Aeronautics

Volume 3 - No. 5 - 1908 November

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



17th ISSUE

M

THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL LOCOMOTION

NOVEMBER, 190»

PRICE, TWENTY-FIVE CENTS

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

Used by Leading Aviators.

Light in weight-Strong and

Durable.

All Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls on Hand.

Variety of types and sizes in stock.

Absolutely Guaranteed.

Send for Catalogue 19.

R. I. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York

AERONAUTICS

Issued in conjunction with or separate from "Knowledge & Illustrated Scientific News"

Devoted to aerostation, aviation, meteorology, aerology, etc. Edited by Major B. Baden-Powell and John H. L,edeboer

SUBSCRIPTIONS:

ISSUED MONTHLY " Knowledge " including Aeronautics "Aeronautics" alone -

Special rate for 5 years - - -

27 CHANCERY LANE,

S1.90 .75

- • - 6.25

LONDON, W. C, ENGLAND.

No collection is complete without

BALLOON I NO AS A SPORT

By Major B. Baden Powell President of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain

A hand-book of ballooning; a guide for the amateur

PRICE $1.10 AERONAUTICS

II. OIMfc

OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHER OF " AERONAUTICS " and THE NORTH ADAMS AERO CLUB

Photographs of all Ascensions at Pittsfield and North Adams

POSTCARDS lO CENTS Box 501. North Adams, Mass. For Sale also at "Aeronautics"

AERONAUTICS

Main Office 1777 Broadway New York

Published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc. Wm. Gettinger, Pres. E. L. Jones, Trcas.-Sec.

304 No. 4th St. St. Louis

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice, New York, N. Y., under the Act of

March 3, 1879.

Vol. Ill

November, 1908

No. 5

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.

Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order or registered letter. WE CAN NOT USE CHECKS ON LOCAL BANKS UNLESS EXCHANGE IS ADDED. Send draft on New York. Make all remittances free of exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $3.50 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

Important.—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sendei Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure proper credit.

MEN OF THE AIR IN CARTOON.

Novel Series of High Class Caricatures of Some of the Aero Clubs' Well

Known Men.

Commencing in our December issue, we will begin to print a series of cartoons of the leading members of the Aero Clubs of America. They will prove very interesting, and no one should miss any of the series.

The work is done by one of the best caricaturists in the country, one who has succeeded in bringing out the characteristics of many of the well known members in the most artistic and attractive fashion. The entire novelty of the idea at once attracts

attention, and the clever execution further commends the enterprise.

When the series is complete, the plates will be printed on vellum, bound in ooze calf, lined with silk, and printed under the club colors. These books will be a very handsome souvenir of the men who have done much to advance aerial locomotion.

Watch each issue for ''Men of the Air in Cartoon," beginning in the December number.

NOTE.

The supply of July, 1907, and August, 1908, copies is entirely exhausted. A fire destroyed all the extra copies of the latter issue.

We would be very glad to hear of any copies of these two issues which we may secure to supply the present demand.

THE BRITISH AERO CLUB PLANS AVIATION SECTION AND GROUNDS.

It is the desire of the Aero Club of the United Kingdom to form an institute under the auspices of the club—which is now in the eighth year of its existence—to advance the science of aviation generally, and to procure a suitable ground where members

of the institute can experiment with their aeroplanes or other machines for aerial flight. An annual subscription of half-a-guinea would, it is thought, be low enough to enable all those who are interested in the subject to join the institute and avail

themselves of the various opportunities it will offer for making experiments and discussing ideas with fellow-members and inventors. England is at present behind the Continent and America in this respect, but Mr. Perrin, the secretary of the Aero Club, is of opinion that there are many people in Great Britain who have good ideas and models which merely require an opportunity for development and experiment to produce

good results, and bring us up to, if not ahead of, our foreign competitors.

The objects of the institute may be briefly defined as follows: i. To encourage the study of aerial flight. 2. To examine and report on practical suggestions for aviation. 3. To obtain a trial ground for testing and experimenting with machines. 4. To arrange both lectures and practical demonstrations. 5. To publish a journal dealing solely with the subject of aerial flight.

PROPER ASCENSION RECORDS.

As will be remembered, the United States Weather Bureau issued some time ago free ascension record blanks to individual bal-loonists and clubs, and requested co-operation in obtaining upper air data. These blanks were the result of considerable time and effort on behalf of the Bureau and this journal.

We regret that little interest seems to

have been taken in aiding the Bureau in this work. One or two individuals have kindly filled out the blanks in good shape, and the Army ascents have been properly recorded, but on the whole the interest taken therein has been small.

As an instance of conscientious effort, we qtiote the following extract of a record as a good example of what is asked:

METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS BY H. H. CLAYTON ON ASCENT WITH CHARLES J. GLIDDEN, JULY 29, I908.

Time

Height

in Meters

Height in Feet

Tempérât °C

tire

op

Relative Humidity

WIND Dir- Velocity ection in Miles

4:35 p

240

787

29.1

84.4

58

w

5

4:44 p

500

1640

28.7

80.1

64

w

6

5:00 p

1000

3281

22.4

72.3

76

w

7

5:15 p

1500

4921

18.5

65.3

91

w

7

5:15 p

1560

5118

18.0

64.4

93

wsw

7

Remarks—4:35, balloon left ground; 5:09, among clouds; 5:12, glory around shadow of balloon showing two colored ring; 5:15, passing through cnmulous cloud. Wind changed from W to WSW at 1,500 meters when cross-

ing Hoosic Mountains and was SW about 5 miles an hour on landing in W. Monroe, 6 miles ENE of North Adams. Sky clear during flight except for a few cnmulous clouds over the mountain.

FOR SALE—A perfect copy of Astra Castra, London 1865, at $15.00. Large quarto volume, in blue cloth binding, profusely illustrated. In perfect condition. This is probably the rarest aeronautical work to be found anywhere.

FOR SALE—"A System of Aeronautics; Comprehending its Earliest Investigation and Modern Practice and Art." By John Wise, 8vo. cloth, 310 pages, 15 or 20 lithograph plates; Phil., 1856. Good condition. Offered for $5.00.

When The Philadelphia Inquirer announced a few days before the beginning of Founders' Week that it proposed to set loose an airship over the city every day during the celebration, it was generally conceded that one of the biggest strokes of newspaper enterprise had been achieved.

As it turned out, the airship proved to be the most spectacular feature of Founders' Week and one of the best ever planned by a newspaper. Moreover, it illustrated to all the people of Philadelphia the possibilities of air navigation.

What seemed most remarkable to the great crowds that thronged the streets in answer to the call of Founders' Week was the absolute control that Aeronaut Lincoln Beachey, who was in charge of the air craft, seemed to exert, no matter how uncertain the wind appeared to those below.

A big military and naval parade had been arranged for the first day of the week. The grandstands built all along Broad street were jammed with men, women and children. The pavements were banked solid to the curb. Far up Broad street could be seen the advancing columns. The crowds awaited with bated breath.

Then, suddenly, out of a lot on Wallace street, which is a few blocks above the City Hall, where the throngs were thickest, there rose The Inquirer Airship, slowly, gracefully, and swanlike.

Like a spider, the aeronaut could be seen balancing his ship by moving backward and forward. As the craft rose into the air, the form of Beachey could be seen moving back-so that the nose would point upward.

Then, poising for a few moments over a high building, the newspaper's airship waited until the first ranks of the big parade approached, and proceeded, just a little ahead of it, down Broad street.

The crowds actually forgot the parade in the excitement of watching the dirigible balloon. They arose en masse and waved hats and handkerchiefs. They cheered and shouted. Mayor Reyburn, sitting in one of the grandstands, wildly waved his high hat. Governor Stuart, riding a horse in front of the parade, pulled on the reins and halted

the entire pageant for a few minutes while he gazed upward at the airship.

At various points along the line of the procession the crowds broke through the ropes and poured into the street so that they might get a better view of the steed of the air. Mounted policemen had to drive back the crowds.

Like a giant bird of fable, the airship slowly circled the City Mall, continuing on down Broad street for several blocks and then returning amid the same excitement and applause.

On an evening later in the week, while the crowds were thronging the central streets, and the sky was very dark in comparison with the glare of lights below. The Inquirer Airship again swam through the air.

Great searchlights upon the roof of the City Hall plucked the airship out of the darkness. The people upon the streets below could be seen from the roof of the

THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER AIRSHIP. By Thomas F. Logan.

City Hall running excitedly to points from which the dirigible balloon could best be seen. As the ship sailed down over Market street, flooded with the searchlights, the enthusiasm was tremendous. Beachey steered straight for the roof of The Inquirer, at Eleventh and Market streets, and shouted a "Hello" to those gathered on top of the building.

A still greater feat was accomplished by the airship later on in the week. The Inquirer planned to have its ship of the air extend its congratulations to the ships of the sea. Five big battleships, which had been sent to Philadelphia in honor of the celebration, were lying in the Delaware.

Everything had been arranged for a big naval pageant. The battleships were to fire salutes and scores upon scores of vessels passed in review. The Inquirer Airship could be seen making its way over the tall granaries and refineries just as the procession started up the river.

The airship made its way straight for the' Idaho, the flag ship. Circling the topmost turret for a few seconds, the aeronaut shouted that he had a message to deliver. An ensign stood upon the highest mast to receive it.

It was addressed to Admiral Marix and read: "A ship of the air extends greetings to the ships of the sea.'' Admiral Marix returned the felicitations of the ships of the sea to the ship of the air.

It was the most spectacular and daring feat ever attempted by a newspaper, and it shows one of the many uses to which an airship can be put.

Persons who had never placed much stock in air navigation realized after the Philadelphia exhibition that sustentation was being rapidly solved. The hundreds of thousands of persons who attended the festivities in Philadelphia went away converted to the idea that aeronautics is the great game of to-day.

The Inquirer Airship, which was built by Beachey, is constructed and operated upon principles wholly different from other dirigible craft. In construction it is simplicity itself. Consisting of a gas bag and a light spruce frame on which the navigator is carried, the entire weight of the ship without rider or ballast is only 210 pounds.

The aeronaut himself weighs 140 pounds, and about 50 pounds of sand ballast are carried, making 400 pounds in all. By the lifting power of his gas he equalizes this weight to the pound and when the airship starts it is just the same weight as the atmosphere.

Not until the engine is started does the ship move. The aeronaut depends upon K.'s motor, not his gas, to send him up.

Unl;i':c a ship's propeller, which is at U< stern of a vessel, the airship's is at front. It also turns in the opposite liii-r--tion to that of the propeller on a bo-r pulls, not pushes, the airship throu atmosphere. The motor is a two-c.. four-cycle, five-horse power, air-cooled line engine. It operates the propelier at 400 revolutions a minute.

Made of spruce wood, braced with piano-wire, the frame work is very light. Beachey straddles the frame in the middle. When he wishes to ascend, he shifts his weight to the back. This points the nose of the balloon upward and the propeller pulls him gently on the rising angle. When he wishes to descend he moves forward On the frame, and the nose is pointed downward, bringing a correspondent movement. The large rudder at the rear, 5 feet by 9, made of spruce and covered with oil silk, steers the ship.

The aeronaut holds the rudder lines in his hands as he moved back and forward. From below sometimes it seems that he is about to lose his balance, but he is sure of himself and really runs little danger.

The gas bag is cigar shaped and constructed of oiled Japanese silk. It measures 56 feet from tip to tip and is 14^ feet in diameter. It holds 6,000 feet of gas. Pure hydrogen gas is used, and this permits the use of a much smaller gas bag than would otherwise be required.

The gas generating plant which supplied the balloon consists of four wood tanks, 5 feet in diameter and feet high. Into them are put 1 y2 tons of sulphuric acid, 1^ tons of cast iron borings and 6 tons of water. As the gas is generated, it is run first into a cooler, then through a purifier and finally into the balloon. It required 8 hours to inflate the bag and the aeronaut needs five assistants.

THE HERRING AEROPLANE.

November 13th is the last day allowed Mr. A. M. Herring to fulfill the conditions laid down by the Government specifications. It will be remembered that Air. Herring has been given two extensions of time. A technical delivery of the machine was made on V\ctober 13th at Fort Myer. From this date • e is allowed a month in which to make all •!s trials, teach a man, and fulfill the conations.

-"'-'iter' making a technical . delivery, Mr. "•ring took his machine out on Long Isl-■_ 11 an interview with him, he stated

that *rhile on Long Island, he made a short

- t'-estimated at 100 to 150 yards, at a piob'able speed of 25 to 30 miles per hour. In this flight he said the machine maintained automatic equilibrium within Yz degree; there was no fluctuation so far as the operator was able to see, either on the straightaway or in turning. The machine was found to turn at a much sharper angle than was expected. Mr. Herring attempted to make a turn and expected the machine would describe an easy arc, but instead it turned very sharply.

The day was rainy, and Mr. Herring had some little difficulty with the motor. Mr. Herring thinks the rain on the battery wires caused a short circuit, which resulted in the motor "bucking." The landing was made while the machine was "skidding'' to the left, but it is to be noticed that the right skid was broken. One propeller, the jack shaft and propeller axle were also broken. The exact cause was not clearly apparent. In the trial, very little gas and oil was carried.

Mr. Herring briefly describes the machine as follows: A two-surface machine measuring, in its smallest size, 15 by 4 feet, with nearly 4 feet between the surfaces. The surfaces are at present of ordinary muslir, not even varnished; but it is expected to use Capt. T. S. Baldwin's combination ru'j-ber-silk cloth. The surfaces are made in panels. The panels can be readily changed so as to give a greater or lesser lateral dimension. Any odd number of panels can be used, five being the lowest number able to support the machine in the air witli a man. In the trial flight, the lateral dimension was 17 feet.

Two 2-bladed propeller are used in the rear. Four-bladed propellers may also be used, if desired. The}' are located on independent shafts receiving power from the engine through transmission gears. Either or both of the propellers can be cut out in making a landing.

One engine is used. It has five cylinders, weighs igl/2 pounds bare. Including the flywheels, spark coils, carbureters and part of. the frame which detaches with the engine, the weight is 25 lbs. Mr. Herring states that the horse power developed is 18 on an 8-hour run. The maximum horse power is 22. It does not take 18 horse power to fly, only about 12 horse power being used in the trial. The engine is air cooled. The cylinders are Chrome nickel steel treated, with a Cnrome nickel steel one-throw hollow crank shaft. The crank case is an aluminum alloy. The inlet and exhaust valves are positively operated. The speed of the engine can be varied without varying the power; the power can be varied without varying the speed. The compression is varied at will. The ignition is by make and break. There are two spark coils for the engine, one operating three cylinders and one operating two. The weight of these is !4 lb. each. There is a carbureter, weighing y2 ounce, to each cylinder.

There are bearings for every wearing part. Some of the best bearings were made by Mr. Herring himself. The four bearings in the engine are Malicot and Blinn. There are two bearings to each propeller, part home made and part R. I. V. with Babbitt metal separators.

The vertical struts are parti}' wood and partly steel. The whole machine is mounted on skids. The machine has not been weighed but a guess would be in the neighborhood of 170 lbs. The entire control of the machine is by grips on a vertical strut in the center panel.

Mr. Patrick Y. Alexander will visit America again before the close of this year. He intends leaving England on December 19th.

In the division of Physics, Columbia University is accommodating Mr. Grover Cleveland Leoning, a student, for aeronautical research-

THE INCREASED LIFTING EFFECT OF CURVED AEROPLANES. By Edward W. Smith.

It has been for a considerable time matter of common knowledge, that a surface travelling horizontally through the air and inclined upward at its forward edge, that is a so-called aeroplane, will support a greater weight with given area, and given ratio of propulsive to lifting effort, if it be slightly concave on the under side in the line of its motion. It is the object of the present discussion to indicate the cause of this greater lifting effect, and to show its connection with other more familiar phenomena.

A surface such as that considered derives its lifting force from the reaction of the air in its immediate neighborhood, which it pushes downward as it advances horizontally. The extent of air on each side of the surface, which is directly effected so as to exert this reaction, is difficult to determine, as it varies with speed, width and inclination of surface, etc. As a basis of comparison it will, therefore, be assumed that the lifting force is derived from the displacement of a "reactive stratum" of definite mass per unit length, and of negligible thickness, and it will afterwards be shown that this assumption, while certainly not strictly correct, cannot effect the main deductions.

Suppose a b, Fig. i, to represent a section of a plane travelling from right to left in the direction a c, while the lightly shaded portion represents the reactive stratum, whose mass per unit length may be called m. V>y the passage of the surface through the stratum there is imparted to the latter a velocity, / \ perpendicular to the surface anil expressed by the following relation, where V stands for the horizontal velocity along a c

>\=v>li

.1 C

= V

I)

V a2 + b2

Suppose that an interval of time t is required to impress upon the reactive stratum this velocity \\. The acceleration then is:

and the total force normal to the surface is:

(3)

F_Ma ~G

where M is the mass acted upon in the interval t, and G is the acceleration of gravity, and M=mvt (4)

Substituting (1) (2) & (4) in (3)

viv2 b

~G

F =

Va2 + b2 The vertical component or lifting force is:

L = F

Va2 + b2

ab

(5)

G a2 + b2

and the horizontal component, or propulsive

inv2 62

force is:

(6)

(7)

a2 fb,

and the ratio of horizontal to vertical components is:

// _ b_ L ~~ a

Having thus determined the forces resulting from the motion of a plane surface through the reactive stratum, let us turn to the curved surface, represented, as before, by a b in Fig. 2.

While the most efficient form of curve is a matter of experiment, the best one to consider first is that which will give a uniform normal pressure throughout its length, this being

h---i

s>. S, ' , —3-

 

— a-

-----H

       

fjqJL

probably not far from the luost efficient. For simplicity of treatment we may for the moment consider conditions turned around, in that the surface is at rest, while the reactive stratum possesses the velocity ['from left to right, none of the forces acting on the surface being thereby effected. It is, then, clear that as the only pressure exerted between surface and stratum, is one normal to the surface, the velocity of the str.itum relative to the surface remains constant from a to b, its direction only being changed.

In order, therefore, that this pressure be uniform throughout, the direction of motion of the stratum must be uniformly diverted, must change through the same angle with each unit length of arc. Obviously the circle, tangent to the line of motion at a, and no other curve, fulfills this condition.

The reactive stratum in followingthe surface is thus merely describing an arc of a circle, and the force it exerts may be readily calculated as centrifugal force. To derive equations for the effects produced by such a curved surface, which shall be comparable to those just derived for a plane, it is now only necessary to express the radius of the arc a b in terms of its projection and height (a & b) and as may be easily demonstrated the value of the radius is:

2b

The normal force per unit length of arc there-

mv-"

fore is:

/= R G 2 ni v- b G {a2 + b2)

(S)

L = fa

The lifting force then is:

/a dx

fdllH J o

where / is the length of the arc, and x the abscissa:

substituting the value of /"in (S)

2 m v2 a b L = —G~ a^TV" (9) and the horizontal component is:

/b dv

fdl~ji=fb

2 )ll c'2 b2

substituting for/ H =

G a2 + b2 The ratio of horizontal to vertical components is:

// b

—, - =- (n)

Comparing now (9) & (10) with (5) & (6) it is seen that with the same reactive stratum, the same speed, and surfaces of equal projected height and length, the circular surface gives twice the lifting effect without requiring any greater propulsive force per unit lifted.

The same thing may of course be expressed by saying that for a given lifting force, the curved surface need not be inclined so steeply as the plane one of equal area, and will therefore do its work with less propulsive force.

Now it will be contended that in this discussion the ever present factor of friction has been entirely disregarded, and that the assumption of a reactive stratum is so far from the

actual case as to be untenable. It is proposed therefore to show that while influencing the degree in which the curved surface surpasses the plane one, neither the disregard of friction or the assumption of the reactive stratum influences the main fact.

First as to friction; since this depends upon the velocity and area of the surface passing through the air, and since the curved and plane surfaces will be of approximately equal area, in order to arrive at the total horizontal force there must be added to each of the expressions (6) & (10) an identical amount to represent the friction, and as the H in (10) is twice as great as in (6) the added increment will be a smaller percentage in (10) than in (6); and the disregard of friction has therefore favored the plane rather than the curved surface.

Second, as to the reactive stratum. It is~ clear that this differs from the actual conditions in that the stratum of air actually concerned is not a stream of uniform width, but of increasing width toward the rear, as the influence of the surface spreads out. Under actual conditions therefore the curve of uniform pressure will probably differ from a circle. That it will be a curve and not a straight line, follows from the well known fact that with a plane the pressure is greater near the forward edge, and to equalize it, therefore, the rear part must be inclined more than the forward. Suppose a B (Fig. 3) to represent a section of an empyrical surface of uniform pressure, it will first be shown that whatever the curve the ratio of propulsive force to lift is still equal to the height over the projected length, and second that the lift is greater than that of the corresponding plane.

H-

1

4|

-c#-

-----H

1

   

/> h r^v^

i

   

F

     

le

7

Let D K (Fig. 3) represent the perpendicular force f ,/\ /, acting on an increment of arc /\ lm Resolve this into its horizontal and vertical components then ;

Z\ "=/Z\ / ~-E and L =/Z^ / j~

Z\"=/Z^f4; 'inn

or, since E G = /\ /

The total horizontal component acting on the whole surface is then:

V=±VZSJ' . H = fb (12) and the total vertical is:

L = , L=fa (13)

dividing (12) by (13) = --

an expression identical with (7) & (11).

Next as to the amount of the lifting force; inasmuch as this is proportional to the downward velocity imparted to the air it follows that anv curved surface of the character described inclined more steeply at the rear, by producing a greater downward velocity of the air must be subject to a greater upward reaction than the corresponding plane. The only doubt on this phase of the question is as to whether the actual reactive stratum extends to the same distance from the surface in the case of the curve, and since the total linear displacement of the air is identical in both cases, and the velocity of displacement doubled in the case of the curve, it would seem as if the amount of air acted upon must be as great if not greater with the curve.

A somewhat analogous case which throws some light on this problem is that of a solid projected obliquely against a solid surface. The modus operandi of this phenomenon is quite simple and analysis of it is helpful in forming an idea of that which must take place when the impinging object is a gaseous stream. Suppose

that ADB, Fig. 4 is a section of a rigid aud elastic surface, upon which an elastic ball moving in the line CI) impinges at D. B}T the law of reflection we know that the ball after striking continues its course with substantially unchanged velocity along DE, the angle CDA being equal to EDB. At the moment of impact, the ball is compressed at aud near the point of contact, and a definite amount of energy is thus stored in it. The pressure between the

ball and the surface naturally projects the ball away and as it springs back to its original shape "kicking" itself back, so to speak, it gives out, in the form of kinetic energy, that which was stored up by the compression. Thus it is then that the ball after striking recedes from the surface with the same velocity as that with which it originally approached it, aud no loss of energy occurs. But if on the other hand, a non-elastic ball or a stream of air be projected along the line CD, we know by experiment that it does not follow along DE after contact, but simply follows along DB, the line of the surface with diminished velocity. When the non-elastic ball, of lead for instance, strikes the surface it is compressed and absorbs energy just as the elastic one did; but there is thereafter this difference, that the uon-elastic ball dissipates this energy in internal friction or heat, does not resume its original shape, and therefore does not "kick" itself away from the surface, but merely follows along it, with a velocity diminished according to the energy absorbed.

Suppose now, however, that the non-elastic ball be projected against the circular surface represented by AFB, impinging upon it tan-gentially at A. Since the ball here does not come against the surface with any great force of impact, there is produced a compression within it that is almost negligible compared to the former case, and a negligible amount of energy is dissipated in internal friction. The ball travels along the surface, exerting a relatively slight uniform pressure upon it, and finally flies off along the tangent BG, its kinetic energy virtually undiminished A glance at the figure shows that BG is parallel to DE; which signifies then that a non-elastic ball impinging tangentially on a circular surface behaves exactly as does an elastic ball, impinging on a plane surface.

As to the pressure exerted upon the surface since this depends, with balls of equal weight, upon the change of velocity which the surface impresses upon them in a normal direction, it is obvious that this is identical in the first and third cases but half as much in the second, that is to say, the elastic ball exerts a pressure while it is being compressed and again an equal amount for equal time while it is "kicking" itself away; the non-elastic ball impinging on the plane surface exerts a pressure while it is being compressed, but none thereafter; while the non-elastic ball striking the circular surface, (Continued on page 45.)

HITCH YOUR WAGON TO A STAR

shaped motor and leave behind the radiator, pnmp, fan, water, fly wheel, muffler, piping and most of the crank case, crank shaft, bearings, valve mechanism, ignition device, etc.

Last, but by no means least, the Adams-Farwell motor will eliminate 3'our troubles in the over-heating line and weighs only 2 7-lb. per h. p.

Write for our catalogue to-day.

H

ADAMS COMPANV

DUBUQUE. IOWA.

CONSTRUCTION WORK

Models or manufacturing complete from plans in all materials. Repairs or special parts for machines already constructed. Our plant especially equipped for this class of work. Free use of large grounds for trials, etc.

GLIDERS IN STOCK. C. & A. WITTEMANN. P. 0. Box 40. Stapleton. Staten Island, N. Y.

17 OCEAN TERRACE, COR. LITTLE CLOVE ROAD

TO THE LIVE MAN ?j;TZth:*T.

cessories, automobillng, and in fact keeping in touch with all that Is transpiring the world over in motordom, and who realizes the value of keeping informed about all that concerns it, should be a subscriber to The Steam Motor Journal, 15c. a copy, $1.00 a year.

THE STEAM MOTOR JOURNAL CO.

1409 WELTON STREET,

DENVER, COLO.

ARMS AND ((D) THE MAN

THE NATIONAL HILITARY WEEKLY $3.00 a year

General James A. Drain, Editor

fl ARMS AND THE MAN serves every arm of the service in both the Army, the Navy, the Marine Corps and the National Guard. Its columns are open for all military aerorautical discussions, in connection with the work of the Signal Corps.

lf>0!2 11 Street, 1ST. "W. - Washington, D. C.

FIRST EXHIBITION AND TOURNAMENT OF THE AERONAUTIC SOCIETY.

By William J. Hammer.

The first Exhibition and Tournament of the Aeronautic Society was held at the Morris Park aerodrome, Morris Park, Westchester County, New York, in the afternoon of Election Day. November 3rd, before an assemblage of .20,000 people, the majority of whom—unfortunately for the gate receipts—came over or through the fences about the vast concourse and not through the turnstiles.

When it is realized that the Aeronautic Society has been organized less than five months and that in that brief period the Society, after scouring the country for fifty

kites, safety devices and devices for maintaining lateral equilibrium, propellers, model wings, etc., all the above being the work of its members, the showing certainly was most creditable.

In addition to the tests with models, kites, gliders, wind wagons, etc., made under the supervision of the Referee and Judges, which tests will be referred to later on. the programme was enlivened, albeit somewhat complicated, by the excellent National Championships of the Federation of American Motorcyclists, by the exhibition about the

a view of the lawx.

miles in every direction about New York for suitable grounds, has secured the commodious quarters at Morris Park with headquarters and meeting rooms in the Club house, workshops and housing sheds, and has furthermore been able to show to the public at this its first exhibition such a large number of full sized apparatus, aeroplanes, a monoplane, a helicopter, gliders, wind wagons and gliding models with and without power, balloons.

track of the famous Thomas car, winner of the "New York to Paris" race, with Montague Roberts, and the midget car of the Auto Supply Co., of New York. This latter car, the smallest car ever built, is an exact counterpart of an automobile and cost over $2,000 to build and, together with the Thomas car, attracted much attention.

The burden of the tests upon gliders, models, balloons, kites, etc., fell upon the following

Judges: Chas. M. Manly, formerly chief assistant of Prof. S. P. Langley; Prof. A. J. Henry, head of the Mount Weather Station of the Weather Bureau; Major Geo. O. Squier of the Signal Corps U. S. Army, who was assisted by Mr. G. O. Totten of Washington, D. C.; Mr. Orrel A. Parker, who was in charge of the Thomas car and the towed flights of Mr. Lawrence J. Lesh's glider made with the Thomas car; Mr. W. R. Kimball was kept exceedingly busy putting the finishing touches to his remarkable helicopter machine, while Mr. Stanley Y. Beach, another Judge, was busy with the Beach-Whitehead -glider carrying Mr. Howard Booth of Bridgeport who essayed a

tatives and the various contestants, and in fact, trying to be omnipresent where so much was to be done.

The Referee, Mr. William J. Hammer, after consulting with his Judges, with Mr. Lawrence E. Dare, the Manager and Mr. Earle L. Ovington, Chairman of the Racing Committee of the F. A. M., decided that in view of the enormous crowd present and the inability of the police and special officers preventing the dangerous encroaching upon the course and the contestants, that the motor cycle events to be run off first.

The various gliders and models of power and other machines and appurtenances were

l. j. lesh sta

flight while towed by thé automobile of Peter Fisher but which glider unfortunately met with an accident damaging the machine. In the absence of certain of the Judges, the above gentleman and the Referee, Mr. William J. Ilamnfer, were duly assisted by Messrs. Robt. Whitaker, F. W. Barker, P. F. Motteley and Mr. Gray. Dr. S. B. Battey was the medical officer and attended Mr. L. J. Lesh when he met with his accident.

The indefatigable President of the Aeronautic Society, Mr. Lee S. Burridge, was busily engaged in supplementing the work of Messrs. A. A. Whitman and R. B. Whitman in charge of the finances, again giving orders to Marshall Riley E. Scott and his special officers regarding policing the many fence openings, again assisting the press represen-

rting a glide.

carried from the sheds and from about the '"Wright" catapult to the lawn in front of the grand stand where they formed an impressive and instructive exhibit of the work of the members of the Society.

After the five motorcycle races had been run, the glider of Mr. Lawrence J. Lesh was brought into the infield and given two flights, towed by the Thomas car. After making the first very successful flight, he essayed a second one and after crossing the field at a rapid rate and while about fifty feet in the air, Mr. Lesh cut loose intending to make a soaring glide in his endeavor to win the gold medal offered by the Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Unfortunately the crowd rushed forward directly in the path of the aviator and his machine and just after cutting loose, a stray current of air

struck the machine. In endeavoring to right it and also to avoid striking the people below, and as the machine was rapidly soaring toward the ground, it suddenly dropped from ■about a height of 25 feet, Mr. Lesh landing upon his right foot which bent under him, breaking both bones above the ankle. After attention by Dr. S. B. Battey, a member of the Society who was on the spot, he was taken in an ambulance to the Fordham hospital where he is doing nicely though he will be confined for some weeks to his bed and crutches.

uncontrollable crowd, that such tests would result in injury to the spectators.

Chas. J. Hendrickson had made two excellent flights with the two surface machine built by himself during the morning and Morris Bokor made one flight with his two surface glider which he had built.

The Judges decided to hold all records made thus far until the further tests were held at some future date decided upon by the Society at which the balance of the gliders, kites, models, etc., will be tried out. This also applies

c. w. williams monoplane.

Mr. Lesh, a native American at present residing in Montreal, is but sixteen years of age and holds the world's record for a towed flight, having made a flight over the St. Lawrence river in 1907, of six miles, drawn by a motor boat. He has made many flights, but this is his first serious accident.

After the accident to Mr. Lesh and the accident to the Beach-Whitehead glider which was towed by an automobile and came to grief, the Referee and Judges decided that it would not be safe to make further trials with the gliders either towed or shot from the Wright Brother's form of catapult in the field. It seemed certain that with the enormous and

to the models upon the lawn in front of the grand stand and while certain of them were tested, it was found impossible to launch the models from the front of the grand stand as arranged, owing to the dense crowd. A space had been roped off, but it was packed with people and one of the ropes was carried away bodily by the crowd.

The unfortunate and serious accident to Dr. Julian P. Thomas, on Xov. rst when he was testing his wind wagon at the track at Morris Park interfered greatly with several features. On endeavoring to make a sharp turn to avoid a moving motorcycle the front wheels of his wind wagon collapsed throwing Dr. Thomas

heavily and piling the wrecked machine on top of him. It was at first thought that he had been killed, but later it was found that he -suffered principally from the shock and slight injury to his back, arm and leg which he broke in an automobile accident a year ago. This accident made it impossible to have the wind wagon contest although the man power wind wagon of Prof. \V. H. Pickering, of Harvard, was run around the track until someone in the crowd pressed too close to his machine and was struck by the propeller, breaking a blade and putting the machine out of commission. The accident to Dr. Thomas' machine prevented the contest for the beautiful Thomas trophy for the best designed propeller as it had been planned that all propellers be tested on the Thomas wind wagon. Dr. Thomas had been ambitious to win his prize himself with a newly designed propeller.

Following the Lesh glider at the completion of the motorcycle races, the huge monoplane machine of Mr. C. W. Williams was run down the track. The machine was not entirely completed and had only an experimental motor of seven horse power to operate it. It is expected that at an early date upon his installation of the large engine the public will have the privilege of seeing the Williams machine in the air. Like Mr. Kimball's helicopter, this machine was not entirely completed in the short time before the exhibition but both machines were shown as full sized man carrying flying machines, designed and built by the members of the Aeronautic Society and shown in their present condition as an evidence of good faith. They attracted much attention, though naturally many were disappointed in not seeing them in the air.

The 1500 pilot balloons sent up by the Society and by John Wanamaker were let off in front of the grand stand.

Through the courtesy of Prof. Willis L. Moore, Chief of the United States Weather "Bureau, interesting demonstrations were made with kites carrying meteorological apparatus illustrating methods employed in weather forecasting and studying of the upper air, these demonstrations were superintended by Prof. Moore and were in charge of Prof. A. J. Henry and a corps of expert assistants C. S. Wood. II. A. Marks and J. M. Kelly, from the Mount Weather Observatory.

Interesting kite exhibitions were given also by Dr. S. B. Battey and others. Mr. Kimball showed a kite with a dummy figure and carrying a weight. Upon cutting the kite loose the weight was shifted causing the kite to descend towards the operator in the most curious manner.

Toward evening a Montgolfier balloon was sent up carrying Johnny Mack of Newark, N. J., who made a parachute drop from a height of 2000 feet. The lateness of the hour precluded an actual "contest" for the Leo Stevens' Gold Medal for which three entries had been made. This contest will be held at a later date.

Among the fifty models, with and without motors, shown, the large model aeroplane exhibited by Miss E. L. Todd and Dr. Win. Green's safety device for landing with a hal-loon attracted considerable attention. The balloon has a thin tube of metal or rubber cloth around the bag near its center and the tube is preferably filled with gas under pressure. Should the balloon burst or leak badly the balloon immediately forms itself into a parachute. Dr. Green has exploded such a balloon in the air and it has descended with a basket of eggs and not one of them broke.

The motorcycle races were a great success, the best time being made by Walter Goerke, ten miles in 10 mintes, 45 2/5 seconds.

The Aeronautic Society was fortunate in having bad for its field-day such temperature and sunny weather as led many of the fair sex to revisit the beautiful lawns of Morris Park, the Club house and Track formerly devoted to the "sport of kings." The Society had wisely located an able drum and fife corps in front of the Judge's stand, in addition to Bavetta's famous Italian Military Band which discoursed choice and popular selections from an advantageous station near the reserved boxes.

While the success of this first venture of the Aeronautic Society is highly commendable, in so much as it was achieved under the very trying disadvantages already alluded to, one can well realize what is necessarily in store for the visitor who will be so fortunate as to visit the grounds in the early Spring when the second exhibition under the same auspices is to be given. This may partake, possibly of an international character; at any rate the governmental exhibition will probably be upon an

enlarged scale, with dirigible and other balloons and flying machines.

More About the Exhibition.

The programme called for more events than could be accomplished. While the exhibition was given "with a view of demonstrating, as far as possible, the state of the Art," the exhibition did not fulfill its promise altogether. As the public did not see a power machine in actual flight the exhibition fell that much short of demonstrating the exact point the Art has reached, but it did succeed in letting people know of The Aeronautic Society and that it was trying in its own way to promote Aeronautics.

The programme was as follows :

Flight of 1500 pilot balloons—5 mile championship motorcycle race—wind wagon race— ,, mile motorcycle race—kite contests and demonstrations by U. S. Weather Bureau—1 mile championship motorcycle race—exhibition mile by the smallest automobile in the world— the "New York to Paris" Thomas car—gliding-contests—10 mile championship motorcycle races—model contests—Montgolfier balloon ascents with parachute drops—towed flight competition—5 mile open motorcycle race— flying machine contest—contest of propellers for Thomas trophy—miscellaneous exhibits of models and devices, material, etc.

PRIZES.

The Aeronautic Society offered a cup for the winner of the wind wagon race.

In the kite contests, Mr. Beiswcnger, proprietor of Woodmansten Inn, adjoining the track, offered a cup for the most sensational kite flight, and The Aeronautic Society offered a cup for the highest flight.

Octave Chanute offered two cups, first and second prizes for the longest glide made from the catapult.

Cups in the model class were given by R. L. Hanau, International School of Aeronautics, and A. C Triaca.

J. A. Moller offered a cup for the best material shown.

For the Montgolfier balloons, A. Leo Stevens gave a gold medal.

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle presented a gold medal to encourage experiments in towing flight.

The Scientific American Flying Machine Trophy and a cup of The Aeronautic Society was offered for flying machines, while the

Geniophile Co. offered a medal for the safest machine shown.

To encourage propeller work Dr. Julian P. Thomas gave a handsome bronze figure for the propeller which gave the best restdts. Mr. Hammer has explained in his article the unfortunate accident which prevented a competi-

m. bokor ix prof. pickerings wixd-wagox.

tion in this division. In order to have all propellers tried under same conditions it was planned that all be tried on the Thomas wind wagon.

Samuel J. and Lester S. Perkins had the greatest number of kites in the air, about thirty. As many as twelve were on one string and there were four strings. From these strings floated banners and pennants and from one line was the figure of a man on a trapeze, which "did stunts" when the line was pulled. A very large American flag was floated, flanked by two smaller flags and many pennants, in the arc of a circle. This made a very pretty sight. Mr. Perkins makes a business of flying kites, advertising banners from kites and his display was a fine exhibition of his skill. William A. Eddy was present and complimented him on the adaptability of his outfit for his work.

A beautiful silk box kite was flown by Emouth Mixier. It had i sq. meter of surface and weighed but a pound. Henry Jorgensen's kite had the best angle.

E. L Horsman had several kites on one string, displaying banners.

There was an odd aeroplane kite exhibited with box kite form of propellers, causing the kite to screw its way through the air as it ascends.

Prof. A. J. Henry, who was one of the judges in the kite contests, reports as follows:

"The kites submitted by the various competitors were mostly of the Malay type as modified by Eddy; outside of the Weather Bureau exhibit, very few box kites were shown and none possessed any specially novel features. The promoters of aerial advertising had a number of models ill the air but their most effective display was a triangular shaped bag open at Imth ends so that the wind could pass through it readily. The Mount Weather Observatory sent four kites of the Ilargrave Marvin type, the standard kite of that institution. The dimensions of these kites are roughly as follows:—Height 0 feet S inches; width (5 feet 5 inches and depth 2 feet S inches; weight *'/•; lbs.; witli the recording instrument 10lA> lbs.

"It was not a kite day. The wind was light and fitful in the forenoon and it did not improve much until "well along in the afternoon. One small box kite with the large cell in front after the order of 1 lie I.amson Kite flew well but later in the afternoon disappeared.

"The Weather Bureau kites with their added weight of tile wire and instrument had difficulty in keeping in the air on account of the light breezes but later in the afternoon succeeded in making an excellent flight with a single kite. This kite supported about 7.100 feet of steel piano wire, and reached an altitude of about 5,.r>oo feet. The angle of the wire with the horizontal was -slightly over 30 degrees.

"The government exports figured that the temperature in the free air decreased quite rapidly upward from the surface; that at 1,000 feet above the ground it was 7 degrees colder than at the ground; that at a mile above ground it was about 24 degrees or S degrees below freezing. The direction of the wind was practically the same above as below; but the velocity above was increasing much more rapidly lhan at the surface. This increase in velocity above was manifest at the ground before night, much to the disgust of those who had been hoping for a good breeze during the afternoon."

The balloons brought by the Weather Bureau and S. J. Perkins could not be used on account of the failure of the hydrogen plant.

Five gliders were on hand for trial: the Whitehead glider, Lilienthal type, entered by Louis R. Adams; and two-surface gliders of International School of Aeronautics, Morris Bokor, Chas. J. Hendrickson and E. L. Jones.

The aeroplane model of Edward W. Smith, whose Congress paper was of great interest and who has an article in this issue, flew very nicely. Mr. Chas. M. Manly, who judged some ■of the models, viewed one flight—he says :

"The machine was launched from a special 2-rail track on which was mounted a launching car which released it whin the car reached the end of the track. The launching apparatus was a crude but effective copy of the l.angley launching apparatus.

"Length of run of launching ear on track. 0 feet, the initial impetus being given by rubber bands (stretched). The machine rose immediately upon being

released from the launching ear at the end of the track, its line of thrust making an angle of about 15 degrees with the horizontal. It ascended gradually at this angle to a height of 15 feet when its power being exhausted it gradually descended and gently settled to the ground at a point .12 paces or about 00 feet from where it rose from the track. The machine was undamaged.

"While the inventor was preparing the machine for the next flight, in rotating the propellers to wind up rubber motive power, the port propeller sheared off its driviug pin. The machine was equipped with special tripping skids so arranged as to lessen the shock of the machine striking the ground."

A full description of the Smith model appeared in the February is*sue of this journal. The flights made on Election Day were the first made in public. Mr. Smith calls the attention of the judges to these facts: I, the machine made two successful flights of over a hundred feet; 2, there were no preliminary or unsuccessful attempts: 3, in landing no serious damage was done, a few moments sufficing to make the model again ready for the next trial; 4, sufficient wind currents were encountered, especially in the second flight, to carry the machine out of its course but without causing any inconvenience to the machine, thus demonstrating its perfect stability. Weight 4V2 lbs., surface 6 sq. ft.

In the flying machine competition there were no machines ready for flight. It was hoped up to the last moment to have the new aeroplane "Silver Dart" of the Aerial Experiment Association but owing to the bad weather there had not been time to make trials at Ham-mondsport with it. The full sized aeroplane being built by Gustave Whitehead and S. Y. Beach was not completed in time to make trials. Wilbur R. Kimball worked until late the day of the exhibition on his helicopter but was only able to run the screws in a test. C. W. Williams drove his huge monoplane on the track with a little'7 h.p. Curtiss airship motor. He is awaiting a motor of ample horse power in order to make a trial of his machine.

The Baysdorfer-Yager airship, "The Comet" has made 40 flights during the year, returning to the starting point 37 times, with the following operators: Charles Baysdorfer, Horace B. Wild and Bud Mars. At Waterloo, la., 14 flights were made in one week all of which were return flights save one. Mr. Geo. E. Yager is trying to induce the express companies to reduce the rate on balloons and airships.

OCTOBER BA:

Grand Prix.

On October 4th, 18 balloons started in the Grand Prix of the Aero Club of France from the Tuileries Gardens. The erratic but slow moving air currents dispersed the balloons all over France. The contest was won by Georges Blanchet who attained a distance of 550 kilometers in an ascent lasting 37 hours, 12 minutes.

Goal Race from Berlin.

In this contest for a predetermined point. 22 balloons started. The contest was won by Paul Meckel, famous for his skill in "steering" spherical balloons, who landed but 302 meters distant from the finishing post at Oranienburg.

Gordon Bennett.

In the Gordon Bennett from Berlin on Oct. 11, the full number of 23 balloons started, consuming 50,000 cubic feet of gas, and demanding the services of 47 non-commissioned officers and 585 privates. All but four balloons were of 2,200 cubic meters capacity, three going over this and one under.

One balloon the "Helvetia," did not land till Wednesday, the 14th. Six other balloons landed on Tuesday, after two nights in the air.

The start was made exciting by the bursting in the air of the American balloon "Conqueror," pilot A. Holland Forbes, aide Augustus Post. As Messrs. Forbes and Post were "balancing up" the balloon the workmen let go before the word was given. A little puff of wind caught the balloon and the basket just grazed a fence, but not hard enough to wrench the net or put any excessive strain on the bag.

On striking the fence, two bags were dropped and one tore open, allowing the sand to leak out rapidly. The balloon then ascended so rapidly that the top dented in. At a height of 2,900 feet the envelope tore laterally in the lower hemisphere. The appendix ring went up to the top, the balloon parachuted and started swiftly downward. Mr. Post cut loose a bag of sand and, so Mr. Forbes states, it went UP. Both worked fast in cutting away the sand bags hanging around the sides of the basket. At an altitude of 500 feet the balloon started dropping faster than ever, finally landing on

X)ON RACING.

the mansard roof of an apartment house, the basket going clear through. The aeronauts then proceeded to calmly photograph the wreck. Entrance into the house was made through a lady's bed room. A few days after, Mr. Forbes received a note from the lady stating she was sorry to have been out when he called.

The Illustrierte Aeronautische Mitteilun gen, in speaking of the accident, says: "The explanation appeared later to be very simple, (the accident) being caused by an appendix which was too long; in addition to which the appendix was held tightly closed.''

the landing.

However, Mr. Forbes should know as well as anyone how his own balloon was arranged and he says that though there was an elastic band around the appendix when the start was made, the whole appendix was free and open after clearing the fence.

Mr. Forbes also states that the scheme talked of and mentioned on pages 31 and 32 of the September number and page 34 of the October number, for the conserving of the gas, was not used—that the balloon was in its original condition with the exception that the appendix had been lengthened somewhat.

During the first night from Sunday to Monday the wind shifted and the balloons

turned back on their course. It then did not take very long for the balloons to reach the North Sea, though the unsteady winds dispersed them widely. The day became very misty and that circumstance, together with the keenness of the contest, may account for five balloons being carried out to sea. The "Busley" had the narrowest escape, being picked up beyond Helgoland.

One of the American balloons, the "St. Louis II," with Messrs Arnold and Hewat, shared this fate, though not going out so far, but they spent a trying time in the flooded basket, before they were rescued. When they found they were over the water, Hewat dropped the water anchor to hold the balloon until bearings could be obtained and the situation discussed, but in letting it out Hewat's hand became caught and the flesh was torn off his fingers. To save the hand, Arnold cut the rope and the water anchor was lost for further use. Then a quick decision was made to come down in the water. The balloon was not equipped with cork and the weight of the twenty-six remaining sand bags held the basket down with the water up to the waist. Remembering that there was a flash of whisky somewhere in the bottom of the basket. Hewat groped around in the water till he found it and also an electric flashlight. With the latter—not the whisky bottle—he stood in the ring making signals until they were seen and answered by a boat. The balloon was drifting so rapidly that the boat could not catch up and at last, though neither knew how to swim, they jumped over with life preservers and waited for the boat to pick them, which it did, later picking up the balloon. This all happened on Monday 'night, the second night of the race.

NEW DURATION RECORD, J2 HOURS.

Lieut. Colonel Schaeck, of the Swiss club, established a new world's duration record, remaining in the air' 72 hours, beating the former record of 52 hours held by Drs. Kurt and Alfred Wagener. Col. Schaeck landed in the sea off the coast of Norway.

J. C. McCoy, in the "America II," had a less eventful trip and was much handicapped by going in a circle, covering but a short straight-line distance. His aide mistook a corner of the Baltic for the North Sea. With all Denmark before them a consider-

ably greater distance could have been covered.

The Spanish team had narrow escapes. The ripping panel of one of its balloons finally opened up in the air, with a result much resembling that of the "Conqueror."

The decision as to the race rests between the English "Banshee," with John Dunville and C. F. Pollock, covering 260 miles, and the Swiss "Helvetia," with Col. Schaeck and Lt. Messner. The latter balloon actually traveled the greatest distance but by not descending on the land mav be disqualified under the rules of the F. A. I. Although not officially settled, it is probable that the race will be conceded to Mr. Dunville.

Duration Race, Berlin.

The endurance competition on October 12th was memorable for the number of competitors, 33. Two of these balloons went out to sea. One, the "Plauen" was saved after a long period or anxiety. Of the other, the "Hergesell," only the envelope with the car and without any trace of the men, was picked up near Helgoland. The longest ascent lasted 24 hours, but Lieut. Vogt won the race with 13 hours on account of the handicapping. The balloons were divided into five classes.

It is curious to note that the world's record duration was made in a distance race.

A full list of the entries in the Gordon Bennett, with prizes, etc., was given in the September issue. The official records, with distances, have not yet been made public by the Berlin club.

He was the Editor of an Aeronautical Journal.

The soul of an editor who had died of starvation was being conducted to the Elysian fields. As they passed the portals of the infernal regions, he asked his guide if he might not go in and look around. The guide consented, but warned him to stay but a few minutes, as he could not wait long.

A long time passed, and the editor had not returned; so the guiding angel went in search of him. He found him before a cage in which a number of doomed wretches were being toasted on red-hot griddles. Over the cage was the sign "Delinquent Subscribers."

"Come," said the guide; "we must be going."

"Don't wait for me," replied the editor. "I'm not coming. This is Heaven enough for me!"—IJppincott's Magazine.

CLUB NEWS.

Aero Club of America.

The annual meeting of the Aero Club of America was held on Nov. 2nd. Considerable interest was centered in this meeting as there were two tickets in the field.

The "regular" ticket named the following-members for directors: J. C. McCoy, Cortlandt F. Bishop, A. Holland Forbes, Samuel H. Valentine and Charles J. Edwards.

The "opposition" named for directors: Wm. F. Whitehouse, Geo. F. Chamberlin, Wm. J. Hammer, Charles J. Edwards and Louis R. Adams.

In the past, the Directors of the Club nominated their own successors and these were voted upon at the annual election. In the present election, j$i accordaupe with a section of the by-laws, f£ metmjers signed a notice to the Board ol$» new ticket. Both sides sent out letters asking for proxies.

The reasons given by the "opposition" side were that it was desirable that the club take a more active part in furthering aeronautics and aviation in particular, to have a greater number of members on the Board of Directors, and to give all the members a voice in the affairs of the club at regular monthly meetings, the members in general assembly to vote on matters of importance heretofore acted upon solely by the Board.

At the line-up, the "regular" ticket won with the odds 89 to 31. The adherents of the "opposition" ticket, were in the majority at the meeting but the "regular" ticket was helped out by proxies.

The new directors elected on the "regular" ticket immediately held a meeting and named the following officers for the ensuing(year: J. C. McCoy, President; A. Holland Forbes. 1st Vice-President; Samuel II. Valentine, 2nd Vice-President; Alan R. Hawley, 3rd Vice-President; Charles J. Edwards, Treasurer; Augustus Post, Secretary; Charles M. Manly, Consulting Engineer.

Augustus Post, being the only Director present at the meeting, read the various reports. The President's report was as follows:

WHAT THE AERO CLUB HAS DOXE DURING THE PAST YEAR.

"Conducted St. Louis Gordon Bennett Balloon Race in conjunction with the Aerj^jC^iib of St. Louis, and the first motor ball^rWrace in the world.

"Installed an aeronautic exhibition at the Jamestown Exposition in the first building ever devoted to that purpose.

"Held its third annual exhibition at the Automobile Club Show.

"Field its second annual dinner at the St. Regis Hotel.

"Founded, through its members, new Aero Clubs in Pittsfield, North Adams, Boston, Canton, Milwaukee, St. Louis, Springfield, Denver, Los Arfgeles, Hartford and Seattle.

"G. H. Curtiss, member, won the Scientific American Tropin'.

"Captain Thos. S. Baldwin, member, constructed and delivered the first dirigible ever owned by the United States Government (the tenth successful dirigible constructed by him).

"Orville Wright, member, made his first unprecedented flights in Washington. (The Aero Club, which published the first records of the Wright flights at Dayton, through its representatives witnessed the historic 57-minute flight at Fort Myer.

"Wilbur Wright, member, has in France duplicated the marvelous achievement of his brother in this country.

"The Red Wing, the White Wing, the June Bug, and the Silver Dart, respectively, were built by members of the Club.

"The Club represented America in the International Aeronautic Federation in London.

"The Club represented America in the Gordon Bennett Race at Berlin by three pilots of the Club.

"Through the courtesy of G. H. Curtiss, the Cfuh~"fras..aeroplane trial grounds and motors at Hammoh&sport.

"Through thefeo-operation of the U. S. Signal Corps, trial grounds are offered the Club at Fort Meyer, Fort Omaha, and West Point, and a further offer of 'grounds has been courteously tendered through tl^whotig Island Motor Parkway.

"Through the zealous and able representation of the Club in Europe, its reputation as an active influence in the world of aeronautics has been immeasurably varied and established. It may be noted also that all the European aeronauts are following the American type of construction, both in motor balloons and in aeroplanes."

Wilbur R. Kimball, member, has also completed a helicopter which will probably have

been actually tried out before this number is issued.

Through modesty, no doubt, the Club did not mention the fact that one of its members, eighteen months ago, started (and still publishes) the only journal of aeronautics in America.

At the conclusion of this report, this statement was read :

WHAT THE CLUB PROPOSES TO DO IN THE FUTURE.

"In continuing the active work thus inaugurated the Club proposes :

"To secure extensive grounds for motor ballooning and aeroplaning, with hydrogen gas facilities, machine shops, and suitable buildings for storage, within easy distance of the city;

"To avail itself of suitable locations for ballooning at a distance from the sea;

"To acquire the best aeronautic library in the country;

"To hold its fourth annual aeronautical exhibition ;

"To hold its third annual banquet ;

"To hold the second contest for the Scientific American Trophy and the contest for the Lahm Cup, and to inaugurate new prizes for competition; to sanction races; to formulate rules and laws for the navigation of the air, and to have special lectures on topics of timely interest.

"Inasmuch as the number of American delegates to the International Federation is determined by the amount of gas used for balloon purposes during the year, the Club will continue to keep official record of all balloon ascensions made, irrespective of membership.

"The Aero Club of America, which has been the greatest factor in the awakening of the present activity in aeronautics, will continue to make itself the authoritative and up-to-date medium for the encouragement and development of aeronautics in this country, and to further promote the American Federation of Aero Clubs."

The Secretary reported that 40 members had joined during the year and that the present membership now stands at 286. The following resolutions were passed.

"Thanks of the Club to the retiring officers and directors.

"That the Aero Club of America by a rising vote make Wilbur and Orville Wright, now active members, Honorary members.

"That the Club give a banquet in celebration of the achievements of Wright Brothers.

"That the Club present a gold medal to Wilbur and to Orville Wright.

"That the Club extend its thanks and appreciation to Captain Thos. S. Baldwin for his achievements with the dirigible balloon which has placed the U. S. Army on a level with the most advanced armies of the world.

"That the Club extend its thanks and appreciation to James C. McCoy, Pilot, Lieutenant Foggman, aide; Nason H. Arnold, Pilot, Harry J. Hewat, aide; A. Holland Forbes, Pilot, Augustus Post, aide; for representing this Club in the Gordon Bennett Aeronautic Cup Contest, and thereby keeping America and the Aero Club in the front rank of international aeronautics.

"Its congratulations to the winner of the Gordon Bennett Aeronautic Cup Race held in Berlin, October nth, 1908.

"Its appreciation of the warm welcome the Deutsche Luftsehiffe Verein extended its representatives in the Gordon Bennett Aeronautic Cup Race in Berlin, October nth, 1908, and its hearty congratulations on the perfection of the arrangements for the reception of the Aero Club members and the conducting of the contest.

"Its thanks and appreciation to the Fire Department of Berlin and to the Lightship for the timely aid they rendered its representatives when in peril in the Gordon Bennett Cup Contest in Berlin, October nth, 1908, and that a copy of these resolutions be sent to each.

"Its thanks to Charles J. Glidden, William F. Whitehouse, A. Holland Forbes and A. Leo Stevens, for the interest shown and work done in stimulating ballooning during the year 1908, at North Adams and Pittsficld, Mass.

"Its sympathies to Mr. Bishop, our retiring-President, in his sickness and its heartiest wishes for his speedy recovery and its thanks for his very substantial work and efforts in behalf of the Club and particularly for his able representation of the Club in Europe.

"That the Club accept the offer of Mr. Bishop and Mr. McCoy to contribute towards the purchase of a Wright aeroplane for the use of the Club and that the Directors appoint a Committee to carry out this project.

"That the Club offer to take charge of funds for the erection of a monument inftnemory of Lieutenant Selfridge and ask the members, so inclined, to contribute." This was suggested in a letter from Lieutenant F. P. Lahm.

"That the Club publish the stories of their

Have Made Good

The Scientific American Trophy was won with a "Curtiss" motor.

The United States Government's dirigible balloon, which was successfully demonstrated at Ft. Myer and later at the army maneuvers at St. Joseph, was equipped with a "Curtiss" motor.

The aeroplane, "Red Wing", the first lieavier-thau-air machine to make a public flight in America, was propelled by a "Curtiss" motor.

Dr. Alexander Graham Bell's tetrahedral aerodrome has a "Curtiss" motor.

Captain T. S. Baldwin, who always "gets back" in his dirigible balloon, uses "Curtiss" motors.

Roy Kuabeushue's new three passenger airship is driven b}-a "Curtiss" motor.

J. Newton Williams' hélicoptère, the only flying machine of this type to get off the ground in America, had a "Curtiss" motor.

In fact, every aeronaut who is making a success in this country has adopted a "Curtiss" motor.

Our motors give the greatest power per pound weight consistent with reliability. All styles—one to eight cylinder, two to one hundred horse-power, air and water-cooled.

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MESSRS. A. C. TRIACA AND A. LEO STEVENS ARE READY TO DELIVER AEROPLANES OF THE FARMAN NO. 1 AND DELAGRANGE TYPES AFTER TRIALS OF 1 MILE IN A CIRCLE.

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In all sizes and shapes, straight grain, clear white.

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WOOD PROPELLERS Estimates furnished, size laid out, without cost.

PATENT WIRE CLAMPS Don't use turn buckles, each - - - - - - 15 c.

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DESIGNER — CONTRACTOR — OPERATOR — CONSTRUCTOR

AIR SHIPS AND BALLOONS

Builder of Coey's "CHICAGO," the largest spherical balloon in the world. Works: Springlield, Ills. S. 13th and Rutger StS., St. Louis

jYo connection with any other concent.

NAVIGATING THE AIR

By the Members of the aero Club of America

■ An interesting record of the personal ideas and experiences of twenty-four distinguished men. This book is intended to be a summary of the present state of the art.

• Among the contributors: Wright Brothers, 0. Chanute, Prof. Wm. H. Pickering, Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, Prof. T. S. C. Lowe, William J. Hammer, Chas. M. Manly, Prof. David Todd, Dr. Oliver L. Fassig, Dr. A. F. Zahm, A. Leo Stevens, A. M. Herring.

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A TIMELY BOOK

THE PROBLEM OF FLIGHT, .AJExBBSSf«arh«

By HERBERT CHATLEV, B.Sc. (Engineering), LONDON Lecture in Applied Mechanics, Portsmouth Technical Institute SIXTY-ONE ILLUSTRATIONS OCTAVO CLOTH, $3.50 NET

The author takes advantage of the encouraging outlook for a practical solution to the problem of aerial navigation and in this work submits to the engineering profession an epitome of the knowledge at present available on the subject.

While intende especially for the engineering profession, the book should be of value to any one interested in a topic that is receiving so much study and attention at the present time.

outline of contents—the problem of flight, essential principals, the helix, the aeroplane, avlplanes, dirigible balloons, form and fittings oi the airship.

An appendix furnishes much instructive miscellaneous information.

Aeronautics

WANTED—Young German mechanic with FOR SALE—Glaisher's "Travels in the

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flying machine. Correspondence solicited. This is most rare and is offered at $5. Address P. O. Box 182, Staunton, Va.

FOR SALE—Aeronautical Annual (James FOR SALE—"The Use of Kites in the Ex-Means) for 1895, 1896 and 1897 at $1.50 each. ploration of the Upper Air" (Marvin) 8vo. Very rare. cloth, $1.50.

The Warner Auto-Meter

In a 20,000-Mile Endurance Test

Four Trips Daily between Pontiac and Detroit, Mich. —200 Miles Every 24 Hours

The Auto-Meter in this double daily century run is attached to a Chalmers-Detroit "Thirty."

Four times every day— fHJ rain or shine,

muddy o r

smooth ruads—this car equipped with the Warner Auto-Meter leaves Hotel Pontchartrain at

Detroit for Pontiac, Mich., and return.

The Auto-Meter is attached to the dash and is depended upon to keep the schedule exact and make the different points at the terminals and en route within the required time.

The Auto-Meter was necessary because in such a gruelling test, where a certain speed must continually be maintained in a specified time, it could be relied upon to be accurate.

Silently and surely it does its work in any weather, under any conditions. To the fraction of a second or the fraction of a mile the Auto-Meter's record is infallible.

The Auto-Meter is used everywhere one wants to know exactly how tar and how last

In the New—York—to—Paris Race, the Thomas, the winner and only American contestant, was equipped with an Auto-Meter. The drivers of the famous car give the Auto-M'-ter due credit for its "silent assistance," which they say materially aided them in winning.

The Auto-Meter always has been used by the Glidden Pathfinders when they lay out the routes for the Glidden tour, because they know its accuracy may be relied upon.

On the dash of the best cars you will find, an Auto-Meter. Owners now find it a necessit)' as well as a convenience.

We frankly admit there are indicators at less cost, but in an out-and-out comparison where accuracy is demanded to a fraction, the reliable Auto-Meter is the only one that stands the test.

A speed indicator (?) that can't be depended upon is an incumbrance. Write for more details and arrange for a trial«<5f the Auto-Meter.

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Pilots and aides in the 1908 Gordon Bennett Cup Race at Berlin."

A. C. Triaca moved the election of Octave Chanute to honorary membership, which motion was carried.

A motion was carried that the Club appoint a Committee to visit the Aeronautic Society at one of its meetings and discuss the matter of co-operating in some way to aid the general good of the Art.

A letter was handed to the secretary, signed by the requisite number of members, asking for a special meeting to be held November 16, to change the by-laws, provide for and elect additional directors making the total number eleven instead of five as at present.

Aero Club of New England.

The Aero Club of Xew England will hold its annual banquet on Nov. 21st. All members are asked to he present.

Aero Club of Denver.

The Aero Club of Denver has now been incorporated and rooms are being fitted up The Technical Committee has already started the construction of a working model of a combination helicopter and aeroplane, the idea of one of the members, John N. Cage. In the Spring, an aero meeting will be held for the purpose of arousing interest. The Club now has a membership of fifty.

Aero Club of Ohio.

Three ascensions have been made during the month by members of the Canton Club.

C. A. Dougherty, a prominent member of the club and proprietor of the Hotel Courtland, gave a very fine dinner to all the members of the Aero Club of Ohio who had actually been up in a balloon since the club was organized nine months ago. About 20 of those who had made ascents responded. After dinner the guests told of their experiences and had a good time generally. A vote of thanks was given Air. Dougherty and his charming wife for their hospitality.

Aero Club of Columbia University.

An aero club has been started at Columbia University by G. C. Loening, a student, and Dr. C. C. Trowbridge. The following officers were appointed: R. L. Fowler, President; G. C. Loening, 1st Vice-President; G. H. Warren, Jr., 2nd Vice-President; and Harold H. Content, Secretary and Treasurer.

The first honorary members elected were

Prof. W. Hallock and Dr. C. C. Trowbridge. Letters are being written to Count Zeppelin, the Wright Brothers, Delagrange and Capt. T. S. Baldwin asking them to accept honorary membership.

The purpose of the organization is to promote generally the interest in aeronautics. There are fifteen charter members and all have taken great interest. A great many are at work-on models. One condition of membership now is that the applicant deliver a thesis on aeronautics before the club, together with a model. Milwaukee Aero Club.

The new balloon, presented by Col. Pabst, arrived about the end of October. Several ascensions will be made. In me first ascension, Major Henry B. Hersey, of the U. S. Weather Bureau at Milwaukee, will pilot Mr. John H. Moss, President of the Club: and Col. E. P. Vilas, one of the directors. Major Hersey, it will be remembered, accompanied Lieut. Frank P. Lahm when he won the first Gordon Bennett balloon race. A good quality of gas has been promised the Club by Mr. Sheldon Glass, President of the Gas Co. and also a member of the Board of Directors of the Aero Club. Mr. R. B. Brown, the Gas Company's Chief Engineer (who is also a member of the Club) is considered one of the gas experts of the country.

Permission has been secured to inflate on the grounds of the National Soldiers Home. This is an ideal spot being a natural amphitheatre of several acres with hills about 100 feet high on three sides. A large gas main runs along one side of this.

Springfield Aero Club.

The Springfield Aero Club was organized, in September, and incorporated late in October. Its president is Chas. T. Shean, one of the leading sporting men of the city, and many of the leading men of the city are on the Board of Directors, although not actively interested. Charles J. Glidden's ascensions here and those of Leo Stevens and Capt. T. S. Baldwin started the fever and the city is very much interested.

The city is very fortunate in having, in its heart, a small park about 100 feet from the Gas Company's plant, from which ascensions can be made, and it is not only convenient for the aeronauts and easy to reach, hut is in the heart of the business district of the city so that every ascension draws large crowds. The place is Court Square.

The first ascension made here was on July 4th, when the "Heart of the Berkshire's" and "North Adams No. i'" started simultaneously. Chas. J. Glidden has made seven ascensions from Springfield since then.

It is popular with N. E. Aero Club members, as it is only two hours from Boston, and the prevailing wind is westerly, so that the balloons generally move toward Boston. The country about, for hundreds of miles in every direction, is cultivated and thickly settled, so that landings are easy, and it is not difficult to get back to a railroad after a flight.

Harlan T. Pierpont has been appointed official pilot of the local Club, as well as of the N. E. Aero Club. He is an amateur. Herman Beinqi, an employee of the Gas Company, will be a professional pilot.

The Springfield Aero Club will have a 1,000 meter balloon in the Spring; the N. E. Club will keep its "Boston" here, and the new 60,000 cu. ft. "New England" will be stationed here. Also the newly organized Hartford Aero Club will have a balloon and make all its ascensions from Springfield for lack of a suitable place in Hartford. This practically insures four balloons here next year, in addition to one private one which some of the young fellows will have.

Junior Aero Club.

The Junior Aero Club is planning to have their first annual exhibition in January, 1909. Circulars are being sent out asking for entries of models, drawings, photographs, etc. Prizes will be awarded. A Board of Aviation will be appointed with Harold N. Piatt as President. This Board will receive and care for the models and their exhibits. Exhibits should be sent to the office of the Club, 131 W. 23rd Street, New York, Room 19.

This organization now has members in eleven states: New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Maryland, Ohio, Illinois, Missouri, Colorado, Oregon and Washington. It will be remembered that this Club was organized by Miss E. L. Todd in the early part of this year with the help of a number of members of the Aero Club of America.

CORRECTION.

Referring to October issue: the distance made in the record ascent of the "Gross II" should read "282" kilometers.

ACTIVITY IN ST. LOUIS. By E. Percy Noel.

The Smith "sky automobile," as the inventor calls it, has been tested at John Berry's Motor works in St. Louis, where the mechanical parts of the new apparatus were ready for assembling on the framework. The gas bag will not be attached to the frame until the owners are ready to make the first trial aloft, probably about November 24 in East Street, St. Louis.

The frame is heavily constructed of spruce strips, bolted together at the points of intersection ; the longer members warped so as to form an arc like the bones of a whale. From the point at the bow to the end of the runner it measures 42 feet, but the main frame is about 18 feet shorter and apparently 9 feet wide. At each extreme corner of the main frame is mounted a two-bladed propeller, 6 feet in diameter, direct connected with shafting running the entire length of the main frame. The two shafts will be operated by chains, geared on a ratio of about 2 to 1, and actuated by a thirty horse power motor. The propellers are so arranged that their position may be altered from the horizontal; those in front will be pointed upward and those in rear pointed downward, all at a uniform angle by means of a single lever. Running at 500 revolutions per minute they are designed to pull the apparatus from and to the ground and when the desired elevation has been obtained to pull horizontally through the air. A rudder, 6 feet high by 4 feet long has been provided to direct the craft in the manner usual with dirigible balloons.

MOTOR DESCRIBED

The four-cylinder motor, weighing 275 pounds, with the water cooling system, will be controlled with throttle and spark, jump spark ignition being provided with storage battery and a four-unit coil. A disc clutch, with cork inserts, is a part of the power plant. This makes it possible to run the motor without the revolution of the propellers. The motor will turn at the rate of about 1000 revolutions per minute.

The owners plan to have about 300 pounds to spare in the lifting power of their hydrogen gas envelope, when the framework with all of the mechanism has been attached and expect that two persons may be carried, although the craft may be operated by one. They

plan to make the craft a "heavier-than-air" machine, although not in the strict sense of the term, the idea being to have the loaded ''sky automobile" 5 pounds heavier than the air. With this in view they believe that the propellers will have only 5 pounds to lift from the ground, and that there will be much more than sufficient power for the purpose. Hydrogen gas will he made for inflation on the grounds of the C. L. Gray Construction Company, across the river. The first filling of the envelope will be superintended by H. E. Honeywell, the builder of that part of the craft.

W. J. Smith, the inventor, was compelled to refuse an invitation from The Aeronautic Society to bring his sky car to the aeronautical meet at Morris Park track. Election Day. After making inquiries of his engineers Mr. Smith found that he could not possibly get to Xcw York in time unless he did so without a preliminary trial here. Since his craft involves a theory that has never been tested, except with a model, he could not exhibit in New York without a preliminary demonstration. It is possible that the new apparatus will be taken to the next exhibition of the New York society.

AERO CLUB BALLOON-

The trial trip of the 80,000 cubic foot balloon, intended for the Aero Club of St. Louis is set for an early date. H. E. Honeywell will be the pilot and A. B. Lambert with two or three others will accompany him. The balloon is ready and the first ascension would have taken place last week if Mr. Lambert had not been out of the city.

It is not the intention of the aeronauts to make a long voyage or to ascend to a great height; the trail rope will be used as much as possible and the balloon kept near the ground. This is the French method of ballooning favored by Mr. Lambert and other well-known balloon pilots. If there is a wind blowing, the amusement provided is only second to that of riding in a Wright flyer or some trustworthy aeroplane. The balloon skims over the fences and trees with the speed of the wind—whatever that happens to be.

It is a serious fact, a balloon voyage across the Atlantic is definitely planned. Dr. Frederick J. Fielding, president of the Aero Club of San Antonio, has decided to undertake the hazardous trip, and has written to II. E. Honeywell of St. Louis asking him to build the balloon and to act as pilot. Honeywell con-

siders the matter settled and as soon as terms can be agreed upon will begin the construction of a 300,000 cubic foot gas bag. The start probably will be made from New York next summer.

The balloon will be the largest ever constructed. It will be spherical in form, 85 feet in diameter. The car will not be the usual basket, but practically a motor boat, 12 feet in length. It will be attached to the gas bag by one-quarter inch Italian hemp netting, closely woven. The motor in the boat will drive a detachable propeller while the balloon is in the air. If it becomes necessary to descend to the sea this propeller will be removed and one for use in water be substituted. The boat will be built from a special design, 11011-capsizable, and as light as possible. The aeronauts will dress warmly, but will use a stove consuming slacked lime for heating and cooking.

FOUR DAVS FOR TRIP

"We do not expect to have to descend until we reach the other side—England or the coast of France," said Honeywell, when seen at his balloon works, "but we are going to be prepared for it. Somebody crossed in a row-boat once. But we are going to keep as high up as we possibly can. That is where we will get the fastest air current blowing east. There is no doubt about the current being there and we can find it. We ought to make the voyage in four days. I don't think it will take longer than that. In our trip from Chicago last July we moved at the rate of sixty or seventy-five miles an hour some of the time. We are not afraid of storms, because we can keep above them, but, just the same, we will choose the most favorable time of the year,—June or September."

TRY-OUT FROM SAN ANTONIO

Before Dr. Fielding and Honeywell let go at New York for their perilous trip across the ocean they will try out the monster balloon from San Antonio. In this voyage they will endeavor to reach the Atlantic Coast. If the air currents prove unfavorable and have a tendency to send the aerostat out to sea, another starting point will be taken, so that a record-breaking voyage may be made. The gas bag will be tested for its holding power several weeks or a month. According to Honeywell it will be made so that it will sustain suffi-

(Continued on page 44)

THE MONTH ABROAD.

Note:—Complete foreign news for the month is mailed abroad on the ist. It usually takes ten days for the mail from various countries to reach us. This makes it impossible to assemble, set up, print and mail before the 20th of the month. Foreign news from the ist to the time of going to press must necessarily be cabled news and, of course, subject to errors. Any errors are corrected in the following month's issue which takes up the foreign news where it leaves off the month previous.

Austria.

The Wels & Etrich monoplane is nearly completed, driven by a 24 h.p. Antoinette motor with a single traction screw.

Belgium.

In the newly opened exposition for arts and crafts at Brussels is seen an ornithop-tere of M. De La Hault, furnished with a motor of 100 h.p.. of only 800 pounds total weight, a propeller for dirigibles by Mr. Kluytmans that is placed in the center of the car, and an aeroplane model by a Mr. Koch with improved stabilizing devices.

England.

Moore-Brabazon has received the triplane he ordered from the Voisin Brothers, and will soon start experimenting with it. It is provided with a regular make of automobile motor, the Metallurgique.

NEW PRIZE.

The "Daily Mail" has offered a new prize of $2,500 to a gasless machine which flies over the English channel in either direction. The least width is 211/2 miles.

The British army aeroplane, the first trials of which were noted last month, was again tried out on September 29, when it accomplished 78 yards. After removing the auxiliary steering planes affixed to each side of the machine, the triangular tail which forms a prolongation of the upper surface towards the rear being increased in size, and the radiator which previously extended in a "V" form in front of the motor replaced by two narrow vertical radiators, one on each side of the motor. Further trials were made on October 14 during one of which the machine flew for a distance of

some 200 feet at a height of 10 feet. The aeroplane easily alighted after this short flight, terminated at the will of the operator, Mr. Cody, by depressing the forward steering plane.

Before equipping the machine with new and larger propellers, another trial was made on October 16 when, after a few preliminary runs on the ground, the machine made a fine flight of 400 yards at a height of about 30 feet. Landing was necessary on account of trees and broken ground. In attempting to avoid a clump of trees, Mr. Cody pulled the lever too .sharply, the machine tilted and struck the ground with the left extremity of the supporting surface. The flight lasted 27 seconds.

With the exception of a very short flight of Sir Hiram Maxim's machine, the above constitute the first public flights in England.

Description of Army Aeroplane. "Briefly, \he machine as first tried, consisted of two\iiperposed planes, constructed ^¿^5/1 of canvas strerched on a wood and metal framework, 40 ft\long by 7^ ft. in depth; the vertical distaiibe between the /P^auesaQjje/^ being 8 ft__^The ruclH^r is carried) in the* each

fati» /Va-

rcar. To each lateral lower plane is fixed a

the horizontal

plane, working on a centre pivot) while on (jj^/y^fa^l the top of the upper plane, in the centre, parallel to the line of flight, is fixed a small vertical plane— ^fawtv^ 1^ tó*. <x*Hc d[\ys+£cfé* I

"The small auxiliary planes/are controlled

by the same lever that works frre^mall vertical plane referred to, and are designed to Sh^&Pk tilt the machine towards the inside when ^^r^ turning, or to preserve transverse eqnilib- 9^,1^» num. They therefore fulfill precisely the same object as the flexing of the main planes emploj'ed by the Wrights. The hon-^j^^j zontal governor, a single surfacqf is car- k-y^** riedHn__front; while a triangular horizontal tail is situated in tluPrear^~7t£aSW l<2-h ^

"The operator is seated in\the centre of the machine between the surfaces. In front of him is the motor, which drives two double-bladed propellers, situated one on either side of the motor, and working in Mj<h* r the space between the surfaces. The motor * is an 8-cylinder. 50-h.p. Antoinette, water

and air cooled, and is the one used in the dirigible which has now been dismantled.

"The first trial was made at Farnborough on September 21. Mr. Cody drove the machine. The object of the trial was simpl} to test the balance of the machine and the action of the steering devices no attempt at flight being contemplated. As a matter of fact, the aeroplane proved to be incorrectly balanced, the weight being too far forward. During the trial run—a speed of about 15-20 m.p.h. was attained—the right-hand pivot plane came into contact with a post and caused the machine to swing roung sharply. The aeroplane was immediately brought to rest, fortunately but slightly damaged.

"Further trial runs were made on September 24 and 28; but on neither occasion was a flight attempted. The longitudinal balance is still defective; but the side-steering has answered very well, the aeroplane describing circles of a very small diameter.'' (English "Aeronautics.")

France.

Wilbur Wright's Flights Total over 12 Hours—1 Hour 9 Minutes with Passenger—Wins Aero Club Prize and First Payment rv Weiller Syndicate—50 Miles in one Flicht with Passenger.

It has been figured that the total duration of Wilbur Wright's 72 flights in France, up to Oct. 15, inclusive, amounted to 13 hours, 49 minutes, (will it take place "all in one sitting" next year?). Thirty persons have been carried, including three women and a boy, a total distance of 431 miles.

Wins $1,000.

In the 1 hour 7 minute flight of September 28, described last month, Wilbur Wright won the Commission d'Aviation prize of 5,000 francs, open to September 30 for a closed circuit flight of 5 kilometers.

Taking up Wright's flights from where we left off last month—on the 9th of October he made six flights of about 4 minutes average with Lazare Weiller, Baron Dcutsch and Engineer Bernheim as passengers. On the 8th, in addition to the names given last month, he carried up Griffith Brewer. Hon. C. S. Rolls and Frank H. Butler.

Another New Record—250,000 Francs Earned.

October 10. Wilbur Wright carried M. Painleve, of the Institute, for 1 hour 9 minutes 45#tyeconds. The official distance was 55 kilometers, but considering the curves the probable actual distance was 80 kilometers. There was no wind blowing. The flight ended after dark, having been delayed on account of the mending of a wire stay made necessary by a false start. It was the third long passenger flight, having been preceded by one of 55 minutes, 37 seconds, and one of 1 hour, 4 minutes. 26 seconds. (See "Aeronautics'' for October.) The Weiller syndicate has conceded that the flights have fulfilled conditions and have made the first payment of 250,000 francs.

Oct. 12, 2 min. 30 sec. with a passenger.

On October 15, two flights were made of 1 minute 38 seconds, and 2 minutes 35 seconds, carrying MM. Mercanti and Gas-nier. Wright stopped his motor when at a height of 120 feet and made a long smooth glide to earth.

On October 2^ Wilbur Wright, having taken his machine to Toury, made a flight of 6 minutes 40 seconds, covering 7 kilometers in a strong wind. On the 23rd he made another flight of 2 minutes 30 seconds, following which were flights carrying a passenger of 3 minutes 17 seconds, 4 minutes 58 seconds, and 3 minutes 2 seconds.

On the 28th Count de Lambert began his lessons as an apprentice-aviator. For his first lesson he had three flights of 12, 8 and 15 minutes.n Oil the following day" the master and pupil made three more. 7 minutes 5 seconds. 17 minutes 34 seconds, and 19 minutes 25 seconds.

On the 30th one of the connecting rods of the motor broke*^in7PsnTashed through the crankcase while the machine was in mid-air. The descent, however, was made without trouble.

In a recent interview Wilbur Wright stated that the success of his machine was especially due to the high efficiency of its propellers, that light motors were not essential and flight could as well be attained with a steam engine.

He claims 70% efficiency for his propellers.

The inhabitants of the Le Mans district have subscribed a considerable sum for the

purpose of giving a special souvenir to Wilbur Wright when he leaves Le Mans.

The Aero Club of the United Kingdom has elected the Wright Brothers to honorary membership and presented their gold medal for 1908 to them.

A brilliant banquet was given by the Aero Club de France in honor of Wilbur Wright's French accomplishments on November 5. M. Louis Barthou, Minister of Public Works, presided. The affair was concluded by moving pictures, illustrating the great moments in the history of aviation, namely: The winning of the Deutsch-Archdeacon prize, the Armengaud prize, Commission of Aviation, etc., stimulating interest in the competition for the great aviation prize of 100,000 francs which is expected to be won next year in a flight from one country to another. The Aero Club's great gold medal was awarded to Mr. Wright.

Mr. Franz Reichel, who made the first "hour flight" as passenger on the Wright machine in France, has been the first one to accurately describe the wonderful sensation of human flying. He says: "If in an aeroplane going straight ahead is a delicious sensation, turning is a veritable intoxication. It was during these evolutions that I felt that the air was conquered, well conquered." The Aero Club of America was represented by Cortland Field Bishop, ex-president.

Tt is said that fully one hundred Wright aeroplanes have been ordered from the Societe Navale De Chantiers De France. They will be fitted with Bollee engines and be sold at $5,000 apiece. Count de Lambert and Vicomte De La Brosse will receive the first two. (This seems an "awful lie.")

FARM AN FLIES 44 MINUTES—MAKES A "CROSSCOUNTRY" RUN IN HIS MODIFIED MACHINE.

On September 30 in competition for the Aero Club 5,000-franc prize, Farman accomplished a flight of 35 minutes 36 seconds, covering 34 kilometers. On October 2 he succeeded in remaining in the air 44 minutes 32 seconds, covering 42 kilometers at Chalons. ^ ^

On the 28th Farman made /mother long flightfand again another of About., n- mile with M. Painleve aboard. Following these, other 1 alterations were made and for the

first time in the history of aviation a flying machine travelled from one town to another. Leaving the plains of Chalons on the 30th no stop was made until he landed just outside Rheims, a distance of 27 kilometers, 20 minutes later. Owing to repairs necessary and the growing darkness the return was made with an automobile. His course took him over the houses and trees and the photographs of the flight bear witness. The altitude varied between 50 and 100 meters (300 ft.).

The following day, just to show us that he could if he really tried, Farman won the $500 prize for height, passing above balloons 82 feet from the ground.

It is to be noted that the vertical surfaces which were on either hide of the aviator and motor when Farman's machine was in America, have now been moved out about half way between the operator and the end vertical surfaces, the idea being to improve stability.

Another Flight over Hills and Dales— Bleriot Makes 9 Miles in His _^ Monoplane. - V/ it"

On October 2 the Bleriot V-I-tp/made a flight of 4 minutes. On the 22nd Bleriot tried for the "height prize" and accomplished a flight of 6 minutes 40 seconds in a gusty wind. On the following day another attempt was made but the motor stopped on account of too much gas feeding and in landing the machine was damaged. On 30th still another attempt was made, but the motor stopped.

The next dayT-^gtHi short flight in the morning, he set off in the afternoon for Artenay, a small village, and nine miles were covered before landing. After a few necessary repairs the monoplane started back but had to stop once on the way.

The Pelterie No. 2 has just been finished, on the general lines of No. 1.

Skipped in last issue—9 minutes 33 seconds flight of Delagrange on September 19.

The dirigible "Lebaudy" made a sortie the end of October and showed a speed of 30 kilometers an hour.

The new Bayard-Clement airship, mentioned last month, made its maiden trip on the 29th with seven on board. The journey lasted fifty minutes. It resembles very closely the "Ville de Paris" with the ex-

*2- *?»v«-*wA*o

ception that the stabilizing appendages at the rear, of which there are four, are from the side, pear-shaped.

There is a movement on foot to put Ader's flying machine "Avion," for which the first flight in history is claimed 15 years ago, in commission again and test it. High results are claimed for it even compared to the Wright flyer.

The French "Society of Dirigible Balloons" has issued a prize list, naming five different models of 600, 700. 800 and 900 cubic meters displacement, from one to three passengers carrying capacity. The "popular model," 600 cubic meters, 16 h.p., for one person, costs $5,000 the most expensive model, 900 cubic meters, 45 h.p., for five persons, $11,000.

Mr. Levavasseur, the inventor of the Antoinette motor, has an aeroplane ready for trial.

Mr. Dausset, Municipal Counsellor of Paris, seeing Farman and Delagrange in the air, has concluded that he would use all his influence to procure the very best testing grounds for flyers and also insists that the city of Paris subscribe to a new prize.

On the 17th of October, the "Malecot" dirigible made a successful flight.

New Prizes—ix France.

The journal "L'Auto" offers 12.000 francs for a flight over Paris by a specified route.

i.oco francs have been subscribed as a nucleus for a prize for an aeroplane small enough to start and land on an ordinary highway.

i.oco francs by Aero Club de la Sarthe as a height prize, with conditions making it possible for Wilbur Wright to compete (he was excluded from the other prize for height for not starting by his own power only"). Captive balloons must be flown over at a height of 30 meters.

10.000 francs by the municipality of Nice for the organization of a "Grand I'rix d'Aviation," through the Aero Club of Nice.

The city of Bagneres offers to,coo francs through the French national aerial league to the first aviator who effects a flight from Bagneres-de-Bigorre to Pic-du-Midi dc Bagneres.

ioo.oco francs are offered by the Aero Club of France as a new prize for aeroplanes, to be competed for in IQ09.

f

Germany.

On October 24, the overhauled "Zeppelin I" was sailed for the first time. With all the improvements incorporated in it after the experiences with the ill-fated No. 4, it has proved a wynderful success. Prince Henry of Pim^sirT made a very extended trip of sc^frf*hours on Oct. 27th, being so delighted by his experiences that he continued man)r hours longer than expected.

On Nov. 7th, the Crown Prince of Germany shared his experience. By the decision of General Von Einem, the Minister of War, the Zeppelin ship has been bought by the war office.

The national subscription for the construction of Zeppelin airships totals nearly 7 million francs.

Italy.

The new Italian war dirigible has undergone its first trials very successfully over Lake Bracciano, with Major Morris, Captains Crocco and Ricaldoni and a mechanic. It is constructed on good scientific lines by Major Morris. The envelope possesses a fish-like form of least resistance. A second vessel will be forthwith constructed by the same designer.

Spain.

At the park of Guadalajara, Captain Kindelan and Mr. Torres Queredo are testing a small dirigible of 950 cubic meters. Tt has two 24 h.p. motors, driving two propellers of 1.5 meters diameter placed at both sides of the car.

THE GREAT FLIGHTS.

r.—Wilbur Wright: 1 hr. 31 min., September 21, 1008.

2.—Orville Wright: 1 hr. 15 nn'n., September 12, 1908.

3.— Henry Farman : 44 min., October 2, 1908.

4.—Leon Delagrange : 30 min. 26 sec, September 17, 1908. 5.—Wilbur Wright: two-man flight, 1 hr.

9 min., October 10, 1008. September, 1908, will probably go down in history as the most eventful month in the history of aviation.

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.

President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wii. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.

Publication Notice.

The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine, and at the earliest date possible, bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.

In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the informal addresses of the Gordon Bennett contestants and others were concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.

The sixteenth paper is continued in this issue : "Principles involved in the Formation of Wing Surfaces and the Phenomenon of Soaring," by Professor J. J. Montgomery, of Santa Clara College.

PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN THE FORMATION OF WING SURFACES AND THE PHENOMENON OF SOARING* By Prof. J. J. Montgomery

In a study of the parabola, we find it has an intimate relation to the tangent at its vertex and the circumference of an oscillatory contiguous circle, whose center is at its focus, as shown in fig. 10; "a b" is the directrix: "a ibi" the tangent, and 'c' the focus. In the evolution of the parabola, 'f g' — 'c g,' 'k h' =r *c h,' etc. Subtracting the distance, between the directrix and the tangent, from "f g," "k h," etc., and the radii of the circle from "c g" "c h," etc.,

the differences are equal, i e., the perpendicular distances from the circle are equal to those from the tangent. A further study of this development, shows that all these lines, "f g," "c g," etc., form equal angles with the tangents to the ctirve, at the points of intersection. From these two considerations we see,

♦Begun in the October issue.

that equal impulses from the tangent "a h" and the circumference of the circle, will meet at the curve, producing- resultants in the direction of the tangents at these points. And finally, according to a well known property of the curve, all impulses from the center, will he reflected from a parabolic surface in parallel lines (as 'j' 'j') ; and vice versa, all parallel impulses (as 'j' 'j'), reaching the surface, will be reflected to the focus "c."

Before making application of these properties, I must call attention to a phenomenon of jets or streams. If two jets impinge on one another, as shown in (fig. 10 a), the particles will escape at the point of impact, in lateral movements "c," "c." If the streams are equal, the point of impact will remain fixed; but if they are not, it will be driven from the stronger to the weaker jet.

The application of these various elements is shown in fig. II; "a h d" as a parabolic surface placed in a fluid, and "S" a jet fixed in the line "a b." When an impulse from this jet, impinges on the surface, it will develop pressures against the surface as shown in (fig. 9). But as it continually moves away from the tangent line "a b," it produces pressures on the adjacent fluid, as shown by the arrow "f." And further, as it moves along the curve, meeting the reaction of the fluid, as shown at "o," it produces the phenomena shown in (fig. 10 a). And as the direction of impact, is parallel with the tangent at this point, one element of the resulting lateral pressure, is against and normal to the curve; while the opposite element is towards the fluid mass, and in the direction the normal "m n." But an analysis of the normal, shows it is composed of two equal elements, one, "m c,"' pointing to the center "c," and the other, "m j," perpendicular to the line "a b.'' As this impact of the stream, and reaction of the disturbed fluid, takes places along the entire surface, producing a normal pressure at every point, there is a diversity of pressures in the fluid mass, which diversity is harmonized by the analysis given ; all the elements represented by "m c," going to the center ''c," to build up a center of pressure, while the elements represented by "m j," develop parallel pressures against the fluid. These pressures being parallel with those represented by "f," combine with the latter to produce a compound effect. 1st. They impart to the adjacent mass the movements "p p p," and this movement sets up a rotation around the center "c." 2nd. The reaction of the disturbed mass against the impulses "f" and "j," is transmitted as an impulse, back to the surface, and is reflecteTl to the center "c," thus increasing the compression at this point. As might be surmised, the reflected impulses, to the center "c," would have a tendency to

drive it out of position, but the impulse '"s" (as an element building up this rotation), is an opposing force, keeping it in place. Owing to the concentration of the various lines of force, and the restraining influences, and because of the rotation, the point "c" becomes a center of pressure, from which there are constant

radiating impulses, which reaching the curve, are reflected from its surface in lines parallel with the first impulses. But, as a radiating center sends out equal impulses in equal angles, there is a new distribution of pressure on the curve, because of these radiated impulses. An inspection of fig. 10, will show that the angle "i c e" - - "e c d." Hence, the impulses falling on "a g," equal those falling on "g d." The point "g," then becomes the center of pressure on the curve, due to the radiated impulses from "c," while "h" is that, due to the parallel impulses from the first reactions, "f," of the moving particles against the curve. But between the points, "g," and "h," there should be another central point of pressures, due to the elements "m n," (fig. II). The reason for this will appear in the following consideration. Suppose we have a number of elastic particles in a straight line, and a constant force act on the first; each particle successively will react against the force, thereby building up a gradually increasing pressure, till the last is set in motion. And owing to these successive increments of reaction against the force, the pressure will be least at the last particle, gradually increasing in an arithmetical progression to the first. From this it would appear, that the elements, "m n," should increase in intensity from "d" to "a," thereby causing the central point of pressure, from these elements, to be located near the front edge, (approximately one third the total distance).

(Another conclusion from this principle of successive reactions is. the greater the number of particles in series, the more intense should be the pressure ; and as a general result of this, the intensity of pressure on a surface should increase with its dimensions. And in the special application to wing surface in gliding movement (where the escape at the ends is cut off by the length of the wings), the intensity should be proportional to the width.

This principle seems to receive confirmation in the following experiment. If a plane be placed in a constant stream, perpendicular to its surface, the elevation of the water will increase from its edges to its center. But if the plane be doubled in width, the elevation at the center will be much greater than in the first instance: and as the elevation maybe taken as an indication of the pressure, the conclusion is obvious.

In an experiment, illustrated in fig. 12, some of the phenomena mentioned are shown, "a b" are two surfaces coresponding to "a h d," fig. II, placed in shallow water: "j" is a jet of air, near and parallel with the surface. The jet sets up a stream on the surface, which is cut by the point "a" and flows along the curves, as shown at "d." In flowing along, these streams, "d," set up movements, as shown by the small arrows, which pass into rotations around the points

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"c." Particles of chaff on the surface reveal these movements, while pins fixed at the foci of the parabolic curves, and extending above the surface, assist in observation.

If the planes shown in the last experiment are placed in a stream "S," fig. 13, the same development of pressures takes place, but the complete rotations are bidden because of the general movement, though they substantially exist in a general wave line. In this system, there are three general elements of action and reaction; first and second are P> and C, which mutually hold one another in balance, and act reciprocally in building up and maintaining the various movements and pressures; and the 3rd; these combined, reacting on the exterior stream, according to the statements in the discussion of fig. 7. Should one of the elements, B for instance, be removed by taking away the curve "a d," the development would be destroyed and there would be an escape from "C" towards the side ''B." And in order to re-establish the pressures on the curve "a b," there must be a readjustment by which the necessary element is derived from the stream. An inspection of the figures, shows that the rotary tendencies around "'f," press upon those of "c" and also on the rear of the curve "a b." Then if we draw a tangent of this circle (f) to the point "b," and so place the curve that the stream comes from the point "m," we find the desired adjustment; though the pressures on the curve are derived from modifications of the ideal movements.

On placing the curve "a b," so that the stream approaches in the direction "m b," fig. 14, we test the adjustment as follows: Fine sand scattered at "a," on the bottom, by its movements, will indicate that the approaching stream is cut by the point or edge "a." But if this point be lowered, there will be a pressure on the upper surface, causing a whirl "S." Whereas if it be elevated, a reverse whirl, "f," is produced.

In fig. 15, we have an illustration of the complete system of movements in this adjustment. The stream, "S," gradually rises and is ctit by the edge "b." The portion flowing below the curve, slows up and is more or less ill-defined in its movement. But pressing against the curve, causes the water level to rise, and passes out as shown by the arrows "g." Near the surface of the curve there are jerk)- movements as shown at "c c c." Above the surface, the current sweeps around "a," leaving a deep impression, but turns and descends against the rear upper stirface; and conflicting with the currents coming around the rear point "e," produces a violent disturbance. Some of the current, around "e," takes the direction "n," but terminates in the whirl "m." In the rear the various movements combine and form a displaced current, traveling in the direction "f." parallel with the original stream. Owing to the pressure, exerted bv the descending current on the upper rear surface, the effectiveness of that, on the under surface is reduced. An inspection shows the height of water from "e" to "h," to be only a little more than that from "e" to "m." While, owing to the deep depression at "a," and the elevation from "b" to "h," the greatest effective pressure is located in this region. The general movement of the current forms a

wave line, this being a resultant of rotary movements and the rectilinear movement of the stream.

But the complete rotation, indicated by the large arrows, gives a positive demonstration, and may be produced as follows:

Let the velocity of the stream be gradually decreased till a reverse current takes place on the surface. This reverse current will carry all the floating particles towards upper end of the stream. In this movement, these floating particles serve as an indicator for any general tendencies in the water; and on reaching the region of the curved surface, take up the indicated rotation, continuing to rotate around the surface, with perfect regularity as long as the stream continues; while the suspended particles of chaff, reveal the varied movements within the stream. In passing, I must state, it is not easy to produce this surface whirl. The movement of the water must be perfectly regular and under perfect control as to velocity. There must be no irregularities in the channel, and the water must be as free as possible from viscosity and any surface film ; rain water being the only kind I have succeeded with.

While this seems to be the ideal of the form and position of a surface for receiving fluid impulses and developing the proper reactions, there are certain modifications to be introduced in practice, as will appear from the following: It will be noticed in these demonstrations, that the free movements of the water are referred to the front and rear edges, there being no escape around the edges at the bottom or the surface of the stream. But if we take a curved surface, narrow enough to be submerged, part of the fluid will escape over the upper edge, and the reactions necessary to produce the rising current in advance of the plane, are only partially developed. Hence to have the front edge cut the current.

it must be elevated. This elevation of the front edge, increases as the surface is more completely submerged ; as the escape of the water over the upper edge is thereby increased. But if portions of the front edge, as shown at "a, b," etc., fig. 16, be cut off, to allow for the deficiency in the rising current, the front edge of the curve may be lowered, so that the remaining portion of the curve may assume its proper position. The application of this is readily apparent in the wings of a soaring bird. Towards the center, i. e., near the body, the curvature is at its fullest development. But near the outer extremities, where the air partially escapes around the ends, the sharp front curvature disappears, the wing surface becoming less curved and more narrow.

(Continued in the December issue.)

The advantage of the flying machine over the balloon may be seen in this instance. C. J. Hendrickson shipped his aeroplane, "knocked down," from Middletown, N. J., to the grounds of The Aeronautic Society at the Morris Park race track by express at an expense of but $1.25. A balloon costs a score more times that.

It appears that the express companies have no express rate on flying machines and this particular one was shipped as a "boat."

American aviators have been in misery these days. Mosquitoes have the habit of biting the flying men in the back of the neck while navigating the air. The impossibility of "slapping" during flight is obvious. Here is a remedy, found to be efficacious. Pour on a cake of soiid ammonia as much oil of lavender as it will absorb. Mosquitoes will immediately take to the woods

ASCENSIONS.

Note :—The first name given is always that of the pilot on the trip.

Oct. 2. J. H. Wade, Jr., ascended from Canton in the "You & I" of Leo Stevens and accomplished a trip of 30 miles, landing in a cornfield near Sherrodsville, O.

Oct. 3- Charles J. Glidden and W. K. Morison left Springfield in the "Boston" at 2 05 p. m., landing at Somers, Ct., at 5 p. m. Highest alt. 4,000 ft. Dist. 14 miles.

Oct. 6. Arthur T. Atherholt and V. S. Loder left Philadelphia in the "Initial" in the evening, landing early the following morning near Leesport, Pa.

Oct. 6. Charles J. Glidden and AI. N. Glidden left Springfield in the "Boston" at 3:10 p. m., landing at Ludlow, Alass., at 5:10. Highest alt. 3,000 ft. Dist. 10 miles.

Oct. 7. William F. Whitehouse, A. Leo Stevens and W. R. Cross left Pittsfield in the "Heart of the Berkshires" at 11 a. m. and landed at 1:15 at Wilmington, Vt. Greatest altitude 5,300 ft. Passed over two deer just before making landing.

Oct. 10. Charles J. Glidden and Hiram Percy Maxim left Springfield in the "Boston" at 2:53 P- m- landing at 4:53 p. m. at Middle-field, Mass. Highest alt. 3,500 ft., dist. 36 miles. This makes 758 aerial miles for Air. Glidden and nearly 49 honrs in the air in 24 ascensions.

Oct. 14. A. Leo Stevens and Air. and ATrs. Charles T. Shean left Springfield in the "Boston," landing at Belchertown two hours later. The same course was followed the following day by Alessrs. Van Sleet, Stevens and Airs. Stevens.

Oct. 15. William Van Sleet and Air. and Airs. Stevens started from Pittsfield in the "Heart of the Berkshires" at 10:40, landing

2 hrs. 50 min. later at Granby, Alass., after covering 65 miles. The wind started to blow the balloon hack over its course and the descent was decided upon.

rack with automobile.

Oct. 17. Carl G. Fisher, with G. L. Bum-baugh as pilot, started from Indianapolis at

3 o'clock, followed by a big six automobile. A change of current took the balloon out of sight of the car and after that the chasing had to be done with the aid of the telephone. When the balloon landed 65 • miles north of

Indianapolis near AI tarni, the ear was far behind and before it caught up the balloon had all been packed up for return. Air. Fisher has ordered a balloon from Captain Bumbaugh.

Oct. 17. A. Leo. Stevens, A. B. Wallace, Jr., and D. F. Burritt left Springfield at 1 :55 in the balloon "Boston" and after being in the air 1 hr. 35 min. landed at "Water Pond'' on the outskirts of the city, covering about 3 miles. Highest alt. 3,000 ft.

J. H. KENNY, MEMBER OF THE AERO CLUB OF OHIO, TELLS OF THE ASCENT OF OCT. 21.

On October 21st at exactly 12 o'clock the balloon "All America" with 80,000 cubic feet capacity, ascended from the park in Canton of the Aero Club of Ohio having on board Aeronaut Leo Stevens, acting pilot; William H. Stolzenbach, William Gschwend, John Rommel and J. H. Kenny, all members of the Aero Club, as passengers. The getaway was a fine spectacle and the 2,000 spectators gave us a great ovation in the way of cheers, swinging of hats and handkerchiefs.

We immediately mounted to an altitude of 3,000 feet going in a northwesterly direction, getting at once above the smoke and haze in the atmosphere and almost out of sight of land. For an hour we were completely lost. Our compass showed that we were drifting northwest by north and we think we passed over the Summit Reservoir, where we struck a westerly current which carried us at an altitude of about 1,500 feet over Warwick. Here we got in communication with the people on the ground who gave us our bearings, telling us we were passing over Warwick in a westerly direction. From this point we floated over Faston still going west, and we were a happy bunch as we had vision of larding in Indiana. Then over Ritteman Station, then went west by north over the town of Ritteman, then directly northwest over Seville. Here we had difficulty in getting people to answer our questions. We were going at great speed and they wanted to know who we were; where we were from, and where we were going. To this last question we laughingly answered "We don't know." Finally a little girl whose voice carried up to us plain and distinct, informed us that we were headed northwest and passing over Seville. We had been so busy talking to the people that the first

thing we knew, we found we were descending rapidly and in a few seconds our drag line was running along after us, 30 feet of it on the ground. Here we discovered how precious a bag of sand, which we looked upon as common old dirt which could be scooped up anywhere, is in the mind of an aeronaut. By quick work Mr. Stevens got rid of bags, which he mourned over for fully ten minutes, when we began to ascend again, going up until we reached an altitude of around 1,200 feet, where Mr. Stevens endeavored to keep her. He explained to us the difficulty of keeping a balloon on a perfect equilibrium.

Leaving Seville, we passed directly over Chippewa Lake where our course changed to northwest by north carrying us over Whittlesey and on over Litchfield Station and the town of Litchfield. Here our course was again changed to directly northwest, then we floated on over LaGrange where the inhabitants informed us we were within eiglit miles of Oberlin. It seemed but ten minutes when upon calling down to a couple of farmers, who by the way, wanted us to come down and have some cider, we were informed that we were one-half mile from Oberlin. We calculated that we were not over 11 miles from Lake Erie towards which we were drifting rapidly, and as none of us had any desire to try navigating the Great Lakes in a balloon, we decided to land in Oberlin, "a dry town.''

Mr. Stevens selected a point where to land. He gave Mr. Stolzenbach instructions to cast anchor which upon striking ground, bounded along, tearing a section out of a rail fence, then caught in the soft ground of a cornfield where it soon took hold and we were once more on terra firma, so quick that we could hardly realize that our trip was over. We got busy at once folding up the bag and netting, sacking them for shipping, in the meantime getting one of the one hundred people, who seemed to have sprung up out of the ground upon our landing, to go after a rig to take us and our outfit to the express office where we arrived at 5:20, one hour and ten minutes after landing. We left Canton with 28 bags of sand and had 6 bags left when we landed.

Aeronaut Stevens took the utmost pains to fully explain every part of his work in handling the balloon and what would be done under certain conditions, etc., which was exceedingly interesting to us as we all of us fully expect to become full fledged pilots.

Ballooning is certainly the most exhilarating sport that the writer ever participated in and we all look forward with the greatest anticipation to another ascension.

Oct. 22. Harlan T. Pierpont, who is qualifying as official pilot of the Springfield Aero Club, made his third ascension in the "Boston" with Capt. T. S. Baldwin at 12:15, landing two hours later in Feeding Hills, six miles away.

Oct. 22. William Van Sleet and Dr. S. S. Stowell left Pittsfield in the "Heart of the Berkshires" at 11 a. m., landing at North Hilton, N. Y., near Saratoga, shortly after 3 p. m. Distance about 125 miles. They did not break thè previous distance record from Pittsfield held by them of 135 miles to Kingston, N. Y.

Oct. 24. A. H. Morgan, A. Leo Stevens and H. H. Timken made a fine flight from the Canton club's grounds at 1 :55 p. m., landing at 5:15 near Hunterstown in Northeastern Ohio, about 70 miles from Canton.

Mr. Johnson Sherrick, President of the Aero Club of Ohio, tells of the landing as follows : "The farmer on whose place they landed kindly invited them to supper, which they very gladly accepted. Imagine Mr. Stevens' surprise on being introduced to the » farmer's wife as the great aeronaut, Leo Stevens," the woman announced that she was his long lost relation. She seemed also very glad that she had a good meal on the table for him and his two fellow sailors of the air."

Oct. 26. Lieut. Frank P. Lalnn, Lieut. B. D. Foulois and Lieut. J. G. Winter made an ascent in the "Signal Corps 11" from Washington at 12:23, landing at Annapolis, Md., at 2:53 p. m., a distance of 28 miles.

Oct. 27. Dr. Thos. E. Eldredge, Dr. Geo. H. Simmerman. Mrs. Thos. Rose and Mrs. Win. A. Norcross made a trip in the "Philadelphia, " from Philadelphia, landing 2 miles east of Bordentown, N. J. Highest alt. 9,300 ft.

A TRIP IN THE RAIN.

Oct. 28. A novel experiment in ballooning never before tried in New England and probably never attempted in the whole country, was made here today in sending up the balloon "Pittsfield in the Heart of the Berkshires" during a pouring rainstorm. Aeronauts have speculated considerably as to what might be the result of such an experiment, some contending the balloon would immediately be

driven back to earth by the cloud-bursts. The results were therefore interesting as practically settling the controversy, proving that a ■ balloon would not only remain up, but might be brought back to the earth's surface and elevated a second time without refilling.

The balloon had been inflated for the proposed trip of Charles J. Glidden, and Wm. Carroll Hill, of the Associated Press, of Boston, who arrived from Boston on the i 125 p. 111. train. Owing to the heavy rain and the fact the visitors desired to make a longer trip than would be possible under the conditions. William Van Sleet and Dr. Sidney S. Stowell, both of Pittsfied, proposed the experiment of making the ascension in the rain.

The drip of the rain from the bag poured in a stream from the appendix of the balloon over the heads and shoulders of the aeronauts as they took their place in the basket and were cast off. While ordinarily 460 pounds of sand ballast would be required to balance the balloon on rising, so heavy was the balloon from absorption of water that six bags, or 240 pounds, balanced the balloon. One bag was exhausted in rising and the balloon went to 1,000 feet above the city.

For more than half an hour the balloon hung almost motionless, the slight drift being to the southeast over the city. Being the first time of the many ascensions here that a balloon rising from the gas works a mile to the east has traveled over the city. The residents flocked to the streets and windows, schools were let out and store keepers and shop hands quit work to gaze at the balloon.

Meanwhile President Luke J. Minahan of the Aero club of Pittsfield with Charles J. Glidden, Wm. Carroll Hill and Superintendent Crafts of the Pittsfield gas works, followed the balloon in an automobile, conversing with the aeronauts by megaphone constantly as the balloon passed over the principal streets of the city. 1 Contrary to expectations the balloon was not beaten down by the rain but maintained its 1000 feet elevation, even rising to nearly 2000 feet at one time.

Two miles southeast of the city the balloon was brought down by use of the escape valve, three elderly women rushing from their homes and excitedly pulling on the drag rope bc-for the automobile part}' could reach the scene.

Dr. Stowell left the bag and Superintendent

Crafts took his place and a second start was made, this time for an elevation of 4000 feet, or 2500 feet above the city, and a half hour's trip of a mile drift in the same southwesterly direction, after which the balloon was pulled down again by the drag rope by the automo-

g. l. bumbaugh and carl g. fisher

ix the; "newest stunt."

bile party but one bag of sand ballast being used.

The experiment proved beyond question the possibility of a balloon rising in a rain storm and of preserving an admirable equilibrium under such conditions.

The trip was the tenth for the pilot Van Sleet, the fourth for Dr. Stowell and the first for Superintendent Crafts.

As soon as the balloon is properly dried it will be shipped to Fitchburg where Mr.

Glidden and Mr. Hill will make an ascension, to be followed by nine other trips with Mr. Glidden as pilot.

Oct. 28. G. L. Bumbaugh, W. G. Wall and M. E. Haywood left Indianapolis and landed near Franklin, Ind. Duration 2 hours 15 min.

Oct. 30. William Van Sleet and M. Monard made an ascension in the balloon "Greylock" from North Adams in a northwesLgale landing at Whately, a distance of 40) miles, The rip cord had to be used in landing.

Oct. 30. Capt. G. L. Bumbaugh and Carl G. Fisher made the first ascension of its kind. In place of the basket, Mr. Fisher used a Stod-dard-Dayton automobile, for which he is the Indianapolis agent. The car was attached to the load ring of Coey's balloon "Chicago," in the usual maimer and the ascent begun. A successful landing was made near Dayton, O., the balloon packed in the car and the run home made on four wheels. Though in the air 1 hour and 50 minutes only 7 miles were made. 700 lbs. of ballast were carried, the automobile being stripped of all superfluous weight.

Oct. 31. J. H. Wade, Jr., A. H. Morgan and H. Rendell left Canton at 11 ¡30 and made the longest flight yet made from the grounds of the Ohio Canton club . They landed in the evening at Coal Center, Pa., 140 miles away.

Nov. 2. L. B. Haddock, Mrs. Haddock, Norman Kenan and Walter Collins made a trip from Cincinnati.

Nov. 6. William Van Sleet and Win, Carroll Hill left Pittsfield in the "Heart of the Berkshires" and descended 3 miles east of Lunenburg, 1 '**<?s. After passing through Starm' clouds to the height of 5.000 feet and the sun and moon were visible west and east while a squall raged down below. The rip cord had to be used in making a rather rough landing.

An ascension was also made by A. Leo Stevens, Harlan T. Pierpont and Air. Smith in the balloon "Boston" from Springfield. The details have not been received.

A. Leo Stevens entertained N. H. Arnold and H. J. Hewat, who sailed one of the balloons entered by America in the Gordon Bennett, on their return to this country.

"Prof." Samuel A. King is looking for $25,000 to equip a balloon expedition to cross the Atlantic. Aero club members please communicate.

ACTIVITY IN ST. LOUIS. (Continued from page 29)

cient weight for at least one week from a single inflation.

"If anything should happen to the envelope while we are making the ocean voyage," said Honeywell, "so that the gas goes out, it will act as a parachute, and if there is any wind at all it will not fall on us when we strike the water, but blow out ahead. We would be able to cut it loose, if necessary. If it should lose gas so that we should have to get down on the water, we might be able to use the balloon as a sail, while still attached to the boat-car. The suspending netting and ropes will be so long that the car will hang about 75 feet below the gas bag."

Dr. Fielding has received a pilot balloon from Honeywell for immediate use in testing the gas at San Antonio. On account of the pre-occupation that the coming ocean voyage will require, Honeywell has temporarily abandoned the construction of his racing dirigible, but will carry out his plans later, he hopes.

BOOKS.

COMMISSION PERMANENTE INTERNATIONALE

d'aéronautique.—The complete proceedings of the session held at Brussels on the 12th to 15th of September, 1907. 200 pages, with figures, drawings and illustrations. Papers include technique of balloons and dirigibles, meteorological observations, the making of hydrogen gas, etc. Published by H. Dunod et E. Pinat, 49 Quai des Grandes-Augustins, Paris, at 7 francs.

wiE fliegt der vogel, by Karl Milla. A 28-page illustrated pamphlet on the flight, soaring and power of various birds. Published by B. G. Teubncr, Leipzig, Germany, at 1 mk.

the war in the air, by H. G. Wells. Macmillan Co. has just gotten out H. G. Wells' famous fiction work in book form, 395 pages, 8vo., illustrated. The story is most realistic and the author displays a good knowledge of aeronautics. For sale by "Aeronautics," 1777 Broadway, New York, at $1.50.

St. Louis, Mo.—Airships.—Emil Baumann Manufacturing Co. incorporated by Emil Baumann, Adolf Baumann. Edward Seib, and others.

THE INCREASED LIFTING EFFECT OF CURVED AEROPLANES. (Continued from page 10)

exerts a minute constant pressure so long as it is in contact, which, as we have seen, foots up to the same amount as in the first and double that of the second case. The directiou of the pressure is in all three cases the same; that is normal to the surface and the horizontal over

b

the vertical components is equal to-^- (Fig. 4)

just as in the case of the reactive stratum, already discussed.

It is interesting here to notice that the above conclusions hold good whatever the slant of the surface, or the angular length of the circular arc. A familiar illustration is that of the Pelton water wheel bucket, in which the arc approaches 1800, and the impinging stream of water is thrown back nearly parallel to its original direction. The economy of using this form of bucket rather than a flat one has long been known and understood.

Returning to the non-elastic ball, we have thus seen not only that it exerts twice the pressure on a circular surface as on a plane under like conditions, but by considering the stresses and strains within the ball we have been able to understand pretty clearly why it does so.

We cannot follow clearly the pressures and motions that take place when a surface travels obliquely through the air, because the}' are very involved; we do know, however, that a narrow stream of air, which we have called "reactive stratum" behaves exactly like the non-elastic ball. When the stream of air is indefinitely wide, or what is the same thing, when a surface passes obliquely through a large body of air, we cannot therefore be far wrong, in attributing the lower pressure of the plane as compared to the curved surface to the same fact; that is, the plane makes more useless disturbance in the air and dissipates more energy in useless eddy currents or internal friction.

At Los Angeles, on Nov. 8th, there is to be a balloon contest in which attempts will be made to break the world's record for distance, the prevailing winds being towards the east. The old balloon "United States"' and the "American," which A. Leo Stevens recently sold to St. Paul people, are entered. All the balloons will be filled with hydrogen. Of course, this will cost an enormous sum of money, but the results will be proportionate. Horace B. Wild, of Chicago, who many will remember with pleas-

ure at the dirigible races at St. Louis last year, will pilot the "United States."

ARMY NEWS.

The dirigible balloon arrived at Washington, D. C, from St. Joseph, on Oct. 12th. It has since been repaired, and several minor changes made in the car and gas bag. A speaking tube has been provided connecting the engineer and pilot, and the front section of the car has been entirely covered. It is now ready for inflation and will be operated on the drill grounds at Ft. Myer in the near future.

Advertisements have been sent out inviting bids for the purchase of 250 gas cylinders for transporting compressed hydrogen. An ascension was made by officers of the Signal Corps on Oct. 26. 1908.

Mr. Herring arrived with his aeroplane on Oct. 12th. The parts of the machine and engine were inspected by the Aeronautical Board of the Signal Corps at the balloon shed, Ft. Myer, Va., on Oct. 13th, at which time formal delivery of the machine was made. Mr. Herring left that evening with his machine to make his preliminary trials at some other point. He is to return and make the official trials at Ft. Myer within 30 days from date of delivery on Oct. 13, 1908.

The Wright Brothers have been granted an extension of nine months in the delivery of their machine, i.e., until June 29, 1909.

PATENTS.

Compiled monthly by Munn & Co., 361 Broadway, New York.

Flying Machine, A. II. Friedel, 900,844; Flying Machine. H. B. Schiller, 901,486.

Horace B. Wild, of Chicago, Edward E. Herbert. Ernest & Claude Lloyd, J. C. Scott, Ray Harroun, and Carl Bates have, with the help of influence and some of the Chicago newspapers, obtained permission from the President of the South Park Board to use the golf grounds of Washington Park in Chicago to test out the flying machines now under construction by these late students of flying. Mr. Wild has also granted permission to use the large White City garage which is about a block from the golf grounds, in which to house the machines and to do any machine work or repairing which may be necessary.

BALL BEARINGS.

Among the many attempts to conquer the airi working parts of the various mechanisms employed have been the cause of. more or less trouble on account of the extra power required to overcome friction.

Shafts running in solid bearings consume considerable power, require continual adjustment and lubrication and as a general rule have proven very unsatisfactory.

A number of leading aviators have adopted ball bearings to overcome this trouble with remarkable results as they nearly eliminate friction, require no adjustment or attention and only enough oil to prevent rust. At the high speed necessarily attained, solid bearings often run dry and the shaft and bearing cutting into each other stick fast. Should this occur at a high altitude the results would be disastrous and even the possibility of such a condition would be eliminated by the use of ball bearings.

On propeller shafts, whether vertical or horizontal, there is when propeller is in motion eon. siderable end thrust which should be taken care of by thrust bearings of the ball type as they will greatly relieve the load on the motive power.

Ball bearings require much less space on the shaft than solid bearings and require much less care to keep in alignment.

On account of their general adaptability to Aeronautics, especial attention is called to the R. I. V. Annular and Thrust Ball Bearings as they are light, strong and reliable under all conditions and are used by the leading aeronauts with very satisfactory results.

A number of models showing the application of these bearings are on exhibition at the salesroom of the R. I. V. Co., 1771 Broadway, New York and their catalogue No. 19 shows the sizes made and carried in stock.

NOTES.

At a meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in New York, to be held on the morning of December 2nd, there will be a paper presented on the subject of aeronautics by Major Geo. O. Squier, Acting Chief Signal Officer, Washington, D. C. This paper, together with the popular lecture upon the same subject by Lieutenant Lahm, to be given in the evening of the same day, will form the most important and striking presentation of aeronautics that has been given in this country.

This is the first time that aeronautics has been considered by any of the national engineering societies of America. It is only now that the science of flying by mechanical means has been developed to the point where it would be thought advisable to place a record of the achievement and a statement of problems involved in the publications of an American engineering society. In taking this important step, the Society is to be congratulated on having its material from so authoritative a source and presented by engineers so unbiased and able as the two officers who are to appear before it at the December meeting. The data, photographs and drawings placed at the disposal of the Society for these papers are obtained through the courtesy of the War Department, where every bit of obtainable information upon aeronautics is on file, not only in respect to the work accomplished by the government and individuals in this country, but by governments and individuals abroad.

On Oct. 23rd, Prof. Carl E. Myers sent up a balloon which was exploded at a considerable height with a view to inducing a downfall of rain which was so much needed at the time.

In view of the many discussions in the past on the matter of the practicability of producing rain by explosions in the air, the report of Prof. Myers is of considerable interest.

"The mixed gases were placed in a balloon of 25 feet diameter, of 8,200 cubic feet capacity, early Saturday morning, the earliest moment possible for charging the largest vessel ever used for aerial concussions. The weather throughout these preparations was attended with an unusually high barometer, ; dicating 'set fair' weather, distinctly unfavorable, as previous frosts had caused precipitation of any excess moisture in aerial suspension.

"A slight fall of the barometer Friday night, with warmer weather on Saturday, and high winds from east of south near the ground, opposed by contrary winds higher up, made the management of the struggling balloon difficult to control, and impracticable to remove to a distance for explosion till after 4 p. m. Saturday, October 24, when it was carried with the wind and the aid of 16 men bearing the ballast hags weighing 90c pounds, to a ravine about a mile northwest

from the balloon farm, whence with four slow matches simultaneously fired, it ascended .about one mile, while drifting some seven miles in about seven minutes when the expected explosion occurred, accompanied by a brilliant burst of red-white flames which assumed the form of a cloud or rift, vertical instead of horizontal, as bright sun-lit rifts in clouds are. This fiery object grew darker and two descending gleams of light streamed fi om it.

"This brilliant spectacle lasted a few seconds, and after an interval of about 40 seconds a rumbling detonation was heard indicating a distance of about eight miles, and quite remarkable because it had to advance to us against the wind, which usually blows sound away. I have never before heard a noticeable report from an aerial explosion further away than 800 feet against wind currents.

"At 6 p. m. Saturday, the 24th, the barometer had fallen slightly, not reaching 'change.' At about 2 Sunday morning, with increasing wind, rain fell first slightly, increasing till morning, and at intervals during the forenoon and evening. The unfavorable conditions prevailing at the time of explosion were the high barometer and a reverse wind from the Adirondacks, at a high elevation and velocity, driving clouds or smoke away from the forests, while our lower or ground wind moved northward to feed forests fires."

COMMUNICATIONS.

To the Editor:—

My patent for a flying machine granted j' •■' 30th is designed to act as a bird's wing in that its aeroplane is filled with valves which act as do the feathers in a bird's wing, in that they open on the up thrust and close on the down pull. If you examine a bird's feathers, you will notice on one side of the quill is a narrow flange, on the other side it is broader. Further it will be observed that the broad side is always underneath the narrow side of its neighbor, so that on the up thrust of the wing, the air forces the broad side to tilt down and the wing goes up with the greatest freedom, and on the down stroke the air forces the feathers to close thus offering full resistance to the air and thereby raising the birds from the ground.

I am convinced that this action is automatic as regards the movement of the feathers, the bird simply flaps his wing and the air does the rest. It is not possible to imitate the bird in toto in the construction of a flying machine with flapping wings for several reasons. In the first place, you are acting from the wrong end of a lever and it would require so much force to work the wing with sufficient velocity that the requisite power to do the work would glue you to the ground; too much wing surface would be required, and the down stroke would not develop enough power to compensate for the lost motion of the up stroke; again, the jar would be so great that your wing would be racked to pieces in a very short time.

In my study of bird flight, I have been convinced that some principle in the wing would have to be followed, but that the method of raising from the ground would have to differ. I would have a system of fans to be rotated with a sufficient velocity to create enough draught to raise the aeroplane from the ground.

In raising this aeroplane by this method, there will be a steady pull upward with no jar and I believe it will take less power to raise this apparatus than the method now in vogue and when once in the air, the matter of gliding and steering is an easy matter, comparatively. I estimate my aeroplane made of aluminum 20 x 30 feet with its necessary bracing, operator, motor, fans, fuel and etc. will not weigh more than 1500 pounds, maybe less.

Am not able to determine how much power will be required but light motors of great power are now made for this very purpose.

This is the first aeroplane which embodies in its construction the function of the bird's feathers, the valves small so as to act quickh on a full sized aeroplane. Would judge 4 x 14 in. would be about right.

I sec some one suggests the bee as a model to follow out but that is getting into still deeper water. I am satisfied the bird lifts itself with the primary feathers of its wing and that the balance of the wing, together with its tail, form the complete a«.ioplane and it is the primary feathers after which I model my aeroplane with its opening and closing valves.

E. M. La Penotiero.

FIELDING—SAN ANTONIO

70,000 Cu. Ft. Built and Piloted by HONEYWELL

WINNER LONG DISTANCE AND ENDURANCE CUPS

chicago a. c. contest, july 4, 1908

AGAINST A FIELD OF EIGHT

THE DEFEATED

ILLINOIS, 72,000 cu. ft., J. L. Case, Builder.

UNITED STATES OF MINNEAPOLIS, 70,000 cu. ft., Mallet, Builder. CHICAGO, 110,000 cu. ft., Bumbavgh, Builder.

COLUMBIA, 75,000 cu. ft., Bumbaugh, Builder.

AMERICA OF ST. PAUL, 78,000 cu. ft., leo stevens, Builder. KING EDWARD, 65,000 cu. ft., Canada.

CINCINNATI, 87,000 cu. ft., Haddock, Builder.

VILLE DE DIEPPE, 65,000 cu. ft., Mallet, Builder.

Honeywell with A. B. Lambert, Aero Club de France pilot, discharging ballast to avoid high smoke stacks.

Our material and workmanship speak for themselves. Write for samples and prices.

FRENCH—AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

3958 Cottage Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.


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