Aeronautics

Volume 3 - No. 6 - 1908 December

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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DECEMBER, 1908

No. 6

BALLOON

RAGES

Berlin, 10, 11, 12 October

Point to Point Contest:—Winner Herr Meckel in the balloon Elberfeld made of CONTINENTAL Balloon Sheeting.

Gordon Bennett Race :—The Swiss

balloon Helvetia, pilot Col. Schaeck, remained in the air about 72 hours, beating tbe duration record, heretofore of 52 hours, 32 minutes by not less than 20 hours. According to a telegraphic report from Col. Schaeck to the "Berliner Tageblatt," the balloon behaved and preserved excellently in the storm and weather. The Envelope of the "Helvetia," which by this splendid result made a duration record that has up to the present time been unattained by anyone, is made of CONTINENTAL Balloon Sheeting.

CONTINENTAL CAOUTCHOUC AND GUTTA PERCHA COMPANY

Hanover, Germany

NEW YORK BRANCH =. = = = . 1790 Broadway

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

Used by Leading Aviators.

Light in weight-Strong and

Durable.

Variety of t3rpes and sizes in stock.

Absolutely Guaranteed.

All Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls on Hand.

Send for Catalogue 19.

R. 1. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York

612310

AERONAUTICS

Main Office 1777 Broadway New York

Published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc. Wm. Gettinger, Pres. E. L. Jones, Treas.-Sec.

304 No. 4th St. St. Louis

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice, New York, N. Y., under the Act of

March 3, 1879.

Vol. Ill

December, 1908

No. 6

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.

Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order or registered letter. WE CAN NOT USE CHECKS ON LOCAL BANKS UNLESS EXCHANGE IS ADDED. Send draft on New York. Make all remittances free ot exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $3.50 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

Important.—Foreign money orders received in the Uuited States do not bear the name of the sender Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure proper credit.

MEN OF THE AIR IN CARTOON.

Novel Series of High Class Caricatures of Some of the Aero Clubs' Well

Known Men.

Commencing in this issue, we begin to print a scries of cartoons of the leading members of the aero clubs of America. They will prove very interesting, and no one should miss any of the series.

The work is done by one of the best caricaturists in the country, one who has succeeded in bringing out the characteristics of many of the well known members in the most artistic and attractive fashion. The entire novelty of the idea at once attracts

attention, and the clever execution further commends the enterprise.

When the series is complete, the plates will be printed on vellum, bound in ooze calf, lined with silk, and printed under the club colors. These books will be a very handsome souvenir of the men who have done much to advance aerial locomotion.

Watch each issue for "Men of the Air in Cartoon," beginning in this number.

NOTE.

The supply of July, August and Sep- We would be very glad to hear of tember, 1907, and February, Jul}', Aug- any copies of these issues which we nsl and September, 1908, copies is en- may secure to supply the present de-tirelv exhausted. maud.

FRENCH GOVERNMENT $20,000 SUBSIDY FOR AVIATION.

In view of the lack of "real" interest in aeronautics in this country, and the good work which is being done abroad by the various aerial leagues, aeronautical organizations, prize-giving individuals, syndicates and municipalities, it is of "surpassing" interest to note that Baron d'Estournelles de Constand has asked the French Government what steps it proposed to take to encourage "aviation." M. Barthou, Minister of Public Works, replied that a sum of 100,000 francs would be inscribed in his budget for the encouragement of aerial locomotion, the Government reserving the right to decide how it should be spent. In his opinion, the Government should do its best to place open spaces at the disposal of aeronauts.

SCIENTIFIC BALLOONING AND WEATHER FORECASTING.

Following our many articles begging that balloonists increase the pleasure and value of their trips by taking observations and furnishing same to the Weather Bureau, the "Monthly Weather Review" for September, published by the U. S. Weather Bureau, contains an article by Dr. Bamler entitled "Scientific Ballooning And Weather Forecasting."

This article shows how valuable balloon ascensions may be made for forecasting.

BALLOONING OR AVIATION.

"I do not feel at liberty to renew my subscription owing to so little space given to the sport of ballooning. Your effort seems to be directed toward voluminous detail, relating to aviation. If the same effort were devoted to the sport of ballooning, then 'Aeronautics' would become a very interesting medium for the balloonist and aviator alike. Please send me copy of 'Ballooning As A Sport,' by Major B. Baden Powell."—Subscriber.

* * *

We have tried our best to give equal space and prominence to events in aerostation and aviation but here is a good strong "kick."

We would be glad if the readers of this journal would favor us with their ideas as to whether we have neglected aerostation, and whether we should give more, or less, space to same

Every balloon ascent made during the year has been recorded, often with the personal experience of the passengers; we have given full details of the Army dirigible; we have told of each new dirigible built abroad by individuals and governments; we have recorded all the balloon races and long distance and duration trips; Dr. Wegener has told us of his record trip of 52 hours just beaten in the Gordon Bennett.

No important event in aerostation (or aviation) has occurred anywhere in the world that has not been recorded. Those who read the foreign aeronautical journals know that this magazine gives more news and data than any foreign publication. And as this is the only aeronautical journal in America it does not appear to us at first sight that the criticism made by Mr. * * is quite legitimate—but we would like to I hear from those for whom the magazine is published.

* * *

And we have received a letter asking) why we don't "cut out antiquated balloons".

Now, if Santa Clans presented you with an editorship, what would you do?

IMPORTANT NOTICE.

In the November advertisement of The Adams Co., makers of the Adams-Farwell aeronautic motor, we erroneously stated the weight per horsepower to be "27" lbs. This should have been, of course, "2.7" lbs. per h.p.

FLYING AND ART.

The illustration on the front cover this month to our mind is very striking. Figur-I atively, the old age is watching the new.l The demand for this picture is so great that it has been impossible to secure one for ourselves and we have been compelled to im-l pose upon the kindness of our esteemed contemporary, "Motor."

AVIATION PRIZES NOW OPEN FOR COMPETITION—IN EUROPE.

The prizes listed immediately below total! $209,100. There is but one prize in America,I of $100.

Daily Mail, for a flight from London tol

Manchester ....................$50,000

Michelin annual prizes ........... 32,000

Michelin prize for Paris-Clermont-Fer-

rand flight ..................... 20,000

Deutsch cup ...................., 14,000

Grand Prize Aero Club of France. 20,000 Deutsch prize for crossing the

Channel, carrying Col. Renard.. 5,000 Grand Prize of National Aerial

League ........................ 4,000

Archdeacon ...................... 600

L'Auto prize for height .......... 500

Twenty $200 prizes of Nat'l Aerial

League (see below) ........... 4,000

Prize of Aero Club of Nice ....... 2,000

Daily Mail prize for crossing the

Channel ....................... 2,500

Prize of L'Auto, Paris to Bordeaux,

with stops, 529 kilometers ..... 2,400

Prize of City of Bagneres-de-

Bigorre ........................ 2,000

Prize of City of Bagneres-de-

Bigorre ........................ 1,400

Prize of La Nature for 100 kiloms

in 2 hours in a straight line.... 2,000 Prize of Alphonse Falco for a flight

from Chalons military camp to

Issy-les-Molineaux, 165 kiloms... 2,000

Various prizes ................... 800

Prize of City of Paris, through Nat.

Aerial League ................. 3.000

Ruinart prize for crossing the

Channel ....................... 2,500

Consul General Dept. of the Seine. 1,000 Speed test, Pau to Biarritz and return, by these two cities ........ 4,000

Sporting Club of Monaco, race of

9.6 kiloms....................... 20,000

Aero Club de la Sarthe, for 100 m.

height ......................... 200

Pommery champagne concern, a

cup to the aviator who, during

the next three years, first covers

1000 kiloms. in 5 hours.......... 10,000

Petite Gironde to aviator who starts

from a spot in Bordeaux and

goes around a clock tower at

Cenon, 7.2 kilos................ 2,000

Galeries Lafayette ............... 500

Hotel Meurice ................... 500

Passega Prize, to beat Wright's

record of 66.6 kiloms........... 200

And they're coming right along! No wonder they build flying machines abroad and the Wrights go abroad to sell theirs!

Prizes Offered Aviators by National Aerial League.

Prize of Aviation Company for the first woman aviator who flies a kilometer in a circle.

Lazare Weiller prize for the first French aviator who will beat the height record established by Wilbur Wright.

Financial Life for the proprietor of an aeroplane capable of rising and having the smallest dimensions.

Arnoux prize, for an aeroplane capable of taking its flight on a national highway lined with trees and to land there after having covered at least one kilometer.

The prize Siot-Decauville, a cup, to the first officer who will cover on an aeroplane, of which he is the proprietor, a kilometer in a circle.

Andre Falize, to the first aviator who will rise from the Invalides, gain the Vendome column, and come back to land at the Invalides.

Three prizes of $200 each to the French proprietors of aeroplanes which will hold the record for flight in the strongest wind for five minutes.

Four prizes of $200 to the French proprietors of aeroplanes which will have covered a kilometer, piloting themselves, and under the conditions that they should not have before won the sum of $200

Three prizes of $200 to the French proprietors of aeroplanes piloting the apparatus themselves, and keeping the speed record for 1 kilom. which is to be covered successively to and fro. A landing between the two parts of the test is allowed. Total duration of the test must not exceed 15 minutes.

Prize Goupy, $200, to the aviator who will cover before January 3 the greatest distance in a straight line over variable ground and at a mean speed superior to 40 kiloms. an hour.

A prize of $400, of Bernard Dubos, for the same record on the 3d of March.

A prize of $200 to the aviator who on January 3 between 2 p. m. and 2.05 p. m. will cover the greatest distance in a closed circle without touching the ground.

$200 to the French aviator who will have risen by his own means in the shortest run over the same stretch going and coming.

"AERODROME No. 4" OF THE AERIAL EXPERIMENT ASS'N

By J. A. D. McCurdy, Sec. A. E. A.

Experiments with the June Bug seemed to indicate that more powerful tip controls would be an advantage, especially in attempting to complete a turn, and possibly describing a circle. To accomplish this end we gave the machine greater lateral extension than in the case of either of the former machines, (49 ft.) and also increased the area of the tip controls themselves, (40 sq. ft., total area). Although it was conceded that a plane having the form of the letter S (roughly) in cross section was the form having the greatest efficiency, as demonstrated by W. R. Turnbull of New Brunswick, we came to the conclusion that if a rib was formed up being of single curvature, it would take the form of the Turnbull curve when acted upon by the air pressure as the machine glided through the air, if the rear was unrestricted and flexible, but if the rib were moulded with the double curve form the air pressure would bend it up abnormally at the rear and hence produce a detrimental effect.

We, therefore, decided to make up our ribs for the "Silver Dart" (as A. E. A. No. 4 was afterward named,) having the single curvature form. The depth of the planes was reduced at the center from 6 ft. 6 in. to 6 ft., and the distance between the planes consequently reduced in the same ratio, (6 ft. 6 in. to 6 ft.).

We designed the ends of the supporting plane to have a depth of 4 ft., as in former cases, and also to be 4 ft. apart. This re-proportioning gave the lateral curve of the hack edges an evener form and the machine as a whole, finer lines.

The fish-shaped material used all through is of heavier stock and hence capable of greater rigidity of structure.

Turnbuckles are used on each individual

wire, so that they can be separately adjusted to receive their proper strain. Two special instruments were devised; one as a tool for constructing the turnbuckle and the other a wrench to facilitate the screwing np of these turnbuckles.

The sockets used to connect the struts to the lateral chords are in their simplest form, doing away with the jack-joint used on the June Bug. The projecting spike at the end of the socket passes through the straps to which the guy wires are secured and then into the hole prepared in the socket connecting the sections of the lateral chords.

The tightening up of the turnbuckles of the guy wires prevents these spikes, from coming out. A single wire passing through the middle of the struts and connected by a V-wire to both the top and bottom chord at the lateral extremities of the machine seems to answer the purpose of steadying the struts better than two wires, as in former cases, and it also offers less head resistance.

The cloth used to cover the ribs, etc., forming the supporting surface is similar to that used by Capt. T. S. Baldwin for his Government balloons, although lighter in weight, (2 ozs. per square yard), and having silk on only one side of the rubber coating. It forms a beautiful surface, rubber side down, and is easy to handle, and capable of being cemented, as ordinary rubber. The tip controls were covered by making the silk in the form of a triangular bag and drawing it on tightly over the frame, thus making an equally clean surface on the top and bottom.

As in the case of the June Bug, a steel tube rib is placed at the junction of each section and acts as a spreader for the lateral chords.

The control panel is made exceptionally strong for various reasons. The bending moments are greatest there and also as the dead load is located at that point the racking strains tell more there than elsewhere. This panel is made up first and is complete in itself. The four wings when placed in position fit into projecting sockets from each side of this panel, and are secured in place by the same method employed throughout

the structure, viz., of attaching and tightening up tlie turnbuckles. Thus the four wings can be readily removed without disturbing the central panel, engine-bed, propeller or running gear.

The silk of the Silver Dart is made in sections corresponding to the panel where it is to be used, and laces to a steel rib at each end. Thus the whole machine, silk and all, is made in sections so as to facilitate in repair work, should we be unfortunate enough to have an accident. The advantage of having the silk in sections in "knocking down" the machine is also apparent. The ribs slide into pockets prepared on the silk, from the rear passing under the back lateral chord and butting

J. A. D. MCCURDY AT THE HELM

neatly against the back edge of the front chord and are secured in place by square tin caps which slip over the rear end. These caps, one for each rib, are strung on a wire which passes through a seam in the rear of the silk and is secured at its ends to the lateral margin of the aeroplane, and to the central panel, being drawn taut by means of a turnbuckle. There are two of these wires to a plane, one for the port wing and one for the starboard.

The rudder used on the Silver Dart is of quite small dimensions (4 ft. high by 2 ft. deep) and is constructed, as far as the silk-is concerned, similarly to the tip controls, i. e., covering made as a bag and drawn on over the frame work and laced at the top. As both sides of the rudder act at different times, this method gives them even resistances. The rudder is placed 11 ft. back from the rear lateral chord, and is supported simply by four hinged bamboos so con-

structed that by releasing two lateral guy wires the whole thing folds up flat against the rear of the planes. The rudder is operated by a small wire cable connected to the tiller of the front wheel. The bow control is double decked, rigidly constructed throughout and placed 15 feet forward of the front lateral chord. It is operated similarly to that used in the June Bug, by a direct bamboo rod, at the rear end of which is the steering wheel. Push the wheel forward it depresses the machine; pull it back and the machine rises; turn it to port or starboard, and the machine obeys respectively, whether on the ground or in the air.

The front control measures 12 ft. long by 28 inches wide and 30 inches between the planes. It is supported five inches back from its front edge by a bamboo cantilever truss.

It was our original intention to carry two persons in the Silver Dart, one sitting directly behind the other, hence a seat was designed for the purpose and made adjustable so that it could be slipped forward and backward readily in balancing up the machine. The second man would sit directly

over the theoretical center of pressure at our traveling speed, so that the carrying of the passenger on leaving him behind would not effect the balance. The tips are controlled by a device which does not interfere with the man sitting behind the operator, and the device is also adjustable with the seat.

The pole connecting the steering wheel to the front control can be lengthened out or shortened in determining where the operator shall sit, by means of a telescopic tube

which can be secured at any desired point.

The running gear or truck is almost the same as that used in the June Bug. There are improvements of construction and the ma terjaM.s_-. heavier.

The engine used was especially built for the Silver Dart and is a Curtiss eight-cylinder, water-cooled, 50 horse power motor, which weighs without water or oil, but including all water connections and counter shaft, 202 pounds. It is placed into its bed immediately on top of the lower rear lateral chord, and braced directly from the stringer of the truck. Its being placed so low will produce less strain of the structure in landing and will bring the center of gravity of. the machine, as a whole, a little lower than in the case of the June Bug.

The radiator is designed somewhat after that used by the Wright Brothers, and the gasoline and oil tank (one tank having a partition) holds 10 and 2 gallons, respectively.

The propeller is driven by a V-shaped leather belt in the ratio of 1 to il/2. (Engine turning 1500 revolutions and the propeller turning 1000). One propeller is used, and the thrust comes about through the line of resistance of the machine, but inclined above the horizontal 3J4 degrees. These are made of laminated wood and weight, including the two clamps, 834 pounds; of 8 ft. diameter and 17 to 18 degrees pitch at the tip.

The supporting surfaces of the machine are given an angle of attack oi'gl4 degrees at their lateral margins. This angle is excessive for economical flights, but it facilitates rising from the ground. After the machine is in the air, the angle will be reduced to perhaps 6 degrees.

It is for this reason that the propeller thrust is a little above the horizontal when the machine is on the ground. The proper angle at which to place the counter-shaft for propeller can only be determined by actual experiment.

The actual work of construction of the Silver Dart was under the supervision of our foreman, Mr. Kenneth Ingraham, and too much cannot be said in his praise foi the care taken by him in the detail work and in generally rushing the assembling to a successful finish,

All the structural members of the Silver Dart, fish struts, wires, tubing, bamboo, etc., were carefully measured and in accordance with the method and co-efficients used by Mr. Octave Chanute. The head resistance of the machine was computed and reduced to its equivalent flat surface in square feet.

Fish Shaped Material.

Wings ..............................1928.5

Struts .............................1088.0

Additional fish ...................... 326.0

Xon Vibrating Wire.................976.89

Vibrating Wire .....................131 -30

Tubing .............................668.00

Timber ..............................365.5

Bamboo .............................245.0

Descrip. Sq. inches Co.-eff. Equiv. surface

Fish shaped.3342.50... .1/6......557-o8

N. V. Wire.. 97^89____1/2......488.44

Vib. Wire... 131.30----1.5......196.95

Tubing ...... 668.00----1/2......334-00

Timber ..... 365.50----1/ ......36550

Bamboo ..... 490.00.... 1/2.....245.00

Total .......................2186.97

Hence, the total head resistance—2186.97

sq. in. or 15.18 sq. ft.

All figures in square inches.

Total area of supporting surfaces.420 sq. ft.

Weight of machine, exclusive of engine and accessories.............345 lbs.

Weight of engine, propeller and

counter shaft, etc.................210 lbs.

Weight of radiator ................ 15 lbs.

Weight of water................... 30 lbs.

Weight of gasoline, oil and tank, full 110 lbs.

Weight of man, say................150 lbs.

Total .......................860 lbs.

And as 420/S60 = 2.04, ratio = 2.04 pounds per sq. ft., i.e., flying weight = 2.04 pounds per sq. ft.

Description of Curtiss 50 H. P. Motor Used.

The new 50 horsepower Curtiss motor used in the Silver Dart, has 8 cylinders in sets of 4 at an angle of 90 degrees. The cylinders are cast iron with copper water jackets; bore zYa '»•, stroke 4 in. The valves are nickel steel, concentric, intake valve automatic. The connecting rods are

special forgings, with Parson's White Brass bearings, liberal dimensions. The shaft is i}£ in. chrome nickel steel specially treated and bored hollow. All bearings are ground to size. The lubrication is by splash system, pump feed. The ignition is effected by jump spark with single coil and distributor. The weight of the motor is 165 lbs.

TRIALS OF THE "LOON' PLANE.

DRO-

The Aerial Experiment Association's aeroplane, the "Loon", was given a trial on Nov. 28, over the waters of Lake Keuka. Just after about 400 yards had been covered, J. A. D. McCurdy, pilot, the propeller shaft was twisted off and the screw thrown into the water. The speed attained was calculated to be 20 miles p. h. A solid shaft was put in next day and a second trial made. Auxiliary ports in the engine were opened and after running about 100 yards with the 5-6-mile wind, by suddenly elevating front control, the bow would lift out of the water without any depression at the stern. A course was taken a mile down the lake, a turn, and back against the wind, thus covering two miles in 4 minutes, 26 seconds, a speed of over 27 miles an hour. It was calculated that the speed required to lift the June Bug off the ground was 23 miles p. h. Though the weight of the Loon was little more than that of the June Bug, the increase of 4 miles an hour was insufficient to get into the air, indicating that the suction of the water was greater than anticipated.

The above facts, and the following, obtained through the Secretary of the A. E. A., are very interesting.

While waiting to make trials of the Silver Dart, it was decided to equip the June Bug aeroplane with floats, which were built to support a total weight of 850 lbs. These floats, 20 ft. long, 18 in. beam, constructed skeleton-like of California Red Wood and covered with rubber oil cloth, weighed 60 lbs. each. They are spaced 7 ft. apart, like a catamaran, connected by trussing to lateral cords and central panel of the June Bug aeroplane. The vertical rudder was placed at the stern of the catamaran. The front

control was mounted dir otly from the bow. A new Curtiss 50 h. p. water-cooled engine

dro

;e an 8-ft. propeller of 6l/{ ft. pitch.

Patrick Y. Alexander arrives on December/26th in New York and leaves again on th^ 28th.

/Mr. Patrick Alexander has just paid 500 pounds to Mr. Griffith Brewer for a lost wager. Both men are enthusiastic aeronauts, and at a dinner on November 5, 1907, Mr. Alexander undertook to travel a mile by means of mechanical flight within a year or forfeit £500 to Mr. Brewer, who agreed to pay him ¿500 if he succeeded.

Mr. Alexander has made no attempt to win the money. Mr. Brewer will devote it to working out the problem of mechanical flight.

A short time ago Prof. Simon Newcomb wrote an article on the future of aerial locomotion which was a "discouragement" to enthusiasts, to say the least. He found all sorts of difficulties and made statements regarding impossible accomplishments by aeroplanes which were untrue, as aeroplanes before the date of the article had done things he claimed beyond reason.

Major B. Baden-Powell has answered Prof. Simon Newcomb most effectively and suggests that had Prof. Newcomb been fortunate enough to have experienced an aeroplane flight, as has Major Baden-Powell, Prof. Newcomb would have been in a position to have his views somewhat altered.

Prof. Henry H. Clayton of the Blue Hill Observatory, Boston, Mass., on November 15th, lectured on "Aerial Navigation" in the North Congregational Church of Detroit.

"Aerodrome No. 5," Dr. A. Graham Bell's tetrahedral structure, which is practically completed, will be tried after J. A. D. McCurdy has tried the Silver Dart. Dr. Bell is depending upon the Silver Dart engine for motive power at Beiun Bhreagh.

It is said that Otto Lilienthal during his several thousand glides was in the air a total of scarcely five hours.

A. M. Herring will probably be granted an extension of seven months, that is, until June 13th, when his aeroplane is to be delivered to the Signal Corps.

Signal Corps balloon No. 12, 1000 meters, has been shipped to Omaha for use at the aeronautical plant there.

Dirigible No. 1 was inflated the week of November 8th, in the tent on the drill ground at Fort Myer. On the 14th a heavy snow fell, the weight of which pulled down the tent. The dirigible was practically undamaged, but it has been decided to dis-

continue these experiments for this season, due to lack of a proper place in which to house the dirigible.

An order has been placed with Janney, Steinmetz, and Company, Philadelphia, for ten trial gas cylinders, with a capacity of 200 cubic feet compressed hydrogen. High pressure valves for these cylinders were ordered at the same time.

One ascension was made Nov. 6th by 1st Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, pilot; and 2nd Lieut. John G. Winter and A. H. Forbes, passengers.

MAJOR SQUIER AND LIEUTE

On Dec. 2nd, Geo. O. Squier. Ph.D., Major, Signal Corps, U.S.A., addressed the American Society of Mechanical Engineers at its morning session on "The Present Status of Military Aeronautics."

In beginning his remarks, he stated:

"It is a matter of first significance that the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, composed of a body of highly trained and serious minded men, should be considering in annual meeting assembled the subject of aerial navigation. Five years ago such a subject could scarcely have had a place on the list of professional papers on your program. The present period will ever be memorable in the history of the world for the first public demonstrations of the practicability of mechanical flight. In fact, at the present moment a resistless wave of enthusiasm and endeavor, sweeping away every prejudice, is passing over the entire civilized world, fixing the attention of all classes upon the problem of flight. France. Germany and England are in a state of frenzied interest in this subject, and each period of a single month sees some new step accomplished in the march of progress. The Universal Highway is at least to be made

ANT LAHM ADDRESS A.S.M.E.

available for the uses of mankind, with its consequent influence upon our modes of life and thought."

There has not been given anywhere, to our knowledge, as concise and comprehensive a view of the present and future practical application of aerostation and aviation to Military Art.

Major Squier told of the work of the Aeronautical Division of the Army during the year.

Then, under the heading "Aerostation," he gave detailed dsecriptions of the military dirigibles of France, England, Germany and United States. Following this were notes on the general considerations which govern the design and adjustment of dirigible balloons: Buoyancy and Shape, Resistance of Air to the Motion of a Projectile, Analogy to Airship, Aerodynamic Adjustments.

Under the heading "Aviation," the Wright Brothers, Herring, Farman, Bleriot and June Bug aeroplanes were mentioned as representative aeroplanes of various types; following which were some general considerations which govern the design of aeroplanes; Support, the Principle of Reefing Computed Power Required to Tow LTnit

Planes through the Air at various speeds and angles, Stability and Control, Resistance and Propulsion, most Advantageous Speed and Angle of Flight.

Under the heading "Hydromechanic Relations," he presented the relationship between ships in air and in water, skin-friction in air, with tables; observations of the necessary motors; the fundamental principles of propellers; and the limitations of the dirigible, aeroplane and helicopter.

In concluding his lecture, he spoke of "Aerial Locomotion in Warfare," the action of the Hague Peace Conference, influence of Aeronautics on the Military Art, Interior Harbors, Delimitation of Frontiers and the necessary arrangements to be made in case of war for the operation of dirigibles and flying machines.

Professor W. J. Humphreys, of the Weather Bureau, was called upon to speak upon the movement of air currents near and high above the earth in various sections, of the world at different seasons of the year.

Or. Brashaer spoke on Langley's work and the credit due him, expressing the "debt of gratitude that we owe to one of the greatest physicists that has ever honored this country."

This sentiment was echoed by George L. Fowler, who told of Dr. Langley's idea when he started his experiments, detailing some of his work and accomplishments.

The lecture, a very complete bibliography list of aeronautical societies and publications, together with a large number of beautiful full-page illustrations of dirigibles and flying machines, is printed in the "Journal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers'" for December, which may be had at an expense of $1.00. The address of the Society is 29 West 39th Street.

Dirigible Balloons in Future Gordon Bennetts.

In the evening, Lieut. Frank P. Lahm presented an illustrated lecture on "Aeronautics." The first section of the lecture covered the sport of ballooning and Lieut. Lahm described in detail the preparation of a balloon for an ascent, the inflation, balancing, experiences during an ascent, the landing, packing-up and return home, each step being illustrated by a lantern slide. The

number of aeronautical organizations abroad and in this country were commented upon as indicating the great interest being taken in ballooning all over the world. The story of the three Gordon Bennett balloon races was told and the prophecy made that future Gordon Bennetts would be fought by dirigible balloons.

Then the history of the dirigible balloon was given, illustrated by past and present types, covering the range of action and importance of the dirigible balloon in Military Art.

Next the different types of aeronefs were taken up and the work of the Wright Brothers, Prof. Langley, A. M. Herring and the Aerial Experiment Association was enlarged upon.

The entrance of the United States government into aeronautic activity with both classes of apparatus was mentioned, together with the plans for an increased appropriation next year.

The lecture was concluded by motion pictures of dirigibles and the Wright Brothers' flying machine. The latter created a lively demonstration. The picture was most realistic, the aeroplane darting with lightning-like rapidity back and forth across the screen, to and from the spectators.

The Chairman of the meeting urged the members of the A.S.M.E. to take up the subject of flight and called for a vote of appreciation to "express in a formal way our sense of recognition to the Signal Corps and Secretary Wright this presentation of the achievement of the Wright Brothers through General Allen, Major Squicr and Lieutenant Lahm through whom we have received this most illuminating presentation to-night. Resolved, that the thanks of the Society be tendered Secretary Wright, General Allen, Major Squicr and Lieutenant Lahm. As American citizens I want you to go away with a sense of recognition that last year the sum of $200,000 was asked for military experimentation in aeronautical lines, but no money was appropriated. This year it is to be $500,000 and yet America is not even apace with what has been done by the countries on the other side of the Atlantic. It is up to us Americans to sec that we are not left behind in the progress that has been made in 1908 in the direction of aerial flight."

BALLOON CENTERS OF AMERICA

THE AMERICAN CHAMPIONSHIP. By E. Percy Noel.

The present indications are that there will be a balloon race for the championship of the United States next year, and if such a contest is held it is practically certain that St. Louis will be the starting place. With this in view, D. C. Nugent, one of the vice-presidents of the Aero Club of St. Louis, will go to New York soon to confer with the Aero Club of America.

The date and possibility of the championship race hinges somewhat upon the decision of the International Aeronautic Federation in regard to the protest made by the Aero Club of Great Britain against the ruling of the federation that give the victory of the recent international race from Berlin to the Swiss Aero Club. If the federation confirms its ruling in favor of Switzerland, it is probable that the next international race will be held in the spring, as the climatic conditions of Switzerland would be unfavorable to ballooning in October. A race in the spring would preclude the possibility of a championship event here as a sort of eliminatory trial for the international race. If Great Britain gets the international race by its protest, the starting place will be somewhere in Europe—Germany or France, supposedly—and the date, October.

With the international race in the fall, the championship event in America would come either in the spring, or in September. It is intended that this event shall give a great impetus to ballooning in America, and that the success of the aeronauts who get from first to third place will encourage them to try to win the international race as representatives of the United States.

The recently balloon voyages from Los Angeles have demonstrated what has been known theoretically all along—that with the usual 80,000 cubic foot racing balloon it is practically impossible to make the transcontinental trip successfully, and leaves the best possible starting point for a balloon race, all things considered, at St. Louis.

The trials from Los Angeles have shown that it is necessary for a balloon to rise to (Continued onfolloivingpage)

LOS ANGELES AS A LONG DISTANCE BALLOONING CENTER. By J. S. Zerbe, Pres. Aero Club of Cal.

The' two balloons, the "United States" and the "American," which arranged to make long distance ascents from Los Angeles across the Continent, did not succeed in their venture. Sunday, Nov. 15th, was a cloudy misty day with no surface wind. The "American" was manned by A. E. Mueller, with J. K. Hutchinson, a reporter as assistant. The pilot of the "United States" was H. B. Wild; Mr. Levouxzes, assistant. Arrangements for inflating the balloons were not the best so that it was 4 p. m. before the "American" succeeded in getting away. The "United States" did not get sufficient gas to make an ascent that day.

The "American"' rose to an altitude varying from 2,000 to 4,000 feet, the general trend of the air currents being south and in a westerly direction, so that within a short time they were carried out to sea and a higher altitude again brought them back. During the night they floated over the city of Los Angeles and again started for the sea. By manouvering during the night a landing was finally effected in the morning near Hermosa Beach about 25 miles S. E. of the city.

The second balloon was finally launched the following day, and met with practically the same fate except that by taking a higher altitude and remaining in the air all night, a landing was made midway between Los Angeles and San Bernardino less than forty miles away.

The experience of the two navigators seem to confirm the views expressed by many here that there is no general easterly current here, but I expressed the opinion two months ago in a communication to the "Times" that at a high altitude, 10,000 feet and over, the anti-trades would be reached.

Last Sunday, Capt. Mueller determined to test the upper current, and to that end manned the "United States," with a small amount of ballast and provisions for a day. He ascended to an altitude of over 12,000 feet, and at once entered an air current at (Continued on following page)

CORTLANDT FIELD BISHOP

His hands are full of big balloons,

His pockets full of kites ; And aeroplanes around linn whizz

In swift erratic flights, Of helicopters he can talk,

On gliders he is wise, And everything pertaining to

A voyage in the skies.

He is a solid business man

And deals in real estate, He'd like to go to Mars and sell

Some villas up to date; And loaded with a house or two

Would make the long ascent— But he is needed here to be

The Club's ex-president.

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NAVIGATING THE AiR

Bv the members of the aero club of america

^[ An interesting record of the personal ideas and experiences of twenty-four distinguished men. This book is intended to be a summary of the present state of the art.

11 Among the contributors: Wright Brothers, 0. Chanute, Prof. Wm. H. Pickering, Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, Prof. T. S. C. Lowe, William J. Hammer, Chas. M. Manly, Prof. David Todd, Dr. Oliver L. Fassig, Dr. A. F. Zahm, A. Leo Stevens, A. M. Herring.

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THE PROBLEM OF FLIGHT, .AJPESSSfES

By HERBERT CHATLEY, B.Sc. (Engineering), LONDON Lecture in Applied Mechanics, Portsmouth Technical Institute sixty-one illustrations octavo cloth," $3.50 net

The author takes advantage of the encouraging outlook for a practical solution to the problem of aerial navigation, and in this work submits to the engineering profession an epitome of the knowledge at present available on the subject.

While intende t especially for the engineering profession, the book should be of value to any one interested in a topic that is receiving so much study and attention at the present time.

outline op contents—the problem of plight, essentia! principals, the helix, the aeroplane, avlplanes, dirigible balloons, form and fittings ol the airship.

An appendix furnishes much instructive miscellaneous information.

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BALLOONING AS A S PORT

By major B. baden powell President of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain

A hand-book of ballooning; a guide for the amateur

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THE AMERICAN CHAMPIONSHIP

(Continued from preceding page)

a height of 8000 feet or more almost at the very start. Balloonists know that this causes a great loss of gas, forced out, by the rise, through the appendix. Tf the appendix is made very small, or closed entirely, the gas bag is sure to burst from the tremendous inside pressure. The balloon Conqueror, in the international race, suffered by such an experience at the start from Berlin. This high altitude, necessary to pass above the mountains, when starting either for Los Angeles or Denver causes a loss of gas that of course shortens the life of the balloon's bouyancy.

Starting from St. Louis it is possible to weigh to just the slightest lift and, getting way, to pass over all high points with an altitude of 300 feet or so. The low altitude makes it possible to conserve the gas in the envelope, and so to accomplish the greatest possible distance.

Of the geographical situation of St. Louis, there is nothing to be said that is not already well known. The great lakes and the Atlantic Ocean are so far away that they may not be considered an attendant danger in ballooning from the centrally located point. The hazard of the Pacific at Los Angeles, and the rough and craggy mountains of Colorado, are in themselves sufficiently serious possibilities in those places.

Octave Chanute, the "father of aviation in America," addressed the City Club in Chicago a few days ago on "The Development and Practical Possibilities of Flying Machines."

520 members have already joined the new Aeroplane Club in London. The first meeting of the Club took place at Clar-idge's Hotel, at 3 o'clock, on November 6th. Captain Windham, the founder of the club, is arranging to form minor branches of the club throughout the British Isles. Already some 200 members have applied to undertake the work as honorary secretaries. Under this scheme, if worked properly, it is hoped that the parent club will succeed in attaining a very responsible position among the aeronautical societies of the world.

LOS ANGELES AS A LONG DISTANCE BALLOONING CENTER

(Continued from preceding page)

which during his trip of six hours, averaged 30 miles an hour. He landed in Arizona, two hundred miles east and northerly, thus proving the existence of the great anti-trade winds, and if he had been equipped for a long voyage, no doubt have been able to break the world's record.

A movement is now on foot to test this out thoroughly and thus establish Los Angeles as the most available point to initiate long distance flights.

Oliver K. Chance, of Minneapolis, will start building, on January 1st, a combination balloon, helicopter and aeroplane. A small saucer shaped envelope filled with hydrogen supports some of the weight and aids in landing. A vertical mast extends through the center of the bag, at the upper extremity of which is a propeller having a vertical axis. Below the bag is a framework containing the motor and three other propellers, whose axes are horizontal, which propel the apparatus forward, guided by a vertical rudder. There are also two rudders in front. The whole apparatus is heavier than the air it displaces. Stock is now being sold to create a building fund of $3,000.

During H. B. Wild's trip to Los Angeles he lectured before the Polytechnic High School on Aeronautics. He writes: "Aeronautics all over the States is at a high pitch and during the coming summer many more pages will have to be added to 'Aeronautics' to keep in touch and publish all that is done."

W. J. Cochran, of Los Angeles, will soon start work upon his aeroplane. He is now getting out a rotating, two-cycle, six-cylinder motor. The aeroplane will have about 600 square feet of surface and will weigh (with 40 h.p. motor) only about 600 pounds. It is expected that after the first one is completed, other machines can be sold for $1000, using the special motor mentioned above.

'CLEMENT-BAYARD," THE AIRSHIP UP TO DATE

By Carl Dienstbach

The first craft built by a factory exclusively devoted to aerial construction has surpassed all its predecessors by an air of finish and the almost complete absence of the experimental element. In a higher degree yet than the Ville de Paris, its immediate model, it is a perfected reincarnation of that work of genius which happened to be so far in advance of its time, Renard's "La France" of 1884. The Clement-Bayard is a simpler and more easily constructed one than the Lebaudy type, admirable though the latter may be.

ing a certain dragging effect, prevent pitching still more certainly.

The stabilization is so perfect that a very advantageous simplification of the whole design results from the discarding of all planes but those of the rudders proper. The outlines of the classic "La France" appear everywhere. The rudder, for instance, has the same trapezoid form and is set at the same inclination towards the rear at the same point of the car, which is also quadrangular. Of course it is double and therefore twice as efficient. There is also

>3jfíi,

The shape of the envelope surpasses that of the Ville de Paris in going back almost completely to the graceful lines of "La France." Although the all-important stabilizing devices serve as in the use of the Ville de Paris gas-inflated appendages of the balloon itself, their form has been simplified and made more efficient by providing only four of them of increased diameter, thickened toward the rear, which in produc-

The a utomobile the same single large front propeller of 5 meters diameter, but by a very clever change of details the centrifugal force takes up most of the strains of propulsion. It has a variable pitch, turns at 380-400 r.p.m., with a peripheral speed of 105 meters per second. A most striking homage to the work of the immortal Renard is the inverted cross supporting the principal bearing of the propeller shaft, so conspicuous in "La France."

But what an infinite refinement in detail everywhere! This new ship of the air looks convincing and confidence inspiring. The car has a steel tube frame throughout and the "habitable" part of it offers much • more comfortable quarters than the shorter one of the Lebaudys.

The car proper is terminated in front by a very large radiator for a motor of 120 h.p., which is situated directly behind, and with its dimensions suggests, indeed, the impressions of a steamship's power-plant and machinery. It is wonderfully accessible and the engine room is ideal in its comfort. Directly behind is the "bridge" of the ship, an actual superstructure from where the pilot has the same commanding position the captain on the water enjoys. He looks down on the engines directly in front of him and has the whole mechanical part, horizontal rudders and propeller included, all the time before his view. His aides are with him in his spacious and attractive chart-house.

The passengers are accommodated in a large comfortable cabin directly behind, but lower so as not to obstruct the captain's view towards the rear. All these compartments are inclosed by aluminum sheeting, giving an appearance of elegance and finish. The horizontal rudder, right in front of the pilot, of three planes with a framing of steel tubing like that of the vertical rear rudder, is identical with that of the Ville de Paris. It is aided by two balloonets in front and rear, which, by an arrangement of valves, may be inflated alternately.

The ''Continental'' cloth envelope displaces 3500 cu. meters, has the length of 56.25 m. and a max. diam. of 10.58 m. Both balloonets inflated displace 1100 cu.m. The car is 28.5 m. long, 1.5 wide by 1.5 m. high. The vertical rudder has a surface of 18 sq.m. and the horizontal, 16 sq.m. The transmission is solid and positive in action.

AERIAL WAR IN FRANCE.

With the rapid increase in activity in aviation, the Automobile Club of France decided to interest itself to such an extent that in time it might control aviation as it now does automobiling. The Aero Club of France, which, until recently, has devoted most of its attention to balloons and di-

rigibles, became fearful that it might lose some of its prestige. Not to be behind the Aero Club of France, the National Aerial League, a body recently formed to promote aeronautics with a preference for aviation, creating interest by giving prizes, etc., also objected to the assault made by the Automobile Club. Finally, a meeting of the three organizations was arranged and a joint committee has been appointed to draw up rules governing aerial competitions and generally control flying. Each of the three bodies is left free to continue its own work, the Aero Club and the League continuing as before, the Automobile Club to conduct experiments, competitions and demonstrations.

Our friend, Mr. Bradley, in the "Automobile," says: "The Automobile Club realizes that as a sporting proposition, the automobile will have to give place to the aeroplane at no distant date. It will be manifestly impossible to get a crowd to watch automobiles run over roads at 70 miles an hour when aeroplanes can be seen traveling through the air at a hundred miles an hour. Thus, one who secures hold of the aeroplane industry and sport has a permanent and profitable position."

Both the Marquis de Dion and Ernest Archdeacon have resigned from the Aero Club of France and from the Automobile Club in order to devote their entire energies to the work of the National Aerial League.

The Automobile Club proposes to hold a great international race in 1910 for very valuable prizes.

Hydrogen for filling Balloons—According to M. Mouricheau-Beaupré's communication to the Academe des Sciences, the following simple method of preparing hydrogen for filling balloons is available. An intimate mixture is made of finely divided aluminum with powdered bichloride of mercury and sulpho-cyan-ide of potassium. When water is added to this powder there is a violent evolution of hydrogen gas, which can be regulated by the volume of water employed so as to keep the temperature down to moderative limits.

Mr. Hugh L. Willoughby suggests to those who are experimenting with aeroplanes, that the Ormond Beach, Forida, is the best place in the world for trying their machines.

NEWS ABROAD FOR THE MONTH

One notes the Decreasing Newspaper Reports in America of Important Events Abroad, a sign that Aeronautics is rapidly Progressing—Aeroplanes abroad make Adaptations of Wright Brothers and Aerial Experiment Association Construction—Newspaper men Acquire with Facility the Describing of Aerial Apparatus.

Note:—Complete foreign news for the month is mailed abroad on the ist. It usually takes ten days for the mail from various countries to reach us. This makes it impossible to assemble, set up, print and mail before the 20th of the month.

Belgium.

Count de la Hault's ornithopter, driven by a 100 h.p. motor, rose easily from the ground in secret trials.

New aero club at Dunkerque.

Triplane of Baron de Caters has now made some successful flights of 800 meters. Vivinus motor, 57 h.p., 1250 r.p.m. As the propeller speed reduces, the pitch increases.

England.

It is reported work on a new dirigible is being pushed along by War Office. To be considerably larger than the two predecessors.

On Nov. 4th, the Bellamy machine started down hill on three wheels to get in the air, when it is supposed to be kept going by a 6 cylinder motor. It travelled quickly down the slope and capsized.

The "Daily Graphic" balloon, in an attempt to break the world's balloon distance record, travelled from London to Russia and madevTuT^ miles, within^ 26 miles of record. 1 Vs. " "2 K-4">a-*v^

France.

Ascents of the "Bayard-Clement," Making New French Record for Closed Circuit Ascent—the Lebaudy and Ville De Paris—Malecot II. The first trial, in which the average speed was 50 kilo, an hour, was mentioned last month. On the same day it made another trip of \l/2 hours. On Oct. 31st it made its third trip, one of 30 minutes. On Nov. 1st, it made new record for closed circuit flight, 4 hours 53 minutes, covering distance about 200 kiloms., with six passengers. On Nov. 2nd a half-hour ascent was made with seven on board. On the 17th, Sidney B. Bowman,

N. Y. agent for the Clement car, made a trip of an hour. On Nov. 20th, the Minister of Labor made an ascent of two hours. -

It is of interest to note that in this dirigible, the envelope is made of "Continental" sheeting—also used in the dirigibles Ville de Paris, Lebaudy, de la Vaulx, Republique, Col. Renard, Parseval, Zeppelin, Gross; and the aeroplanes Farman, Delagrange, Goupy, de Caters and de Crawhez.

The old Lebaudy still doing valiant duty at Chalais-Meudon, making instruction ascents. After being lengthened five meters, beginning Oct.-2nd, it made, including Nov. 10th, 17 ascensions of a few minutes to 3 hours., 8 min. duration, with usually six persons aboard.

The Ville de Paris is not idle at Verdun on the frontier. Several alterations have been made, lengthening the envelope and framework. On the first trial after changes, on Nov. 16, it had motor trouble and the ship drifted a couple of kiloms. before the wind, making a rough landing resulting in the breaking of the propeller shaft and considerable damage to framework. Repaired and made \l/2 hour trip on 24th, more trips on 27th.

A Malecot II will presently be constructed of greater dimensions and will take up trials next Spring. The Malecot I. has been badly damaged by the destruction of its hangar.

Wilbur Wright Wins Two Height Prizes.

Wilbur Wright continues the instruction of first pupil, Count de Lambert, working every day except Saturday and Sunday.

On Oct. 31st, Wright, at Le Mans, flew to a good height for 4 min. 30 sec, stopping his motor at 50 meters height and gliding to the ground, in the presence of an Army Commission. Another flight of 10 min. 37 sec. with member of Commission. On Nov. 10th, Mr. Wright started a new pupil, Capt. Girardville on a 15 minute flight. Count de Lambert, who has succeeded in operating

the machine in two flights, says its management is exactly as natural as that of a bicycle. On Nov. 12th, two flights were made with Count de Lambert of 15 to 20 min.; and one with Capt. Girardville of ten minutes.

On Nov. 13th, Wright won the Aero Club de la Sarthe $200 30-meter-height prize by flying at 45 meters height and was able to get into the air without using the catapult. Then another flight of 11 minutes at 60 meters height (197 feet). Two other flights were made. On the following day, five instruction flights in the rain. Circles were executed with a diameter of not more than 40 meters. On the 16th, one with Lambert, 19 min.; Girardville, 21 min.; two more with eminent Spanish gentlemen of 5 and 8 min. The last flight ended in a spiral glide. On the 17th, Lambert took charge of levers and made flights of 15 and 20 min. each, Wright taking the passenger's seat in these two for first time.

The "Societie Astra," with rights for France only, are booking many orders for Wright aeroplanes at $5,000 per. Air. Bishop advises ordering at once to secure a machine.

On the iSth, Wright won the A.C.F. second $500 25-meter-height prize, without using the catapult. A second flight of 9 min. 24 sec. was made with Frank S. Lahm. In a third flight with Girardville, after 19 min. the driving chain of one propeller broke and left only one screw working. The motor was instantly stopped and a successful glide made to the ground. The breaking of the screw did not cause the machine to lose its equilibrium. Mr. Wright took up the work of replacing worn parts before starting instruction of Paul Tissandier, the third pupil under the Weiller contract. Orville Wright will soon be in France to aid his brother.

Bleriot Again Smashes Machine—Builds Biplane.

On Nov. 4th, Bleriot attempted to beat his own distance record in a trip from Toury to Etampes with his 'WIII-ter." After making a few trial runs, in the afternoon he began flying. He had covered 1500 meters and was just turning around the hangar when the apparatus hit the ground and was completely broken. Bleriot wanted to clear a mound and by a sharp movement of the rudder the apparatus liad lifted itself but

in the same moment the lateral equilibrium seemed to be lost in consequence of a wind gust, the right wing touched the ground, broke, and the machine pivoted around on the one wing.

After two years of trials, Bleriot is still an admirer of the monoplane for fast flights, but believes in the biplane for a greater weight carrying machine. He is starting work on a biplane, which will have 60 sq. meters surface, to which he will add 8 sq. m. in movable tips. The 40 h.p. motor will be replaced later by a 90 h.p., with the hope of carrying four people, the machine to be built with that end in view. There will be one 3-mcter propeller, chain transmission, 480 r.p.m. The tips will be placed at the rear of the planes.

BLERIOT "VIII-TER"

These tips will automatically counterbalance e^ch other and will serve the same purposM as the plane-twisting of the Wrights, with the advantage, according to M. Bleriot, that they will offer less resistance to the air and avoid loss of sustention which he observes when the wings of the Wright machine are twisted to turn or recover equilibrium. The common points of the two apparati will be: motor and operator placed side by side, chain transmission, and the lower plane placed as low as possible. The differences: wing tips, principal planes not movable, single screw, wheeled chassis, single propeller, single lever. Bleriot has a patented device in which all movements are in a single lever. He is also constructing a new monoplane designed for flying in a strong wind.

It is interesting to note the speed made in the cross country trip (see cover) mentioned last month. 14 kilometers of the trip

were covered in n minutes, a speed of 76.3 kiloms. per hour. The whole journey from Toury to Artenay and return, including two stops, was 28 kiloms. The "Aerophile" states the average speed was 85 kiloms. per hour.

Santos Dumont Again. On Nov. 17th, trials were begun with the new monoplane and several short flights were accomplished. In the last one, there was belt trouble and experiments stopped.

Antoinette IV. Nov. 16th saw the Antoinette IV. monoplane out for its first trial. It made good flights of 600 to 700 meters. The following day it made 5 flights of 200-300 meters. On the 18th, short flights. Suddenly the motor refused to stop, apparently, and, narrowly missing some guards, flew out of the field. The machine was turned downwards, striking the ground with great force, breaking the chassis, the revolving propeller plowing up the ground. Continuation of trials on the 24th.

Farm an Flies 10 Kilometers with Triplane.

Farman began, on Nov. 16th, trials with a triplane, making three flights of 2 to 5 kiloms. On the 17th, made a flight of 10 kiloms. On Nov. 21, two flights in a bad wind were viewed by military authorities. Farman is pleased with the stability and speed, after modifying the pitch of the propellers and the spread of the wings. He will soon try for the Michclin 1908 prize, up to the present conceded to Wilbur Wright. It is noted that though the machine is much improved, it is far behind the Wright, as it has double the power and not as much carrying capacity.

Farman is now working on lateral stability more than on anything else and is lamenting the lack of a reliable motor. He may have to come to America after all.

French Government to aid Aviation with $20,000.

In the French Chamber of Deputies, a number of leading members are urging a subsidy of $20,000 to the Aero Club of France for the encouragement of progress in aviation.

Pelterie Wins Prize. On Nov. 21, Pelterie won the third A.C.F. "200-meter prize" by a flight of 316 meters

at Buc in the monoplane "R.E.P. 2-bis" against a measured wind of 21.6 kiloms. an hour with perfect stability. Out practising in the afternoon with flights of about 300 meters.

Bits of News Around France. At Lille, a gliding school has been started by the Aero Club du Nord. The glider used is peculiar. The two wings are set at a strong dihedral angle. Forming the hy-pothenuse of the angle (front elevation) is a smaller horizontal plane. For 22 sq.m. the machine weighs 24 kilos. There is also a small tail with horizontal and vertical surfaces.

At the camp at Satory, under the supervision of engineers and artillery, a military triplane of silk is being constructed. There is a triplane stabilizing cell in front and rear. Single propeller in front of the aviator. Just beginning trials.

At Chaláis the War Minister has had tried several flying machines, notably a helicopter of Captain Doran, and an aeroplane of the Phillips Venetian-blind type, invented by Capt. Lucas Girardville.

During the last week of November, the Pischoff-Koechlin monoplane made six short flights of 300-500 meters. It has 23 sq.m. surface, weighs 245 kilos, with aviator, 17 h.p. Dutheil motor.

NEW PISCHOFF-KOECHLIN

Delagrange will soon try four different types, including a triplane and a Wright machine. On Nov. 10th he resumed trials at Savigny-sur-Orge, making successful flights.

The Goupy triplane has made a number of flights at Issy. After eight flights of 200300 meters, in making a turn, the motor slowed down and the machine tipped and injured right wing. At times it made 60 kiloms. per hour.

The Aero Club of France is to offer medals to manufacturers of especially built motors to be tested by the Club.

On Oct. 31st began the training of the military in the discharge of dummy bombs from captive balloons at a height of 250 m. Upon striking the ground a cartridge exploded. The course of the projectiles in the air were photographed. Trials will be presently taken up with dirigibles and later on real charged bombs will be used. Oct. 31st is the 100th anniversary of the project being submitted to Napoleon 1st for the transporting of an army to England by balloons.

The "Chambre S3rndicale" of aeronautic industries, the first aeronautical "trust," presided over by the Marquis de Dion, is to have in May or June in the Tuileries a special exposition of this industry.

The Minister of Public Works has charged one of his subordinates to follow all aviation done in France.

New aero club formed at Nantes.

At Bagatelle, M. Pean has made some preliminary trials of his monoplane, equipped with two propellers, 12 h.p. Buchet motor.

The Renault aero motor has been much improved and has been run for three hours on the block without heating, developing 58 h.p.

Rene Gasnier, who was a contestant in last year's Gordon Bennett at St. Louis, has made a successful flight in a biplane.

A society has been formed at Toulon to give pecuniary aid to inventors.

The Aero Club of France is endeavoring to organize a lottery to raise $1,000,000, and as a sign of the times, the Government officials arc now very kindly disposed towards the project, while less than half a year ago they were much averse.

M. Sauniere, President Aéronautique Club de France, announces that he has finished the work of plotting the lighthouses and electric wires on the aeronautical maps. In the near future the Club will hold another contest for gliders and models. A catapult has been erected at their aviation park and M. Bonnet-Labranche has put his motor at the (disposition of the members of the Aviation Section.

The Automobile Club of Auvergne will create an Aviation Section.

The Automobile Club and Aero Club at Angers form a joint aviation committee.

The Automobile Club at Poitevin has started an Aeronautic Section.

The Aero Club de la Sarthe has instituted a new "height prize" for an altitude of 100 meters. If this flight is attained in any flight anywhere, the condition will be made times the recorded flight.

The Moore-Brabazon biplane flew at Issy on Nov. 20th. It is the first foreign machine to use an ordinary automobile motor. Out again on Nov. 24th. Will practice every morning. Flights of 20-30 meters on the 28th.

Germany.

Zeppelin I, Gross II, Parseval II Make Ascents. Germany buys Parseval and Zeppelin.

Repairs necessary on account of the accident recorded in the October issue, prevented further ascents with the Parseval II. until the end of October. On the 22nd of October it made an ascent of an hour with six passengers. Thanks to the new propellers, the ship behaved admirably and attained greater speed than before. On the 23rd, it tried to fulfill the height conditions on which depended acceptance by the Minister of War (remaining in the air at 1500 m. altitude for an hour). It was up 2 hours 45 min., the wind blowing 12 meters a second. On Nov. 4th, another trip of 4)4 hours was made. The Government accepted the ship and pays to the Motorluftschiff Studicngesellschaft 210,000 marks.

On the same day the Zeppelin I. made its first trip. Another trip on the 24th of 2 hours. On the 26th, an ascent of 2^ hours, with the Government Commission present. On the 27th, a 6-hour ascent with Prince Henry on board. 50 kiloms. were covered in an hour. On the 29th, the Duke Albrecht made a 3^-hour ascent. Nov. 2, a i-hour ascent. On Nov. 7, the Crown Prince made an ascent lasting 6l/2 hours. During the trip, the airship stopped at Donaueschingen just as the train of the Emperor pulled into the station. The Emperor was pleased with the precision of the maneouvrc. The dense fog necessitated steering by the compass. The carrier pigeons when released were afraid to leave the ship. Good speed was maintained and the ship is pronounced the most successful of all that Zeppelin has constructed. On Nov. 10th, the Emperor visited Zeppelin and witnessed an ascent. After half an hour of evolutions, a descent was made, an ex-

change of passengers, and Major Gross entered the car and made another ascent. The Emperor presented Zeppelin with the Order of the Black Eagle. As mentioned last month, the Government has acquired the Zeppelin I., at an expense of $412,500.

Zeppelin IV.

At last, some inner history of the troubles on the long trip of August 5 by the Zeppelin IV., which ended in its burning, have been made public. It was found that the sun caused an unequal heating of the gas, mainly at the rear end, which could not be compensated by the rudders and resulted in ascending to the record height of 1800 meters, with a consequent loss of gas.

On Nov. 14th, the Gross II. (Military I.) started on a 24-hour ascent. Losing bearings in the fog, it was forced to descend and found itself over the Baltic Sea. The car was partially submerged for some time until towed to land by a steamer.

GROSS II

The directors of the coal syndicate of Westphalia have voted 200,000 marks for the construction of an aeroplane under the direction of Dr. Niemeyer.

A new aero club has been formed at Essen to construct a machine.

Directors of the Siemens-Schuckert Works have decided to construct special works at Nauen for the construction of dirigible balloons.

A Wright aeroplane is being built near Berlin by Mr. Meschner. The propeller has three blades. There are several other aeroplanes being built in Germany, which country seems to be lagging in aviation.

Italy.

Government buys Airship. The Minister of War and the Duke of Genoa have taken trips in the new military dirigible. A speed of 25 miles per hour has been attained in a 15-mile trip around Rome and the Quirinal. It has a 70 h.p. Clement-Bayard motor, driving two

propellers at the sides. It is brought out from the hangar on a carriage. It has been bought by the Government for $24,000.

Radical departure has been made by hanging a long frame from front to rear inside the bag, doing away with the air resistance of an exposed frame. This is going a step further than the Lebaudy, where a flat frame is directly attached to the cloth outside of the bag. The car of this Italian dirigible is hung from the internal frame by metallic suspension.

Russia.

Fourth Airship of the Month Bought by Russia.

Russia has decided to suspend work on its own dirigibles and order one from the Lebaudy concern of the type of the Republique, 61 meters long, 11 meters maximum diameter, 4000 cu.m. displacement. It will weigh 1200 kilos and be capable of 100 kilom. trips. Work has already commenced and it is expected to be ready in April. The motor will be of 90 h.p.

NEW MACHINES IN EUROPE.

Antoinette IV.—This new monoplane shows the influence of America on French construction by being - provided with a clever combination of skid and wheels, with the advantages of both, and wing tips. It is capable of successfully withstanding rough landings.

ANTOINETTE IV

The machine is an important modification of the first full sized model which was built, but never tried, a small model of which was illustrated in March, 1908, issue. The shape of the body and the mounting of the motor is identical. The wings in section are like those of the Gastambide-Mengin, from which, however, they differ in being set at only a slight dihedral angle. There are added triangular tip-controls hinged at the rear of the main planes like those recently employed by Farman. The motor is a fifty h.p. Antoinette. A velocity of 70 kiloms. an hour has been reached. The

2.2 m. diameter propeller turns at noo r.p.m. The pitch is 1.3. The tail carries a vertical fin, behind which is mounted the vertical rudder. The horizontal rudder is mounted on the rearmost part of the tail behind the vertical rudder and in turn provided with a vertical fin. The rear end of the tail rests on a simple skid, and there are two additional skids extending down from about the center of the wings. Thus, runs may be easily taken on the ground. The complete weight, pilot included, is 520 kilos. The total surface, 30 sq.m. Flying angle, 6 degrees. The radiator is situated alongside the body and consists of a series of aluminum tubes of 4 m. length, with a total surface of 7 sq.m. and weighs 7 kilos. The main surfaces of the machine, of parabolic profile, are wonderfully smooth varnished cloth, well stretched, and the apparatus can fly in the rain. The apparatus is really beautifully built.

Santos Dumont.—This new apparatus is, like the last, a monoplane, with the two wings set at a slight dihedral angle. The angle of attack is slight. Each wing measures 2.5 by 2.1 m., giving each wing a surface of 5.25 sq.m., a total surface of 10.5 sq.m. (the total is also stated as 9 sq.m.). The cloth is stretched over a bamboo framework.

NEW SANTOS-DUMONT

At the rear of a long bamboo pol'e stretching behind the main surfaces is a combination horizontal and vertical rudder with a skid extending to the ground in front of the tail. The single propeller has two blades of 2 m. pitch, turning at 700 r.p.m. This propeller is 011 a hollow steel shaft on ball-bearings. The 24 h.p. Antoinette motor and seat is placed about a meter below the wings on a 3-wheeled chassis. Motor has automatic carbureter and water circulation system. The radiators are made of flat tubes of considerable length, which are disposed symmetrically

on both sides of the pulleys, extending from above the wings nearly to the ground. The power is transmitted by a flat belt, with a tightener, which allows the screw to stop without stopping the motor. The aviator is behind the motor, with magneto and carbureter in front of him. At his side is the belt tightener and the rudder controls. Total weight, 135 kilos, including motor, which weighs 50 kilos. Santos Dumont. weighs 52 kilos, so that the total weight, ready to fly, will not be over 190 kilos.

New Farman Machine.—Here is an illustration of the new Farman triplane. Note

NEW KARMAN

the "wing tips" hanging from both upper and lower surfaces. These materially aided Farman in his cross-country trip recorded last month, in which trip the 17 kiloms. from town to town were made in 20 minutes, an average speed of 51 kiloms. per hour. The machine here shown has the addition of the third plane, 6.5 by 1.5 meters, and the extension of the upper surface of the box tail which were not present when he made the town-to-town flight.

The Bleriot and Antoinette monoplanes have also added to them "wing tips," originally introduced by the Aerial Experiment Association.

AT WHAT ANGLE GREATEST LIFT.

The important question is not so much at what angle the greatest lift is obtained, but at what angle the lift is greatest in proportion to the drift and head resistance. This varies with planes and with arched surfaces of various degrees of concavity. For surfaces arched from i/i2th to i/20th of their width the best angle of incidence to the relative wind is from ,s to 6 degrees.—Octave Chanute.

Aero Club of America.—At a meeting of the Aero Club on Nov. 23. Morris Bokor lectured on 'Automatic Equilibrium and Safety Devices," and exhibited an interesting model of his own invention.

New Application of Plane-Warping and Movable-Tip Principle. The model is really a triplane aeroplane. The two upper surfaces are rigid, while the third and lower is not rigid and divided into two halves. These two halves are movable, in a vertical plane, in opposite directions. The frame-work which holds the motor and which may be called the car, is practically a pendulum suspended from

BOKOR MODEL

the planes. The system of planes is pivoted at the top of this car so that when a gust of wind strikes either extremity of the planes, the whole system tilts, while the car remains in a vertical position. The tilting of these planes automatically raises and depresses the two halves of the lower surface, in the same manner as the wing tips of the aeroplanes of the Aerial Experiment Association. There are two propellers in the rear. At the extremities of the two upper surfaces, and between same, are two small vertical planes which are operated by the aviator in steering to the right or left. In the front is a horizontal steering plane. In a large machine, the power plant would be equipped with a differential friction clutch designed so that in case the blades of either propeller become damaged, the power would be so distributed that the broken propeller would do the same amount of work as the good one. In practice, this would seem problematic.

During the lecture, Mr. Boker spoke on light material and described the different shapes and constructions, relative strengths and the construction of hollow spars. After the lecture, there was an interesting discussion among the members. The model made two flights in the presence of Mr. Wilbur R. Kimball, of 12 and 18 feet. The model weighs sJA pounds for 6 square feet of surface. The power is rubber bands in paper tubes.

A. C. A. to Hold Grand Prize Balloon Race Next Year—will have Wright Aeroplane for the use of members.

A national balloon race is planned for Kime time in June, 1909, to be held, probably, at St. Louis. The balloons which obtain good positions in this race will be considered as being first choices for the 19C9 Gordon Bennett. Entrants in this national event will also be considered as entering for the Lahm Cup.

J. C. McCoy, Cortlandt Field Bishop, and Samuel H. Valentine are three of a syndicate of five which will purchase a Wright aeroplane for the free use of members, the syndicate to keep the machine in repair as well.

A special committee has been appointed and is receiving subscriptions for two gold medals to be given to the brothers Wright. The subscriptions are pouring in and each medal will cost in the neighborhood of $1,000, and be the largest medals yet presented the Wrights. There is also a committee to receive funds for the erection of a monument to Lieut. Selfridge. The London "Times" has started the subscription with $200.

On Dec. 1st at a meeting held at the club house, the members of the Aero Club of America presented A. Leo Stevens with a very handsome loving cup in token of the esteem in which they held him personally and as a reminder of the good work he has done for ballooning and for the club in this country.

Several members were called upon to say a few words: Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, J. Christopher Lake, Wm. J. Hammer, Samuel H. Valentine, G. C. Loening, Thaddeus Gray and E. L. Jones.

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FOR SALE—Two complete captive balloon outfits, consisting of gas bag, net, valve, and car for 4 persons, controlled by motor windlass with clutch and brake, besides patent portable hydrogen gas works for inflation.

ALSO—One-man gas balloon ; one-man airship, 7 h. p. motor and gas works. Write for prices, inclosing stamp.

Have Made Good

The Scientific American Trophy was won with a "Curtiss" motor.

The United States Government's dirigible balloon, which was successfully demonstrated at Ft. Myer and later at the army maneuvers at St. Joseph, was equipped with a "Curtiss" motor.

The aeroplane, "Red Wing", the first heavier-than-air machine to make a public flight in America, was propelled by a "Curtiss" motor.

Dr. Alexauder Graham Bell's tetrahedral aerodrome has a "Curtiss" motor.

Captain T. S. Baldwin, who always "gets back" in his dirigible balloon, uses "Curtiss" motors.

Roy Knabenshue's new three passenger airship is driven by "Curtiss" motor.

J. Newton Williams' hélicoptère, the only flying machine of this type to get off the ground in America, had a "Curtiss" motor.

In fact, every aeronaut who is making a success in this country has adopted a "Curtiss" motor.

Our motors give the greatest powder per pound weight consistent with reliability. All styles—one to eight cylinder, two to one hundred horse-power, air and water-cooled.

ASK FOR AERONAUTICAL MOTOR CATALOGUE.

G. H. CURTISS MANUFACTURING CO., - Hammondsport, N. Y.

AERONAUTICS

Issued in conjunction with or separate from "Knowledge & Illustrated Scientific News" Devoted to aerostation, aviation, meteorology, aerology, etc. Edited by Major B. Baden-Powell and John H. Ledeboer

ISSUED MONTHLY

SUBSCRIPTIONS: " Knowledge" including Aeronautics - $1.90

"Aeronautics" alone - .75

Special rale lor 5 years - 6.25

27 CHANCERY LANE, LONDON, W. C, ENGLAND.

IT- OJ*TS

OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHER OF " AERONAUTICS " and THE NORTH ADAMS AERO CLUB

Photographs of all Ascensions at Pittsfield and North Adams

POSTCARDS lO CENTS Box 50... Iort3» Adams, Mass. For Sale also at "Aeronautics"

AERIAL WARFARE

By R. I*. Hearne With An Introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim

This i.cwest book, beautifully bound and profusely illustrated, deals most interestingly and intelligentlv with aerial apparatus as applied to warfare. It is " up to the minute ". The illustrations are the finest that have appeared in any aero book.

Chapter Fiying Machines—Balloons—Dirigibles—Balloons in Warfare—Feasibility of Airships— 1 bcations and Limitations—Aerial Fleets—Armament—Terrestrial Forces Against Airshi iTar in the Air—Over-sea Operations—Can England be Raided—Coast and Colonial Defei . i 1 Navigation—Aerial Law—Aerial Defence League—Aerial Photography—Airship, r Fire, etc.—AMERICAN ARMY AIRSHIP—WRIGHT BROS.' AEROPLANE—KIMBALL HELICOPTER. Price $^».70 Postpaid - ........AERONAUTICS

WANTED—$3,000 to built a new type aeroplane. Patentable -Positive automatic equilibrium. Self-starting. Safe.—Designed by professional aeronaut. One-half interest to "Backer."

Address Aeronaut Jos. A. Blondin, Box 155, Topeka, Kansas.

A RARE OPPORTUNITY—I am going to give to some man well connected with the business world a good interest in the most practical and most scientific flying machine of the age. The small machine I now have not only adjusts itself in flight and balances automatically, but does what advanced aeronautical engineers deemed almost impossible and what no other flyer in the world does. It will not fall to earth when propelling power is shut off. I want a man with about $3,000.00, or one who could promote a joint stock company among his friends to this amount to Join me. I will go to any part of the United States and fly my machine to the entire satisfaction of interested parties.

Address WM. C. DUNN, 256 Elm Street, Dallas, Texas.

WANTED—Young German mechanic with FOR SALE—"A System of Aeronautics ;

seven years' experience in aeronautic naviga- ' Comprehending its Earliest Investigation'

tion wants a person of means to^help push and Modern Practice and Art." By John

through an improvement on a heavier than air Wise, Svo. cloth, 310 pages, 15 or 20 lithograph

flying machine. Correspondence solicited. plates; Phil., 1856. Good condition. Offered

Address P. O. Box 182, Staunton, Va. for $5.00.

FOR SALE—Aeronautical Annual (James FOR SALE—"The Use of Kites in the Ex-Means) for 1895, 1896 and 1897 at $1.50 each. ploration of the Upper Air" (Marvin) Svo. Very rare. cloth, $1.50.

FOR SALE—A perfect copy of Astra Castra, London 1865, at $15 00. Large quarto FOR SALE—The War in the Air, bv II volume, in blue cloth binding, profusely illustrated. In perfect condition. This is prob- G. Wells. Large Svo. illustrated, $1.50. ably the rarest aeronautical work to be found anywhere.

Auto=Meter Wins Again

Once More Shows ils Right to "First Place." In the Motor Park Way Sweepstakes the Auto-Meter assisted these winners in their respective classes.

ISOTTA

CHALMERS-DETk^."T

BUICK

ALLEN-KINGSTON

Nassau Sweepstakes—Buick. Driven by Hugh Easter.

Jericho Sweepstakes—Chalmers-Detroit. Driven

by W. R. Burns. Motor Parkway Sweepstakes—Isotta. Driven

by Herbert L/ytle. First; Meadow Brook Sweepstakes — Allen

Kingston. Driven by H. Hughes. Second ; Meadow Brook Sweepstakes—Rainier.

Driven by D. A. Disbrow.

NOTE WHAT MR. DISBROW SAYS:

"I want to express my sincere appreciation of the wonderful accuracy and reliability of the Warner Auto-Meter, with which my Rainier cr.r M 32, an entrant in the recent Meadow-brook Sweepstakes, was equipped. The car finished second, two minutes behind the winner, the distance 211 miles over the Vanderbilt Cup Course, averaging 52v2 miles per.

"I am enclosing the time by laps, and I wish you to note that the variations that for the nine laps is hardly a variation of one minute between them. Such consistent running would have been almost impossihle without the assistance of your instrument. Its accuracy was simply wonderful, and I can assure you that the next race I drive my car will certainly be equipped with a Warner, and I consider it the most reliable and accurate instrument manufactured.

"Wishing you all the success you most certainly deserve I am, sincerely yours,

"(Signed) LOUIS A. DISBROW."

PROOF Or AUTO=METERS SUPREMACY: The man behind the wheel is the man who knows—take his word for it!

Think of the accuracy of the Auto-Meter in time for each lap—hardly a variation of a minute between them.

For reliability and accuracy the Auto-Meter has no rival ; its record is never disputed now— the standard time and speed gauge by which others are judged.

It is known throughout all motordom because ^ absolutely dependable.

The best cars every-/ where are equipped with Auto-Meter because the Auto-Meter record is infallible. Not "nearly"; no guess work, but to the fraction of a minute or the fraction of a mile it is exact.

Write for more details and arrange tor a trial of the Auto-Meter.

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FACTORY AND MAIN OFFICE

300 Wheeler Ave., - Beloit, Wis.

Philadelphia, Cor. Broad and Race. San Francisco, 550 Golden Gate Ave. Indianapolis, 330^ N. Illinois St. Los Angeles, 1212 S. Main St.

New York, 1902 Broadway Chicago, 1305 Michigan Ave. Cleveland, 2062 Kuclid Ave. Pittsburg. 3432 Forbes St.

Boston, 925 Boylston St. Buffalo, 722 Main St. St. Louis, 3923 Olive St. Detroit, 239 Jefferson Ave.

At this meeting, also, a resolution was passed urging Congress to vote favorably upon the matter of an appropriation for military aeronautic work.

J. H. Wade, Jr., A. H. Morgan and Charles Walsh have received pilot-licenses Nos. 15, 16 and 17, respectively.

The following are new members: Russell

A. Alger, Frederick A. Alger, W. K. M orison, Wm. A. Johnson, Frank L. Lescault, Fred A. Hodgman and A. B. Lambert.

A committee is at work and will shortly present a draft of a proposed revision of the constitution and by-laws.

Aero Club of New England.—The Aero Club of New England on Nov. 21st celebrated the 125th anniversary of the first ascension by man in a balloon with a banquet at the Boston City Club. About 55 were present.

Will Buy 77,000 Foot Balloon—Prof. Pickering New President.

Prior to the banquet a business meeting was held. It was decided to purchase a large balloon of 77,000 cubic feet capacity, which will cost $1200. This balloon may be used for racing. It is to be purchased by subscription and at the meeting $450 was subscribed in a few minutes, Charles J. Glidden giving $200, T. E. Byrnes $100, Frank B. Comins $100 and Mr. Gant $50.

Prof. W. H. Pickering was elected president to succeed Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, who has been president for a year. The other officers chosen are Frank E. Stanley, first vice-president; Frank B. Comins, second vice-president; Alfred R. Shrigley, secretary; Harry G. Pollard, treasurer; Prof. W. H. Pickering, Frank E. Stanley, Frank

B. Comins, Henry Howard, T. E. Byrnes. W. P. Harris, Winfield S. Shrigley, directors; Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, Charles J. Glidden, J. C. McCoy, foreign representatives; Henry Howard, W. E. Eldredge, Henry A. Morss, contest committee; Charles J. Glidden, H. H. Clayton, ascension committee; A. Leo Stevens, aeronautic engineer.

It was 8 when the members filed into the banquet room, and tied to each chair was a toy balloon. When the dinner was over Prof. Rotch acted as toastmaster and he introduced as the first speaker Mayor George A. Ilibbard. The Mayor spoke briefly, referring facetiously to the invitation Mr. Glidden gave him to go ballooning

and the outcome of it, that being the occasion when someone shot at the bag.

"No doubt there are a lot of people who would like to take a shot at me," said Mr. Ilibbard.

He ended by stating that he hoped that when the members were flying over the city in their aeroplanes that they would look down upon Boston as being the cleanest an.d most honest city in the country and the peer of any other.

A. Holland Forbes, of the Aero Club of America, graphically told what happened in Berlin when the balloon in which lie and Mr. Post were in burst.

Charles J. Glidden gave a brief history of the formation of the Aero Club of New England. He traced the growth of the movement from its inception, Jan. 9, 1902, until now, when there is a waiting list and the membership is nearly 100.

The next speaker was N. H. Arnold, who was also a competitor in the Gordon Bennett race, and his description of the happenings when he and his companion found themselves floating in the North sea at midnight, with the water nearly to the top of the basket and not a friendly light in sight, was very graphic.

W. K. M orison of Minneapolis, who made the ascension a few days ago, during which the bag went up ir,ioo feet, and when landing created havoc with wires, etc., at Rockville, Conn., told how it felt to be jolted about, sport of the wind. Augustus Post then spoke of the past and future of the heavier than air machines.

Vice-Pres. T. E. Byrnes of the N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. spoke briefly of his interest in the sport, and others who were called upon to say something were C. E. Barron, A. V. Wilson and Mr. Hill. Letters from Prof. Alexander Graham Bell and Orville Wright, regretting their inability to be present, were read, and messages were sent to Mr. Wright and Sec. Alfred R. Shrigley, the latter being ill at his home. It was nearly midnight when the affair was over.

Milwaukee Aero Club.—The balloon just purchased of A. Leo Stevens and presented to the Club by Mr. Gustav Pabst, was delivered and an ascension planned, as noted last issue. After waiting 15 days for a change in the very light wind, which blew constantly over the lakes—3S5 miles of open

water—the attempt was abandoned and the balloon will not now be used until the middle of April. Then active work will be taken up and some pilots made eligible for licenses.

The Club has very good grounds at the National Soldiers' Home, about five miles from the center of the city. A small house will be built for storing material, and eventually a good balloon house.

W. C. Devereux, a few days ago, starting from the West Division High School in Milwaukee, took 400 Milwaukeeites into the air on a trip with Major Hersey and Leo Stevens in the "All America," of Mr. Stevens. They travelled along at 35 and 40 miles an hour and saw the towns and villages and other little blots on the landscape come into view, and disappear in the distance. Then the passengers were taken up above the clouds for a little run and every few moments they were told where they were. A fine landing was finally made on the side of a hill, the lights were turned on and the aeronauts found themselves back in the school house.

Worcester Aero Club.—John P. Coghlin, president of the Worcester Automobile Club and one of the two Worcester men who are members of the Aero Club of New England, has been working to form an aero club in Worcester and as a result one was formed on November 18th at a meeting at the Worcester Club.

He has had many interviews with Charles J. Glidden, and the plans for the club have been pushed along. Charles J. Glidden visited Worcester and at a meeting at the Worcester Club encouraged the organization of an aero club and these are the charter members: William B. Scofield, Richard W. Green, Luther C. Brown, Eben F. Thompson, Irving Swan Brown, John P. Coghlin, H. W. Bell, George M. Bassett, Charles Crompton and Charles J. Glidden, honorary member.

A temporary organization was formed and John P. Coghlin was elected president.

The other officers were: First vice-president, W. B. Scofield; secretary and treasurer, Eben F. Thompson.

A permanent organization will be formed and will be incorporated under the laws of Massachusetts. The club will buy a balloon which will be named Worcester.

Mr. Glidden has been in Worcester a few times looking over the sites suitable for a balloon park. He thinks he has found an ideal location in the vicinity of the Worcester gas works. The site is free from trees and overhead wires. It is also a good place to get gas.

Aero Club of Ohio.—Four ascensions were made during the month, as noted under "Ascensions." A fifth attempt was made on Thanksgiving Day. The bag was inflated and the basket attached, and three men all ready to go, but the constant swaying of the balloon made it impossible to balance it, and after an hour and a half of manoeuvring with twenty men holding it down. Dr. Thompson ripped the balloon open. This was a great disappointment, as there was a strong wind blowing and a record trip was expected.

During the year 24 ascensions have been made from Canton, Ohio, and 78 passengers carried.

Columbia University Aero Club.—On December 3 the C. U. A. C. held its inaugural smoker, at which were present all the members of the Club, Dean Hallock and Dr. Trowbridge, and some prominent guests. Jay Gould and Harold G. Henderson presented theses which displayed a very good comprehension of the difficulties to be met with and of the ground work. Wilbur R. Kimball delivered an illustrated lecture. The other speakers were Dean Hallock, Dr. Chas. C. Trowbridge, A. M. Herring, Dr. Julian P. Thomas, Augustus Post.

The Aeronautic Society.—Since the Exhibition, the Society has been busy preparing for the Winter. The housing sheds are being boarded up and lined. The regular well-attended Wednesday night meetings have been held each week.

Wilbur R. Kimball is working rapidly on an aeroplane, the helicopter being put in cold storage for the present. The reason being that he is desirous of making flights and that these can be more easily accomplished at this stage by the aeroplane than by the helicopter. However, work will be done on the helicopter right along, making changes here and there as are found necessary, lie feels that he would rather enjoy flying around while work is going on on the helicopter.

Aero Club of California.—At the December meeting at Los Angeles plans were initiated for an active campaign throughout 1909. The coast air currents will be tested by the sending up of 100 small balloons, covering a number of localities and at every hour of the day. Members of the club are dividing into groups according to their idea for construction of gliders which will be used in public competitive exhibitions. Later on it is planned to utilize aeroplanes.

The Club is compiling historical memoranda of flights in California, and will endeavor to make this complete from the first attempts, keeping thorough records on special blanks of all future flights. A tract of twenty acres in Los Angeles has been leased

and will be fenced and improved for the Club's grounds.

Roy Knabenshue, who has become a resident of Los Angeles, made successful exhibition flights with his 1908 dirigible in that city November 26 and 29. In the latter he ascended, from the Chutes ball park and traveled to Ascot park, three miles away, where an easy landing was made. The return trip was made in six minutes, and the landing at Chutes park was made at the exact point of starting.

Junior Aero Club.—Will hold an exhibition of models, pictures, etc., in connection with the Toy Show, Madison Square Garden, the week beginning December 18.

FLYING MACHINES SAFER TH INSURANCE

The following endorsement, now a part of accident policies written by the Fidelity & Casualty Company of New York, will be of interest to flying machine pilots.

Assuming the popular definition of an airship, the Company, in its anxiety to relieve itself from all possible chance of paying out any money, omits to make this endorsement cover the operation of a flying machine.

A certain Aero Club member, who has never been in a balloon, airship or flying machine, applied for an accident policy. It was discovered that the applicant was interested in aeronautics. Hence the difficulty.

Here is a copy of the endorsement: Form 195-A SPECIAL.

"It is hereby understood and agreed, anything in the policy to the contrary notwithstanding, that in the event of the As-sured's suffering any bodily injury while ballooning, while engaged as an aeronaut, while in or on any airship or balloon, or while performing any work or services on or connected with any airship or balloon, the Company's liability under this policy on account of the Assured's death resulting from such injuries shall not exceed Two Hundred and Fifty Dollars ($250.00), and the Company's liability under any other provision or provisions of the policy shall not exceed Fifty Dollars ($50.00).

SI BALLOONS AND AIRSHIPS TO

COMPANIES.

"Attached to and forming part of Accident policy No. * * * issued by the Company to ]\jr * * * "

The assured had to sign this endorsement and have his signature witnessed.

The letter of E. E. Clapp & Company, managers, to the agent, is also of interest and is as follows:

"In order to continue on this risk it will be necessary for Mr. to

sign the enclosed endorsement in duplicate, the original to be attached to the policy and the duplicate to be returned to us. If, however, he refuses to sign it, the policy will have to be taken up and returned for cancellation, for without the aid of this endorsement we cannot insure Mr. * * *

"If the assured takes the point that he does not go up in the balloons or airships, he loses nothing by signing the endorsement. If on the other hand he does intend to make balloon ascensions or ride in airships, this Company will not insure him against that hazard except with the aid of this endorsement."

Considering an "airship" as a motor balloon, which designation is in so general use as to confine the word "airship" to cover this mode of conveyance, the operator or passenger in a flying machine is therefore exempt from the above endorsement on his policy.

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.

President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.

Publication Notice.

The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine, and at the earliest date possible, bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.

In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the informal addresses of the Gordon Bennett contestants and others were concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.

The sixteenth paper is continued in this issue: "Principles involved in the Formation of Wing Surfaces and the Phenomenon of Soaring," by Professor J. J. Montgomery, of Santa Clara College.

PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN THE FORMATION OF WING SURFACES AND THE PHENOMENON OF SOARING* By Prof. J. J. Montgomery

Here, I must call attention to an important element. In discussing figs, io and n,I pointed out the positions of the centers of pressure, and in fig. 17, we find the application. Let "e b" be the horizontal, and also the direction of movement of the curve "a b," in its proper position. From the construction, we see that the center of pressures due to the direct reaction of the moving particles is at "f," while that due to the pressure emanating from the

center "c," is at "g." If we draw a normal from the point "f," its inclination is against the direction of motion, "e b." But one drawn from "g," inclines with it, or forward. The resultant of these two pressures is indicated by "h," and the normal to the tangent at this point, shows a slight forward pressure.

*Begun in the October issue.

Fromdie study of the fig. n we find that there is a third element of pressure "m n," whose intensity is greatest towards the front. This again changes the location of the center of pressure, placing it in advance of the point "h." And as the normal at this point inclines forward, there should be a perceptible forward pressure developed; a phenomenon I have noticed when testing my aeroplanes, and one which 1 believe has been observed by others.

These conclusions regarding the location of the center of pressure, seem to be confirmed by observations made when I first entered this study. Taking specimens of large birds, eagles, pelicans, buzzards, etc., newly killed, I braced their wings in the normal position of soaring. Then balanced the body by thrusting sharp points into it, immediately under the wings, (frequent corrections having been made to adjust the bracing so as not to introduce errors into balancing), and I found the center of gravity under a point in the wing, approximately corresponding with the point I have indicated as being the center of pressures.

Before leaving this part of the subject, I must call attention to two important elements: ist. From a study of figs. 14 and 15, it is seen, that it is the reaction within, or under the curve, that causes the ascending current in advance of the curve: hence, should there be an object within this space, which causes a resistance to the fluid movement, it, by reaction, will further increase this rising current; and as this is increased, the front edge may be lowered still more, and thereby the element of pressure on the forward surface augmented, which will partially compensate for the resistance due to the object. 2nd. In the use of two surfaces, one in advance of the other, the line of development is suggested in fig. 14. Suppose this surface be divided at "d," and the sections moved apart, the intervening space gives to each part an Individual^, but their mutual reactions give them an inter-relation. Hence, in the practical use of such surfaces, the curvature of that, forward, should be more pronounced, and its inclination greater than that in the rear. However, without a proper understanding how to determine these elements, dangerous mistakes might be made.

Having pointed out what seem to be the fundamental principles in the formation and adjustment of a gliding or soaring surface, I now place the whole idea in a single expression, as a stepping stone to the consideration of the mechanical principles, relative to the problem of the energy involved.

Conceive a long narrow surface, such as a bird's wings, in a horizontal position, having no formed motion, but being pulled down by gravity. In descending through the air, this surface sets up two whirls around its edges. And we readily perceive that the work of gravity in pulling the surface down, is divided between the descending surface and the whirls escaping around its edges. Now, suppose the surface be given a horizontal movement of such velocity that the complete system of movements, shown in fig. 15, is built up: then these opposite whirls being blended into one rotation, having its ascending element in advance of the surface, the work of gravity impressed upon the air, comes back to the surface, giving it an upward impulse.

Now let us inquire what is the significance of this operation, relative to the question of energy. This point is well worthy of the sincerest inquiry; for who has not been enchanted and mystified by the beautiful movement of a soaring bird? And who has not asked the question, over and over again, from whence does it derive the power to perform such feats, so much at variance with other phenomena and our ideas of motion?

Having passed through the ordeal of these perplexing questions, and been forced to their solution, by going back to the infancy of mechanics. 1 am compelled to state, that some of the elementary questions, as they appear in our text books, have not been developed as completely as they should have

been, and thus, the minds of even the best students, have been left with some erroneous conclusions, attributable directly to a too restricted investigation.

In entering- into this question, let me suggest, that we abstract our minds as far as possible from all knowledge and conclusions on the subject, so as to follow the building up of the demonstrations without prejudging them by ideas that we possess, or which must, in their natural order come later. As may be inferred from the preceding we shall simply go back to the most elementary principles, and expand them, emphasizing such points as relate to the question.

FORCE AND MOTION

A force acting upon a movable mass imparts to it a velocity which is a product of the force multiplied by the time of action ; v=ft.

The force may be a pure force, as gravity; it may be the pressure of a compressed elastic body, or it may be the impact of a moving mass. Regarding the force derived from a moving mass, it may be stated, that when there is a series of impacts, the element of time is composed of the duration of each impact multiplied by the number.

From a confusion of ideas on this subject, erroneous conclusions sometimes arise. A force is simply considered a force in a general way, and must produce so much motion and no more, the element of time and the factors that determine it, being entirely lost sight of. Experiments, illustrated in

a

A A

(D§vV

Fig. 18, will be instructive on these points, "a" and "b" are two masses fastened to rods and supported by the pivots "f" "f." Between them is the spring "c." In the ist experiment, let "a" and "b" be equal. If the compressed spring be released, it will drive the two masses apart, "a" reaching the point "d;" but in a 2nd experiment, let "b" be greater than in the ist, ("a" remaining the same), then when the compressed spring is liberated, the mass "a" is forced to a higher point, "e," owing to a greater velocity being-developed ; because the time of action is prolonged by the greater inertia of the larger mass "b." A full and clear conception of the formula v=ft., and a realization of the fact, that the masses operated upon, are important elements in determining the time, are necessary to an understanding of the present problem.

MOMENTUM

When a mass is in motion, we have not only the question of velocity, but also that of quantity of motion, or momentum, expressed by the formula m v. A unit of force, acting for a unit of time, on a unit of mass, will develop a unit of velocity: and the unit of mass, multiplied by the unit of velocity, gives a unit of momentum. Then introducing the element of mass into the formula, v=ft., we have m v—ft. Multiplying both sides of the equation by "n" units, we have n m v=n ft., a general expression for the generation of momentum. (In this expression, "t" signifies one unit of time.)

ACTION AND RE-ACTION

According to the well established principle of "action and re-action," a force can only impart motion to a mass by the re-action of another mass, the action and re-action being- equal and opposite. As a positive deduction from this, it may be stated, that if we find a body moving- in a given direction, there is somewhere, an equal and opposite motion. The first and most elementary way of expressing this motion, is in terms of momentum ; and representing the opposite directions by -)- and — we have as a general expression, mv = m, v,. Let us now develop this formula in a special line, so as to give a rational explanation to what may appear as an absurdity in some processes which follow.

In the last formula let v=v11-|-v111; then substituting these and developing, the formula becomes-= m1 v1. For the purpose of using

m yu+m vin

this formula to illustrate certain points, let us put it into figures.

Let m=i ; nij=2; vn=i ; vlu=-?,■; then from the formula, v1 is found to be f. We now place these figures in order and leave them for future use.

-- ir^ Vl.

m vn+m vnl

IXI + IX4 = 2Xf

Momenta =--= i j

IMPACT OF ELASTIC BODIES

The impact of elastic bodies presents phenomena which very few seem to have studied, still fewer understand, and which many are ready to deny on general principles. And because of certain vague ideas regarding motion and the exchange of momenta, there seems to be an inability to grasp the truths derived from some of the mathematical formulae, and to understand the phenomena of their experimental demonstrations. To have a proper conception of these, one must have recourse to a little more profound study than is afforded in the ordinary text-books.

In the present discussion, all that I hope to do, is to give a demonstration of the truth of some of the propositions, with general suggestions; as the revolving of the subject in its many phases would be too lengthy.

In presenting the formulae of the impact of elastic bodies, I shall develop a special case, so as to demonstrate, that what appears as an absurdity, is a rational conclusion in the light of the formula of "action and reaction" just developed. These are general formulae for the purpose of determining the velocities of two elastic bodies after impact, and cover all possible cases.

Let A and B represent two elastic bodies, having the respective velocities V and U; and let v and u represent their velocities after impact.

Then (A+B)v = 2BLT+(A—B)V.

(A+B)u = 2AV—(A—B)U.

Let A=t, V=i, B=2, U=o.

Substituting these values in the formulae, Ave find, v=^ ; u=-|; these being the velocities and directions after impact. Multiplying these velocities by the respective masses, gives the respective momenta; that of A being ^, and B, i^. This latter, to many, is a manifest absurdity; for as the original momentum of A is supposed to be only i, how can it give i^?

Let us analyze the problem, and assume that two equal elastic masses 111 = 1, and nij^i, are acted upon by a force "f," which imparts a velocity I to each (fig. 19).

W ' --- ^n/Mii/-

Let m1 impinge on the elastic mass M=2. Then according to the formulae just presented, mt will rebound from M with a velocity vn=:-|. If this be so, we have on one side, two masses having a — velocity and momentum, m v=-i, nij vix=4.

Referring now to the formula of "action and reaction," we see there must be an equal and opposite momentum of 1-^, and this we find in M=2, with V=J.

Now, let us combine these ideas with those presented under the discussion of fig. 18, and we have a universal expression of the phenomena of "action and reaction." In fig. 18, it was noted that with a given force, the resulting motion or momentum was dependent on the masses of the bodies acted upon. Hut it is apparent, this is not final; for a given force "f" (fig. 19), acting on m and m1, generates momenta which are a proximate result; but as m1 impinges on another mass M, the ultimate result of the action of the force is the momentum generated in M. In this case m1 may be considered a force acting on AI, and the momentum generated is measured by the intensity multiplied by the time, and the time is determined by the inertia of the masses.

An inspection of 'he system presented in fig. 19, shows that various ideas are presented according to the view taken. One is, that the force acting on m,, ultimately causes it to move against the force; another is, that m1 impresses upon M, a momentum equal to its impact and reaction. Further, while we may (for the purpose of drawing special deductions), fix our attention on the movement of one or another of the masses, we must bear in mind, that it is only one of the operating elements in a system, and hence must not be considered by itself, but as an element related to the whole. Finally, whatever motion any of the elements may have, the algebraic sum of all the movements in the system must be zero.

In applying the formulae, of the impact of elastic bodies, to the case of two equal masses m, m1 (fig. 20) : if m be moving with a velocity v, and m1 is at rest; after impact m1 moves with a velocity v, and m is brought to rest. But if the masses be moving against one another, with the respective velocities v and Vj; after impact, ml has the velocity v, while m has vv

©-> © ^/"^ ©_± 4--@

(Continued in January

JAPAN TO BUY DIRIGIBLE IN AMERICA.

Negotiations are being rapidly brought to a head for the building of a large dirigible by A. Leo Stevens for Japanese officials. This will mean much for our own country and what it means for Japan we cannot tell, but there are prevalent many vague rumors that many experiments are being conducted in Japan by the authorities and by individuals.

GORDON BENNETT CLASSIFICATION.

1st, Col. Schaeck (Switzerland), 1212 kilometers. 2d, John Dunville (England), 428.75 kiloms. 3rd, AI. Geerts (Belgium), 413 kilometers.

America, through J. C. McCoy, gets 16th position with 205.5 kilometers; 22d, N. H. Arnold; and 24th, A. Holland Forbes. The distances made by the two latter are not calculated, as Arnold landed in the water and Forbes' balloon parachuted just out of Berlin.

The winner's distance is 119 miles behind the Gordon Bennett distance made from St. Louis last year. The duration of the winner's trip from St. Louis, however, is beaten by 28 hours.

Though Col. Schaeck's balloon "descended" into the water, a steamer took the balloon in tow after a couple of hours, and an actual descent was then made on land. Technically, a proper landing was made within the F. A. I. rules, which forbid descending in the sea, and he is given credit for the distance made from Berlin to the point at sea where he was picked up.

Several countries have joined in a protest, the decision having created a good sized "scrap," and it will be fully thrashed out at the next congress of the International Federation.

Wilbur Wright thinks the limit of ratio of power and weight has already been reached and that it will never be possible to lift a greater weight Avith a given horsepower than now.

ZERBE AEROPLANE.

J. S. Zerbe, president of the Aero Club of California, in Los Angeles, has nearly completed the machine shown in the illustration. A 40 h.p. Curtiss motor is now being installed.

There are twelve concave planes, in pairs. These planes can be tipped backward or forward, the set of six on the right working together and those on the left acting similarly. While the right-hand planes are tipped one way those on the left may be tipped the other.

By the manipulation of the planes Mr. Zerbe asserts he will be able to rise at any angle (the machine maintaining a level keel) or descend at any angle, lie also claims to be able to descend backward.

The machine weighs, complete, but 400 pounds, and a lifting power of 1000 pounds is claimed.

The manipulation of the machinery is very simple. A steering wheel is the only thing which Air. Zerbe needs to handle in operating the aeroplane, except in emergencies, when levers permit quicker adjustment.

Whenever the operator desires to tip the planes he turns the steering wheel one way or the other. Whenever he desires to throw one set of planes up and the other down, he pushes the wheel to the right or to the left. In a sudden gust of wind, levers can accomplish the same object much quicker.

Inherent stability is claimed for the device.

DIRIGIBLE BALLOON OPERATED BY WIRELESS.

M. O. Anthony, of New York, has been experimenting for a long time with a view to stopping, starting and controlling the steering and all movements of a dirigible balloon by wireless from the ground.

With the aid of A. Leo Stevens, the well known constructor, Mr. Anthony has been able to accomplish some startling results.

The model dirigible is 22 feet long and is, of course, inflated with hydrogen gas. The power is clockwork. The model is successfully operated by wireless from a keyboard in the hands of the inventor. It starts, stops, steers right, left or up and down by the mere touching of a key.

AUTOMOBILE CLUB OF AMERICA ENTERS AERONAUTICS.

The Automobile Club of America, the representative body in America of the International Federation of Recognized Automobile Clubs, has decided to appoint a committee to take up aviation. Messrs. George F. Chamberlin and Dave II. Morris arc the committee in charge and they are earnestly endeavoring to complete a plan of organization at the earliest moment. It is not unlikely that a substantial prize will be offered for aviation.

BOSTON HERALD'S CUP RULES MODIFIED.

The rules of competition for the Boston Herald cup which was offered to a balloonist who, during 1908, starting from some point at least 100 miles from Boston, made a landing within 5 miles of Boston Common. No one has won this cup. In order to make the competition somewhat easier and to allow the members of the new clubs near Boston to compete, for 1909, the balloonist will have to start not less than 40 miles away.

During the past year a number of attempts have been made by expert balloon pilots to capture the Boston Herald Cup, but it was not won. Most of the ascensions were made from Pittsfield or North Adams, and the balloons went in all directions.

In only one case did a balloon pass within five miles of the Common. In that instance, it passed during the night over the Back

Bay, the occupants not daring to land because of church spires and house roofs, and finally came to earth on the South Shore.

THE SPRATT TOWING FLIGHT EXPERIMENTS.

Geo. A. Spratt, whose article in "Aeronautics" will be remembered with interest, has been making some experiments in towed flights. Mr. Spratt evidently believes with L. J. Lesh that much more experience can be gained, with less danger, during a towed flight than by making short glides down hill.

The towing flight, made last month, was accomplished against rather a strong breeze, with an automobile for tractive power. The glider lifted with a slide of about five feet and soon attained an elevation of about six feet. It was- then turned downward and proceeded for a distance at an elevation of from one to two feet. A sudden gust started it upward and in the endeavor to prevent a rise, Mr. Spratt turned it down too much and it struck the ground. He immediately started it up again and due to the same cause as before, it struck a little embankment. There were two screws pulled out and a strut broken in consequence. This is the extent of the damage. The distance covered over the ground was about one hundred and fifty feet.

The construction of the aeroplane is of the "thrown-together" style, to try out an idea. It is not practically built, a heavy base and skids having been attached to a surface framing not intended to carry such addition.

There have been too few trials with it to form a safe opinion of its merits, but the indications are favorable.

As to future expectations, Mr. Spratt states:

"I can say little except that I expect to repair this machine and continue to try it as long as there is anything left of it to yield information on the ideas expressed in its construction. If the tests continue satisfactory, I will then build one with more strength that we may feel safer and be justified in rising to a height that will not cause a contact with the ground whenever the course is depressed.

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

Used in lite U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL, has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coining balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

^^fl Prices and samples on application ^^fl

»BW| Box78M:twovno!Huarep'0' ?™m

WILBUR R. KIMBALL LIGHT GASOLENE MOTORS

WATER COOLED

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TWO

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125 lbs.

LIGHTEST COMMERCIAL MOTOR IN THE WORLD

4 Separate Engines in One, Each under Separate Control.

Daily Demonstrations at Morris Park Race Track.

"We tried it again on Nov. 30th in a wind, the gusts of which were strong enough to pick the operator up without any initial run. The machine showed itself very well again until mental confusion took possession of the operator, when he reached an elevation of about ten feet. He made a safe landing, and is anxious to try again, but the machine received the worst breaks it has yet had. It is repairable. The tow line was held by assistants.

"It is very little different from a Chanute glider with a seat provided with skids, suspended from the surface trussing, and the tail-vane shaft fastened to the seat. It spreads one hundred and forty eight square feet; the surfaces are arcs without a thickened front."

f' NEW CURTISS MOTOR.

The G. H. Curtiss Manufacturing Company have added to their extensive line of aeronautical motors a new 8-cylinder, water cooled, 3% inch bore and 4 inch stroke, developing 50 h.p. This engine has a crank case of special aluminum alloy. The shaft is chrome nickel steel made hollow, especially treated for toughness and carefully ground to exact size. The connecting rods are special drop forgings with liberal bearings. Cylinders are cast iron with copper jackets. The intake and exhaust valves are in the head and concentric, auxiliary ports are fitted and have covers so that they may or may not be used. Ignition is by single coil and by distributer. Lubrication by splash with constant supply from the gear pump. A light balance wheel is fitted to the sprocket with chain for transmission, although any transmission can be furnished. The shaft is inch in diameter. This engine lists at $2200, complete, with all accessories.

AERO PATENTS.

Compiled by Munn & Co., 361 Broadway, New York:

Flying Machine, J. & P. Cornu, 902,859, propeller for airships, P. S. Davies, 903,060.

THE ZEPPELIN I.

In the last number the wording of the first sentence under "Germany" in the

foreign news is somewhat misleading. The present "Zeppelin I." is the old "Zeppelin III." modified, as mentioned in the October number, and takes the place of the "Zeppelin IV.," which was destroyed by fire.

Carl G. Fisher of Indianapolis has just organized a stock company to build a 2l/$ mile automobile race track and for this purpose the company has purchased 350 acres of ground located just outside the city limits in the northern part of the city.

It is the intention in this ground to erect an aerodrome and have a small club house for the use of the members who wish to indulge in aeronautics.

C. & A. Wittemann, who were the first in this country to advertise that they had a plant equipped to handle aeronautical construction work, with gliders in stock, have found it necessary to build one new building and will soon start work on another. A full sized 40-foot power machine is now being built by them on an order and several gliders are now in process of construction which will be so* built that they will be easily "knocked down."

During 1908, up to the end of November, 164 balloon ascensions were made by various American aero club members, the greatest number, 3r, being made during July. Some of these were made abroad. This means a total of about seven million cubic feet of coal gas. During the first half of 1908, at the park of the Aero Club of France, there were 186 balloon ascensions made. Last year, members of the Aero Club of America alone used million cubic feet of gas which entitled them to three votes in the F. A. I. If all the aero clubs in this country were affiliated and the seven million cubic fect of gas had all been used in this country, the Aero Club would have five votes in the F. A. I., one vote being allowed for every 882,750 cubic feet.

Holly—"Do yon know my balloon reminds me very much of my wife."

Gus—"I suppose so; always wants to go to a different place from the one you wish it to."—Yonkers Statesman.

Cleve T. Shaffer, of San Francisco, is experimenting with a gliding machine.- The planes are 4 feet apart and measure 16 by 5 feet; the ribs are placed 1 foot apart and fastened to round spars; the vertical struts are V-shaped to lessen resistance; the wood used is spruce, with No. 20 music wire for trussing and stove wire for tying; ordinary 3-way plumber's "Ls" are used for corners and brazed bicycle tubing joints for the "Ts" connecting the uprights to the horizontal spars; a pivoted box tail of 24 square feet horizontal surface with 10 feet of vertical surface was used. Flown as a kite to learn manipulation of the rudder, the latter was found too heavy and was taken off. Another trial was made without the tail, but the machine then met with disaster.

Edward R. Gilbert, of Hartford, Conn., has just completed a model, his idea of a perfect flying machine. His model consists of a frame work supporting two horizontal propellers at the top and two vertical propellers in the front with a combination vertical and horizontal rudder in the rear. The blades in the horizontal propellers can be adjusted to any pitch or to no pitch at all. When the engines are started, the entire force of same will be used on the horizontal propellers for rafsing the machine into the air.

After the machine is in the air, the blades are gradually flattened until the propeller becomes a revolving disc and a part of the aeroplane surface. As this process goes on, the excess power of the engine is gradually applied to the vertical propellers at the bow, by means of friction clutches, thus gradually completing the change from a vertical motion of the whole machine to a horizontal one. The gyroscopic action of the horizontal propellers is depended upon for securing equilibrium, together with a perfectly balanced machine. The vertical shafts of the horizontal propellers are tubular and revolve around rods which are a part of the frame work of the apparatus. In speaking of his machine, he says: "In a perfected machine, it is of course evident that a forward rudder for securing elevation would also be necessary. The type of blade used for the horizontal propellers should be narrow instead of as constructed in the model, and I believe that the larger the diameter of these propellers, the greater would be the efficiency, as each blade would become more and more nearly like a separate aeroplane."

The citizens of Dayton, Ohio, the nome of the Wright Brothers, are planning an ovation when Wilbur Wright returns from abroad. Orville Wright is now at Dayton.

A Chauffeur by the name of Helfer is building a motor aeroplaue in a garage 011 Thirt}r-first Street, New York.

Prof. C. C. Kanaga, of Denver, is shortly to construct a full sized machine with the proceeds from the sale of a quarter interest in his patent. The machine is estimated to cost between $2,200 and $2,500, and will carry three light weight men. Two Curtiss 25 h.p. air cooled motors will be used, running four propellers, two in front and two in the rear. Jeffrey chain will be used to' reverse motion of the front and rear propellers. The machine will comply with the Army requirements as regards quick assembling and take-down. A kite which he has constructed, 8 feet 3 inches high, 10 feet 4 inches wide and cells inside 3 feet square, having in all 109 sq.ft. of canvas, pulls 300 to 400 pounds on a cable and lifts a 50 lb. sack of sand, besides its own weight of 11 lbs.

During 1908 Col. J. L. Gribble's airship, "The City of Louisville," has made nine ascensions, all of which were from the Kentucky State Fair Grounds. All were return trips, and on one occasion a flight of seven miles-was made, the machine being caused to land on the roof of a building at one of our prominent corners in the business district, after which it made an ascent and return trip to the Fair Grounds. The shortest time in the air on any of the occasions referred to was 25 minutes, and the longest about $x/2 hours. On all of these trips the ship was operated by Horace B. Wild. So successful were the flights in every respect, that in addition to paying the full contract price for the exhibition, the management of the Fair presented Col. Gribble with a very handsome silver loving cup appropriately engraved as having been awarded for the best airship flights ever made here on a similar occasion.

Note.—The name first given is always that of the pilot.

Nov. i. G. L. Bumbaugh made a trip from Indianapolis with Mr. and Mrs. Edmund Rosenburg. covering about 14 miles and making an easy lauding.

Nov. 3. G. L. Bumbaugh, Dr. Goethe Link and R. J. Irvin left Indianapolis at 2:45 P- m-» landing near New Castle, Ind., at 4 o'clock, covering a distance of 47 miles. Dr Link 'tried some interesting experiments. At an altitude of 2,300 feet he took the pulse of the occupants of the basket, and he found that all of them beat at the rate of about 100 a minute. When they reached their highest altitude their pulse beat at the rate of 120 to the minute. The normal pulse beat is 72.

About ten miles from the landing place the anchor was thrown out, and the men had an exciting moment when the anchor barely missed a cow in the field. When the anchor rope crossed a fence the aeronauts thought the anchor would catch on the barbed wire, and they made preparation to descend. Instead the anchor jumped the fence and the aeronauts decided to go farther.

Nov. 6. Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, A. Holland Forbes and 2d Lieut. John G. Winter departed from Washington, D. C, in the Signal Corps, No. 11, at 11:30 a.m., landing at Revell, Md., at 12:36 p.m., covering 30 miles. At the start the wind blew 30 miles per hour and very nearly this speed was the average of the trip. As Chesapeake Bay was reached the balloon was struck by strong relative puffs from the east, making the basket sway and turn.

Nov. 7. A. H. Morgan, J. H. Wade, Jr., and Pierce Lonergan left Canton in the "Sky Pilot" and landed near Beaver, Pa., after a fast trip. First experience for Mr. Lonergan. Distance, 60 miles.

Nov. 9. G. L. Bumbaugh, C. S. Stone and Raymond Holcomb left Indianapolis

and covered 12 miles. This was a first trip for his two companions.

Nov. 14. J. H. Wade, Jr., and Ralph Lee left Canton in the "Ohio" at 10:30, landing at 4:15 p.m. 3 miles south of Transfer, Mercer Co., Pa. The start was made with very little wind and towards the north. The wind later veered. Distance, about 65 miles. This was first ascension for Mr. Wade after receiving his pilot license, and was the initial ascent for Mr. Lee.

Attempts to Break World's Record, from Los Angeles.

Nov. 15. A. E. Mueller and J. K. Hutchison left Chutes Park, Los Angeles, at 2.30 p.m. in the "American," inflated with hydrogen and coal gas, in an attempt to break the world's long distance balloon record of 1193 miles by a trip from Los Angeles east over the two ranges of mountains, the Coast Range and the Rockies. The balloon travelled in almost every direction during the night and in the attempt to get away from the westward current, threw out ballast, but was carried rapidly towards the ocean. After being in the air thirteen hours and being driven to sea four times, the balloon landed about 25 miles from the start, at Hermosa Beach, Calif., at 3.30 a.m.

Nov. 16. Horace B. Wild and Frank Le-royxez left Chutes Park, Los Angeles, in the balloon "United States," at 12.45 P-i"-» also with the expectation of breaking the record. This balloon was likewise filled with hydrogen and coal gas. In getting away, not quite enough sand was taken and the balloon did not "balance" until it reached 4,000 feet. At that elevation the wind was blowing towards the ocean and the balloon was dropped low and travelled back over Los Angeles, crossing the foot hills. The balloon then slowh- travelled over many towns at various points of the compass. After passing Santa Ana and six miles from the ocean, the current changed and blew the balloon over Mount

Baldy, reaching an altitude of j6,6oo feet. This was during the night, and the water used for the lime heater froze. After crossing Mount Baldy, the balloon went over San Bcrnadino at good speed at 2.10 the following morning. It was half past seven in the morning when the balloon crossed Colton. The rope caught in the rocks and a boy freed the rope, but hung on and was carried up in the air. This necessitated making a landing to release the boy, and the trip was over.

During the course of the ascent, the balloon reached as far as Cima, in Colorado, 300 miles east of Los Angeles. This meant crossing the Coast Range and the great Mohave desert.

61 Miles in 60 Minutes.

Nov. 17. William R. Van Sleet and W. K. Morison left Pittsfield, in the "Heart of the Bcrkshires," at 2.55 p.m., landing at 3.55 at Rockville, Conn., a distance of 61 miles, after a somewhat exciting trip. This is over a mile a minute.

Soon after the gas was turned on at 12.15, the wind blew the balloon about so that it had to be tied to a tree. Then, with 50 bags of sand in use" as anchors and 30 men clinging to the ropes, it reared and plunged about while manoeuvring for a balance, tossing the helpers about in the snow.

Secretary Kelton B. Miller and Treasurer Daniel England of the Pittsfield Aero Club, who were endeavoring to keep the balloon in check, were carried over 30 feet in the air, and came near being dragged away with the venturesome sky voyagers.

A cord became entangled in the appendix of the balloon, and David T. Cul-lcn volunteered to climb up through the network of ropes and uncoil it. Coming down, his foot got caught, and K, B. Miller and A. C. Daniels of Pittsfield climbed up 20 feet on the ropes, took off Cullen's shoe and assisted him down.

When the balloon finally got away the envelope was not more than half-full of gas, and there were only 2;/ bags of sand aboard.

The balloon rose at once 8000 feet and

sailed southeast before a strong air current. It was lost to view over October mountain within 15 minutes.

Mr. Van Sleet tells of Wild Tru\

"We passed over Westfield at an altitude of 11,000 feet—the highest ever attained in this country. We were up 10,000 feet when we sailed over the Connecticut River and beating all speed records 'to a frazzle.'

"We had but i]/2 bags of sand left, but in the upper air we found a warm current which kept our balloon fairly firm. It was the most exhilarating experience I ever had.

"When I saw we were nearing Rockville, Conn., I decided I had better get back to earth and let her die down about 5000 feet. Then we were caught in a wind whirlpool and sucked down like a flash.

"I saw a large factory apparently jumping up to meet us and threw out everything but our instruments. When we had cleared the building I pulled the rip cord and let go the 20-pound anchor. It caught in a tree, but we were going so fast it snapped off and we went crashing through the town 40 miles an hour.

"We tore down electric wires, ringing in a fire alarm, and smashed down a fence while a number of persons tried to catch the drag rope or grasp the basket to stay our progress.

"The balloon squeezed itself between two houses and finally wilted in an orchard belonging to Christian Numaker, who resented our involuntary intrusion. We had left Pittsfield at 2.55, and got back-to earth at 3.55."

Mr. Morison returned to New York at once. Mr. Van Sleet remained to ship the balloon back to Pittsfield. When he had it all packed and on a wagon the chief of police insisted upon his visiting the police station. There was a bill for damages presented for payment. Mr. Van Sleet telegraphed officials of the Aero Club and on their assurance that the club would settle for all injury to property, the police permitted Mr. Van Sleet to go, but kept the balloon as security, and Mr. Van Sleet went home by trolley cars.

1 lW/ ^

AERONAUTICS

45

Longest Trip of the Year made by Lambert and Honeywell.—Within 14 Miles of Lamm Cup Record—Bl'mbaugh Beaten by 30 Mm.es, Not Considering two Stops—Xon-Stop Record Still meld by Bumbal'GH. Nov. 18. Albert Bond Lambert, Aero Club de France pilot, and Honorary Secretary of the Aero Club of St. Louis, accompanied by H. E. Honeywell, a balloon builder, made a varied and unusual balloon voyage, starting from St. Louis November 18th at 12.30 p.m. and finally landing at a point 461 miles distant, near Tiger, Ga., November 19, 7 a.m. The aeronauts, using a 65,000 cubic foot aerostat, made two landings in the State of Illinois, 50 and 75 miles from St. Louis, and then continued through the evening and night to the extreme northeast corner of the state of Georgia, where a landing was accomplished between two mountain peaks of 5000 feet altitude. The original intention of the balloonists was to beat Mr. Arnold's record and win the Lahm cup for the St. Louis club. But after the second landing it was found that the balloon had moved

LAMBERT AND HONEYWELL LEAVING

so slowly that it would be useless to continue the cup trial. They did not realize that they would make a long voyage. Describing his trip Mr. Lambert said:

"When we got away from the gas works, we were very heavily laden with some 1500

pounds of ballast, a trail rope weighing 140 pounds and other things, so when we were over the Mississippi River with scarcely any breeze it seemed that we would not get to the Illinois side, but we discharged one-half a sack of ballast and rose to a higher altitude, where we got an air current. Our trail rope was a 300-foot piece, iJ4 inches in diameter, and was new. When we let it out over the side of the basket the twists stayed in it and it got badly tangled. To straighten it we made a landing about 20 miles west of Boyd, III., but it became tangled again, so we descended when we reached Boyd. There we learned that we had been travelling no faster than 12 miles an hour. We knew that at this rate we could not hope to better Mr. Arnold's record, so we did not again notify the Aero Club of America of any intention to try for the cup. In fact, we thought that after an hour or so more in the air that we would descend and turn to St. Louis, but we had not been very long aloft before we got in a good current which carried us northeast at a height of about 5000 feet. We must have been over Indiana when we struck another air current which carried us southwards. We knew our direction by the North Star.

"A little while afterwards, about 9 p.m., we noticed the dull glow of fire far below us and caught the fumes of burning wood, and knew that we were over forest fires. To avoid them we rose to an altitude of 8000 or 9000 feet, at which height we remained nearly all night, but always beneath us was the dull glow of the fires. When dawn came and we saw that we were over mountains, I told Honeywell that I thought we were about 200 miles from St. Louis, probably over Kentucky. But he said that he did not think we had come that far. We were surprised when we finally learned that we were in Georgia.

"For about two hours before we came down the balloon hung almost motionless in the sky and I knew that we might not move for hours. So when we saw a suitable place to land we made for it. This was in a valley between two mountain peaks called Charlie and Glassy. Tt required considerable manoeuvring with valve and ballast to climb over the hills, searching for a bare spot among the trees which covered the mountain side. When we did find it we opened the valve and dropped

straight down. I threw out the anchor and it caught in what proved to be a dried up mill pond.

"The simple mountain folk who had gathered around us were incredulous at first—some of them did not seem to be able to realize that we were real men. 1 heard one man say to his wife, 'I told you they wuz real!' Then another asked me if we would not keep the balloon inflated for a while so that some of the other people living in the vicinity could see it. Honeywell did this, keeping it up for two hours, while about 150 people—they all belonged to one family—gazed at it. When we had done this and satisfied them that we were net revenue inspectors looking for moonshiners, they were very cordial in their manner. They would not allow us to pay for (anything—including the wagon 'that hauled the balloon 7 miles to a railroad. When we were leaving one of them said, 'Folks don't come heah often, but when they do, we's awful glad to see 'em.'

"It will give you an idea of the secluded nature of the country when I tell you that the railroad which we boarded runs only once a day, in one direction. We learned afterwards that if we had not landed where we did, we would not have found a place except on top of the trees, the other side of the mountain. The rugged character of that country has to be seen to be appreciated. Our landing point was at an elevation of 1750 feet."

Mr. Williams Welch, of the Signal Service, has kindly figured the distance from Balloon Park, St. Loui,s, to Tiger, Ga., as 461 miles. This is within 14 miles of the distance made by Capt. Chandler last year, when he won the Lahm Cup, and is 30 miles farther than G. L. Bumbaugh and C. A. Coey made on June 1 from Quincy. Ills., to Clear Lake, S. D. The Bumbaugh trip, however, was without intermediate landings.

Mr. Lambert has made 13 trips to date.

Nov. 18. G. L. Bumbaugh and Carl G. Fisher left Indianapolis in the "Kathleen" at 2.30 p.m., landing near Greenfield, Ind., 20 miles distant, at 4.30.

Nov. 21. A. Leo Stevens, Miss Blanche Vignos and Charles Vignos left Canton in the "Ohio" at ii a.m., landing at 1.55 p.m. near Kent. After having lunch a new start was made and a final landing made at 2.50, 4^ miles north of Kent in Stowe township.

the trip, as follows: 11.30, four miles north of Canton at 4-corners; 12.10, directly over center of Uniontown; 12.20, farm of H. Wise; 12.45, directly over Springfield Lake; 12.52, passed near center of Springfield; 1.00, at outskirts of Akron; 1.20, at Tal-madge Star; 1.45, at Kent; 1.55, landed 1 mile north of Kent.

Nov. 21. G. L. Bumbaugh took up R. J. Irvin again and J. A. Bartley in the "Kathleen" for a 20-mile 2-hour trip. The Warner Instrument Co. must be intending to manufacture "autometers" for balloons, taking Mr. Bartley's trip as a significant sign.

A. L. Stevens, W. R. and H. H. Tim ken and W. F. Com stock in the "All America" Earn Mention on "Sky Pilot Trophy" in Trip over Hundred Miles ' from Canton. Nov. 23. A. Leo Stevens, W. R. and H. H. Timken and W. F. Comstock left Canton at 9.15 a.m. with the expectation of crossing Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, but in view of thé very strong wind, which necessitated the use of the ripping panel in landing, and the number of occupants of the basket, it was decided after starting not to attempt the feat. The landing was made at 1.35 within one mile of the water, at Erie, Pa. Out of the 32 bags started with, 17^4 were left. At times the balloon traveled at 45 m.p.h. The "Sky Pilot Trophy" was offered early in the year by Messrs. Wade and Morgan to the balloon making the longest trip over 100 miles out of Canton, up to Jan. 1, 1910. F. S. Lahm made the longest trip heretofore from Canton, 85 miles. The names of the occupants of the "All America" will be inscribed on the trophy. Any balloonist making 100 miles or over from Canton is entitled to have his name inscribed, the pilot of the balloon making the greatest distance over 100 miles before Jan. 1, 1910. Distance to Erie, 117 miles, as kindly computed by Mr. Williams Welch, of the War Department, U. S. A.

On this ascension, trial was made by Mr. Stevens of a siren, made by the Sireno Co., 39 Cortlandt Street, New York, with gratifying success. It is found by aeronauts when they call to people on the ground to ask for information, that by the time the people recover from their deep interest or astonishment the balloon has gone on too far for the replies to be

at the touching of a button. Before coming up to people the siren is started screaming and by the time the balloon is near the spectators are prepared to answer questions intelligently and clearly.

Another Trial for World Record. Nov. 23. A. E. Mueller and J. K. Hutchison left Los Angeles at 10.19 a.m. in the "United States," inflated with coal gas, landing at 4.10 in the bottom lands of the Colorado River. At noon the following day the aeronauts reached Ehrenberg, Ariz., on the Colorado River.

Story of the Trip. In telling of the trip, Mr. Hutchison said: "We crossed the mountains within a quarter of a mile of the summit of San Jacinto peak and continued a straight eastern course over the desert ranges. Midway between San Jaeinto peak and the Colorado River, a sudden stratum of cold air condensed the gas and hurled us from an immense height onto the rocks and desert crags below. By clinging to the rigging of the balloon we escaped instant death.

"With terrible force the empty basket swept the ground and was shattered. Two bags of ballast were torn loose and most of our scant store of provisions and outfit lost. Relieved of this weight, the "United States" leaped back into the sky to an altitude so much over 16,000 feet that the instruments failed to register the height. Then we resumed our eastward course, falling slowly to the elevation at which we crossed the Colorado River.

"Shortly after crossing the Colorado, the appendix rope of our balloon broke, the cold wind on the Arizona side of the river forced the illuminating gas from the bag and we were dropped with terrible speed onto the desert, the balloon dragging us through the cactus over a mile before settling.

"We only saved ourselves from being crushed by climbing into the balloon rigging. As the big bag emptied of its gas it bellied like a sail in the wind and the basket ploughed a deep furrow through the rocks and cactus of the plains.

"Badly bruised, we finally succeeded in extricating ourselves from the tangled netting of the balloon and started to hunt for the nearest habitation. Lost in the

bottom lands of the Colorado River all Monday night, we reached Ehrenberg completely exhausted after many hours without food, Tuesday noon."

The Coast Range was crossed, the desert and the Salton sea. The distance from Los Angeles to the Colorado River at Ehrenberg is 220 miles. This means an average speed of 30.6 miles per hour.

The landing was made in the desert country on the Colorado Indian Reservation.

Indians who saw the balloon coming hurriedly left their wickiups and gathered for dances to ward off the evil spirits. None would come near or talk' to the bal-loonists, who spent the night in one of the abandoned huts and walked 22 miles before reaching a town.

A subscription has been started for another inflation of the "American" and "United States" in order to make a new attempt to surmount the mountain ranges and reach the- plains.

Nov. 26. William Van Sleet, Emil Bonz and William H. McDonald left Pittsfield, in the "Heart of the Berk-shires." landing at Walpole, N. II., fifty-five minutes later.

Dec. 6. II. E. Honeywell, accompanied by S. Louis Von Phul, who was making his first aerial voyage, ascended from the Rutger Street gas works, St. Louis, at 12.40 p.m. in the balloon Pegasus, 35,000 cubic feet. The day was particularly inclement as regards weather, but in spite of this the aeronauts with this small balloon were able to make a voyage of 57 miles. At 4.05 p. m. an easy landing was accomplished at Willisville, Illinois. The balloon was immediately loaded on the wagon and hurried to a railroad station, where a train was taken for St. Louis. The pair arrived in St.^Louis at about X p.m.

During the trip the aerostat was above the clouds for about one hour. The shadow of the balloon could be seen upon the clouds below, and at times there was a beautiful rainbow irridescence. When 45 miles from St. Louis, a homer pigeon was released which flew to St. Louis.

Mr. Von Phul was exceedingly entliusi astic over his aerial venture and signilicd his intention of making other balloon trips so that he may qualify for a pilot's license, as issued by the Aero Club of America.

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INDEX TO

Volume I. started with the first issue, July, 1907. Volume II. started January, 1908. Volume III., with the July, 1908, issue. On account of the great amount of miscellaneous data and news items, only a synopsis of headings is given in this index.

Beginning with the January issue, the reading pages will be numbered from 1 up so that the next index will refer to page numbers and render research work much more easy.

VOLUME III.

July Ascensions.

Stability of Aeroplanes, by Chas. J. Hendrickson.

Int. Aero'l Congress Papers (Italian War Balloon Accident); Kite Manipulation and Record Flight, by Dr. W. R. Blair.

Club Notes and Notes, Patents.

Wireless Telegraphing to a Balloon, by Norbert Carolin.

July—Aero Clubs and Prize Funds, Editorial.

June Aeroplane Flights in America (Aerial Exp. Assn.).

June Aeroplane Flights in Europe (Far-man, Delagrange, Bleriot, etc.).

Sport of Kings—Ballooning, by Arnold Kruckman.

Aeronautics in Great Britain, by London

Correspondent. Future of the Helicopter, by Paul Cornu. International Aeronautical Congress in

London, by London Correspondent. Knabenshue Dirigible.

My Initial Trip to the Clouds, Mrs. Cora

Thompson. Trials of Dufour Glider. Symposium (Prince Borghese,. Kress,

Kimball).

Extension of Area of Weather Reports for Aeronauts—Lightning as an Element of Danger in Balloon Work, by Prof. A. G. McAdie.

Distance of John Wise, by Williams Welch.

June Ascensions, Army News, Club News and Notes.

Adams-Farwell Motor.

August—Encouragement of Interest in Aviation, Editorial.

Symposium (Maj. Moedebeck, Prof. Rotch, Sauniere).

Farman in America, His Machine.

The Month Abroad (Bleriot, the Republique, the Gross II., Zeppelin IV.).

Army Aeronautics (Baldwin Dirigible).-

Scientific American Trophy, New Rules.

Aerial Experiment Association.

How it Feels to be Up in a Balloon, by Johnson Sherrick.

July Balloon Racing (Chicago, St. Paul, Brussels, etc.).

September—Military Aeronautical Appropriation, Editorial.

•WilbjjT and Orville Wright's Flights, De-

| scriptiom of Machine.

Evolution of Two-Surface Machine, by Octave Chanute.

The First Government Airship, by Jerome S, Fanciulli.

Breguet Gyroplane__«—————

Kimball Helicopt££_>—

New British Army Airship (Dirigible II).

Army Aeronautics, Patents.

The Month Abroad (Dirigible II, Ferber IX, Gastambide-Mengin, Zens, Republique, Delagrange, Parseval, Gross II, etc.).

Gordon Bennett and Other Balloon Races, Club News and Notes; Ascensions.

Observations and Tests of Marvellous Soaring Power of Birds in Calm and Storm, by Israel Lancaster; Discussion by Dr. A. F. Zahm.

Note on Destruction of Bleriot Monoplane, by Dr. A. Graham Bell. Efficiency of Curved Surfaces.

October—Aerial Leagues, Editorial. High Kite Flight.

Lieut. Thomas E. Selfridge's Death.

Gyroscopic Action of Propellers, Dr. A. Graham Bell.

Army Aeronautics (Wright aeroplane, Dirigible I).

Construction Details of Wright Aeroplane, by H. H. Brown.

Aerial Experiment Association.

First Ascension by a Woman in Canton, by Gladys M. Tannehill.

Berliner Helicopter. ^__^_—.~r-

Foreign Letter ^Dirigible II, Wright, Delagrange, Farman, Parseval, Gross, etc.).

Evolution of Two-Surface Machine, by Octave Chanute. Report on French Motors, by W. Rupert Turnbull.

Principles Involved in Formation of Wing Surfaces and Phenomenon of Soaring, by Prof. J. J. Montgomery.

Exact Measuring of Balloon Distances, by Williams Welch.

High Explosives as Power for Flying Machines (Carl Barus).

Club News and Notes; Ascensions, Patents.

November—British Aero Club's Aviation Grounds.

Proper Ascension Records, Editorial.

Philadelphia Inquirer Airship, by Thos. t Logan.

Herring Aeroplane. / ^TTcr^asexT LiftirJg—Effert of Curved Aeroplanes, by Edw. W. Smith.

First Exhibition of The Aeronautic Society, by Win. J. Hammer.

October Balloon Racing (Gordon Bennett, etc.).

Activity in St. Louis, by E. Percy Noel.

The Month Abroad (British Army aeroplane,^ Wright, Bleriot, Farman, etc.).

Principles Involved in Formation of Wing Surfaces and the Phenomenon of Soaring, by Prof. J. J. Montgomery Ascensions, Patents, Army News; Club News and Notes.

December—

Principles Involved in Formation of Wing Surfaces and the Phenomenon of Soaring, by Prof. J. J. Montgomery.

Gordon Bennett Classification.

Aerodrome No. 4 of Aerial Experiment Association, by J. A. D. McCurdy.

Club News and Notes; Patents, Army Aeronautics, Ascensions.

Los Angeles as a Long Distance Ballooning Center, by J. S. Zerbc.

Zerbe Aeroplane.

Spratt Towing Experiments.

At What Angle Greatest Lift?

American Championship, by E. Percy Noel.

Aviation Prizes, a list.

The Month Abroad (Wright, Parseval, Gross, Clement-Bayard, Farman, Rlcri-ot, Santos-Dumont, etc.)

Loon Hydroplane.

Clement-Bayard Airship, by Carl Dienstbach.

New Machines (Antoinette IV, Santos Du-

mont, Farman.) Flying Machines and Insurance Companies. New Curtiss Motor.

COMMUNICATION

To the Editor :—

I note with interest the experimental apparatus of Emile Berliner, described in the October issue of "Aeronautics," and I wish to state that this is not new to me, for in the year 1905 I perfected and since have patented a flying machine having two or more combined rotary devices, revolved in opposite directions to each other, with means for safely descending to the earth, if the motive power should fail. Suppose Mr. Berliner's aero-niobile had risen to about 500 feet in the air, and his motors should stop ; how would his machine get to the earth with safety? I believe that my combined rotary devices have practically solved the problem of aerial navigation and that they will be employed in the practical flying machines of the future. This is the first that I have ever given out in regard to my invention.

J. Holmes Wilson.

Articles of incorporation have been filed in San Francisco for the Rekar Helicopter Airship Co. The new corporation is organized by Alexander Otts, John J. Rekar and C. W. W. Otts. According to the articles the new company asks to "acquire, operate and manufacture ships, airships and aerial craft for the navigation of either air or water, and to conduct the business of transferring passengers, freight and mail in airships or other vehicles."

Dr. A. Rudy, of W. Raleigh, N. C, is now building a man carrying helicopter for experimental purposes. Dr. Rudy is spending his efforts in the line of soaring without a motor.

Major Henry B. Hersey, of the U. S. Weather Bureau at Milwaukee, who, it will be remembered, accompanied Frank P. Lahm in the first Gordon-Bennett balloon race, in speaking of the recent third contest for the Gordon-Bennett cup says: "The numerous accidents, collapsing of the "Conqueror" and the Spanish balloon in the Gordon-Bennett race and etc. has had a bad effect, but I think it will soon be forgotten."

G. L. Bumbaugh, St. Louis balloon builder, has made 20 airship flights during the year, all successful trips.

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Honeywell with A. b. Lambert, Aero Club de France pilot, discharging ballast to avoid high smoke stacks.

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