Aeronautics

Volume 4 - No. 1 - 1909 January

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



ERONAUTICS — GLIDING FROM A BALLOON AT 2,000 lET - THE PERFECT FLYING MACHINE - OVER THE COAST RANGE IN A BALLOON.

PRICE, TWENTY-FIVE CENTS

International Balloon Races

Berlin, 10, II, 12 October Point to Point Comest:—Winner Llerr Meckel in the balloon Elberfeld made of CONTINENTAL Balloon Sheeting.

Gordon Bennett Race :—The Swiss balloon Helvetia, pilot Col. Schaeek, remained in the air about 72 hours, beating the duration record, heretofore of 52 hours, 32 minutes by not less than 20 hours. According to a telegraphic report from Col. Schaeek to the "Berliner Tage-blatt," the balloon behaved and preserved excellently in the storm and weather. The Envelope of the "Helvetia," which by this splendid result, made a duration record that has up to the present time been unattained by anyone, is made of CONTINENTAL Balloon Sheeting.

DIRIGIBLES

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used in the Zeppelin, Cross, Ville de Pari«, Lebaudy, de la Vnulx, Republique, Renard, Parseval, etc.

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Hanover, Germany

NEW YORK BRANCH = - = = ' - . 1790 Broadway

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

Used by Leading Aviators.

Light in weight-Strong and

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Variety of types and sizes in stock.

Absolutely Guaranteed.

All Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls on Hand.

Send for Catalogue 19.

R. I. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

AERONAUTICS

Published by

IVTsiti Office

AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc. 304 No. 4th St.

1777 Broadway _ .

Wm. Gettinger, /V<?.s. St. Louis

New York _.

E. L. Jones, rreas.-Sec.

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice, New York, N. Y., under the Act of

March 3, 1S79.

Vol. IV

January, 1909

No. 1

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month, formation on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

It furnishes the latest and most authoritative in-

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.

Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order or registered letter. WE CAN NOT USE CHECKS ON LOCAL BANKS UNLESS EXCHANGE IS ADDED. Send draft on New York. Make all remittances free ot exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Cuireucy forwarded in unregistered letters will be at render's risk.

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $:t.£>0 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

Important.— Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear Hie name of lhe sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure proper credit.

AMERICA TO STIMULATE AVIATION—WHEN ?

The many appeals to red-blooded American citizens to subscribe to prizes for the encouragement of aviation, made by prominent individuals and the Press, are still without result. Members of aero clubs have objected to our urging the need for prizes— the very ones whom one might think were most interested. On one occasion we reprinted an editorial from the "Steam Motor Journal," which was very much to the point. The objection raised was "Who ever heard of the 'Steam Motor Journal?'"

Only last month the Chicago "Examiner" printed the following:—

"Cortlandt F. Bishop, president of the Aero Club of America, deplores the apathy of his countrymen in matters of aerial locomotion. He says that all France is excited over our Wilbur Wright; that every Icarus

and Darius Green in Europe is a feted, prize-pampered darling of the public, and, in general, that people over there are out on a fly. while Americans keep poking around on their legs.

"Now. wc might dismiss these reflections on our featherless state without remarks if it were not for the sting in them. There is a suggestion that the United States isn't what it used to be in affairs of the creative imagination.

"There was a time when America was the envy of the world in the field of invention. In Europe its name was a synonym for ingenuity; and the things we didn't do in mechanics were the things that couldn't be done. We gave men steamboats and cotton gins, telegraphs and electric lights, airbrakes, sleeping ears and real locomo-

It*

tives, sewing machines, bathtubs, typewrit- effete Latin races' sent us by a favoring

ers, cash registers, McCormick reapers and Providence just to stab our spirits and stir

a thousand other things they didn't know our blood?

they wanted. "It would seem that the supreme con-

"This power of the American mind to ques* of invention is reserved for the realm

conceive things that do not exist and of the air and that the goddess of the crea-

straightway bring them to pass has been the tive imagination is not a Wingless Victory,

peculiar genius and glory of this land, its "Wake up, America! Wake up!"

aura of universal fame and title to immor- Suppose $5,000 were offered in prizes of,

tality. Lesser breeds might plod on in say, $500 each to the aviators who accom-

poor creaturehood, but it was deemed that Plish 200 meters in a flight. The aviator

America had undergone a kind of national must "ot> of course, have covered this dis-

transfiguration and had passed over into a tance previous to the offering of the prize,

wonderful estate of sheer creative life. This sum of money would help each one

"Is this a dream that is to fade into a

of ten along a little. What a stimulus this would be? The Aero Club of France has

erav morniner of disillusionment? ., . , . „___

e J b a simdar prize, known as the 200-meter

"Or are the swift motor cars, wireless prize" of a value of but $40, and this has

telegraphs and aerial enthusiasms of 'the done good work.

BY THE WAY, THERE NOW IS AN AVIATION PRIZE

IN AMERICA

It has just occurred to "Aeronautics" to try its own medicine— but perhaps that is hardly the correct way to express it ! we have been COMPLAINING of an AILMENT—the LACK of prize money in America. The PRIZE MONEY is the MEDICINE, and instead of taking it ourselves we are going to be the DOCTOR.

The medicine is not new, but is a favorite prescription of old Dr. Brindle, Bray and others ; and is taken in small doses.

^$250 FOR 500 METERS

As stated above, the prizes offered by the Aero Club of France, even of $40 each, have done wonderful work in stimulating progress, In our humble way, we are glad to pattern after the A. C. F.; and to this end we propose to make last year's suit do for all Winter and to set aside $'256 to be competed for under the conditions following :

CONDITIONS

To each of the first four aviators who, during the year 1909, cover a distance of 500 meters in a straight line over a course laid out in advance of the tiial, measuring from the point of leaving the ground to the point of landing, the sum of $50. The contestant must not have made this distance previous to competing.

Entries for the competition must be made by telegraph not less than 24 hours in advance.

In case of trial being made at a distance from New York, the contestant must furnish as proof of his accomplishment: an affidavit signed by a suivejor stating the distance travelled after leaving the ground, the affidavits of two other witnesses of the flight, one of whom must be a bona fide representative of one of the local newspapers, and a photograph of the machine in flight, together with a description thereof.—That's all !

MEN OF THE AIR IN CARTOON.

Series of Caricatures of Some of Those Prominent in Aerodromics.

Commencing in the December, 1908, issue, we began the printing of a very interesting series of cartoons of well-known aeronautic enthusiasts.

The work has been done by one of the best cartoonists in the country and he has succeeded in bringing out the characteristics of the victims in most attractive fash-

Impressions of the entire set have been" made on fine vellum, in tint, and bound loose in ooze calf, making a very handsome souvenir of the men whose caricatures appear. Those desiring the set may communicate with us in regard thereto. We will be glad to hear of others who will submit to the pleasant pastime of being cartooned. .«

ANOTHER AMERICAN PRIZE IN AMERICA—CORTLANDT FIELD BISHOP OFFERS GREATER FLYING MACHINE PRIZE.

Cortlandt Field Bishop, President of thd Aero Club of America, has offered to the Club for their acceptance the sum of $1000, the prize to be known as the "President's Prize."

This was planned last year before Mr. Bishop went abroad and is now a fact. Besides being of the utmost value to the Art it removes the possibility in the future of the Club's members being called "parlor aeronauts" by the newspapers.

The conditions, in short, are as follows: The thousand dollars is divided into four

prizes of $250 each, to be given to the first four aviators who, during 1909, cover a kilometer. Competitor must not have made this distance previous to competition. Contestant must notify Club at least 24 hours in advance, and pay an entry fee of $5. If trial is to be made within 25 miles of New York, Club will pay fare of its representative; if further than that, contestant must pay fare; or if within 25 miles of an affiliated club, the latter will send a representative. Each of the four winners will also receive a silver medal commemorating the event. For this, many thanks!

The Secretary of War has extended thel date of delivery of Mr. Herring's aeroplane unitl June 1, 1909.

The majority of the Balloon Detachment have been sent to Ft. Wood, and practical work in aeronautics has been suspended for the winter.

$500,000

FOR ARMY AERONAUTICS?

The matter of Military aeronautics is now before Congress, and it is hoped by Spring

the approval of the Secretary of War's recommendation will have placed the Signal Corps in a position to proceed with Military Aeronautics on a scale its importance warrants:

The Secretary of War in his Annual Report to the President, dated December 10, 1908. reviews brief!}' the progress made in practical Aeronautics during the past year, noting the principal events; then mentions the ptblic Bights of the Wright Brothers and states that "The rapid progress that is now being made in Aeronautics apparently

indicates that the age of practical mechanical flight is at hand." He then cites the number of officers and men on aeronautical duty in foreign armies and compares this with the small number in the Signal Corps..'

England now having 5 officers and 40 men exclusively used for aeronautical work; France, 24 officers and 432 men; Germany, 20 officers and 465 men; Russia, 79 officers and 3,255 men; Italy, 5 officers and 80 men; Austria, 15 officers and 186 men; Spain, 9 officers and 104 men. On the other hand, the United States has at present only 3 officers and 10 enlisted men engaged exclusively on aeronautical work.

He further says: "During the past year the Signal Corps of the Army has been instrumental in materially advancing the progress of aerial navigation by the encouragement it has given to owners and inventors of dirigible balloons and aeroplanes,'' citing the contracts with Mr. A. M. Herring and the Wright Brothers for aero-I planes, and with Capt. T. S. Baldwin for a dirigible balloon. The report concludes:

"An estimate has been submitted to Con-

gress for consideration at the present session for an appropriation of $500,000. With this sum it is believed that the Signal Corps will be able to take up this rapidly developing military auxiliary in a manner commensurate with its intrinsic importance."

In the May number we gave a form of letter which those interested were asked to write to their Senators. We urge prompt action now in the hope that Congress may see fit to approve of this new request for an appropriation. Write a letter to your Senator, calling his attention to the wonderfully rapid. strides now being made in Aeronautics, and impress upon him the necessity for his realization of the need that America make some effort to keep abreast of the times. Even this sum is small enough.

"What will it profit a' nation to become mistress of all the seas if a rival nation succeeds in " gaining the mastery of the 'Grand Ocean,' the only one truly worthy of this name—of the ocean which has no bounds and whose borders extend above the entire surface of the earth?"

Jan. 1, 1.909-—Dr. ML W. Thompson. Dr. J. G. Foltz and William E. Mast left Canton in the "Ohio" and landed 1 mile south of Ligonier, Pa., after a trip of 4 hrs., 30 min.

Mr. Williams Welch, of the U. S. Signal Corps, has kindly computed the distance from the center of Canton to the center of Ligonier as 121*4 miles. To get the exact distance, the precise place of landing should be marked upon a Survey map. This beats Mr. Stevens' record from Canton, recorded last month by 3J4 miles and the above aeronauts also >errr n right to have names 011 Skv Pilot Trophy.

Note:—The first name given is always tha* of the pilot. Dec. 5.—Dr. H. W. Thompson, William Forties and Louis Brush left Canton in the "Ohio" at 11 a. m., landing 3 miles north of Hanlin, Pa., at 2:30 p. m. Distance about 85 miles.

Dec. 23.—Dr. H. W. Thompson, Dr. A. W. Cloud and Frank Elson left Canton in he "Ohio," landing 3 miles west of Salem, J., a distance of 28 miles.

Dec. 29.—Dr. H. W. Thompson, Harvey H. Feighner and G. A. Leonard ascended troin Canton in the "Ohio"' at 12:45, landing 3 miles south of Mogadore. O., at 2:50 p. m. Distance. 18 miles.

AERONAUTICS

/

FLYING MACHINES AT THE MORRIS PARK VOLERY.

Shneider Bi-Curve Machine Completed—Butler and Kimball Machines.

SHNE1DEK .MACHINE.

The Aeronautic Society found a real live flying machine in its stocking Christmas morning. It made its appearance suddenly at the Morris Park grounds all ready to

the temperature, the track was too soft for u.-.e so that cold weather must now be awaited before further trials.

The machine is of the bi-surface type, 30 foot spread of main supporting sur-

SHNEIDER MACHINE.

fly, except for the reassembling after its removal from 216 Coney Island Avenue, Brooklyn, the home of Mr. Fred Shneider, its constructor. Mr. Shneider had been a member for some time but few knew that

faces, same 6 ft. front to rear, and spaced 5 ft. apart. The supporting surfaces are curved 1 in 10. The ribs are flat and placed on top of the cloth covering.

There are two planes for lateral equi-

SHXE1DER MACHINE.

he was. building a machine. On December 29th it was all assembled and the motor run. The following day the machine ran along the track during tests of the motor. On the following days due to the rise in

librium between the main surfaces, at each end, measuring 6 by 3V2 ft. There is a rear horizontal tail 5 by 6 ft. A horizontal control, 12 ft. by 3l/2 ft., is placed in front at the end of a framework, the center of

the control being g ft. from the forward edge of the main surfaces. The total horizontal surface, supporting and other, is 43a sq. ft. for a total weight of the machine and man of 630 lbs., which makes a weight of 1.46 lbs. per sq. ft., or 1.7 lbs. per sq. ft. of the two main surfaces. The weight 630 lbs. includes 450 for the machine and 180 for the operator.

The front control is operated by the turning of a small steering wheel; the steer-

be used. The propeller shafts are each 20 inches above the lower surface.

The motor is an Adams-Farwell air-cooled 36 h.p., one of two just delivered and is similar to the one now in use by Mr. Emile Berliner in Washington. The motor has 5 cylinders, 4% in. bore and 3^ in. stroke and is run up to 1,800 r.p.m. The weight is 97 lbs. including the carbureter. A very complete description of this motor was given in the June, 1908,"issue. It is

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Plan View KIMBALL AEROPLANE NO i

P ' Propellers (8)

E= Engine

A - Avi atoi

R-Vertical Rudders N Q - Equ111brating Planes

H= Front Horiz. Sadder-

W' Wheels of chassis J Wire Rope transmission

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ing to the right or left, (both on the ground and while in the air) and the equilibrium planes being operated by a second and third wheel.

The tail is a combination wheel and surface. \ The wheel supports the machine while on the ground and is used for steering both while on the ground and in the air. The small vertical surfaces below the main planes at either end aid in turning left or right and serve the purpose of protecting the ends of the machine in landing.

Fish-shaped struts are used with piano wire bracing.

The three aluminum propellers are 68 inches in diameter. The blades are easily removable and can be quickly adjusted to any pitch. The two outside propellers are driven by chains inclosed in a tube, the third one being on a counter-shaft. All are driven through bevel gears geared 1 to 2. Various pitches will be tried but it is figured that a 60-inch pitcli will probably

mounted in the rear above the lower main plane and just inside the struts. The operator is in front.

Postscript:—The propellers have now been altered, replacing the aluminum blades with sheet steel discs of approximately 18 in. diameter. The gasoline tank has been raised to feed by gravity and a larger oil tank has been installed.

KIMBALL Bl-CURVE MACHINE.

Wilbur R. Kimball, as mentioned last month, is rapidly completing a 2-surfacc aerodrome at the Morris Park Volery of The Aeronautic Society, of which he is Secretary.

This machine will be unique, in that it has 8 low pitch propellers of 4 blades each, located in the center of the frame of the main surface and between the two supporting surfaces, curved about 1 in 20. The spread of the machine will be about 42 ft., the surfaces 6l/2 ft. front to rear, and 50 ins. between them. Tn making this machine,

most of the framing of the helicopter, described in the September issue, has been utilized. Though the elliptical struts and lateral pieces are all of very small diameter they are well braced with wire and the frame work is very rigid.

Each of the propellers are mounted on ball bearings and are driven by wire cable transmission. The operator will sit in front of the 50 h.p. 4 cylinder 2 cycle motor, of which Mr. Kimball is the agent, and just ahead of the main surfaces. There will be no tail, but there will be two vertical rudders at each end of the main surfaces for

right and left direction. Three horizontal rudders at each end of the machine, between the surfaces, are expected to maintain lateral stability. A 2-surface horizontal is placed in front.

BUTLER AEROPLANE

W. R. Kimball is building at Morris Park a novel aeroplane for Mr. Wm. H. Butler. No details are available further than that it will be different, so far as Mr. Butler knows, from any other aeroplane ever built. A 100 horse-power engine will be used and Mr. Butler expects "to do better and. go further than anyone else."

FOREIGN PRIZES AVAILABLE FOR COMPETITION IN AMERICA.

The Michelin prize is open for competition in America on the condition that the flights be verified by a club affiliated with the Federation.

As stated in the April, 1908, issue, the Michelin annual $4,000 prize is given to the operator of any flying machine which holds the record of the year. Each year, however, the rules may be changed by the Federation. For 1908, the minimum distance required was 20 kilometers. The winner of the cash prize, through his club, also holds the Michelin Cup, of the value of $2,000 until won by someone else, and is given, in addition, a bronze replica of the same to keep. If, under the rules laid down, the prize is not won in any one year, the money is added to the $4,000 offered for the next year. These $4,000 prizes are, offered annually for eight years, including that for 1908 just won by Wilbur Wright. There is also the Grand Prize of $20,000. as given in the April number.

But—this money is not offered in America by an American.

Gordon-Bennett Aviation Prize.

James Gordon Bennett, proprietor of the New York Herald, living abroad, has given into the hands of the Aero Club of France for competition, under F. A. I. rule*, through Cortlandt Field Bishop and Henry de la Vaulx, an international cup of the value of $2,500 and three cash prizes of $5,000 each, for the first three annual com-

petitions. Cup is to be competed for annually between the 1st of May and the 15th of November, exact date to be set by the club in possession of the cup previous to the first of April. The first competition must be held in France. The subsequent competitions to be held in the country of the winner.

Entries close the 1st of March in each year. The rules will be changed annually by the F. A. I., and copies sent to affiliated clubs giving distance, whether in a circle or out and back, nature of the grounds, etc., and it will then be the duty of any club holding a competition to find a course as near as possible in conformity with the requirements.

The boys of the Los Angeles Polytechnic High School have organized an Aero Club to be affiliated with the Aero Club of California. They number forty members, divided into two sections. Each section is now building a glider, which they propose to enter in the contests at the first meet of the Aero Club of California.

Not to be far behind the Philadelphia "Inquirer," the Los Angeles "Herald" has begun to pay attention to aeronautics and in the Dec. 20th issue, devoted live columns to this subject, besides having a page in the supplement.

MY FIRST AND ONLY (THUS FAR) BALLOON ASCENT

By Blanche Vignos.

After I saw the first balloon ascension under the auspices of the Canton Aero Club, I had a great desire to take a trip into the clouds. When my friends asked me in jest "Wouldn't you like to go?" they were surprised at my enthusiastic reply.

My brother and I had long looked forward to an aerial trip, and when late one afternoon Mr. Leo Stevens asked if we would be ready to make an ascension the following morning we were glad to take advantage of the unexpected opportunity.

miles of our destination. We hadn't learned how fickle our craft was nor how easily u was lured from the direct path by the different currents of air we encountered. This is one of the delightful features of ballooning.

A heavy mist hung over the earth which prevented us from seeing a great distance, but when we had risen above it we saw the fulfillment of the old adage that there is a silver lining to every cloud. It was a glorious sight, the sun shining from the

THE ALPS FROM A BALLOON

November twenty-first, the day of our ascension, was a beautiful Indian-summer day. With little breeze stirring, the balloon ascended evenly and calmly from the park, and before we realized it we were several hundred feet in the air, our friends appearing to us as indistinct blurs on the landscape. We leisurely crossed the city to the north and were able to distinguish the various buildings and residences of our friends. We were traveling almost directly north, at the rate of ten miles an hour, chasing our shadow. We at once came to the conclusion we would land at a point east of Cleveland on Lake Erie. Although we traveled the distance 50 miles in a zig-zag course, upon landing we were within 22

clear expanse of the heavens, which was of the deepest blue, such as I have only seen in Southern Italy or in our own state of Colorado. There was not a vestige of cloud in all directions— nothing but the clear deep blue of a bright spring morning. On the horizon there appeared the most delicate tints of rose and heliotrope. Such a beautiful sight, together with the perfect stillness, can not fail to inspire the soul and uplift the heart in praise of He who has done all things well.

We were not always so far above the earth. Soon we dropped below the clouds. The sight of the earth below is as inspiring as that of the sky above. It spread itself out like a huge map—only more real,

more vivid, than any map that was ever made. Near Talmadge there is a point where six separate country roads converge. You have little idea how beautiful they appeared to us! We named the intersection the "Talmadge Star."

After leaving Canton, Greentown was the first place we recognized. We talked with the residents of Uniontown, passed over the center of Springfield lake, and took dinner near Akron. But it wasn't much dinner that any of us ate. we were so interested in the wonderful sights below and above us.

We spoke to a number of people. One woman inquired if that was really what they called a balloon. Many inquired our destination, which we invariably gave as Cleveland. One man asked if we expected to get to Heaven. We replied, "You wotddn't think so if yoti were here with us"—it was uncomfortably warm.

We made two landings: our first on a farm near Oregon Corners. We were travelling very low, the drag rope trailing through the tree tops and rustling through the corn fields, when we saw three boys out

hunting. Mr. Stevens called to them to catch the rope and pull us down. They either didn't understand or were too dazed by the novelty to move. After repeated urgings they fell to work with a good will, and we soon found ourselves on Mother Earth. We remained only a few minutes and made a second ascent, remaining in the air for another hour. Then, because we were going away from the towns having railroad connections with Canton, we made a final landing. Almost as gently as when we left the park, we came back to earth, several miles north of Kent. Mr. Stevens got out of the basket, and with the assistance of a farmer and his son, they guided the balloon across the cornfield over a wire fence into the pasture beyond, where it was deflated.

It took a good hour to pack the balloon. The farmer then bundled us all into his wagon and drove us to Cuyahoga Falls, where we took the trolley for Canton.

I enjoyed every moment of the trip, experienced no fear, and look forward to many more ascensions.

Col. Max C. Fleischmann of Cincinnati has decided to give up aeronautics as a sport, as it works a sacrifice to the two sports of which he is most fond, yachting and big game shooting. Col. Fleischmann has a habit of doing everything in a thorough manner, and for this reason has resigned from the Aero Club of America in favor of his two greater loves.

C. L. Downer of Salt Lake City has completed a five-plane aeroplane model, one of many others, and has had remarkable success with it. The materials used are very light and weigh but a trifle over one pound. It is three feet in length and has a lifting surface of 2.2 sq.ft. With a shooting start, flights have been made as long as 125 feet.

Walter Wellman. of polar airship fame, has brought suit against "La Vie an Grand Air" claiming $100,000 damages by reason of an article printed under the title "Les Dessous du Bluff Wellman."

The bicurve machine approximating the Farman biplane in type, which has been under construction for some time by Mr. Howard Rinek of Easton, was finished last month and is awaiting a motor. This has now arrived and as soon as it is erected and connected, trials will begin.

It is of interest to note that G. H. Cur-tiss Mfg. Co., during the past year, has sold 40 aeronautical motors. Of course, many of these were the two-cylinder airship motors so well known.

Henry Phipps, William H. and George P. Butler have resigned from the Aero Club of America.

On January 8 the body of Lieut. Foertsch, pilot of the German balloon "Ilergesell" in the duration contest on October 12th from Berlin, was taken from the North Sea. Nothing is known of what became of his companion, Lieut. Hummel.

Aero Club of Pittsfield. Thirty-two ascensions have been made since the begin ning, April n, 1906. Eight were made dur ing 1906, seven during 1907 and seventeen during 1908.

Aero Club of New England. Twenty-six ascensions have been made by members of the Club from Sept. 15, 1907, to date, and fifty-three people have been carried up, including the pilots. In twenty-four of these Charles J. Glidden was either passenger or pilot. Eighteen of these ascensions were made in America and seven of them from Springfield.

Columbia Univ. Aero Club. A smoker was held on January 6 at the St. Regis. Francis L. Ives, member, read a paper on "Mechanism for Maintaining Equilibrium in Heavier than Air Machines." Felix Reisenberg, member, who was with Walter Wellman on his three-hour voyage for the Pole, gave a most interesting description of the airship, the start, and the landing. A. Leo Stevens spoke on ballooning and encouraged the members to "get into the air." In the near future, several of the members will make ascents. Augustus Post told of his experiences in Berlin.

Aero Club of Ohio. Twenty-seven ascensions have been made under the auspices of the Club since its inception, beginning with that of December 20, 1907, and including that of January 1, 1909. Twelve of these were made by the balloon "Ohio," with the "Sky Pilot" of Messrs. Wade and Morgan second with ten. One notes that every ascension was made with a Stevens balloon.

Johnson Sherrick, President of the Club, will leave the country early in February for a six-months' stay in China.

A banquet is to be given by the Canton Aero Club in January in honor of its founder, Frank S. Lahm.

Among the guests are to be A. Holland Forbes and Alan R. Hawley.

Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society. A banquet was given on Dec. 11 at

the Hotel Majestic, attended by about a hundred members. Among the guests were: A. Leo Stevens, Hugo C. Gibson and Au gustus Post.

Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge, president of the society, presided, and among the speakers were H. D. Westcott, F. J. Kelly, Mrs. Carrie H. Kilgore, Miss M. Alva Neville, Dr. George H. Simmerman, Thomas Rose, Mrs M. E. Lockington, Dr. Henrietta Payne Westbrook, Alfred W. Lawson and Judge Charles S. King, of Stratford, N. J.

Favors at each of the plates of the diners were toy balloons, and among the features of the dinner was a song by the Aeronautical Society choir, sung through megaphones. An automobile horn was used to interrupt the speakers after they had talked for two minutes.

The Aeronautic Society. During the past month the housing sheds have been inclosed. In the shop work is being prosecuted with rapidity on two new aeroplanes. The aeroplane of Mr. Shneider is being strengthened and tried in towing flight. The regular weekly meetings are now being held in the main room of the Automobile Club of America, West 54th Street, the privileges of the rooms having been tendered the Society by the Club. A lecture will shortly be given on aviation at the Club.

In the early Spring three more full sized machines are expected to have their trials at the Morris Park Volery, and several new gliders are now being built by Charles J. Hendrickson and others. C. & A. Witte-mann are building a full sized machine at their flying machine works on Staten Island and are building for stock some improved gliders which may be easily taken down for transportation.

Aero Club of America. On December 23 Mr. James C. McCoy's resignation from the Presidency of the Club was accepted with much regret. Mr. McCoy felt however that it would be impossible for him to remain the head of the Clnb when the next few months of his time will be occupied in far away Manila. Mr. Cortlandt Field

JAMES C. McCOY

First pilot of the Aero Club,

Last month was President. In business hours on copper mines

His aero mind is bent. He judged the great initial race—

'Twas run in Buffalo— And for the Gordon Bennett Cup

He tried four months ago.

"America the Second" is

The balloon he proudly owns : He would not change its wicker car

For college chairs, or thrones. He never does a thing by halves,

In perfection finds his joy; You'd voyage round the world in vain

To find another James McCoy.

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

THE LEADER OF BALLOON

and AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTION

the keen

Sportsman

of wide experience

uses a "STEVENS BALLOON."

ALL BALLOONS ABSOLUTE HYDROGEN

and COAL GAS PROOF

varnishing by

Improved electrical

process.

ONE TO FIFTY PASSENGERS

also 'representing carton &. lachambre, leading balloon builders of

Paris, France.

Special Patented RUBBER BALLOON FABRIC, (German and French.)

THESE FABRICS HAVE BEEN TESTED—NOT IN EXPERIMENTAL STAGE.

ALBERT C. TRIACA,

AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVE FOR STEVENS BALLOONS. two cent stamps for reply.

Box 181, Madison square, new York

Bishop was elected President on the samt day. A. B. Lambert of St. Louis was on December 15 awarded Pilot's License No. iS under Article III. of the Rules governing the issue of Pilots' Licenses.

The Library of the Club has been greatlj increased. Mr. Raphael J. Moses, Chairman of the Library Committee, made the Library a generous gift of a large number of rare books on the subject of aeronautics.

The Club has taken steps toward the securing of lower rates from the Express Companies on balloons, etc. Heretofore a double first class rate has been charged on balloons, which made long trips very expensive. This charge was extremely exorbitant, for considering the weight, the space occupied by a balloon in an express car is much less than that occupied by many other articles of merchandise.

The Wright Medal Committee continues to receive subscriptions toward the cost of the medals and only a small sum is necessary to complete the fund. Subscribers to this fund who have subscribed $50 or over will receive a silver replica, and those subscribing $15 or over will receive a bronze replica. The medals are being made by Victor D. Brenner and will be some of the most artistic and valuable ever made.

It was decided to hold the National Balloon Race for the Grand Prize of the Aero Club of America during the first week of June, 1509. All the contestants must be Pilots of the Aero Club of America and the cup is to become the personal property of the winner. The value of this cup will not be less than $500. This race will be an Annual and a new Cup will be offered each year.

Roger William Wallace, a member of the Aero Club of America, one of counsel to His Majesty the King of England, was appointed to represent the Club at the special meeting of the Federation Aeronautique Internationale to be held at London, January nth. This meeting of the Federation is the most important one that has taken place since the formation of the Federation. Plans to reorganize the Federation in order to take up in detail the subject of Aviation

and relegating bal!oon contests to their proper \ lace will be considered. The detailed Rules for the Gordon Bennett International Aviation Cup for 1909 will be discussed and adopted and the general subject of the relations between the automobile and aero clubs in the several countries of the Federation will be discussed and a general course of procedure adopted. The admission of the Russian Aero Club at Odessa will be considered and it is probable that a new base of representation will be adopted to take the place of the representation according to the volume of gas used during the previous year. The question of awarding the Gordon Bennett International Balloon Cup and Prize for 1908 will be definitely settled at this time so entries for 1909 can be made before the 1st of February.

Orville Wright together with his sister arrived in New York on the night of January 4th and were met by President Cort-landt F. Bishop and Secretary Augustus Pest. On the morning of January 6th Mr. Bishop took Mr. and Miss Wright to their steamer and saw them off for Europe where they will join their brother Wilbur for consultation. Several members of the Club were at the pier to see them off among them being Charles R. Flint, Gutzon Borg-lum, and A. Leo. Stevens. Mr. James C. McCoy, former President of the Club, sailed on the same ship with the Wrights.

The National Balloon Race promises to be quite as successful as the Gordon Bennett 1907. At the present time the following balloons are being built or are on hand for the contest. Mr. Forbes' "Conqueror;" Mr. McCoy's "America II," and new balloons being built for J. H. Wade, Jr. and A. H. Morgan; Charles J. Glidden; Milwaukee Aero Club; St. Louis Aero Club, and a balloon built especially for the race by Captain Thomas S. Baldwin from his new rubber and silk material.

C. A. Coey, the owner of the big Bttra-baugh balloon "Chicago," has shipped the balloon and his touring car to Los Angeles for the winter. It is planned to make some ascensions from that city.

OVER THE CANYONS AND MOUNTAINS OF THE COAST RANGE IN A BALLOON—AN ALL NIGHT TRIP.

By Horace B. Wild.

It is not every day that one has the opportunity of stepping into the basket of a balloon filled with hydrogen gas and with the prospect of a course of 3200 miles ahead of you without any large body of water to cross. So, when I received an invitation

from Mr. Dick Ferris, the millionaire theatrical promoter of Los Angeles, to whom Leo Stevens sold the balloons "United States" and "America," to come to Los Angeles to take part in a double attempt to cross the continent—he stated in his letter the balloons were to be filled with hydrogen gas and that they ought to carry about

a hundred or a hundred and twenty-five sacks of sand each on the start, his idea being to attempt to break the world's record for distance and endurance by traveling from the Pacific to the Atlantic Coast—I immediately wired Mr. Ferris my acceptance of the best proposition I have had handed me in a long while.

When I arrived at Los Angeles I found things well under way. But, unfortunately,! the enormous hydrogen gas plant was im-l properly constructed_and_entirely inefficient.] The paTtiesT in charge of the inflation thenl decided to use two-thirds hydrogen and onex third coal gas. Both balloons were spread out, each one to be inflated with 25,000 cubic feet of coal gas of very poor lifting quality, to start with. The hydrogen gas was then turned into the balloons. On Sunday morning, Nov. 15th. the parties in charge of the inflation were compelled to complete the filling of the balloon "America" from the four inch coal gas main out of the street in order to have it ready to start before dark. At 4:30 p. m. the balloon "America," mostly inflated with coal gas, was able to get away. The trip made by this balloon was recorded in the last issue of Aeronautics. Suffice it to say^ that things were most discouraging. Mostly coal gas instead of hydrogen, the impossibility of carrying an adequate supply of ballast, and chances for the long1 trip practically lost!

On the following day, November 16, we got away. The sun shone brightly and by ten o'clock the balloon "United States" was inflated—again mostly with coal gas of little ascensional power.

Frank Leroyxez, an aeronaut who has had a great deal of experience in ballooning, was my choice for a companion. We loaded our heavy wraps into the basket and as we unhooked the sand bags one by one, the old "United States," which won the first Gordon Bennett race, ptdled and tugged at her moorings. Rex got into the basket and T stood on the outside edge.

One by, one the bags were unhooked until the.concentrating ring raised above the bas-Imagine our surprise, after seeing Mueller in the "America" start away with ly ii sacks of sand, when we balanced -wfth~33 sacks of sand.

When all was ready at 12:45 P- m-> A. Roy Knabenshue, one of the worlds' most famous aeronauts, balanced off the balloon. As we shook hands and said "good-bye" to those near the basket, Roy took off one sack of sand and up we went. He had evidently taken off too much, for the balloon did not come to equilibrium until we reached an altitude of 4000 feet, where the wind current was direct from east to west, which would carry us straight out over the ocean, 17 miles ahead of us. We travelled over six miles before we could lower our balloon into the reverse current, which we found at an altitude of 400 feet, but the wind at this altitude was very slow in velocity— not over four miles an hour.

We crossed directly over the city of Los Angeles, our trail rope dragging over the foot hills at the outskirts of the city. Great numbers of automobiles and cycles followed us as far as the country roads would permit, and many of them tried to climb the high hills, some of them being left behind, others going ahead of us. We dropped many messages and were within talking distances in some of the towns. The wind then carried us alongside a mountain range and we passed over Chapman, Vineland, Covina, North Pomona, Clairmont, North Ontario, Cucamonga, Etiwanda, Grapeland. and San Bernardino. It was 9:45 at night when we reached the latter place and we were travelling in an eastern direction.

The wind came in through Cajon Canyon, from the northeast, and swept our balloon across San Bernardino, changing our course from the east to southwest. We raised to a higher altitude in the endeavor to find a current which would carry us east. Our course varied to different points of the compass and finally, as we were carried over the Trabuco Canyon across Santiago Peak, our course again changed and we lowered our altitude as we approached a well-lighted city to again get our bearings. As we passed over the city, it was 12:40 a. m.

There were very few people on the street and we gained information from some street car employees to the effect that we were over Santa Ana. It was very foggy. We looked at our map and watched the lights below to get our direction of travel. Then a glance at our compass told us that we were headed for Newport Beach, straight out over the ocean at about 12 miles an hour. The moon was just making its appearance and as we looked out ahead we could see the light-house on the beach and the water very plainly through our glasses.

We decided to try a higher altitude and spent four sacks of sand, the balloon coming to a balance at 17,000 feet. The quick change in altitude and temperature made Rex's head ache, his ears ring, and it became very cold. We got above the fog and and the lights of the city where the stars and moon were our only guiding lights by which we could tell our direction of travel. We threw out some tissue paper confetti and watched it very slowly. We breathed a sigh of relief when we found we had gotten into a current which was carrying us almost due north and directly away from the water.

The cold condensed the gas with great rapidity and the balloon, two or three times, started to settle very fast, which made us spend quite a bit of sand, though I was very careful not to spend too much.

One hour after we left Santa Ana, we wei 2 12,000 feet high and just coming up to the high range of mountains and Mount Baldy. It was very cold and Rex became most uncomfortable. He had been spending the sand and I was watching the aneroid. The balloon soon dropped to an altitude of 5,coo feet and the wind started to carry us back towards San Bernardino. We spent one sack after another until we had disposed of four more sacks, rising from an altitude of 5,000 feet to 14.600 feet. The wind blew up the side of the mountain and kept the balloon close to it all of the time, our trail rope dragging in the snow and over the top of bushes and trees. It became so awfully cold that it froze the water in the can which we fastened on the outside of the basket. This we discovered when we reached outside to get some water to pour

on our lime heater. Shortly after that we heard the can burst, and looking out over the edge of the basket, saw where the soldered seam had opened. The rubber canopy over the basket kept some of the cold out. but it was very uncomfortable with what little heat the lime heater gave.

As we passed up the side of Alt. Baldy, our trail rope dragged through the shrubs and bushes and Rex called to me to get up from my sitting position and peer over the

edge of the basket. The moon shone very brightly and threw the shadow of the balloon on the side of the mountain ahead of us. This and the noise of the trail rope scared the deer out of the thicket. Cold as it was, Rex and I laughed at the rabbits as they sped from one bunch of thicket to the other. We now thought sure we would be able to cross over the top of the mountain into the desert, but as we passed over the top, our trail rope still dragging in the

snow, the wind came up from the desert side of the mountain and changed our course from North to the Southeast. We were swept into Cajon Canyon and at 3:05 in the morning we were again 2,000 feet over San Bernardino, in the warm valley of southern California. The water which was frozen in our can ran out as fast as it melted and it was very difficult to keep the balloon balanced. We were in hopes, this time, of being able to keep into the current which would carry us out through the San Groganio Pass into the Arizona Desert, which was directly East of us, but again we were swept across over Riverside, Pa-chappa. Arlington, Corona and Lasierra.

Here we came up close to the mountain range again on the opposite side of the valley, knowing that if we went over them we would go out over the ocean, and our course now lay in a southwesterly direction. We kept down very low and the wind carried us in a circle. After wandering around in the valley very slowly, about five o'clock, when day broke, we found we were five miles north of Ontario where we had passed at nine o'clock the night before. We then got into an easterly current and travelled about 44 miles back over San Bernardino again, at 10:30 a. m. Again the wind caught us from the Cajon Canyon and back over the same course we went. We had four sacks of sand left and we were very much discouraged.

As we neared Corona, we came to some high fool-hills covered with rocks and sage bush. As the balloon neared them, the trail rope struck the side of the hill and the balloon raised as we passed up over it. Then the wind caught us from the other side and the balloon was in an almost stationary position, the trail rope swinging off the top of the hill and clearing the ground. The weight of the trail rope, however, brought the balloon down and we continued to settle down the side of the hill. This was very amusing to Rex and I as we took a great many pictures of the different views.

We knew we would soon have to land and were trying to reach Corona, which was about four miles ahead of us. As we slid down the side of the hill our trail rope was caught underneath some sharp rocks

and we tried very hard to pull it loose, but could not. Off in a field about a quarter of a mile away were some farm hands plowing and we called out to them through the megaphone for help. We threw out two sacks of sand endeavoring to pull loose from the rocks which were holding us, but to no avail.

After we hung there for half an hour, a boy about 18 years old came running across the field and climbed up the side of the hill and called out to us, "What is the matter?" We told him our rope was fastened on the rocks and to take his time and not run too fast. When he got up to where the trail rope was fastened, we called to him to loosen it and pull the balloon down. The wind veered the balloon out away from tin hill and the minute the young man loosened the rope and hung on to it, it swung with him out into space away from the hill. In a second I saw what had happened and as as the wind was carrying us out over the ploughed field, I called as loud as I could for the boy to hang on to the rope, telling Rex to pull the rip cord. We were then about 200 feet above the ground. I reached over the side of the basket and tried to take a picture of the young man hanging on the rope. Rex pulled the ripping panel and the balloon settled past. The boy struck the ground very hard and Rex and I and the basket got a good shaking up, but I am very thankful that the boy was not hurt, although he was very badly scared. How he managed to hang on he could not tell. This ended our trip.

The balloon was packed up, loaded on the back of an automobile, and at o o'clock that night we were back in Los Angeles, after riding 55 miles to Los Angeles from the place where we landed. We trav elled altogether about 680 miles at all points of the compass and were in the air 24 hours and 25 minutes. We spent our sand very carefully and used the best judgment we knew how in piloting the balloon. Wc had two bags of sand left when we landed and about 50 pounds of provisions. It was two days after we landed before the wind conditions changed so that a balloon could have gotten out of the valley of Southern California. While we travelled it was a

whirlpool of variable air currents. If we had had 50 or 60 sacks of sand at the start, we might have been able to try an altitude of 20,000 ft. and gotten over the mountains, but we would have been worse off then, as we would have had no sand to travel on, land in the middle of the desert and walk probably a hundred miles or so to civilization, as the other contestants were forced to do.

In my opinion balloon racing is the most thrilling and exhilarating sport known to mankind—there is something about it that thrills one's very soul and in many instances we experience things which are exempt from the ordinary balloon trip. I will not deny that balloon racing is hard work and sometimes the long endurance is very trying on one's nerves, but yet you go on as long as you have ballast to spend endeavoring to beat the other fellow. I do not believe in dare-devil reckless balloon piloting—this is a bad thing to trifle with and sooner or later it will "get you."

Any intelligent person can see very plainly that a balloon built of good material and properly rigged with material of sufficient strength, such as netting, basket, etc.. is the most fool-proof conveyance in the world today.

I have made nineteen trips in spherical gas balloons and have yet to experience my first accident. To the ordinary person that has never made a balloon trip it may look very simple and again it ma}' seem a hazardous exploit to others, but after being constantly engaged for the past eight years on ballooning and various sorts of aeronautics. 1 am just beginning to realize how little T know about it in comparison to what there is to be learned.

My trip from Los Angeles was very pleasant and educational, with the exception of the cold, and I am very sorry we failed in our attempt to cross the Continent. In some of the balloon races I have been in this summer, newspaper men have been taken up as companions for the purpose of writing a story—about ballooning. It is very wrong to come back from a balloon trip and tell of the hazardous trials and tribulations met with and how you flirted with death every minute. If an aeronaut or

his companion have any respect for friends who are professional aeronauts or if they are good aeronauts themselves and want to see ballooning progress they will not discourage the general public with any such stories, which only make folks think that a balloonist and aeronauts are absolute lunatics. Let me inform you that the story does not sound realistic at all. The past eight years I have worked very hard on the problem of aerial navigation and although 1 have had one or two accidents with the different dirigible balloons which 1 have built. I have always been cool-headed and used good judgment and come out all right in the end. I have made it a point to be very, very careful in every detail in engin-

eering any kind of an aeronautical event. I am going back to Los Angeles next summer with a large balloon and try again to cross the Continent and you may be assured that I will see that my balloon is filled with good hydrogen gas, instead of poor coal gas, for I honestly believe Los Angeles is the greatest starting point for a long distance balloon trip we have in the United States.

1 must say that I was treated royally while at the coast by the members of Aero Club of Los Angeles and the Polytech-nical High School, who kindly assisted me in every way possible. I must also say that great credit is due Mr. Dick Ferris for his spirit of sportsmanship.

As a sign of progress, it is of interest to note that the New York Public Library has been obliged to issue a separate catalogue of aeronautical works on file. This catalogue covers nearly every aeronautical book published to date and contains 556 names. It is actually surprising to note the number of books that have been written on aeronautics. No attempt has been made to include in this list the references to periodical articles contained in Poole's Index.

After the passing of the first law in regard to apparatus for aerial locomotion, mentioned in a previous issue, comes a paper read at the International Law Session of the American Political Science Ass'n, at Richmond, Va., Dec. 31st, entitled "Aerial Navigation in its Relation to International Law," by Arthur K. Kuhn, of the N. Y. Bar.

The British magazine "Aeronautics" has undertaken the organization of an Aeronautical Exhibition to be held in connection with the Travel Exhibition at Olympia, London, during July next, and for which an important section of the main hall has been reserved.

What is of important interest is the fact that commercial exhibits of aeronautical

apparati (balloons, airships, flying machines, kites, engines, propellers, gas manufacture and compression, instruments, food, clothing, models, castings, etc.), are to be charged with space, as is customary with industrial exhibitions. This is the first time that space for aeronautical apparatus has been charged for in any exposition and it certainly shows that there is actually a well established industry.

Another sign of the times is the sale of dirigible balloons on "Automobile Row" in New York. Sidney B. Bowman, the New York agent for the Clement-Bayard automobile, is representing the Clement-Bayard airship in this country and has this announcement boldly set forth in big gold letters on his Broadway windows.

Patrick Y. Alexander, of England, who "ran over" for a couple of days after Christmas, says that there are now at least fifty flying machines in Europe and that $1,000,000 is invested in the flying machine industry in Europe; and predicts that 1909 will see this sum quintupled, with flying machines that will easily go 30 to 40 miles at a jump. Mr. Alexander's hobby is manpower flight and prophesies that time will produce a volator which will fly by the operator's power alone.

PERFECTION IN FLYING MACHINES

The "R. E. P. II-Bis" Monocurve in Its Latest Form—The New Bleriot Bicurve.

By Carl Dienstbach.

What might justly be called the most finished of the European Hying machines has, curiously enough, so far carried off but one small 200-meter prize. An explanation may indeed be found in its being a monocurve, with its essential lack of stability, in spite of the sensational feats of Bleriot's monoplane, achieved at the cost of taking great risk and numberless wreckings.

The following statements will establish the initial claim for the R. E. P. Il-Bis:

1. Air cooled motor perfected to the extent of non-heating at prolonged hard service.. 35 h.p.. 40 liters of gasoline. 6 liters of oil; for two hours.

2. Beautifully harmonious design; apparatus shapely and compact (still allowing sufficient leverage for controlling devices), forming a very serviceable, round central body which shelters everything but the aviator's head from the draught and much cuts down head resistance. Motor at front extremity, with one 2-meter 4-bladed metal propeller, the efficient result of much experience, directly attached, making shafting superfluous and increasing efficiency of cooling. No pointing of the apparatus is thus needed because the very bluntness is beneficial.

3. Chassis of steel tubing of great rigidity autogenously welded.

4. Wings unusually smooth and shapely, wing profile brought to a degree of perfection so as to support a total weight of 420 kilograms on only 15.75 square meters of surface at a speed of but 60 kilometers an hour. n4>X k^. p-*^ s*5}. 7V^-*3uy,

5. Running gear showing higher development than found in other machines. Strong 1-wheeled support with automatic Oleo pneumatic shock absorber, capable of breaking 350 kilogrammeters over a distance of 25 centimeters. The absorber automatically adapts its effect to the square of the shock's

velocity and becomes active upon the wheel's touching the ground. Wooden roller in rear and light bicycle wheel under front corner of each wing tip; curved skids on the rear part of wing tips. Apparatus at beginning of flight on the ground inclined; obviously rights itself the instant air pressure gathers under wings.

6. Very efficient controlling organs. Central body lined with under and upper vertical fins giving certainty of direction. Vertical rudder, extending below rear of body, well balanced. Large horizontal rudder at extreme rear end and very powerful to

pelterie ii-bis L'Autoiiiobile

combat heavy gusts. And last, not least, efficient system of twisting the wing tips, exactly as in the Wright machine.

7. Great comfort, ease and safety for the pilot, sitting like a chauffeur behind his motor with gauges, a "dashboard" before him in a well sheltered cockpit. He could hardly be injured in the worst accident, having thus nothing to constrain him or to be caught in, unless the machine should turn turtle and spill, or come down on top of him. If merely falling edgewise, it should form a very efficient buffer against the shock on every side, the shortest distance towards the front end being some 3 meters.

8. The devices for handling the different controls are ideal. Left-foot pedal starting motor by compressed air; right-foot pedal working throttle and spark. Right-hand lever, with sideways movement only, works

vertical rudder and thus steers towards the side to which it is pushed in a corresponding degree. Left-hand lever, with ball-and-socket joint, stabilizes in every sense by lowering exactly that side of the machine towards which it is pushed. This lever can he moved towards any point of the compass, thus working the horizontal rudder and twisting the wings at the same time to a corresponding degree, or only one performing function. Pushing it ahead sets the horizontal rudder to raise the rear end, pushing it astern to depress the latter. Pushing it to the right gives the right wing, pushing to the left the left wing at decreased angle of flight, with corresponding increase of the opposite wing's angle. This

is certainly the most perfect system thus far of handling controls. It makes flying easy, and brings about a natural reflex action without any thinking being needed, the idea taking at once possession of the mind that any dangerous inclination is immediately remedied by a simple movement of the "magic wand" in the left hand towards that side, of an amplitude corresponding to the violence of the disturbance. This system is also beneficial in entirely separating the steering process from the stabilizing process as far as mental action goes. Although stabilizing by twisting will necessitate, like in the Wright machine, a corresponding steering movement, the latter, to the mind, will always appear as apart from the stabilizing effort and eliminate confusion.

Amongst power-supported air craft, the new R. E. P. forms a fitting counterpart to

the Clement-Bayard airship as to real finish in aeronautical construction.

NEW bler10t b1curve MACHINE.

This new machine also shows the influence of America on French construction. Bleriot's experiences, however, going up in winds the strongest yet braved by any aviator, seem to show that, in one respect, the monoplane is more immune than the multiple surface machine, there being less "catches and pockets" for the wind. As the R. E. P. won its prize in a 17-mile wind the latter may yet fully vindicate the monosurface.

The main surfaces, of thin rubber cloth, have a spread of £2 meters by 2.5 meters front to back, curved the same degree as

new bleriot Aiitomotorfl.

the Wright machine, a total supporting surface of 60 sq. meters. In front is a 3-plane vertical rudder and behind are 2 horizontal surfaces having a total surface of 16 sq. meters. These latter are pivoted for the purpose of controlling the altitude of flight. The outside triangular braces holding these two horizontal rudders to the main surfaces are inclosed, making vertical surfaces, like jibs.

The motor is a 50-h.p. Antoinette driving through chains a single screw of 3 meters diameter at 480 r. p. m. in the rear. The screw is made of wood covered with cloth and it is lighter than aluminum and at the same time stronger. In addition to the pilot, seats are provided for three people, two sitting in front and two behind.

The up and down movements of the reai surfaces are controlled by tiller ropes con-

nected to a single lever placed at the hand of the operator.

Tlie radiator is an ingenious arrangement on each side of the pilot between the vertical struts. It consists of a mass of hollow aluminum rings attached to the vertical, canvas surface and united one to the other by short lengths of rubber tubing, the top and bottom rows being each connected to a collector.

The machine is mounted on small wire wheels fitted with large cross-section pneumatics. Hydraulic shock absorbers are employed for the front suspension.

Instead of the two wooden levers used by Wright, the forward rudder is operated by means of an ordinary automobile steering wheel with vertical column and a lever underneath for the control of the rear elevation planes.

EFFECT OF DRIFT UPON THE SPEED OF FLYING

MACHINES.

By Williams Welch.

When a motor balloon or aeroplane goes over a course and back, the wind retards it more in one direction than it sets it ahead

Percent of loss ato speed of 20 miles per hour

i 2 3 4- 5 6 7 8 9 10 ii 12 13 14

Velocity of wind in miles per hour

in the other. This loss from drift varies with the direction as well as the velocity of the wind. When blowing parallel with the course it retards the average speed more

than twice as much as it does when blowing at right angles to it.

This diagram shows the per cent, of loss, i.e.. the per cent, of adJitional time required when the wind is blowing compared with the time required in still air in going over a measured course and back.

The values given are for a speed of 20 miles per hour in still air; but the per cent, of loss for any other speed may be found by multiphring the per cent, shown by 20 and dividing by the speed per hour in still air. For example: with the wind at 45 degrees to the course and blowing at 7 miles per hour the loss is shown to be 10 per cent. The loss for a motor balloon with a speed of 10 miles per hour would be 10^X20-^ 10=20%, while the loss to an aeroplane with a speed of 40 miles per hour in still' air would be 10% X20-^-40=5%.

FIRST STEPS IN AVIATION AND MEMORABLE FLIGHTS

Compiled by Octave Chanute. /^VJ - Model; 1, 2, 3 = the number of possible passengers.

Kditor's Note :—Practical results in aviation have now been attained and it seems desirable to trace the successive steps and attempts. This schedule shows that the greatest success has been attained by the bi-surface machine.

date

1n V kntor

kim) of aim'aratfs

 

distance flown

circumstances

Xlth Century

Oliver of Malniesbury

Glider

1

370 ft.

From a tower. Fell and broke a leg.

XlVtli Century

Dante

Aeroplane

1

not stated

Over Lake Trasimene. Then Perugia from

     

a tower, hell and broke leg.

17H4

r.aunoy and Bienvenu

Screws

m

not stated

Superposed screw driven by bow.

1842

1

W. H. Phillips

Helicopter

m

not stated

Steam Eolipyle; sailed 2 fields.

1.866

Wenhain

Aeroplane

1

not stated

First superposed surfaces.

11865

Monillard

Aeroplane

1

13S ft.

In Algeria. Broke one wing.

1896

Mouillard

Aeroplane

1

100 "

In Egypt. Produced aspiration.

1867

I,e Bris

Aeroplane

1

600 "

First warping of wings.

1872

Ader

Beating Wings

1

-

Map power found inadequate.

.1897

Ader

Avion

1

1000 "

Steam motor. Capsized in wind.

1894

Maxim

Aeroplane

3

300 "

Large. Equilibrium deficient.

187S

Forlanini

Helicopter

111

?

Superheated water steam engine.

J896

]yangley

Aeroplane

m

3000 "

Great success. Steam motor.

1903

Langley

Aei oplane

1

40 "

Never properly launched.

1S92

Ulienthal

Glider

1

600 "

Made over 2oro glides. '

1S96 1890

Ulienthal

Glider

1

1000 "

Upset by wind gust and killed.

Hargrave

Aeroplane

m

368 "

Flapping wing propellers.

1891

Hargrave

Aeroplane

111

128 "

Screw propeller. Compressed air.

1893

H. F. Phillips

Venetian blind

111

2000 ''

Longitudinal tquilibiium bad.

1907 189b

H. F. Phillips

Venetian blind

1

600 "

Longitudinal equilibi iuni satisfactory.

Chant-te

Glider

1

400 "

Showed trussed biplane reasonably safe.

1900

Wright

Glider

1

600 "

Made about icoo glides, 1901-2-3.

Dec. 17, iqo3

Wright

Biplane

1

852 "

First flight of man carrying motor machine.

Oct. 5, 1905

Wright

Biplane

1

24 miles

Near Dayton. Gasoline motor.

Dec. 31, 1908

Wright

Biplane

2

76 "

In France.-j )

Aug. 22, 190b

Santos Duniont

Cellular

1

--

First flight "in Europe man carrying machine.

Nov. 12 lqtb

Santos Dnmont

Cellular

1

720 ft.

Won several prizes. ^

Oct. 8, 1906

Vina

Monoplane

1

--

Short flights—Broke machine.

Mar. 30, 1907

Delagrange

Biplane

1

650 "

First demonstrated biplane in Europe.

Sept. 6, 190S

Delagrange

Biplane

1

15 miles

At Issy-les-Moulineaux.

Juh 11, 1907

Bleriot

Monoplane

1

100 ft.

Built 8 monoplanes—all broken.

Oct. 31, 190S

Bleriot

Monoplane

I

9 miles

Toury to Avernay. Broke in landing.

Oct. 15, 1907

Farman

Biplane

1

935 ft.

Made good flights from beginning.

Jan. 12, 190S

Farnian

Biplane

1

f„ mile

Won Deutsch-Archdeacon prize.

Oct. 30, 1908

Farman

Biplane

1

17 miles

Bony to Reims.

Oct. 27, 1907

Esnault Felterie

Monoplane

1

100 ft.

Found some deficiencies.

June 8, 190S

Esnault Pelterie

Monoplane

1

X m'le

Is building new machine.

Nov. is, 1907

De L,a Vaulx

Monoplane

1

200 ft.

Results unsatisfactory.

Dec. 17, 1 07

De PischofT

Biplane

1

500 "

Tries thick front edge on wings.

Feb. 12, 1908

Gastanibide ^

Monoplane

1

400 "

Equilibrium unsatisfactory.

Aug. 2i, 1908

Mengin J

 

1

1 mile

Will be rebuilt.

Mar. 25, 190S

Cornu

Helicopter

1

--

Rose 1 foot.

July 22, it»o8

Breguet

1 Helicopter

1

-

Rose 13 feet.

     

24

 

Have Made Good

The Scientific American Trophy was won with a "Curtiss" motor.

The United States Government's dirigible balloon, which was successfully demonstrated at Ft. Myer and later at the army maneuvers at St. Joseph, was equipped with a "Curtiss" motor.

The aeroplane, "Red Wing", the first heavier-than-air machine to make a public flight in America, was propelled by a "Curtiss" motor.

Dr. Alexander Graham Bell's tetrahedral aerodrome has a "Curtiss" motor.

Captain T. S. Baldwin, who always "gets back" in his dirigible balloon, uses "Curtiss" motors.

Roy Knabenshue's new three passenger airship is driven by a "Curtiss" motor.

J Newton Williams' helicoptere, the only flying machine of this type to get off the ground in America, had a "Curtiss" motor.

In fact, every aeronaut who is making a success in this country has adopted a "Curtiss" motor.

Our motors give the greatest power per pound weight consistent with reliability. All styles—one to eight cylinder, two to one hundred horse-power, air and water-cooled.

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Issued in conjunction with or separate from "Knowledge & Illustrated Scientific News"

Devoted to aerostation, avintion, meteorology, aerology, etc. Edited by Major B. Baden-Powell and John H. Ledeboer

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By SIR HIRAM MAXIM

Air Currents and Flight of Birds—Flying of Kites—Principles Relating to Screws—Experiments with Apparatus Attached to Rotating Arm—Hints as to Building—Steering with Gyroscope—Shape and Efficiency of Aeroplanes— Action of Aeroplanes and Power Required in Simplest Terms—Recent Machines —Balloons—Efficiency of Screws—Stability—Motors.

95 ILLUSTRATIONS—166 PAGES. PRICE $1.85 POSTPAID AERONAUTICS

NAVIGATING THE AIR

B* the Members of the Aero Club of America

*\ An interesting record of the personal ideas and experiences of twenty-four distinguished meu. This book is intended to be a summary of the present state of the art.

U Among the contributors: Wright Brothers, 0. Chanute, Prof. Wm. H. Pickering, Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, Prof. T. S. C. Lowe, William J. Hamn^r, Chas. M. Manly, Prof. David Todd, Dr. Oliver L. Fassig, Dr. A. F. Zahm, A. Leo Stevens, A. M. Herring.

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.A. TlMiCLiY BOOIC

THE PROBLEM OF FLIGHT, ^txl'^^NG

By HERBERT CHATLEY, B.Sc. (Engineering), LONDON Lecture in Applied Mechanics, Portsmouth Technical Institute SIXTY-ONE ILLUSTRATIONS OCTAVO CLOTH, $3.50 NET

The author lakes advantage of the encouraging outlook for a practical solution to lhe piobltui of aetial navigation and in this work submits to the engineering profession an epitome of the knowledge at present available on the subject.

While inlende i est ecially for the engineering profession, the book should be of value to any one interestt-d in a topic that is receiving so much studv and atiention at the pi esent lime.

OUTLINE OF CONTENTS—The Problem of Flighl, Esssnlia! Principles, The Helix. The Aeroplane, Aviplanes, Dirigible Balloons, Form and Fittings of the Airship.

An appendix furnishes much instructive miscellaneous information.

Aeronautics

No collection is complete without

BALLOONING AS A SPORT

By Major B. Baden Powell President of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain

A hand-book of ballooning; a guide for the amateur

PRICE $1.10 AERONAUTICS

 

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FOR SALE—Two complete captive balloon outfits, consisting of gas bag, net, valve and car for 4 persons, controlled bv motor windlass with clutch and brake, besides patent portable hydrogen gas works for inflation.

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LANGLEY MEDAL.

Smithsonian Institution is planning a "Langley Medal" to be offered as a reward for successful endeavors in aviation in appreciation of the grand work of Professor Samuel Pierpont Langley. Jt has not yet been decided as to conditions for competition and other matters.

MONTE CARLO FLYING MACHINE MEET.

The International Sporting Club of Monaco is arranging a series of contests between the 24th of Jan. and the 24th of Mar. over the bay of Monaco for $20,000 in prizes.

Three flights must be made on three different days, the machine starting from the port of Monaco, flying across the bay, around a flag at the extremity of Cape Martin and returning to the start. Time will be taken as machine crosses sea wall going out and back. Distance across in a straight line is 5.9 miles. There are no restrictions as to starting. A suitable apparatus for landing in the water must be provided on each machine. Trials can be made any time between the two dates. Entry fee of $20. Entries close Mar. 1. How many will enter from America?

GORDON BENNETT BALLOON RACE FOR 1909.

Entries must be received by the Aero Club of America for this race by February 1. Earnest appeal is being made to the sporting spirit of American ballooners in order that this country may be represented in this race. After having won the first one, and held the second in the United States, we should not give up the fight till the cup is back here where it should be. The three yearly cash prizes in addition to the cup lia've now been given and there is no cash prize this year beyond the share in the entry fees.

MORE PRIZES ABROAD.

The Societie d'Encouragement a Aviation has notified the Aero Club of France of the founding of a cup of $2,000 value for aviation.

Haron de Lagatinerie has offered through the Ae. C. F. $1,000 to encourage the "young idea."

The Ligue Nationale Aerienne has received two new prizes of $200 each. Nearly every day the Ligue receives another thousand francs and they now total a little less than forty.

The Poignant $200 prize goes to the first aviator to make 100 kilometers in an hour.

The holder of the record straight line dis tance on Oct. 31, 1909, will receive the $200 Rabourdin prize.

$200 through the Ligue to the aviator who beats the best Wright record for 1909.

$3,000 is offered by the "Gazette delle Sport" of Italy to the first ■ aviator to fly from Milan to Turin. 132 kiloms.

The "Derniere Heure." of Paris, offers $2,000 to the aviator who makes the fastest flight from Brussels to Ostend and back, or an equivalent distance in Belgium between Aug. 15 and Sept. 15. Four stops allowed.

The Aero Club of Prance continues its small prizes by establishing three prizes for beginners of $20 each for those who fly the first 250 meters.

Belgium will give a gold medal to any one who flies a straight kilometer in Belgium in 1909.

The alumni of the French National School of Arts and Crafts has given to the League $500.

The Aero Club of France calls attention to the fact that for 1907 it holds $91,050 in prizes, not counting the $20,000 of Monaco meet.

VOLATOR IN MINNEAPOLIS.

A. C. Bennett of Minneapolis, with the Wilcox Motor Car Co., has nearly completed a flyer of the Wright pattern, except that but one propeller is used. The surfaces are nearly planes and they contemplate high speed and small angles.

NEW ADAMS-FARWELL MOTOR.

It has just been decided to add to the line of aeronautic motors made by the Adams Co., Dubuque, Iowa, a 55 h.p. five-cyl. motor with smooth steel cylinders. This will be similar in appearance to the 36 h.p. motor but will have cylinders of sv\" bore by 5" stroke, which, according to the A. L. A. M. formula, gives a rating of 55 h-P-

ADAMS-FARWEI.lv MOTOR DRIVING HORIZONTAL SHAFT THROUGH Bh.VEI, GEARS

The weight of this motor will be about 175 lbs., or approximately 3 lbs. per h.p. The price will be $1,600 f.o.b. Dubuque, the same as for the 63 h.p. motor with cast-iron cylinders, which is considerably heavier in weight. The over-all dimensions will also be the same as the 63 h.p. motor.

The first part of December, two Adams-Farwell 36 h.p. aero motors were delivered: one to Fred Shneider, 216 Coney Island Ave., Brooklyn; the other to E. C. Marble. 90 Market St., Chicago. The illustration shows one of these motors driving a horizontal shaft through bevel gears. It can be made to run in either direction. This is a similar motor to that supplied Emile Berliner, in Washington, some time ago for his helicopter.

NEWS FROM THE STEVENS BALLOON "FOUNDRY."

Messrs. J. H. Wade, Jr. and A. H. Morgan have ordered "the finest balloon that can be made," of 2,200 cubic meters capacity, to be called the "City of Cleveland." Two baskets will be supplied; one for racing and one for passenger trips. The first ascension will be made the latter part of April or the first of May from some point in the East, and during the year some longdistance trip will be made. This is the second balloon for Messrs. Wade and Morgan.

The Anthony wireless dirigible, mentioned last issue, has been still further improved and fitted with a more powerful motor. It was successfully started, stopped and steered at the factory at 282 Ninth Avenue, New York, by wireless from Newark, N. J. The adaptation of this apparatus for use in time of war is obvious.

Mr. Stevens is conducting some experiments in wireless telephoning, Collins system, between the wireless tower on the Singer Building and the Collins factory at Newark, the balloon to be sent up from Newark in order to gain the desired height.

The early spring will see the try-out of the new Stevens one-man "runabout" combination dirigible-spherical balloon over the City of New York. (See September issue, p. 31.) The first one will have an 8-10 h.p. motor. The whole contrivance will weigh but 410 pounds without the operator.

Mr. Stevens is communicating with the various clubs affiliated with the Aero Club of America with a view to offering a cup to be competed for in balloon races at least once a month from the various points.

There are several new improvements to be introduced into the 1909 balloons, both in the cars and envelopes, among them being a ballast convenience, an inspection hole in the envelope and a gas refrigerator mentioned in a previous number. The Aero Club of New England has just purchased a 2.200-ctibic-meter balloon, which, like the Wade-Morgan balloon, will embody the new features.

MEDALS OFFERED BY A. C. TRIACA.

For 1909, A. C Triaca, proprietor of the International School of Aeronautics at Morris Park, Westchester, N. Y., will offer a gold medal for the propeller which, during the year, shows the greatest efficiency. A second gold medal will also be given tc the manufacturer of the most efficient and cheapest motor for aviation. These two medals will be available to competitors both in France and America.

On the occasion of the banquet of the Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society, Mr. Triaca offered a gold medal to the first woman balloon pilot.

Mr. Triaca has just sent a check for 500 francs to the Aero Club of France in ordei that Wilbur Wright, who has made the greatest distance during the year 1908, may receive this reward, presented by L. Chauviere, through the Aero Club of France. This prize was offered in the spring of 1908 and was made applicable to both France and America, it being the sole prize for aviation in America up to the present time.

AVIATION ON THE COAST.

irvine "ahrocycloid."

J. C. Irvine, and associate. J. E. Sheanen, of San Francisco, are working on a machine which he calls an "aerocycloid." The machine consists of two upright wheels re-volvable on a fixed supporting shaft and driven by cables from the source of power; four propelling planes, or discs, pivoted between the peripheries of said wheels; sprocket wheels fixed to the pivots of the blades, over which run endless chains. There are two large sprockets fixed at each end of the main supporting shaft and connected by chain to the sprockets of the blades. The small sprockets are so arranged that the planes on the down stroke present their full surface to the air. and on the up stroke present their edges.

The machine is designed to operate as follows: "With the propelling planes in the position shown in the picture, the whole force will be exerted in the upward or lifting direction. When the desired elevation is attained the shaft carrying the two sprocket wheels is rotated to give the propeller-planes the

proper dip or angle which will cause a downward and backward deflection of the created air current, which will cause the machine to travel in a forward direction, without any loss of lifting power, as the planes in the up stroke acting on the kite or aeroplane principle cause a lifting action.

"The reverse direction is accomplished by reversing the action. The direction of the machine can be changed by retarding one of the upright wheels which will raise that

irvine "aerocvci.oid"

side of the propeller planes the slightest degree and the machine will turn in the opposite direction."'

Mr. Irvine states: "Could there be a machine of more simple construction? The transmission of power is ideal. The cable runs direct around the peripheries of the large wheels, the exact point of resistance, as they carry the aero propellors. The parachute and kite offer the most direct and efficient resistance to the air; their principle is identical with the 'aerocycloid.'

"But the most important of all is equilibrium. The 'aerocycloid' is built on the gyroscopic principle. It is a well-known fact that a rapidly revolving wheel will keep its course, and as the weight is far below

the center of lift, the machine should be able to maintain its poise. Even if it should lose its line of incidence for a moment, the rapidly moving planes and gravity would cause the machine to right itself automatically.

"Advantages over the aeroplane: It can raise straight up in a vertical line or at an angle, making it possible to ascend in a small inclosure; can make a very short turn; can stand still or hover in the air, which is a great advantage in reconnoiter-ing or looking for a -place to land; then being of much less area it would not lie affected by lateral currents or eddies."

ENGLISH HEMCOPTHK.

Walter English, of Sather, a suburb of San Francisco, is constructing a large helicopter, 2 propellers and a 64-h.p. motor. It is said that one of the propellers, tested with a 2C-h.p. motor, gave a lift of 800 lbs. The inventor is for the present keeping his plans secret.

STORES OPEN TO SELL AIRSHIPS.

Late in November. Roy Knabenshue, famous as an airship pilot, opened, in Los Angeles, a store on the windows of which appears this legend: "Curtiss Motorcycles —Airships—Flying Machines." No flying machines are exhibited in the window but there is a Curtiss motorcycle and Knabenshue has been making flights in his airship over Los Angeles and showing, with confetti, how easy it would be to drop bombs.

Two weeks later, Sidney B. Bowman, agent for the Clement-Bayard car and now agent for the Clement-Bayard airship, also displayed in great gold letters on his Broadway, New York, windows that he was ready to receive orders for dirigibles. Mr. Bowman was the first man in America to advertise airships in the daily papers.

We have long ago recorded the entrance into the commercial field, of builders of airships and flying machines, but these two concerns, however, we believe are the first to actually have a store as a distributing center on a prominent business street of a large city.

AERO DIVISION OF N. Y. AUTO SHOW.

One of the features of the automobile show of the American Motor Car Mfrs. Ass'n. held at Grand Central Palace, Dec. 31st to Jan. 7th, is the exhibit of the International School of Aeronautics, of which Albert C. Triaca is proprietor.

The work of the school is illustrated by the very numerous models of typical aero-

static and aerodynamic apparatus. Among them are the following: Clement-Bayard. Republique. model Mallet aerostat, Voisin glider, Wright aeroplane, with catapult. Voisin and Antoinette aeroplanes, parachute made by Stevens, model kites and aeroplanes of various types. Instruments of precision made by Hiie, adapted to aero-dromics, are also shown, together with a large collection of enlargements of Rol photographs.

For the previous three years the Aero Club of America held exhibitions but this year abandoned the idea, at least for this season.

AERO TOURNAMENT FOR CINCINNATI.

A number of business men of Cincinnati have been interested by Walter C. Collins and it is the intention to hold in that city during March or April an aeronautical exhibition of possibly three days' duration. This is expected to consist of a balloon race, airship demonstration and a display of flying machines.

Trophies will be offered by a number of business organizations and equitable arrangements will be made with all those who participate.

Mr. Collins, whose address is 429 Arch Street, is making an urgent appeal to all those interested in the subject to communicate with him and lend their support towards making the plan a success.

AERODROMIC PATENTS.

Of probably the greatest present interest is No. 908,929. just issued to Orville and Wilbur Wright. It is entitled "Mechanism for Flexing the Rudder of a Flying Machine or the Like," and covers mechanism for actuating the front and rear edges of their horizontal rudder at different angular

velocities, in opposite directions, presenting of a concave surface to the wind, the lever control, and the upright levers on a shaft through the pivotal center.

Other patents: Aerial Machine, H. S. Booth, 907,120, 907.310; Propelling Device for Balloons and Flying Machines, K. Buch-berger, 907,312; Aeroplane, T. H. Gignilliat, 906,406; Flying Machine, J. B. MacDuff, 905,547; Airship, R. C. White, 906,842; Airship, G. Pum, 906,559.

AERONAUTISM IN MASSACHUSETTS FOR 1509.

Massachusetts led all states of the Union in ballooning during the year 1908 and promises well for 1909. There were 68 ascensions during the year and 160 persons made aerial trips without mishaps. 400 ascensions are predicted for 1909, not counting the trips of the Aerial Navigation Company who hope to start in May first with

their passengers headed for New York, using a dirigible of the Count Zeppelin pattern. Balloon ascensions on short notice can be made from Springfield, Pittsiield, North Adams, Fitchburg. Nashua and Lowell. There are clubs numbering about 400 members at Hartford, Springfield, Pitts-field, North Adams and Boston. The members of the Hartford Club will use the Springfield station. There will be one balloon at Pittsfield, two at North Adams, two at Springfield. The New England Club will keep the "Boston" at Fitchburg and their new 77.ooo-eubic-foot-capacity balloon, the "New England" at Springfield, Pittsfield and North Adams. This balloon will be the size of the balloons used in the International races and capable of carrying five persons all day and two persons 48 hours. Ascents are likely to be made from Springfield to Labrador during the summer. The season will open about May 1st.

The Boston Herald offers a trophy to the pilot starting 40 miles away that lands the nearest to the center of Boston Common; the Fitchburg Board of Trade offers a trophy to the winner of the Herald trophy that starts from Fitchburg; and the Springfield Aero Club, a trophy to the winner of the Herald trophy that starts from Springfield. The Poland Spring Company offer a trophy to the pilot landing within two miles of the Spring, starting 150 miles away, and the Mt. Washington Hotel, a trophy to the pilot landing within two miles of their hotel, starting 150 miles away. The pilot making the first ascension wins the trophies of the Herald until another lands nearer the Common.

During the past year North Adams led with 34 ascensions; Pittsfield second with 17. and Springfield third with 13.

THE PARIS SALON.

The automobile salon held in Paris, Dec. 24-30, made a special feature of its aeronautical department. which, curiously enough, they label "ler Salon International de Aeronautiquc." However, "anything goes" in the exhibition business. Aeronautical exhibitions have been held a number of times previous.

The center of interest was a Wright aeroplane and the "Avion" of Ader which is now claimed to have been the first dynamic machine to fly. Bleriot showed his biplane and new models of monoplanes. Among other exhibits were the Delagrange and Farman machines, Vaniman models, Bre-guet gyroplane, Pelterie monoplane, Clement-Bayard 7-cylinder Farcot, Antoinette, Pipe, Corwin, Gnome, Fiat and Gobron aero motors. In the central hall was a full-sized dirigible.

The criticism on the motors shown was that they all ran at around 1200 r.p.m., and aviators ask, of what special advantage is a light motor when one has to add the weight of induction gears for the propellers ?

lotted to the automobile salon, it has made twice as much as the total sum taken in by the latter.

Wright aeroplanes already have been sold, ordered mostly by rich amateurs, at $5,000 apiece.

CHICAGO ALIVE TO PROGRESS IN AERODROMICS.

The aeroplane which has been under construction for some time in Chicago by ri&Cr-a€£=JL«W4J4, Carl Bates nnrl a Mr Y^ngf-r has been completed and had its first trial. Mr. Wild writes that after a flight of 200 feet, about, the landing crushed both wheels and the front control was found not to be

THE ADER MACHINE

Ader's first apparatus, called "Eole," it is claimed in France, flew a distance of about 50 meters on the Qth of October, 1890. "The event was not related by any written document, but our predecessors buried in the ground some pieces of coal in the exact place from where we had risen in our apparatus." The machine was rebuilt and named "Avion," and on the 14th of October, 1893, in the presence of a military commission the machine is claimed to have flown 300 meters in a strong wind.

Characteristics: Weight, 238 kilogs.; fuel and water (for three hours), 52 kilogs.; double steam engine of 20 h.p., weighing each 21 kilogs., operating separately two 4-bladed propellers with bamboo framework, blades of silk and paper; weight of each propeller 2.5 kilogs.

The salon has been an enormous success from the financial side. Huge crowds of Parisians and foreign visitors have thronged it every hour during some days, paying as much as $1 entrance fee. Although open only a third of the time al-

strong enough. Details will be given later.

The Aero Club of Chicago is being formed and will ask for affiliation with the Aero Club of America. The Club will have an aeronautical exhibit in connection with the automobile show at the Coliseum in February.

AERO CLUB AT WASHINGTON.

The idea of an aeronautical organization, spoken of in a previous issue, has not lain dormant. A preliminary committee consisting of Gen. James Allen, Dr. Allerton Cushman, Charles J. Bell, Dr. David Fair-child and Dr. A. F. Zahm, has been formed and an organization meeting will be called in a few days.

The objects of the Club are, in part, as follows:

To foster interest in the principles and development of aeronautics.

To extend honors and hospitalities to eminent aeronauts.

To arrange for lectures and demonstrations.

To encourage and arrange for national and international competition, conventions, congresses and exhibitions.

To raise funds for the encouragement of aeronautics and to be custodian thereof.

To offer such medals, trophies and prizes as may be from time to time deemed expedient.

To arrange for trial grounds for demonstrations and experiments.

AERIAL EXPERIMENT ASSOCIATION WORK.

'After the trial of the "Loon" hydro-drome, recorded last issue, the engine was taken out and fitted in the "Silver Dart," the

3 ineh pitch did not give quite enough speed at the gearing, u to 15. It has been customary to hold the machine until good speed is acquired, but this time just as the start was made, the rear wheels lifted off the ground and the machine continued running on the track with the front wheel only on the ground, held there by the front control. Before Mr. McCurdy discovered this, a side wind hit the machine, swung it around sideways and broke the wheels.

Four short flights made on the 14th.

Two more flights were made on the 17th, the longer one 1^4 miles. A new propeller of much greater pitch was tried, giving even at reduced revolutions, 668 per minute, a greater pitch speed than before.

fourth flying machine of the Association, built under the supervision of J. A. D. McCurdy and to be operated by him.

At first chain transmission was used, then recourse was made to a two-V-belt drive and later another pair of double-groove pulleys were added so as to use four V belts.

On Dec. 6th, though the weather was bad, three flights were made, all of about 200 yards. In the first two a little trouble was experienced in getting gasoline but a good flight was made on the third trial. The control was found to respond more quickly than in the previous machine.

On the 8th, another flight was made, after opening the auxiliary ports in the motor, as the 8-foot propeller with its 6 ft.

The following day, two flights: half mile and a mile.

On the 20th. three short flights were made with about a 6-mile wind, after waiting all day for the high wind to die down. The opinion was expressed that the velocity attained was not sufficiently great for the support of so heavy a machine, as on the previous trial it had flown nicely in the face of the wind.

A propeller of lesser pitch was substituted and on the 22nd, another successful flight was made.

The Silver Dart has been sent to Beinn Bhreagh. Nova Scotia, where further trials will take place over the ice.

^56

AERONAUTICS

AERO CLUB BANQUET IN ST. LOUIS.

Although not officially announced at the banquet, the Aero Club of St. Louis tendered to N. H. Arnold, the Club's representative in the international balloon race of last fall, it was stated by one of the officers of the club that St. Louis would be chosen as the starting place of the Grand Prize balloon race to be held in conjunction with the Aero Club of America, May 30. The only competitor considered by A. Holland Forbes, acting for the Aero Club of America, was Indianapolis, and this new organization has agreed to enter two balloons, although the contest is held from St. Louis. Official announcement of the starting point will not be made until Mr. Forbes has reported to the Aero Club of America and regular action taken.

In spite of inclement weather that kept many indoors, and other conditions that had drawn many members out of the city, the banquet at Hotel Jefferson on Jan. nth was an important success, with some 75 members at the table. Mayor Rolla Wells, Lieut.-Com. Sweet., of the Navy; A. Holland Forbes, Vice-President of the Aero Club of America; N. PL Arnold, of the Aero Club of North Adams; Albert Bond Lambert, honorary secretary of the Aero Club of St. Louis, and Ex-Gov. D. R. Francis were the speakers of the evening. L. D. Do-zier, president of the Aero Club of St. Louis, presided as toastmaster.

Both Mr. Arnold and Mr. Forbes described, with interesting detail, their experiences in the international balloon race that started from Berlin last October, and told of their narrow escapes from disaster —which appeared less thrilling to them than to the general public.

Mayor Wells and D. R. Francis only proclaimed themselves aeronautic believers in the present and future of aeronautics. "Nothing is to be considered impossible," said Mayor Wells. "Aeronautics should be encouraged and promoted. I don't think that the experiences of Mr. Lambert and others will encourage me, but it may others, and it all does good." He told how he laughed when someone told him a good many years ago that it was going to be possible to go into a little booth and talk to someone in a town several miles away.

"Twenty-three years ago," said Ex-Gov. Francis, "it took a lot of arguing to make believe that illuminating gas was practical for city lighting, and one of the argumenta advanced was that electricity would never be practical! Now I am not incredulous about aerial travel. In fact, I have a desire to have some aeronautic experiences myself. I hope to see the day when a man who makes a balloon ascent will not be considered without good judgment."

Mr. Arnold told at length of his experiences with Mr. Hewat in the St. Louis No. 2, how a fog obscured the sea coast, and how landing was intentionally made in the North Sea, while not many miles from land. He showed the small electric lamp which he says, "All the money in St. Louis could not buy," seeming to believe that it saved the lives of himself and aide, by attracting the attention of a German government pilot schooner.

Mr. Lambert exhibited what he said was a drawing made from a patent taken out by L. D. Dozier, in the form of a concrete foundation balloon—-Mr. Dozier has never made a balloon ascension. Five baskets are provided by the "patent," one above the other, and the last and largest fastened by chains to a concrete foundation. Mr. Lambert had worked hard to make the banquet a success, and had provided several models of aeroplanes and dirigibles that were suspended by wires over the diners' heads. One of these, designed by Honeywell, was provided with an electric motor that revolved a propeller. In the center of the banquet hall was a balloon basket with the Aero Club of St. Louis pennant, exactly as baskets appear when fastened to balloons. Stereopticon pictures were shown, including many pictures made by Mr. Lambert while in the air. both here and abroad.

In addition to the effort made by the Aero Club of America to have the express rate on balloons reduced, an independent effort had already been started by Geo. E. Yager, Horace B. Wild and others. Letters have been written to the Interstate Commerce Commission at Washington protesting against the high rates charged by express companies for transporting airship frames.

FOREIGN LETTER

Wright Wins Prizes in New Record Flights—Aero Clubs Get Grounds—Farman Tossed in Heavy Wind—Flying Machines in Spain, Italy and Switzerland-Feverish Activity of French Clubs—Aero Club de France Holds $91,050 in Prizes for 1909.

Note:—Complete foreign news for the month is mailed abroad on the 1st. It usually takes ten days for the mail from various countries to reach us. This makes it impossible to assemble, set up, print and mail before the 20th of the month.

Belgium.

A member of the Aero Club of Belgium has ordered a dirigible of moderate size and high speed; the envelope now under construction by Godard, the framework and 2 motors (100 h. p.) to be of Belgium make. This ship, "La Belgique," will be first to "enter the sky over Brussels."

New society formed, "Brussels Aviators," which will experiment with an aeroplane.

Baron de Caters has made several short flights with his Voisin biplane.

Aero Club of Liege-Spa formed.

England.

AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY OE GRFAT BRITAIN GETS EXPERIMENTAL GROUNDS.

The Aeronautical Society has followed the lead of America in providing experimental grounds. Level grounds about one-half mile square have been acquired at Dagenham, in Essex, where sheds will be erected to house machines, a whirling table provided, and where members of the "Experimental Ground Section" may experiment with models or full-sized machines and gliders. At one end of the field arc small hills available for gliding. In order to provide funds for the maintenance of these grounds, the' users of sheds will be charged rent; to join this section costs one guinea a year. The society has about 140 members and supports a quarterly journal. All the members receive this journal. In America, aero club members seem to show less interest in aeronautical journals than those outside of the clubs.

The F. A. I. meets on January nth in London and will settle the question raised at the last Gordon Bennett and make rules for aviation.

A monoplane is being built by R. H. and

F. S. Barnwell, of the Grampian Motor Co. —40 h. p., 2-cyl. V engine; 2-bladed propeller; horizontal rudder in front; at extremity of the main surfaces, movable triangular rudders. In preliminary trials the machine showed a speed of 25 miles per hour on the ground. 30 miles being the estimated "getting off" speed.

France.

WILBUR WRIGHT MAKES NEW RECORDS— 2 HOURS, IS MINUTES IN AIR.

Wilbur Wright, after the accident to the chain, recorded last month, has connected up the two propellers by a horizontal chain so that both revolve even if one of the inclined chains should break.

After having been delayed on account of the bad weather, on Dec. 4th Wright gave a short lesson to Capt. Girardville, making two flights of to and 25 minutes. During the same week he made several other flights, taking several visitors for short flights of 5 to 8 minutes.

On Dec. 16th, after a 10-minute practice flight, before some members of the British Aeroplane Club, he went at once steeply to a height of 90 meters in a flight, then descended to 60 meters, stopped his motor and glided to the ground.

On Dec. 18th, he made another official trial for the Michelin prize and cup in a flight lasting 1 hour, 54 minutes, 59 seconds, covering, officially', 99.8 kiloms. Taking into consideration the circling around the triangular course, the actual distance traveled is estimated at 120 kiloms. A longer flight was prevented by the stopping-up of an oil cup. This was the third official entry for the Michelin prize. The first entry was made on Sept. 21st, when he made a flight of 1 hr. 31 min., covering 66.6 kiloms.. of which but 38 kiloms. and 52 min. 6 sec. counted toward the prize, as the balance of the trip was made after sundown. The second trial was on Sept. 24th when, in a gusty wind, he made 39 kiloms. in 54 min. 3 sec.

In the afternoon of Dec. 18 he won the

Aero Club de* la Sarthe ioo-meter-height prize, going to an estimated height of 360 feet. This height was without covering more than 800 meters over the ground.

On the 19th. Wright started to beat the record of previous day, but gave up on account of rain after 9 minutes.

Another flight on Dec. 26th. IO-hwA^

On Dec. 30, Wright QWh a flight of 1 hour, 52 minutes, covering p^Tviloms. officially and 115 in reality. The weather was extremely cold, f *faiJ^¥*fZ&S±T'

On Dec. 31st, he set a new world's record by a flight of 2 hrs. 18 min. 33sec, cov-

MICHKLIN TROPHY

ering an official distance of i23"^kiloms. 200 meters, with a probable real distance of iso^k^oms. Thus has Wright won t>.e Michelin trophy, here illustrated. $4,000 in cash and the Triaca cash prize for the longest flight during the year. The trophy is entitled the "Triumph of Aviation," by M. Roussel; selected after a prize competition. It is peculiar that a Voisin-type machine should be glorified in a trophy given to Wilbur Wright.

Wilbur Wright says that practical flying for a long time will be at 60-80 kiloms. an hour. Asked as regards the building of a smaller or larger machine from calculations, he stated that a "machine which

in expert hands does not fly the first time as well as on any subsequent occasion, is either incorrectly designed or badly built. * * * For four years the main principles of our machine have not been changed. We did not arrive at our present conclusions by repeated trials alone, but by calculations, which in all the tests to which we have subjected them, do not err. I am convinced that the lines on which it is constructed are the right lines."

The Wrights now go to Pau for the winter, where there are 5,000 hectares of waste land.

FIRST AERIAL PORT OF FRANCE.

Imitating the Aeronautic Society in America, there is to be established at Juvisy, ten miles from Paris, what is called "an aerial port and aerodrome." Though smaller than the grounds of the Aeronautic Society, this field has an area of 250 acres. Sheds available for flying machines and space for dirigible sheds, gas plants, etc., will be erected. This volery has been established by the Societie d'Encourage-ment a Aviation in co-operation with a stock company which will finance the venture. Among other work, aviators will be trained on machines to be supplied by the society. A prize will be. established for the encouragement of the "young idea."

FARMAN AND HIS TRI-BI-TRICURVE MACHINE.

At Chalons, Farman has been experimenting with his tricurve. On Nov. 24th, the wind was very strong, averaging 35 kiloms. per hour, but successful flights with turns were made. During one he was lifted by the wind 15-20 meters while flying. The gust pas.sed, the machine dropped back only to be caught in another gust, making his flight a series of undulations. With the wind at his back, he made a speed of 90 kiloms. an hour and going into the wind his apparatus at times did not make any headway. Near the end of the trials, as the machine remained perfectly stable and in a horizontal position, he let himself go without maneouvering at all, merely using the vertical rudder on the turns. On the 26th of November, he made a circular flight of 9 kiloms. in 7 min. On the 28th, he began some curious experiences. He had

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taken off the third surface, leaving the upper surface spread 12 meters and reducing the spread of the lower to 7 meters. The supporting surface was thus reduced to about 40 square meters. Thus changed, the apparatus seemed less stable but Far-man estimated that by diminishing the rear cell and the horizontal rudder, the machine would be capable of beating his own record. Continuing his trials, on Dec. 1 and 2 he manouvered with the triplane again of 7 meters spread and flew with ease; very stable and steered well. Both Henri Far-man and his brother now have 58 h. p. Renault motors.

VAN1MAN TRIPLANE.

Melvin Vaniman, of the Wellman polar airship, on Dec. 18th, at Gennevilliers with his triplane, made a flight of 150 meters.

MISCELLANEOUS.

The Zipfel aeroplane at Lyon was able to leave the ground on its second trial. On Nov. 25th it flew for 60 meters and then made 4 flights of from 100 to 200 meters each. Following day, 300 meters in 15 sec. in a slight wind; machine damaged in landing. Dec. 1, 2. flights of 800-ioco meters. Dec. 9, 1500 meters, horizontal rudder damaged. Dec. 17, 500 meters, damaged on following day.

Antoinette Co. constructing a monoplane for a customer, M. Demanest. Total surface, 44 sq. m., spread 30 m.; propeller turning at 1200 with 50 h. p. motor; both kinds of rudders in rear; machine mounted on floats to land in water; provision for 2 passengers in addition to piloL On Dec. 25th the present Antoinette IV monoplane

VANIMAN TRIPLANE.

The apparatus has been changed since last seen in public. Instead of two propellers there is only one, worked by a 70-80 h. p. 8-cyl. Antoinette engine. When carrying a pilot the machine weighs 500 lbs. It starts from rails. In order to obtain lateral stability movable wing tips are fixed to the central plane. The horizontal rudder and the ordinary steering rudder are both forward. There is a tail for steadying purposes. The machine is remarkable for the care with which it has been built. Steel tubing has been largely employed in its construction.

Hew for 9©tT 111'iiLWs. Q»n the following day

Lfc-ip.-idp mprp t>i 1 1 1 ilwHi To make daily trials.

Another new monoplane, that of Henry Robart, has spread of 24 m., 50 sq. m. surface, 50 h. p. motor, 2 chain driven propellers 2.3 meters diam.

Edouard Dourdariet building machine, combination Langley and Chanute.

Moore-Brabazon in his Voisin biplane continues daily trials at Issy. On Dec. 3 he made 3 flights of 500-600 meters. On the 7th, more short flights of about 200 m. against the wind. On reaching the end of

the field, he slows down the motor, jumps off the machine, turns it round and dies back. He will soon try turning in flight. He concluded his trials for the present on the 8th, returning to England.

Henri de la Vaulx has tried in the Gal-erie des Machines a small dirigible inflated with coal gas, the first of the sporting dirigibles made by the Societie Francaise des Ballons Dirigeable on de la Vaulx's designs, purchased by the "Petit Journal.' It has a capacity of 700 cubic meters, light varnished cotton envelope, 4-cyl. 16-h. p. Clerget motor weighing 100 kgs., propelled by 1 propeller, 2.3 meters diam., 0.9 pitch. In front is elevating plane and behind is rudder. On Nov. 29th, after a short trip, it was deflated and returned to the shop. Evidently it could not "get back." Another "successful" trip was made on Dec. 20th with the same result.

On Nov. 29th Delagrange made several flights of about a quarter-hour each at the Juvisy grounds in the same machine which he had in Italy.

Goupy's triplane, on Dec. 7th, made short flights of 60-120 meters.

The Clement-Bayard dirigible on Nov. 28th made trip over Paris against a wind of 28 miles an hour. On the following day a trip of three-quarter-hour in the fog. Again on the 7th over Paris in a wind of 7-8 meters a second; further trips on the 16th and 20th; on the 24th a trip of 60 kiloms.

The Ville de Paris continued trips on Nov. 28. On the 29th, maneouvered over Paris. Further trips on Dec. 1 and 2 (nearly 4 hours). Deflated on the 7th.

The joint meeting of the delegates of the Automobile Club de France, the Ligue Nationale Aerienne, the Aero Club de France, and the Chambre Syndicalc des Industries Aeronautique, held on the 28th of November, formed plans for the establishment of a mixed committee and the following program was adopted: The working out of general rules for aviation, examination of the rules which will be submitted to it. patronage of contest undertaken under these rules, forbidding of contests which are considered dangerous, court of appeals

in case of quarrels between competitors and organizers.

The Aero Club of France has decided to issue pilot licenses to aviators. Will hold international dirigible race from city to city, starting from Paris.

Breguet begins in January trials with his gyroplane on the grounds of the aviation society at Douai.

Cubs started—Aero Club des Alpes, at Grenoble; L'A^ iation Francaise, 8 rue de la Grande Batalliere, Paris; Aero Club de Beam, at Pau; Aero Club of Amiens; Union Francaise Aerienne, 56 rue du Rome, Paris.

There will be a "Grand Prix" for aviation at Cannes in the Spring, connected with contests of dirigibles and flying machines and a congress of societies. Dirigibles are confined to a capacity of 1000 cubic meters, inflated with coal gas.

A company has been formed at Clermont-Ferrand for the construction and sale of aeroplanes.

The French Chamber of Deputies has voted $20,000 for aviation and for the decoration of aviators. An "aviation party" has been formed in the Senate and subscriptions are being received to encourage the creation of an interesting industry, to advance the science, stimulate commerce, and advance external relations.

The Vivinus motor concern, whose motor is used in the Moore-Brabazon machine, is designing an aeroplane.

The Mors Co. is building a bicurve machine with twin screws, belt driven.

The National Aerial League has instituted a sort of school for amateur operators of flying machines, where young men will, be given opportunity to familiarize themselves with the conduct of flying machines. An arrangement has been made to use the Juvisy volery.

Germany.

The Zeppelin I (old III) has been completely taken apart, to be put together again by 25 men of the aeronautical corps of the army and instruction ascents will be made in parties of ten. Later the airship will be taken to Metz. where a shed lias been built. The Zeppelin I carries a vertical 'and horizontal plane system and vertical rudders, like Venetian blinds, in 3

planes work independently from each other. For instance, to make a quick turn to the right, the right blinds are closed completely, which produces a sort of center around which the airship swings. The horizontal rudders have been increased in size. In Friedrichshafen there has taken place a competition of plans and projects for the aeronautical factory which is to be built on the grounds of the Zeppelin Co. A shed must be erected to hold two airships of a length of 150 meters each, with doors at each end. Several of the projects have been approved.

A new dirigible, non-rigid, 120 meters long, 12,000 cubic meters capacity, diameter

12 meters, is being built in Berlin.

The Parseval II on Nov. 28th made a labour trip on a speed trial in a wind of 6-7 meters a second.

SCHUTTE AIRSHIP.

Prof. Schiitte, the head of the shipbuilding department, of the new Technische Hochschule at Danzig, has drawn designs for a new airship, which will be built according to Zeppelin's rigid-frame system; but wood will be used instead of aluminum for the framework. It is stated that the craft will be able to carry two tons of explosives—which clearly indicates the military purpose of the invention. Another difference between the two airships will be the greater diameter in proportion to the length with the Danzig plans than with those of Zeppelin. The length of the newest Zeppelin craft, recently acquired by the German Government, extends to 12 times its diameter, which compares with a 10fold extension for his former airship, destroyed at Echterdingen in August. On the other hand, Schiitte will build his craft with a length only six times the diameter. With a length of 328 feet, its diameter will range between 52 and 55 feet.

Two gas motors will be used, each of 150 h. p., where the two motors of Zeppelin's latest make have together only 170 h. p., and the motors of the airship wrecked in August about 210 h. p. According to the descriptions given, the two motors will be placed in a single gondola 130 feet long and

13 feet broad. The gondola will be built as part of the framework of the airship.

instead of being merely attached to it; and its outlines will resemble those of a ship's hull.

A striking innovation will be the direct gearing of the propeller with the motors. Zeppelin's method, as will be remembered, is to transmit the power from the motors diagonally upward to the propellers by means of a steel shaft using bevel gearing. The vertical steering gear will enable the craft to keep its horizontal position while it ascends or descends, which would indicate that there will be but a single chamber for gas. If this is the method of construction adopted it will certainly have one great disadvantage as compared with Zeppelin's system.

On Dec. 18th and 19th, the Gross II resumed the ascensions interrupted by the accident recorded last month.

Four aeronats of the type Zeppelin have been ordered by the Government at a cost for each of $250,000, to be at the disposition of the Navy.

Italy.

The military dirigible has been deflated and will not begin trials again before Spring.

The Gemma brothers are experimenting with an "Aerocurve" having a spread of 7^ meters, 9 meters long, with Anzani motor, weighing 91 kgs.

Lieut. Colderara has been commissioned by the Government to prosecute work in aviation—in what way is not stated.

Russia.

Trials of the first dirigible, type Parseval, did not prove very successful.

Spain.

Trials with a flying machine will soon begin by the Marquis de Viana and Juan de Gustaba.

The Spanish Army will be equipped with a number of dirigibles. In the Budget, a grant of 300,000 pesetas has been asked for flying machines.

Switzerland.

A company has been formed at Zurich to construct aeroplanes. It will begin trials with the flying machine of one M. Hansen, a Swiss inventor.

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A E RpN A'lIT I C -43—

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.

President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.

Publication Notice.

The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine, and at the earliest date possible, bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.

In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the informal addresses of the Gordon Bennett contestants and others were concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.

The sixteenth paper is continued in this issue: "Principles involved in the Formation of Wing Surfaces and the Phenomenon of Soaring," by Professor J. J. Montgomery, of Santa Clara College.

PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN THE FORMATION OF WING SURFACES AND THE PHENOMENON OF SOARING* By Prof. J. J. Montgomery

the impact of fluids

The elements of a fluid being elastic, operate in accordance with the laws just stated, but their free movements being restrained by the reactions of the surrounding fluid, their impulses are propagated as compression waves, which in their movements come under the same laws, as the well-known experiments in sound prove. But when there is a path of least resistance, the pressure exerted on a fluid gives rise to a stream, which, while not being elastic as a mass, owing to its fluid nature, produces the same set of actions and reactions as if it were. For, the first particles which reach a surface, impart to it the momentum of their impact, and then are forced away by the compression arising from those following, and hence exert another element of pressure by their re-action.

application

Having given the elementary principles involved, I now present their application in an ideal case (fig. 21). Let "a" and ''b" be two equal elastic masses moving as indicated, with equal velocities; "m m" is the elastic surface of an infinite mass. At any instant, let an impulsive force "f" act on "a,'' which will cause it to impinge on "b," the two masses exchanging their momenta, the latter will take the path "b c," while "a" will continue its original direction towards "d." But "b" will rebound from the surface "m m," and take the direction "c d," and, coming in contact with "a," which has reached the point "d,'* will impart to it the vertical component of its motion, causing it to take the direction "a e," while "b," having lost its vertical ele-

♦Begun in the October issue. Concluded in this issue.

-44

^A-E RON A U T ICS

lir-&---, y'-

ment of motion, will continue in the direction "d g." But suppose that at an instant just previous to this impact, another impulse "f," act upon ''a," then the two masses will exchange their momenta, "a" taking the direction "a e," and "b" the direction "b h."

Examining this development, we find that the first force "f" has simply-set up a series of actions and reactions, in consequence of which "a" is left undisturbed; while "b" impresses on "m m," the force of its action and reaction; these, in this theoretical case, being equal to one another and to the original force "f." After the second force has acted on "a," and the masses have exchanged their momenta, we find as a result of the action of these two forces "f," "f," and the reactions of "a"' and "b" and "m m," that there are two elements of force in "m m," and one in the dsecending mass "b;" while "a" has an ascending velocity, theoretically equal to the downward movement imparted by the first impulse "f." From this analysis it appears that each downward impulse, imparted to a mass, may be transmitted to a larger mass, which while absorbing all the original impulse, gives back an element of reaction, which in turn may be transmitted to the body first acted upon, giving it a movement opposite to that given by the first force; and the large mass then has not only the motion due to the action of the force, but also that due to the reaction of the mass moving from it.

In these demonstrations we have one element of the actions and reactions taking place in the phenomenon of soaring; "a" representing the bird, "b" the air immediately surrounding it, "m m" the great mass of surrounding air, and "f," "f," the impulses of gravity. In this demonstration the impulses are represented as distinct and defined, as are also the masses "a." ''b," and "m m." Whereas in the phenomenon of soaring, the action of gravity and the impacts and reactions of the air are continuous, while the reflecting mass of air is ever present in all positions. But because of losses due to various causes, the final effect is far below the ideal. The formation, adjustment and forward movement of the wing surface, are only the means by which the air immediately surrounding, is thrown into the movements, by which these elementary processes are perpetuated.

To have a complete idea of the process of soaring, suppose that an appropriate surface be held in the proper position, relative to the horizontal (as shown in fig. 14), but having no horizontal motion. Under the influence of gravity it will slowly descend. But suppose it receive a gradually increasing horizontal velocity, then a time will come when the various elements of action and reaction in the air will just balance the impulses of gravity, and the surface will travel in a horizontal direction; then, if this motion be further increased, these actions and reactions over-balancing gravity, will cause it to rise, the rapidity of its ascending motion depending on the increase in velocity. It must be noted, that these various changes in the direction of movement, are due to a variation of velocity alone; for the surface is supposed to

retain the position indicated in fig. 14; and, further, owing to the development indicated in fig. 17, the pressure supporting it tends to maintain its forward movement, or at least to balance the retarding resistances.

If it be necessary to acquire an increase of velocity, the surface may be slightly inclined and a new impetus obtained, whose measure is not the distance it descends through space, but that through the rising current of air.

I am aware various objections may be made, based upon the common principles relative to bodies descending and ascending under the influence of gravity. Regarding these possible objections, I shall state, that there are four general cases involved in these principles: 1st. Bodies moving in free space. 2nd. An elastic mass let fall. 3rd. The movement of a pendulum. 4th. The movement of a ball over inclined planes.

A little thought will reveal the fact that these are only special expressions of the great fundamental law of "action and reaction," or the exchange of momenta; and hence, are not to be used as a standard for passing judgment on more complicated and advanced developments of the same basic principles.

In conclusion, the phenomenon of soaring is the practical operation of a principle pointed out in the discussion under fig. 19, viz., a force may act on a body under such conditions as to cause the body to move against it. One important and practical instance of the operation of this principle, is the tacking of a ship against the wind. Of course, this operation has been frequently analyzed and explained; but underlying all, we find only the working out of this principle. So it is with the analysis relative to soaring, with this important difference. In the instance of the tacking of a ship, the force is the moving air, while in soaring, it is the pure force of gravity. In the first instance, the ship tacks against the wind, but as an essential element in the process, must move through a more or less lateral course; while in the second, the bird tacks against gravity, its horizontal motion through the air, being only an element in the process.

In our conception of these operations, we should not fix our attention too closely on the moving objects, but must consider them as only one of the elements in a system of moving bodies.

In each of these cases we have four factors:

1st, a force, the wind, acting on (2d), the sails; 3d, the hull, acting on (4th), the water. And

1st, a force, gravity, acting on (2d), the mass; 3d, the wings, acting on (4th), the air.

From this study of the movements of fluids, and the special laws involved, we see that gliding, or soaring flight, is not the haphazard dragging of an inclined surface through the air; but a special and unique phenomenon of motion and energy, and holds the same relation to the ordinary phenomena of inclined planes, as the operation of the gyroscope does to the simple rotation on a fixed axis. And in the process of soaring, there are not only the form and adjustment of the surface, but also the proper speed and manipulation necessary to produce that special development of movements and energy, which may be properly termed soaring.

In other words, we must recognize that this is one of the operations in nature based upon a set of LAWS suited to itself; and we must realize that to reach the end to which we aspire, we must understand what these laws are, and follow them in the designing, construction and operation of our devices.

(Discussion by Dr. A. F. Zahm on next page.)

Discussion by Dr. A. F. Zahm.

Mr. Lancaster's observations are very interesting, both for their picttiresqueness and for the possibilities they suggest. Prof. Langley was so taken with Mr. Ivan-caster's accounts that he was impelled to give a large part of the last decade and a half of his life to experimental and practical work in mechanical flight, y

Some of Mr. Lancaster's observations, though wonderful at first^sight, admit of simple explanation. For example the stead}' floating of the gannet above the muslin-covered man on a platforjn in a tree-top. The streams' of air flowing around above these objects; had an\upward slant. It is well known that not only birds, but man too can soar in a \vmcl that slopes upward a few degrees. Mr. Chanute and others have explainedXthis clearly, and the Wright brothers have actually soared in a wind sloping gentlv upward—say seven to ten degrees.

The assertion that buzzards soared\n a dead calm cannot be accepted on the evidence of the balloon going straight upland down, for it would do that if the air had a vertical movement, which HupfakeK proved to exist in spots on a very calm day. \

Soaring is impossible for birds or men in a level wind of constant velocity and direction, a calm being a particular case of triis. Soaring is possible for both birds and men in a wind having sufficient upward'speed, or the proper variation of speed and direction. / \

The remarkable instances of soaring/relatec\ by Mr. Lancaster, and the circumstances most favorable to such performance deserve careful attention. In the rush to build flying-machines, the science^of soaring has been neglected. I would commend this branch of aeronautics to athletic young\unateurs who live in favorable localities, for example where a broad field of sand .slopes gently to the sea. Here they might soar for hours, a/id eventually learn r^ie art of the condor and the albatross.

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SOME EARLY GLIDING EXPERIMENTS IN AMERICA

By Prof. J. J. Montgomery

Some of the first attempts at gliding in this country were made by Professor J. J. Montgomery, of Santa Clara College, Santa Clara, Cal.

In 1884 he constructed six machines with varied successful results. The best was with a machine composed of two wings measuring 120 feet from tip to tip, and 4J/2 feet wide, having a tail in the rear that could be elevated or depressed. Facing a gentle

MAKING THE ASCENT. MAY, 1905

wind, Professor Alontgomery jumped from the top of a gently sloping hill, descended gradually and landed without a shock. The greatest distance covered was between 100 and 200 yards. The weight of the machine was 30 pounds and Professor Montgomery's was 130. Mention of these early glides is made in Chanute's "Progress in Flying." No photographs, however, remain.

Experimental work was continued until 1894. From that year until the fall of 1903 nothing special was undertaken in the flying line. In 1904 the first trial of the new aeroplane took place; in March. 1905, he tried again and on April 29th of that year occurred the wonderful feat of gliding from a balloon at a height of 4000 feet.

GLIDE FROM A BALLOON

This trial took place at Santa Clara, a six-knot breeze blowing. Daniel Maloney was the aeronaut-aviator. The hot-air balloon to which was attached the aeroplane ascended as long as the air continued to lift, the estimate by the aeronaut and others being 4000 feet. At this height the balloon and aeroplane separated.

"The operator, in order to demonstrate his supreme control, caused the machine to describe circles, to raise itself, to go backward and forward, and to perform difficult evolutions, which were convincing that the control of the aeroplane in its gradual descent was well within the power of the will of the aeronaut."

About 20 minutes elapsed before the aeroplane finally touched the ground, three-quarters of a mile away. The operator succeeded in landing at the exact designated spot named by Professor Montgomery in advance.

The aeroplane was of light hickory braced in its different sections by light piano wire supporting two wings, 24 feet from tip to tip, covered with thin muslin. The wings had a total surface of 185 square feet. The wings were fixed on the exterior

circumference, but hinged to the light frame on the inner sides. Their shape is parabolic. A movable rudder, consisting of two half-spherical surfaces, was placed at the rear. The weight of the machine was 42 pounds and the aeronaut, or aviator, whichever it is in this case, weighed 156 pounds.

On a later trial, on July 18 of the same year, Maloney was killed.

An interesting method of gaining experience was that adopted by Professor Montgomery. This consisted of poles and rigging by which the machine and rider were elevated and then dropped. In descending the aeroplane would catch the air and glide down a long hill. By this means the operator learned the sensations of dropping from a balloon and the action of the glider in dropping and gliding.

In reading Professor Montgomery's paper contributed to the Congress, the publication of which began in the October number, one notes the development of a distinct idea. As a logical sequence of this idea he states :—[Editor.]

I commenced its practical demonstration in my work with aeroplanes, and I had before me three points: 1st, equilibrium; 2nd, complete control; and 3rd, long continued or soaring flight. In starting I constructed and tested three sets of models, .Teach in advance of the other in regard to The continuance of their soaring powers, but all equally perfect as to equilibrium and control. These models were tested by dropping them from a cable stretched between two mountain tops, with various loads, adjustments and positions. And it made no difference whether the models were dropped upside down or any other conceivable position, they always found their equilibrium immediately and glided safely to earth.

Then I constructed a large machine pat-~~ teriied after the first modelTjand with the assistance of three cow-boy friends, personally made a number of flights in the steep mountains near San Juan (a hundred miles distant). In making these flights. I simply took the aeroplane and made a running jump. These tests were discontinued after I put my foot in a squirrel hole in landing and hurt my leg.^ |^ O^S

The following yearaT commenced the work on a larger scale. By engaging aeronauts to ride my aeroplane dropped from balloons. During this work, I used five hot-air balloons and one gas balloon, five or six aeroplanes, three riders, Maloney, Wil-kie and Defolco, and had sixteen applicants on my list and had a training station to prepare any when I needed them.

Exhibitions were given in Santa Cruz, San Jose, Santa Clara, Oakland and Sacramento. The flights that were made instead of being haphazard affairs, were in the order of safety and development. In the

first flight of an aeronaut, the aeroplane was so arranged that the rider had little liberty of action, consequently he could make only a limited flight. In some of the first flights, the aeroplane did little more than settle in the air. But as the rider gained experience in each successive flight, I changed the adjustments, giving him more liberty ot action, so he could obtain longer flights and more varied movements in the flights. But in none of the flights did I have the adjustments so that the riders had full liberty, as I did not consider that they had the requisite knowledge and experience necessary for their safety; and hence, none of my aeroplanes were launched so arranged that the rider could make the adjustments necessary for a full flight.

This line of action caused a good deal of trouble with aeronauts or riders who had unbounded confidence and wanted to make long flights after the first few trials; but I found it necessary as they seemed slow in comprehending the important elements and were too willing to take risks. To give them the full knowledge in these matters I was formulating plans for a large starting station on the Mount Hamilton Range from which I could launch an aeroplane capable of carrying two, one of my aeronauts and myself, so I could teach him by I demonstration. But the disasters, consequent on the great earth-quake, completely stopped all my work on these lines. The flights that were given were only the first ,of the series with aeroplanes patterned after i the first model. There were no aeroplanes constructed according to the two other models as I had not given the full demonstration of the workings of the first, though some remarkable and startling work was J

done. On one occasion, Maloney in trying to make a very short turn during rapid flight, pressed very hard on the stirrup which gives a screw shape to the wings and made a side somersault. The position

l:

flight, made two side somersaults, one in one direction and "tlie otlier'in an op^o^fFeT""" then made a deep d7ve~lufd"a loifg^gtrdeTan when about three hundred feet in the air, brought the aeroplane to a sudden stop and

I SI/ \ArV*s^y^~^~-*\

Is^L *L*~J tu<^2

7o

fv

4 V-'. v T-

A view c f lire aeroplane jnsi as it left ihe halloon. To gel 1 he best idea, hold this illnstr aiion over the head and look upward. This was taken iu May. 1905.

of the machine was very much like one turn of a cork-screw. After this movement, the machine continued on its regular course. And afterwards Wilkie, not to be outdone by Maloney, told his friends he would do the same, and in a subsequent

settled to the earth. After these antics, I decreased the extent of the possible change in the form of wing surface, so as to allow only straight sailing or only long curves in turning.

During my work I had a few carping

critics that I silenced by this standing offer: If they would deposit a thousand dollars, I would cover it on this proposition. I would fasten a 150-lb. sack of sand in the rider's seat, make the necessary adjustments, and send up an aeroplane, upside down with a balloon, the aeroplane to be liberated by a time fuse. If the aeroplane did not immediately right itself, make a flight and come safely to the ground, the money was theirs."

The Death of Maloney. 5*5

Now a word in regard to the fatal accident. The circumstances are these: The ascension was given to entertain a military company in which were many of Maloney's friends and he had told them he would give the most sensational flight they ever heard of. As the balloon was rising with the aeroplane, a guy rope dropping, switched around the right wing and broke the tower

that braced the two rear wings and which also gave control over the tail. We shouted to Maloney that the machine was broken but he probably did not hear us as he was' at the same time saying, 'Hurrah for Montgomery's airship,' and as the break was behind him, he may not have detected it. Now did he know of the breakage or not? and if he knew of it, did he take a risk so as not to disappoint his friends? At all events, when the machine started on its flight, the rear wings commenced to flap (thus indicating they were loose), the machine turned on its back and settled a little faster than a parachute. When we reached Maloney, he was unconscious and lived only 30 minutes. The only mark of any kind on him was a scratch from a wire on the side of his neck. The six attending physicians were puzzled at the cause of his death. This is remarkable for a vertical descent of over 2000 feet.

QUESTIONS A By Wilbur

What will be the thrust of an efficient screw propeller say ten feet in diameter, at 300 revolutions per minute, and what power will be required to drive it?

Will 3 ou give the method or formula by which this is calculated ?

Given the answer, will the double rule of three or direct proportion apply to a larger screw, say 15 feet in diameter?

The increased thrust is given as the square of the speed, how about the increased diameter of the screw ?

The thrust of an efficient screw propeller, two blades, 10 feet diameter at 300 r. p. 111., should be about 1S7 pounds and require 17 h.p. to drive it. The area of the blades, the pitch, the possible distortion of the surfaces in operation, the thickness, shape, and material, all make possible considerable variations in these figures. A simple formula which the writer has found more reliable than any others in predetermining the thrust of a screw follows : Thrust = A x P x i e , multiply the projected area of the blades in square feet, times the pressure per square foot, times a variable which we will call k^r The pressure per

vID ANSWERS R. Kimball

square foot may be calculated from the Rouss-Smeaton determination for P-that P equals

2

V x .005 pounds. The factor ky varies with each shape and

width of blade and should be determined for each shape. In efficient types, this is about 2^ and may exceed 3 or drop below 2.

The thrust varies as the square of the diameter of the propeller. A 15-foot diameter screw would have 2% times the thrust of a 10-foot propeller at the same pitch speed.

The thrust also varies as the square of the pitch speed and the power to drive as the cube. To drive a 10-foot propeller at 600 r. p. m., should develop four times the thrust at 300 and require eight times the power to drive.

Frank T. Coleman closed a very successful season at the Tri-State Fair in Memphis where two balloons left the ground at the same time daily.

Capt. T. S. Baldwin, had but two engagements this season, at Danbury and Pough-keepsie. Eleven flights were made, all of which were return-flights.

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