing machines will be on their guard concerning the conclusions.

Aerial Warfare, by R. P. Hearne, with introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim. (For sale by "Aeronautics.")

Though the name is somewhat misleading, as the major portion of the book does not treat particularly of aerial warfare, the contents are most interesting. It presents in fascinating language the present state of aviation and aerostation, supplemented b}' a considerable number of beautiful illustrations. It is "up to the moment."

Artificial and Natural flight, by Sir Hiram Maxim. (For sale by "Aeronautics.")

With human flight by means of apparatus heavier than air an accomplished fact, this concise history and description of the development of aviators or flying machines, by the celebrated inventor of the Maxim gun, cordite smokeless powder, the Maxim flying machine, etc., is an important addition to the literature of the subject. While giving a description of his own experimental work, and explaining the machinery and methods which enabled him to arrive at

certain conclusions regarding the problem of flight. Sir Hiram Maxim fully describes the work of other successful inventors, and furnishes a chapter on dirigible balloons, together with related matter of great value.

Mr. Maxim points out the difference between the latter-day mathematician-writers' conclusions and the actual facts. The book has a great many practical suggestions of value to those building machines and the reader generally interested in flying machines.

Aeroplane Equipments.—Universal Motor Imports, Ltd., 10 Wilmington Sq., Rosebery Ave., London. W. C, England, wants to correspond with manufacturers of engines and other equipment for aeroplanes.

WANTED.-—I'm in the market for a position as airship or aeroplane pilot. Would also like opportunity to qualify as pilot for free balloon. Make me any proposition in aeronautics. Wm. H. Aitken, Advocate Office. Chester, Pa.

The commendable scheme of the Aero Club of America for the placing at the disposal of the members a Wright aeroplane has fallen through. It was to have been financed by a syndicate of prominent members, among whom were Cortlandt Field Bishop, J. C. McCoy, and Samuel H. Valentine. The reason given is that the import duty, added to the original cost, makes it prohibitive and the members must wait until Wright machines are manufactured in this country before they may avail themselves of this privilege.

THE HELICOPTER

By C. H. CHALMERS, E. E.

In this paper, Mr. Chalmers gives valuable data obtained in his elaborate experiments. Subject is treated in an altogether different manner than in any other work. A new foundation is laid. Pamphlet 25 Cents.

Proceeds of Sale to go to the Prize Fund. "AERONAUTICS,** 17/7 Broadway, NEW YORK

Artificial and Natural Flight

By SIR HIRAM MAXIM. With 95 illus.

Chilli, ilhin., S vo., si.rr, net

A concise history and description of the development of tlying machines. While savins a description of his own experimental work, and explaining the machinery and methods which enable him to arrive at certain conclusions regarding the problem of flight. Sir lliram Maxim fully describes the work of other succes-d'ul inventors, and furnishes a chapter on dirigible balloons, together with related matter which will be of great value to nil experimenters and the general reader interested in tlying machines.

"AERONAUTICS," 1777 Broadway, NEW YORK

SIDE LIGHTS ON THE FUTURE OF FLYING

People who imagine that in a short time they will be able to go to a sky car salesroom, get a demonstration, decide to buy, and after some instruction, run the machine home over the house-tops to land gracefully in the backyard, might as well get over it.

Orville Wright, who had tripled all records for sky motoring and stands pat against the world, says they won't be able to do it—not in ten years !

The aeroplane man laughed loud when the bare idea of such a thing was suggested to him, and Octave Chanute, the Wright Bros.' teacher, on whose gliding apparatus their method of sustaining weight in the air is based, joined in the merriment.

"That's what most of them think, though," said Wright, "thanks to some of the newspapers."

"Just what do yon think we will have in the way of aeroplanes ten years from now," asked the Evening World correspondent.

"I am not a prophet," replied Wright. "I can't say. I don't know."

"Well, of course you don't know, Mr. Wright; but what do you think about it, even vaguely ?"

"T can't just tell," answered the unassuming hero, but a chat about the subject that he has made his life work brought out some of his ideas, in which he and his former preceptor agreed perfectly.

"It is possible to ny from New York to Chicago," said the now world-famous airman. "Somebody will do it before long. There'll be lots of men to undertake that sort of thing. It is not just my line. Of course, there would have to be stops for gasoline to run the motor, and it might be necessary to pick out landing places beforehand; but it could be done right now."

"There would have to be starting tracks at given points along the way," added Dr. Chanute.

Wright suggested that feats of this kind (lid not interest him and that he has larger plans, which may well be imagined when it is known that he and his brother have taken out patents in nine or more different countries, at an up-keep expense that is something big. Naturally he is interested in governments now rather than in individuals.

"The aeroplane will be developed first as an instrument of war," said Wright, "and at about the same time it will be taken up for sport. We do not look for much practical interest from individuals now, if for no other reason than that the machines are expensive. I haven't found that mere are many people who want to spend $25,000 on one. There isn't any doubt about the value of a machine for war purposes."

"If you should get an order for a machine now. how long before you could deliver it?" "Well, I don't know."

"How long docs it take you to build a machine."

"Well, that depends. In large quantities we can turn them out pretty fast. In ten years from now we ought to be delivering them promptly. If we don't somebody else will."

"Isn't there a great field in the next decade for aeroplanes in carrying the mails?'"

The eyes of the inventor and the elderly Dr. Chanute twinkled. "The carriers will be poor men from paying fines for being late if they do," said the latter.

"You see, we can rly against the wind," added Wright, "but the stronger the wind the slower we go. Tacking would take the machine so much farther that any advantage would be lost. There is no possible way that I can see to get around this difficulty. You can't change Nature. The wind is the wind. I can't see any future for the aeroplane as mail carriers unless it be a new kind of special delivery. Even then, the postal rate would have to be raised. You can't beat the railroad for mail-carrying."

When asked how soon it would be before, aeroplanes will be regularly for sale, he s-aidj "Well, we can sell them now. That's oun business. There are six out in Dayton partly complete. Guess we could deliver one of them in a fairly short time. Not until after I get through here, though, at any rate. One of us has to supervise the construction."

"Why do they cost so much? The motor?" "No, the motor is the least expensive part of it. It is the other part that costs. You have no idea of the number of parts there are, and the care that is required to put them to-

gether. And, well, we've been working at this for ten years."

Wright suggested the machine of the future would cost less and less to build in proportion to the number built by any one firm and that if the demand for the Wright Bros.' four cylinder 30-horsepower twin screw aeroplane should become sufficient to warrant extensive manufacture that they would he sold at a figure considerably below $25,000 in the next few years. He did not say that the machine would be materially different ten years from now, but stated that every effort would be made to improve it.

"Ten' years from now," said Octave Chanute, "there should be machines that will rise from the ground directly without any preliminary run. In this respect the flying machine will he superior to the bird, for it cannot do this. Xo, I do not mean that the flying machine of the future will be of the helicopter, or lifting type. The aeroplane is the type, but it will be developed so that it will have far greater capabilities than it now represents."

"Yes,'* said Wright, "we ought to go ahead now. The hardest part has been done. I don't mind being quoted as saying that the most difficult tiling for aeroplane people to learn was to travel through the air. That's been done, and we are not the only ones.

"The best prediction I can give about living ten years from now is that there will be a very great many people at it. There is going to be a big increase fn the number of machines in the world from now on, and ten years hence they won't be much more of a novelty than an automobile is now."

Wright further suggested that in 10iX the airship law that was framed in a little jerkwater town down in Florida a mouth or so ago will not be the joke that it is now. There will be stringent laws for the control of the operation of all manner of aerial apparatus, and as much of a hub-bub about the careless aeroplanist and dare-devil aviator in general as there has been about automobilists. Cities will pass laws to restrict the landing-districts of machines of the air, and will probably have to provide harbors for them outside the corporation lim.'ts. Property-holders are likely to raise violent objections to the sky motorists and to adopt means to keep them off their private grounds.

FOR SALE

By Hatton Turner.

Puck: "I will put a girdle round the earth in forty minutes."—Shakespeare.

For sale—ten thousand hansoms.

And a million motor ears: We've simply got To clear the lot

Before we start for Mars! We're selling them at prices

That will fairly strike you dumb, For the aeroplane is coming,

And it's simply got to come.

For sale—a million coaches,

Of rolling stock the flower, That, engine-hauled, Discreetly crawled

At sixty miles an hour. That pace may suit the tortoise

Or the antiquated snail, But only old back numbers

Go nowadays by rail!

Who'll buy a thousand liners,

To sail across the sea? There may be lots Whom thirty knots

Will suit. It won't suit me! I mean to have an airship.

And then I'll start—Hooray! To race the lurid lightning

Across the milky way!

The horse—his days are numbered,

The motor soon must pass To silent sleep, Upon the heap.

Where iron's scrapped, and brass. All kinds of locomotion

Are simply dead and gone. All save the arrowy airship

That "Zepples" swiftly on.

For sale—some Channel steamers,

The cheapest ever known ; The turbine boat No more will float

'Twixt Folkestone and Boulogne. Embarking at the Flip-flap,

You'll find in half an hour, Across the sea, in gay Paree,

You'll reach the Eiffel Tower.

Aero Club of Seattle. This new Club has been formed by more than fifty representative men of Seattle. The President is William Pitt Trimble; Vice-President, M. Robert Guggenheim; Secretary, H. P. Nadeau; Treasurer, J. I). Hogue; Pilot. J. C. Mars; Consulting Engineer. F. C. Dittmar.

Seattle has long felt the need of an aero clul) to keep pace with the world's progress

President, W P. Trimble

and the idea of organizing an aero club under whose auspices the balloon, airship, and dying machine exhibitions at the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition in iooo might be conducted, has been under discussion for some time, but not until now has the idea crystallized. Enthusiasm is great and on the increase.

The president, Mr. Trimble, went to Seattle thirteen years ago, investing his capital in the then small city. His three years in Paris marked the beginning of his interest in aeronautics. A friend of President-elect Taft, active in large industrial enterprises, member of the prominent clubs of Seattle.

Mr. Trimble's efforts on behalf of the aero club assure its success.

Mr. Guggenheim, the new club's vice-president, is well known in the East through his connections with the American Smelting and Refining Company, and other Guggenheim mining and railway interests; but he is more proud of his office in the aero club than of all his directorships. The aeroplane, of all aerial apparatus, interests him most.

Plans are already making for aeronautic features in the Exposition that will surpass those of previous expositions. The United States Government, which has the only moving picture film of Orville Wright flying at Fort Myer, will show the Wright machine in flight at the Government's exhibit. The appreciation of Uncle Sam for this film is manifested by the fact that he refuses to let it be shown anywhere previous to the A. Y. P. Exposition at Seattle.

The initiation fee has been raised to $25 and the dues the same. Two hundred members are to be secured and the fees will be used to construct an aeroplane.

Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society.

Doctors George H. Simmermau and Thomas E. Eldridge have just contracted, in behalf of the P. A. R. S., for a 55,000-cubic foot balloon, decorated with the Society colors, from the factory of Aeronaut Leo Stevens in New York. This is the second balloon owned by the Society, and will be called the "Philadelphia II"; the "Philadelphia T" having been worn out in service. This is the third aero organization in Philadelphia to have been formed and is the largest, numbering now seventy-five enthusiastic and active members, and will be limited to one hundred, including both men and women.

bv i'res. til03ias e. el.t) h1 dc e, m.i).

The Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society was organized on March 17, 190S, by Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge and Dr. George H. Simmerman, for the purpose of promoting aerial navigation and ballooning as a recreation, believing that by promoting ballooning and aerial flight as a recreation that it would enable the sport to become more speedily popular.

The officers are: Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge, president; Dr. George II. Simmer-man, vice-president; Miss Elva M. Neville, second vice-president; Dr. Eli S. Beary, third vice-president; Thomas Rose, treas-

urer; Miss M. E. Lockington, secretary and Miss Mary Carnell, official photographer.

The first balloon owned by the Society, named the "Philadelphia,"' made its first ascension from Point Breeze on June 27, 1908. Unfortunately, because of its faulty construction, the balloon was never fully inflated; but wishing not to disappoint the large gathering assembled, the bag was released. When 3500 feet in the air, the rent that had appeared near the valve, and which was about three feet in length before leaving the earth, ripped clear down to the equator and the occupants of the basket, three men and two ladies, experienced a "rapid transit" descent into the river that will long be remembered.

All escaped, luckily, with a few bruises and a slight wetting.

After this ascent, a new top was made and another ascent held in August. This was made by moonlight. Dr. Simmerman. pilot, and l)r. Eklridge as assistant, Miss M. E. Lockington and Miss Minnie Apple-bach, were the occupants of the basket. Four homing pigeons were taken on the trip and released at different points en route, carrying messages back to Philadelphia telling the progress made. A magnificent daybreak and sunrise was witnessed, and an easy landing made after travelling a distance of 65 miles, which entitled the ladies to the Eldridge-Simmerman cup for distance.

This cup is still open for any lady in the country to contest for. If the record made by the first contestant remains unbroken for two years, the cup becomes her property.

The third trip of the Society was also undertaken by moonlight; Dr. Eklridge acting as pilot, with Thomas Rose and Lieutenant Kilgore, of the U.S.M. Corps, in the basket. Owing to a very thick fog, the party was carried over Delaware Hay and nearly precipitated therein by the bursting of the bag while nearly 5000 feet high. A safe landing was made about ten miles south of Milford. Del.

The fourth and last trip was made on October 27. by Dr. Eldridgc. Or. Simmer-man, Mrs. Thomas Rose and Mrs. Win. A. Norcross. The landing was made after a delightful trip above the clouds, going to 9300 feet, lasting two hours, near Bordeu-town, X. J., after traveling 45 miles.

An examination of the balloon, made by the property committee in January, revealed the fact that the bag was unfit for further use and was forthwith condemned. A new balloon of superior construction and fabric was purchased from Leo Stevens, of New York.

Aero Club of America. Frank P. Lahm, chairman of the Self ridge Memorial Committee of the Club, has sent out an appeal for funds to erect a memorial in honor of the late first Lieut. Thomas E. Selfridge, first Field Artillery, U. S. Army, who met his death at Fort Myer, Va.. on September 17, 1908, in falling with the Wright aeroplane.

First, as secretary of the Aerial Experiment Association, and afterward in the Aeronautical Division of the Signal Corps of the army. Lieutenant Selfridge had devoted himself exclusively to aeronautics since the Summer of 1907, and was the first in this country to give up his life in the advancement of the new science.

Contributions have already been received unsolicited, from abroad as well as from America, and due to the widespread interest in this project, opportunity is given to all of Lieutenant Selfridge's friends in the Aero Club and out of it. who desire to share in honoring his memory.

The memorial will be placed in Arlington Cemetery where Lieutenant Selfridge is buried, or at Fort Myer, Virginia, where he met his death.

Kindly make check payable to Charles J. Edwards, treasurer Aero Club of America, 12 E. 42nd St.. New York City.

The third annual banquet of the Aero Club of America will take place at the Hotel St. Regis about the middle of March.

The fund for the medals to be given to the Wright Brothers in recognition of their services to the cause of Aviation is not yet completed. Members who have not subscribed are requested to do so as soon as possible. The medals will be presented to the Wrights upon their return to this country, the exact date of which is still uncertain.

A die is being prepared for a medal which will be struck off on occasions by order of the Club in recompense to those who have rendered distinguished service for the cause of Aeronautics. One of these medals will be given to each of the winners of the President's Prize.

Articles of Affiliation for 1009 have been signed with the Aero Club of Ohio, Aero Club of St. Louis, and Aero Club of Xew England. Other applications for affiliation have been received and are under consideration.

Arrangements are being made for the first annual National $500 Grand Prize Balloon Race to take place either in the Summer or Autumn from one of the Western cities. This race will be open to balloons of 2200 cubic meters capacity and under, and must be piloted by Pilots of the Aero Club of America. Details will be announced in sufficient time to insure the construction of balloons that may be entered for this contest.

Entrants for this race will also be considered as having entered for the Lahm Cup.

The Aero Club of America, as the American representative of the International Aeronautic Federation, is entitled to receive entries and hold competitions for the Mich-elm Prize for 1909 of the value of $4000. The Cup and Prize this year are to be given the flying machine which exceeds the flight made by Wilbur Wright, the present holder of the Cup, before December 31, 1909. The distance covered on that occasion was 123.2 kilometers.

Entries for the Gordon Aviation Cup, which will be contested in France during 1909, close March 1st. The course as decided upon by the I. A. F. is round a circuit (without a re-entrant angle) having a perimeter of from 5 to 10 kilometers; the total distance to be accomplished by each competitor not to be less than 20 kilometers from the starting post to the finishing post. Machines will be allowed to come to the ground and start again during their circuit. The Aero Clitlx of America is entitled to enter three aif^ojplancs for this contest.

The Aero Club of America announces a prize of $10,000 which will be given to the airship propelled by mechanical means which makes the trip through the air from New York to Albany over the course followed by Fulton in the first steamboat. This contest will take place during the Hudson-Fulton Celebration and will probably be part of the official program. The prize is given by the New York "World," and it is hoped this will be a forerunner of many similar prizes offered in the future under the auspices of the Aero Club of America.

A. C. Triaca has offered the Club a gold medal to be awarded as the Club may decide later.

The following-named gentlemen are proposed for membership:

Arthur Billing. William A. Johnson, Roy A. Rainey, Charles Day, Kern Dodge, and K. M. Turner.

It is proposed by the House Committee, for which Mr. Israel Ludlow and Mr. Guy are acting, to hold a series of lectures on aeronautics by prominent people interested in the science. These lectures will probably be held every Monday evening during the month of March.

Springfield Aero Club. This Club has just purchased a 1600-cubic meter balloon from A. Leo Stevens, after getting estimates from all over the country, the Club finally decided in favor of a high-priced balloon. It will be called the "City of Springfield." Springfield will put up a gas tank to hold 500,000 cubic feet of gas so as to take care of ten balloons at one time, to be ready in July. Some of the trees in the city park-have been cut down to make room for ascensions.

Aero Club of Washington. At the organization meeting held in the office of General Allen, on January 23, twenty were pres-ent. Articles of incorporation were signed, the officers elected, the constitution and bylaws adopted and the meeting over in an hour.

The officers elected were: Secretary of the Navy, Truman H. Newberry, president; Assistant Secretary of War, Robert S. Oliver, Thomas N. Page, and Hon. Butler Ames, vice-presidents; corresponding secretary, Dr. Allerton S. Cushman, of the Agricultural Department; recording secretary Dr. A. F. Zahm, of the Catholic University of America; treasurer, C. J. Bell; board of trustees, Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, Brig.-Gen. A. W. Greely, U. S. A., retired; Prof. W. L. Moore, of the weather bureau, and John Barrett, director of the bureau of American republics.

Among the charter members of the Club are Dr. David Fairchild, of the bureau of plant industry; Otto H. Tittmann, of the geodetic survey; Lieut. Richard B. Creecy, U. S. M. C; C L. Marlatt, chief of the bureau of entomology; Lieut. G. C. Sweet, U. S. N., of the bureau of equipment; Col. Charles H. Bromwell, U. S. A., superintendent of public buildings and public grounds of the District of Columbia; Representative Herbert Parsons, of New York; Clarence R. Wilson, Lieut. F. P. Lahm, U. S. A.; George O. Totten, Jr., Jerome Fanciulli, of the Associated Press, and Russell M. McLennan, of the New York Herald.

Many others prominent in army, na\ry, and official life, have signified their intention of joining the new aero club.

The objects and plans of the new club were stated last issue.

The Aeronautic Society. The regular Wednesday night meetings have been held, as usual, at the rooms of the Automobile Club of America, West 54th St., New York, and have been well attended. Out of the 180 odd members, there have never been less than thirty present at any meeting.

On January 13, Wilbur R. Kimball gave an interesting and instructive lecture on propellers. Eollowing the talk, there was an enthusiastic open discussion on individual experiments. One of the most interesting was that of E. T. Birdsall, a prominent member of the auto club as well as a member of the Society, on the relationship between screws on power boats and aerial propellers, taking into consideration the practice in vogue among windmill manufacturers as well.

The following week Hugo C. Gibson lectured 011 internal combustion engines. On the 27th, R. W. Jamieson, after explaining his quick method of laying out the correct pitch of screws, presented a device of his invention to the Society for the use of the members.

David B. Carse put a resolution for the appointment of a committee or committees whose duty will be to investigate all the light motors now on the market, secure all available data and prosecute experiments for the obtaining of further information on propellers, structures, steering apparatus, material, etc., the conclusions arrived at to be put in proper form for reference. Plans are now being inaugurated to handle this nigh stupendous work which, if it can be carried out, will probably be of more direct advantage to the Art than any undertaking yet formulated in Aeronautics.

The annual election of officers and directors was held on February 3, and the following ticket was accepted: Lee S. Bur-ridge, president; Louis R. Adams, William J. Hammer, and Roger B. Whitman, vice-presidents; Wilbur R. Kimball, secretary, and Dr. William Greene, treasurer. The remaining directors elected were: Orrel A. Parker, A. B. Levy, Ernest L. Jones, Albert C. Triaca, Riley E. Scott and Dr. J. P. Thomas.

On February 9, with the co-operation of the Society, the Automobile Club of America, held on "Aeronautical Evening," details of which are given elsewhere in this issue.

The by-laws adopted at the annual meeting have certain unique features which appeal to those interested in the democratic policy of the Society. The members are given every possible opportunity to have control in their own hands. The presu ^nt cannot hold office for more than two years in succession, nor a director more than four years. Any fifteen members can nominate a new ticket which the Society accepts just as officially as any other. The directors cannot disburse more than a hundred dollars for an individual item without action by the membership. The various committees provided for do practically the work of directors in the usual sense, so that the latter exercise practically only supervision over the work of the committeemen. These by-laws apparently succeed in combining the benefits of the membership corporation with those of the business corporation. For the protection of the members the Society was incorporated under the business corporation act, but the by-laws are not in accordance with the usual business corporation by-laws, but include the advantages of both forms of organization.

Aero Club of Indiana. The organization of the Aero Club of Indiana, January 2, 1909, marked the close of a season of great activity in Aeronautics.

The following officers were elected: president, Carl G. Fisher; vice-president, Charles Stone; secretary. Dr. Goethe Link; treasurer, Russell J. Irviu; directors, Robert II. Hassler and B. \V. Twyman.

The Club accepted the offer of a permanent meeting place at Mr. Fisher's garage, and voted to have a stated meeting night each month.

hv g-eotiie link, M. 1).

Every one in Indianapolis, as well as in the adjoining parts of Indiana, seems interested in the conquest of the air. Interest so far. has been confined to ballooning, as we have not seen the heavier-than-air machines this far West.

The first ascension made from Indianapolis in a gas balloon was in 1883. Since then only an occasional parachute leap from a Montgolner has been made to amuse the holiday crowd.

The birth of modern Aeronautics in Indiana took place September 14, 1908, when an ascension was made by Carl G. Fisher and Capt. G. L. Bumbaugh. Since that day. nine ascensions have been made, the last being on December 22, 190S, the part}- composed of Carl G. Fisher, Dr. Goethe Link, and Capt. G. L. Bumbaugh.

During the year 1908, 430,000 cubic feet of coal gas was used in this way. Xo serious accident has occurred to mar the sport, the worst being a slightly sprained ankle sustained by the writer.

It has been necessary to overcome much prejudice; but those who only a short time ago were saying "fools'' are now asking "when can you arrange to take us?"

Xo place in the world is so nearly ideal for aeronautics as Indianapolis. The surrounding country is very level for miles, except in one direction, and there are none of the things that the balloonist fears, such as large bodies of water. Electric inter-urbans and steam railways run into the city like spokes to a hub.

Usually, by helloing to the farmers and asking the nearest railroad, we can stay in the air just a few minutes longer and land near a convenient place for returning. After almost every flight we have' been able to bring our balloon back without the loss of time.

There is a constant air current here, which, aside from temporary disturbances, can be found from 2000 to 7200 feet, as high as I have investigated. This blows northeast and carried two of the balloons from the St. Louis race, directly over Indianapolis. In a flight made November 3. 1908, we got into the current and passed over the same poinis passed over by the contestants in the international race of 1907.

A trip through Indiana at the proper height for observation is a beautiful sight. Everywhere are seen squares marked by the white macadam roads placed with mathematical exactness one mile apart, tilled ground with its varying hues, interspersed with small woodlands like rare Persian rugs, and an occasional stream wending its

silvery way here and there as though nature were protesting against man's geometric precision.

A company headed by Air. Carl G. Fisher, has bought four hundred acres of land adjoining Indianapolis, and is building an automobile speedway, which will be one of the wonders of the automobile world. This place is to be surrounded with a high board fence. There is a building all ready' on the grounds which, with slight changes, can be used for an aerodrome. Gas will be piped from the gas works near by and the Aero Club of Indiana will have the most suitable place in the United States for their ascensions. Two balloons have been contracted for, one by Carl G. Fisher, the other by R. J. lrvin and Dr. Goethe Link, jointly. We expect to have two entries in the national race whether held here or in some other city.

Aero Club of Ohio. Frank S. and Lieut. F. P. Lahm were the guests of honor at the banquet given at the Hotel Courtland on January 28, attended by seventy-live members of the Club and guests. Interesting remarks were heard from F. S. Lahm, Lieutenant Lahm, Dr. Thompson, \V. H. Martin, F. E. Case. James J. Grant. G. A. Dougherty, Gordon Mather, and others.

Dr. H. W. Thompson received the first pilot license to be issued by the Club.

The Aero Club of Ohio is the only organization known to have passed a resolution asking the Congressman from its respective district to use his efforts in favor of the aeronautical appropriation.

After tiie election of officers, the report of the secretary was read.

by joseph si. hi.ake, secretary

The Aero Club of Ohio was formed on December 9, 1907, on the occasion of a dinner given by Frank S. Lahm to his personal friends. On that evening officers were duly elected and steps taken which resulted in the incorporation of the Aero Club of Ohio as a corporation. Starting with sixteen members, the number has steadily increased until we now have a membership of 194, scattered throughout many of the States. Of the total, 124 reside in Canton.

During the past year, the Club has acquired the "Ohio,'' and has put in shape the balloon park, by fencing, tearing down buildings, leveling, etc., and which is well protected from the wind.

Judged by the number of ascensions, the Aero Club of Ohio is the foremost Club in America. No other club has had as many ascensions. This is true in spite of the fact that during the first six months of the history of the Club, there was no place from

which an ascension could safely be made, so that during that period there were but two ascensions, the first being made on December 20, 1907, and the second on January 28, 1908.

No further ascensions were held until the 6th day of June, 1908, at which time the "Ohio" made an ascension from the newly-completed park. Since that date there have been steady ascensions until the total number made under the auspices of the Club have been twenty-seven, which does not include two ascensions made at Alliance, and not strictly under the auspices of the Club.

In the year 1908 there was one ascension in January, one in June, three in July, two in August, seven in September, four in October, four in November, and three in December, and one in January, 1909. The balloons which have made these ascensions are the "All American," "Sky Pilot," "Ohio." and "You and 1". On these trips the balloons have carried a total of seventy-nine people, while the different people making ascensions were thirty-eight, of which number thirty-four made ascensions for the first time.

Among the latter number were three ladies: Mrs. Dr. Thompson, Miss Blanche Vignos, and Miss Gladys Tannehill. Mr. Stevens holds the record for number of ascensions, nine; A. H. Morgan, five; J. H. Wade, four; Dr. Thompson, six.

One million, one hundred and fifty thousand cubic feet of gas have been used so far, costing over $900. The total distance traveled in all the ascensions is about 1400 miles, an average of about 50 miles per ascension.

The greatest distance traveled was by the balloon "Ohio" on January 1, 1909, with Dr. Thompson as pilot, 121J4 miles, as stated previously in "Aeronautics." The shortest distance covered was that made by our Honorable President, who, in the 67th year of his youth, with Leo Stevens as pilot, covered a distance of three and a half miles in three hours and made an average of almost a mile an hour.

The greatest height attained was by the "Ohio" on September 7th, Messrs. Thompson, Blake, and Brush, passengers, 12,000 feet.

It has been our good fortune to have presented to the Club b}' Messrs. Wade and Morgan a very beautiful silver cup for the longest balloon trip out of Canton hy January 1, 1910. Mr. Lahm has also presented the Club three silver medals of unique type which will be used as awards for various enterprises during the following year, and $250 for aviation.

This year promises to be even more notable than last. With our membership we

will be able to go steadily forward. A stand will be erected for the accommodation of members and families, the floor of the park improved, various prizes offered and possibly a new balloon purchased.

Amherst Aero Club. Prof. David Todd, president of the Amherst Aero Club, just formed, and its secretary, Mr. E. Id. Sudbury, of the Senior Class, were delegates to the Boston dinner of the Xew England Aero Club, on January 30. Augustus Post, who graduated at Amherst College in 1895, was present at the final organization of the Amherst Club on February 13. Professor Todd tendered him a complimentary dinner the same evening, and later at the Senior Smoker, Mr. Post gave an address on aerial navigation, and exhibited his moving pictures of the St. Louis Aero Club races. He also recounted his experiences in the hairbreadth escape in the Berlin races last September, as related in his popular lecture on Aeronautics. The Amherst Aero Club is open to membership from both colleges located there, and several townspeople are also members, although primarily' a college organization.

Aero Club of New England. A banquet complimentary to the presidents of aero clubs in New England States was given at the Boston City Club on January 30, by the Aero Club of New England. The speakers were: president Sheehan of the Springfield club; A. Leo Stevens; president David Todd of the Amherst Aero Club; H. Helm Clayton of Blue Hill Observatory; Prof. W. H. Pickering, president of Aero Club of N. E.; Dr. S. S. Stowell, of Pittsfield; Charles J. Glidden; A. R. Shrigley, secretary of A. C. of N. E.; Professor Geneau of Amherst, Win. C. Hill and Augitstus T. Tost, secretary Aero Club of America.

Columbia University Aero Club. Grover Cleveland Loening has been appointed delegate to the meeting of the Amherst Aero Club on February 13, the plan of the Columbia being to form an "intercollegiate aero club," as it will probably be called.

An ascension is planned for the first part of March from West Point, and steps are cension on Commencement Day. The model contests planned some time ago will In held in the near future and these will be open for models from any member of any of the college areo clubs, when formed. President Butler of Columbia, A. Leo Stevens and Augustus T. Post have been elected honorary members of the C. U. A. C.

Aero Club of California. The Club has

secured a park within a few blocks of the business district of Los Angeles for its trial work, glider contests and exhibitions. It

is in the same section as the park from which Roy Knabenshue has been making flights with his dirigible, and the residents of that part of the city are becoming accustomed to the sight of air craft.

An auxiliary to the Aero Club has been organized at the Polytechnic High School of Los Angeles with fifty members, working under the direction of Prof. II. La V. Twining, secretary of the Aero Club of California. They have assembled in two groups, each building a glider for competitive experiments and are studying the principles of aeronautics.

Aero Club for Wilkinsburg. Dr. H. W.

Thompson, of Salem, O., whose 93rd ascension was recorded last month in a 121-mile trip from Canton, O.. to Ligonier. Pa., is arousing enthusiasm among the members of the Wilkinsburg, Pa., automobile club and hopes to form an aero club there in the near future. An ascension will be made at Canton to which the seventy members of the auto club will attend in a body.

Junior Aero Club. The J. A. C has been given permission to hold their practice meetings in a room at the 71st Regiment Armory, New York. The first trial practice of model aeroplanes owned by members took place on January 30. The Club is being kept active by the efforts of the organizer.

The Government hydrogen plant and balloon house at Fort Omaha has been completed and is the best equipped in the world. Gas can even be compressed there and shipped in tanks to any part of the country for the inflation of dirigibles or spherical balloons. The process used is what is known as the "electrolytic process."'

The committee appointed by the Aero Club of America to meet the Aeronautic Society with a view to co-operating reported the Society as unfavorable to the plan. Nothing came of the formal notice of a number of members asking for a special meeting to change the by-laws to admit of an increase directorate. The signers of the letter of notification to the Club claim that they received individual letters from the Club saying that the calling of special meetings was entirely in the hands of the directors, the section of the by-laws apparently' favorable to the calling of special meetings upon demand of ten members not-withstandin g.

George F. Chamherlin, ex-president of the Automobile Club of America, lectured in his home town on Aeronautics on February 19th. Wiuthrop E. Scarritt. also an ex-president of the auto club, will lecture before the West Side Y.M.C.A.

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