Aeronautics

Volume 3 - No. 4 - 1908 October

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL LOCOMOTION

i

J

Miss Gladys Tannehill and A. Leo Stevens

VOL. 3.

OCTOBER, 1908

PRICE, TWENTY-FIVE CENTS

No. 4.

"30 DAYS FREE TRIAL"

When a manufacturer is willing to send his product to anyone, anywhere, for 30 days—with no deposit, no agreement to buy, no promise to do anything except give that product a fair trial—he must have more than ordinary confidence in his article. In order for him to have that confidence he must have a most extraordinary product.

GUARANTEED FOR ONE YEAR

WARNER

That's what we do. We'll send an Auto-Meter to any automobile owner in the country with no deposit—no agreement, no promise to do anything but put it on his car and give it a fair trial. It doesn't matter whether he has another make of speed indicator already on the car or not. Indeed, for the sake of comparison, we hope he has. We will abide by the decision—for he will always keep the indicator that tells the truth. We claim for the Auto-Meter that it is the only one of which "the dial never lies." We believe that the instrument itself is the most eloquent salesman we have—we're willing to let i: do our talking. Send to-day—just tell us what make and year of car you have—size of tires, etc., and we will send you an Auto-Meter.

WARNER INSTRUMENT CO,

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STAYS RIGHT

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14

Address your request lor Free Trial to Our Nearest Branch House.

New York—1902 Broadway Detroit—239 Jefferson Avenue

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AERONAUTICS

Ernest LaRue Jones, Editor, Owner and Publisher Thoroughfare Building, 1777 Broadway, New York.

304 No. Fourth St., St. L,ouis.

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice, New York, N. Y., under the Act of

March 3, 1879.

Vol. Ill October, 1908 No. 4

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.

Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order or registered letter. WE CAN NOT USE CHECKS ON LOCAL BANKS UNLESS EXCHANGE IS ADDED. Send draft on New York. Make all remittances free ot exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $3.50 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

Important.—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure proper credit.

MEN OF THE AIR IN CARTOON.

Novel Series of High Class Caricatures of Some of the Aero Clubs' Well

Known Men.

Commencing in our December issue, we will begin to print a series of cartoons of the leading members of the Aero Clubs of America. They will prove very interesting, and no one should miss any of the series.

The work is done by one of the best caricaturists in the country, one who has succeeded in bringing out the characteristics of many of the well known members in the most artistic and attractive fashion. The entire novelty, of the idea at once attracts

attention, and the clever execution further commends the enterprise.

When the series is complete, the plates will be printed on vellum, bound in ooze calf, lined with silk, and printed under the club colors. These books will be a very handsome souvenir of the men who have done much to advance aerial locomotion.

Watch each issue for "Men of the Air in Cartoon," beginning in the December number.

NOTE.

The supply of July, 1907, and August, We would be very glad to hear of any 1908, copies is entirely exhausted. A fire copies of these two issues which we may destroyed all the extra copies of the latter secure to supply the present demand, issue.

'AERIAL LEAGUES."

The aeronautical organizations of this country might do well to follow those of other countries in the formation of "leagues" to create popular intelligent interest and knowledge in aeronautics.

The aeronautical appropriation in Congress last year was refused for want of a proper understanding of the status of the art and the possibilities thereof.

The newspapers are awakening to the importance of the new industry. Within the last year the art has been brought, by some of the papers, from the realm of dreams to a present-day fact. Some have been able to see the trend of events, but there is still plenty of work to do.

The newspapers are supposed to reflect public opinion. The flights of the Wright Brothers have brought wonderful results in the changing of public opinion, but there is still more work to do.

Despite the columns of news telling of successful flights, the public still says "it is too far off." We have had occasion during the last month to interview many members of aero clubs, and it is certainly surprising to hear them say "not interested in aero clubs," one man, the head of a large manufacturing concern, even went so far as to say "there is nothing in aerial navigation." Yet, this man's product has revolutionized the greatest industry in the world.

More work must be done to make the public see that there IS something practical in the Art. The newspapers should be asked by aero clubs to treat the subject seriously, aero clubs should furnish newspapers with all possible news of the achievements of their members, aeronautical organizations should bend their efforts to obtaining for the Signal Corps an appropriation at the next session of Congress, exhibitions of machines in flight should be held, other aeronautical associations formed for the advancement of knowledge and the. aid of their members.

We have been persistently arguing the necessity for cash'prizes. It has been found impossible to raise prize funds, simply because people who could afford to contribute

did not feel interested enough in the Art. Let us stimulate interest in every way possible. This journal will gladly support any movement to advance the Art. We feel that we have done good work in spreading accurate information of what is being done, but organizations should do their share.

Put your shoulder to the wheel—and then push.

After the formation of the German military "Aerial Navy League" at Mannheim in July to commemorate Count Zeppelin's achievements, with various branches in the large cities, the same plan was adopted in France and subscriptions are pouring in at headquarters.

The German organization is to promote patriotic enthusiasm and to "retain for Germany the 'advantage' which she has now gained in the sphere of aerial navigation."

The French league, more scientific in nature than the German, proposes to foster the art and science of aviation, as opposed to Germany's efforts in behalf of aerostation. The grounds at Issy will be of great advantage, as they are now open to experimenters and closed to the public from 10 to i in addition to the early morning hours of 4 to 6.

Not to be left behind, Switzerland is founding a National League for Aerial Navigation. An important letter was addressed to the press a few days ago, signed by the Technical Committee of the League. The letter urges the nation not to be behind hand in the construction of aerial locomotion apparati for war purposes, and refers to the incessant manufacture of military dirigibles by France, Germany and Italy.

"It is of the highest importance," continues the document, "that the construction of our first airship should be finished as soon as, if not before, Zeppelin V. As this airship now in course of construction, can only be carried on by means of direct subscriptions, we appeal to you, gentlemen of the Press, to give us your hearty co-operation, by appealing in your turn to your readers to come forward and aid by their purses this truly national object."

The headquarters of the league are to be at Geneva. The object of its formation is: (i) To construct aerial machines suitable for military purposes in case of need; (2) To lit out, instruct, and train a corps of volunteers skilled in aerial navigation to work the dirigibles; (3) To make all necessary observations of upper and lower atmospheres indispensable to aerial navigation; to co-ordinate these observations and place them at the disposal of the meteorological bureaux, for the making of the most accurate weather forecasts possible.

As regards its direction the league will be divided into four committees:- (1) The committee of Honor, representing the

Swiss nation; (2) The Army Committee, representing the Federal Army; (3) The Technical Committee; (4) The Administrative Committee. There will be no limit as to the number of the first two committees; the number of members of the two others will be limited to seven. Every Swiss citizen enjoying civic rights who subscribes to the statutes desiring to participate in the objects of the league is eligible for membership. The amount of subscription is left to the will of the subscriber. The Technical Committee will draw up monthly reports as to progress, and the expenditure will be in the hands of the Administrative Committee.

HIGH KITE FLIGHT—WINTER AT 19,856 FEET.

During the week July 27 to August 1 of the International Series of Kite Flights and Captive Balloon Ascents, two balloon ascensions and six kite flights were conducted at Mount Weather. The mean of the highest altitudes attained daily was 12,005 feet (3660 meters). The highest captive balloon ascension was 9801 (2988 meters) while the highest kite flight was 19,856 feet (6052). The former of these was made on July 27, the latter on August 1. At the highest point reached on August 1 the temperature was 2.1 degrees Fahrenheit above zero (-16.60 C), the lowest recorded during the series.

The prevalence and great depth of the east to northeast winds during this week is one of the most interesting facts shown in the series. The top of the northeast wind was reached at about 2>Va miles above the sea level on Friday, July 31. This is by far the deepest northeast current sounded by Mount Weather station since the daily flights were begun more than a year ago.

FLYING MACHINES IN WARFARE.

Ruter W. Springer, Chaplain at Fort Schuyler, has kindly sent us the following: "I note in the Literary Digest a quotation from the Cleveland Leader, 'If a flying machine really has to go anywhere, it takes the railroad or a steamboat.' This brings us to the consideration that the art of aeronautics has not yet become thoroughly practicalized.

"In this connection, permit me to call your attention to the popular impression of the dangers in warfare of flying machines. The danger, for the most part, lies with the person who is on the machine, owing to the following fact: It is very difficult to hit an object at some distance with the modern rifle, because range cannot accurately be determined; and, while the horizontal line of fire can be made quite accurate, the shot will go above or below the object aimed at. As the line of fire comes to be more and more vertical, the difficulty of range becomes less and less, until, if the line is perfectly vertical, the element of range is entirely eliminated, unless the object is beyond the range, or power of firing, of the gun. But, while a flying machine may be made useful in time of warfare, by remaining some distance off in a horizontal direction, taking note of the position and the side of the fortifications of the enemy, it could not be made very useful for conveying explosives and dropping them on top of the enemy, because, as soon as it began to approximate a vertical position above the enemy, it would be subjected to a deadly fire that it could not possibly resist, and would be doomed to quick annihilation. The only remedy for this, would be such an elevation for the flying machine that it would take it entirely out of range of the gun-fire. I have not seen this hitherto referred to, but my life in the army has made it quite evident to me, and perhaps you may find it useful in connection with your admirable magazine."

LIEUTENANT THOMAS E. SELFRIDGE.

Lieutenant Thomas E. Selfridge, ist Field Artillery, U. S. A., whose untimely death occurred on September 17th at Fort Myer, Va., through the fall of the Wright aeroplane on which he was a passenger, was born in California, February 2, 1882. In

1903 he graduated as second lieutenant and was assigned to the Artillery Corps. He was promoted first lieutenant in January, 1907, and was assigned to the 5th Field Artillery in June of the same year. He was transferred to the ist Field Artillery in 1903.

lieut. selfri

After being detailed to the Signal Corps for aeronautical work, on a visit to Dr. Bell in Nova Scotia he was made a member of the Aerial Experiment Association when it was formed and since then has been most active in the Association's work. He has made ascents in Dr. Bell's tetrahedral kite,

i and dr. bell.

in the White Wings and June Bug aeroplanes, and in the Army Dirigible No. 1 and the Army balloons. The propeller used by Captain Baldwin in the Army dirigible was designed by Lieut. Selfridge. He was a nephew of Rear Admiral Thomas O. Selfridge, U. S. N.

DEATH OF LIEUT. THOS. E. SELFRIDGE.

Grim Death demands his toll from every •Art and every Industry, but because we know this, makes the blow no lighter when

it strikes. **N|*^»

Mechanical power flight has made its first sacrifice. Gliding flight has sacrificed the lives of Lilienthal, Pilcher, Maloney. Leturr and De Groof. In all history of experiments in dynamic flight six lives have paid the price. _

The available details of the causes of the accident are given under "Army Aeronautics" on another page. It is a coincidence that the September cover illustration shows the spot where the accident occurred, practically in front of the white gate of Arlington Cemetery shown immediately underneath the picture of the Dirigible No. i.

The accident occurred while making a turn. When Mr. Wright perceived that something was wrong he shut off the motor and attempted to glide safely to earth but unsuccessfully. It is possible that had the machine been higher in the air sufficient time would have been allowed in which to secure a balance.

In falling, the occupants were thrown against the wires and Selfridge sustained severe cuts about the face. Mr. Wright's left leg was caught under the machine and broken. The post surgeon issued the following statement after the examination: "Mr. Wright has a fractured left thigh and several ribs on the right side broken. He was much shocked but reacted well. Lieut. Selfridge received a fracture at the base of the skull."

Lieutenant Selfridge was to have left the following day for St. Joseph to take part in the military demonstrations there and it was arranged for Major Squier to make the flight with Mr. Wright, but on account of Selfridge's great desire to make a flight and the fact of his leaving the next day, Major Squier offered his place in the aeroplane to Lieutenant Selfridge.

military funeral

Lieutenant Selfridge was buried with military rites on September 25th in Arlington Cemetery, within a short distance from the spot where he met his death.

In the golden rays of the setting sun, the casket was removed from the vault, placed upon the caisson and the procession begun to the grave. Following the Thirteenth Cavalry band on foot was a firing squad of cavalrymen in full uniform. Immediately behind came the caisson bearing the officer's body.

The casket was wrapped in an American flag and almost hidden from view by flowers. On each side walked the pallbearers, cavalrymen on foot. Immediately behind them came the honorary pallbearers: Major George O. Squier, Lieut. R. B. Creecy, Lieut. G. C. Sweet, Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, William J. Hammer, Octave Chanute, J. A. D. McCurdy, Percy Bradford. Prof. Monroe Hopkins and F. W. Baldwin. Following the honorary pallbearers came members of some of the foreign embassies and thè family and friends of the dead officer.

On reaching the grave, on an eminence at the southern end of the cemetery, the burial service of the Episcopal Church was read and the body lowered into the grave. The soldiers drawn up at the foot then fired three volleys, the bugler raised his instrument to his lips and the beautiful notes of "taps" sounded out and echoed over the hills. The last chapter had been written.

Floral tributes there were in profusion. In addition to the wreaths sent by President Roosevelt and Secretary of War Luke E. Wright, there were offerings from the Aero Club of America, The Aeronautic Society, the West Point army mess, the aeronautical board of the Signal Corps, the Signal Corps officers at Fort Leavenworth, Dr. and Mrs. A. Graham Bell, Capt. and Mrs. Perry, Prof. Fairchild, Lieut. Col. Gooderham, George S. Selfridge. Jerome Fanciulli, C. H. Claud}', Orville Wright, Gilbert H. Grosvenor, Wm. McK. Woodworth, William J. Hammer, Aerial Experiment Association, Major Gc\ O. Squier, Miss L. N. Randolph.

The Aero Club of America appointed Dr. A. Graham Bell, Dr. Albert F. Zahm, Wm. J. Hammer, Gutzon Borglum and Geo. O. Totten to represent the Club at the services. Mr. Hammer and Mr. Chanute acted

in like capacity for the Aeronautic Society.

The passing of our intimate friends and relatives brings home to us a more serious realization of life. It makes supreme the desire to pierce the veil of the unknown. We wonder on the one hand if life is worth living; and then we consider that we are

here to live our lives, that the allotted time is short and we must improve our opportunities. And yet—

The boast of Heraldry, the pomp of Power, All that Beauty, all that Wealth e'er gave Await alike the inevitable hour; The paths of Glory lead but to the grave.

ON THE GYROSCOPIC ACTION OF PROPELLERS. By Dr. Alexander Graham Bell.

In the course of a discussion with Mr. J. A. D. McCurdy last May concerning the nature of the torque produced in an aeroplane by the rotation of its propellers, Mr. McCurdy referred to Brennan's Mono-Rail Car System as an illustration of the powerful gyroscopic action of flywheels. This lead to the consideration of the gyroscopic action of propellers; and we consulted the Encyclopedia Britannica to see whether we could work out, from the description of the gyroscope there given, what would be the effect upon an aeroplane of the gyroscopic action of its propeller, and we came to the following theoretical conclusions:

With a right-handed rotation of the propeller the machine, when steered to the left or port side, would tend to rise at the bow until the bow pointed vertically upward. When steered to the right or starboard side, the machine would tend to dive until the bow pointed vertically downwards.

With a left-handed rotation of the propeller opposite effects would be produced; the machine tending to dive when turned to port, and tending to rise at the bow when turned to starboard.

The general conclusion reached was that both the horizontal and vertical steering of the aerodrome with a single propeller would be seriously affected if the propeller exerted any sensible gyroscopic action.

This theoretical result has been amply verified by experiments made here July 16, 1908, with a gyrostat constructed after the plans of the late Lord Kelvin.

The gyrostat consists simply of a thin metallic case enclosing a heavy wheel which can be set in rapid rotation by means of a string coiled round one end of the axis.

In order to imitate the action of the propeller of the June Bug, the concealed wheel was given a left-handed rotation (against the hand of a watch). I then held the gyrostat in my hand with one axis pointing forward, so that, considering this end of the axis as the bow or front end of the aerodome, the wheel represented the propeller. Then to represent the forward flight of the aerodrome I walked forward with the gyrostat in my hand. I then imitated the action of steering the aerodrome by turning to the right. Instantly the bow end of the gyrostat turned upwards with considerable force. Upon turning to the left it turned downwards. Then to represent the act of steering downwards with an aerodrome, I depressed the bow end of the gyrostat with the result that the bow tried also to move to the right or starboard side. Upon elevating the bow of the gyrostat to represent steering upwards with an aerodrome, the bow of the gyrostat was deflected to the left.

With a right-handed rotation of the wheel of the gyrostat opposite effects were produced.

The effects were so marked as to indicate that the gyroscopic action of a rapidly rotating propeller in an aerodrome should be studied and allowed for in the steering of the apparatus. The following contains a summary of the observations made.

Right-Handed Rotation: Left-Handed Rotation:

Steering to right sends bow down. Steering to right sends bow up.

Steering to left sends bow up. Steering to left sends bow down.

Steering down sends bow to left. Steering down sends bow to right.

Steering up sends bow to right. Steering up sends bow to left.

(From the Bulletins of the Aerial Experiment Association; by permission of the

Association.)

A comparison of the crank shafts illustrates the Strength, Simplicity, Light Weight and Efficiency of the Adams-Farwell Motor in

contrast to the frail but weighty series of angles and bearings that eat up the power of other motors before it gets out of the crank case.

We will be pleased to tell you more about this wonderfully simple motor which weighs only 2.7-lb. per horse power. Write for our Aeronautic Catalogue.

THE! ADAMS COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U. S. A.

CONSTRUCTION WORK

Models or manufacturing complete from plans in all materials. Repairs or special parts for machines already constructed. Our plant especially equipped for this class of work. Free use of large grounds for trials, etc.

GLIDERS IN STOCK. C. & A. WITTEMANN, P. 0. Box 40, Stapleton, Staten Island, N. Y.

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cessorles, automoblllng, and in fact keeping in touch with all that Is transpiring the world over in motordom, and who realizes the value of keeping informed about all that concerns it, should be a subscriber to The Steam Motor Journal, 15c. a copy, $1.00 a year.

THE STEAM MOTOR JOURNAL CO.

1409 WELTON STREET,

DENVER, COLO.

ARMY AERONAUTICS FOR SEPTEMBER

two-man flight, 0rv1lle wright and major george 0. squier, fort myer, sept. 12, IOoS.

The Wright Aeroplane

In the September issue we gave newspaper figures covering some of the flights by Orville Wright at Fort Myer, as the paper was ready for the press and exact times and measurements were not available. The exact record of the entire series is here given through the kindness of Major Geo. O. Squier, Acting Chief Signal Officer.

On September i, 1908, after preliminary tests of the engine, the aeroplane was removed from the balloon house to the balloon tent, on the drill grounds at Fort Myer, Va.

The first flight was made on September 3d. Velocity of the wind, three miles per hour; maximum height, 35 feet. Aeroplane went around the field \y2 times and landed in front of the shed. The right skid was broken in two places, due to rough landing. The skid was repaired the next day, and a flight of about three miles was

made, in a wind of 3 miles an hour. Time of flight, 4 minutes, 15 seconds. Maximum height, 40 feet.

September 7. A flight of 55 seconds was made in a wind of 6 miles an hour; maximum height, 25 feet; distance covered, estimated at % mile.

September 8. Two flights were made, one at 9:15 A.M., which lasted 11 minutes, 10 seconds, in which Mr. Wright circled the field thirteen times. The wind this day was about 2 miles an hour. Mr. Wright descended at the end of the first flight to procure goggles for his eyes and to make a slight change in the foot rests. On the second flight he went around the field 8 times, was in the air 7 minutes, 34 seconds and came down on account of darkness.

September 9. Mr. Wright took the machine from the shed at 7:50 A.M., and made a flight of 57 minutes, 25 seconds

duration, going 57 times around the field and maintaining a height of over 100 feet. He was unaware of the fact that he had come so near the hour, or he would have remained up to make his record run over that time. In the afternoon, in a wind of 4 miles an hour, he circled 55 times around the field, at a maximum height of 80 feet, remaining in the air 1 hour, 2 minutes, 15 seconds. A third record flight was made immediately afterward, when he circled the

circled the field 71 times and attained a maximum height of 300 feet.

the accident

September 17. Mr. Wright was nearly ready to begin his official trials, and on this day had changed his propellers for longer ones, which would give a higher speed. He ascended with Lieutenant Selfridge, at 6:14 in the afternoon, in a wind of 4 miles an hour. After circling the field 4J/2 times, the propeller blade was seen to fall. The

0rv1lle wright s machine at fort myer.

field 6y2 times, at a maximum height of 60 feet, and was in the air 6 minutes, 24 seconds, and carried Lieut. Lahm with him.

September 10. In a wind of 10 miles an hour Mr. Wright circled the field 8 times, at a maximum height of 200 feet, remaining in the air 1 hour, 5 minutes, 52 seconds.

70 minutes in the air

September 11. Two flights were made. On the first, Mr. Wright circled the field nine times, and was in the air 10 minutes, 50 seconds. On the second he circled the field 57J/2 times and landed in front of the aeroplane shed. He was in the air 1 hour, 10 minutes, 24 seconds, and during this flight described two "figure-eights" over the drill grounds.

new 2-man record of 9 minutes—75 minutes in the air

September 12. Two flights were made. On thè first Mr. Wright took Major G. O. Squier, of the Signal Corps, and made a new record, of 9 minutes, 6 seconds, for a two-man'-flight in an aeroplane. The second flight was made by Mr. Wright alone, and lasted 1 'hour, 15 minutes, during which he

machine at that time was at a height of about 150 feet. Mr. Wright shut off the motor and guided it down to about 75 feet, advancing about 200 feet. At this point the machine turned downward and dropped the remaining distance of 75 feet to the ground. It is thought that, due to excessive vibration, the propeller struck one of the guy wires running from the rear of the top main surface to the top of the rudder at the rear, causing the wire to tear out from its metal fastening at the rudder, and at the same time causing the propeller to break at a point about two feet from the end. The Aeronautical Board of the Signal Corps, composed of Major C. McK. Saltz-man, Signal Corps, Captain C. S. Wallace, Signal Corps, and Lieut. F. P. Lahm, Signal Corps, assisted by Lieut. Sweet of the Navy, and Lieut. Creecy of the Marine Corps, also by Mr. Octave Chanute and Professor Albert F. Zahm, made a thorough examination, on the morning of September 18th, of the aeroplane, and the grounds, and carefully examined witnesses of the accident the preceding day. The following is their report:—

"That the accident which occurred in an unofficial flight made at Fort Myer, Va., at about 5.18 P. M. on September 17, 1908, was due to the accidental breaking of a propeller blade and a consequent unavoidable loss of control which resulted in the machine falling to the ground from a height of about seventy-five (75) feet.

The Board finds that First Lieutenant Thomas E. Selfridge, First Field Artillery, (attached to the Signal Corps by War Department orders and assigned to aeronautical duty), accompanied Mr. Wright, by authority, on the aeroplane, for the purpose of officially receiving instruction, and received injuries by the falling of the machine which resulted in his death."

Lieutenant Selfridge died at 8:io p.m., two hours after the accident. He was buried, with full military honors, at Arlington Cemetery, near Washington, on September 25th.

Mr. Wright is now convalescing in the post hospital at Fort Myer, Va. A delay of nine months has been granted by the Secretary of War, for the completion of these trials.

analytical discussion of accident

Mr. Wright has requested that no analytical discussion of the accident, the causes relating thereto, etc., be made public until he himself has had opportunity to make his own investigation and form conclusions. But it may be suggested that had hickory been employed for the propellers instead of spruce the breaking of the blade might have been avoided. The little added weight of hickory would probably not have been worth considering.

Dirigible No. 1.

The dirigible was last, operated at Fort Myer on August 31st. After two attempts

at flight on this date, difficulty with the engine necessitated suspending temporarily the work with the dirigible.

On September 8, Dirigible No. 1, the tent for housing it and the hydrogen plant were shipped to St. Joseph, Mo., by direction of the Secretary of War. Lieutenant Foulois, with eight enlisted men of the balloon detachment, left on the same day. Under his direction the balloon and tent were set up at the military tournament grounds, St. Joseph, Mo., and preliminary flights made on September 18th and 19th. It was operated by Lieut. Foulois and Sergeant Ward, of the balloon detachment. The dirigible was operated by Lieutenants Lahm and Foulois, during the week of the carnival. Three flights were made, on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday, varying in length from five minutes to sixteen minutes. These flights were made in the vicinity of the tournament grounds, and two were made to the camp of United States troops situated a mile away from the tournament grounds. High winds the last three days of the tournament prevented the operation of the dirigibles. It was shipped back to Fort Myer on September 28th.

Lieutenant John G. Winter. 6th Cavalry, reported for duty on September 18th, and was assigned to the Aeronautical Division.

An ascension was made in Signal Corps No. 12, on September 2, details of which are given under "Ascensions."

The balloon house, hydrogen plant, compressor and hydraulic testing pump at Fort Omaha have all been completed and are ready for use. The gasometer will be completed in a few days.

FOR SALE—Glaisher's "Travels in the Air," from the private library of Alfred Chadwick. Large 8vo, cloth, fine illustrations, London 1871. In perfect condition. This is most rare and is offered at $5 postpaid.

FOR SALE—A perfect copy of Astra Castra, London 1865, at $15.00 delivered. Large quarto volume, in blue cloth binding, profusely illustrated. In perfect condition. This is probably the rarest aeronautical work to be found anywhere.

Captain Thomas S. Baldwin has been operating his smaller duplicate of the Army "Dirigible No. 1" at Poughkeepsie and Dan-bury the last of September and the first of October. Carl E. Myers is making a series of successful flights. A. Roy Knabenshue, Col. J. L. Gribble and the other dirigible pilots have been busy making flights all over the country. Over 500 flights by dirigibles were made last year and this record will be eclipsed this year.

SOME CONSTRUCTION DETAIL

By H. :

Editor's Note—Mr. Brown was in Washington during the flights of the Wright aeroplane and was present at the time of the accident. His observations are of particular interest and value.

It is probable that no one who has given the matter serious thought has any doubt of the ultimate ability of the Wright Machine to fulfill the government requirements as to speed carrying capacity and endurance.

There is one condition which seems to have been overlooked by the majority of the people, and that is, the ability to be packed in army wagons for transportation and assembled in about one hour's time.

OF THE WRIGHT AEROPLANE. . Brown

left of the operator and to disconnect the uprights from the skids and diagonal braces. The removal of a brace connecting the skids allows them to be folded back outwardly against the front of the planes.

The rear rudder is supported by two horizontal struts which are stepped on .the top of their respective planes. These are braced against horizontal movement by diagonal wire stays. Diagonal stays in the plane formed by the struts brace against vertical movement. The one extending from the lower plane to the upper brace has at its centre a length of closed helical spring. In case of the rudder striking the ground first in landing this will allow of this brace stretching and the rudder rising thus pre-

the wright machine at fort myer.

An investigation of the ability of the machine to fulfill this latter requirement leads to a study of its constructional details and here many interesting points are discovered.

An examination of the front rudder shows that its planes are pivoted to two uprights which are held in place by being fastened to the upturned ends of the skids and by two braces which extend from the lower planes to the middle of the uprights. To remove the same it is only necessary to disconnect the rod connecting the rudder with the operating lever, situated to the

venting damage to the rudder. The removal of these struts from their steps allows the rudder to be brought close against the frames. In this condition the machine has a width of little over six feet and a length of about forty feet and while somewhat unwieldy can readily be transported on an ordinary wagon for short and medium distances.

With two squads of men working on both the front and rear rudder respectively it should be almost a matter of seconds rather than minutes to thus disconnect the front and rear rudder.

When it is desirable to pack the machine in as small a compass as possible, as, for instance, for transportation by rail or water, a somewhat longer time will of course be required.

The motor, together with the transmission and propellers, is first removed. By disconnecting the diamond-shaped propeller-bearing frames from the top and bottom of the rear main frames and unbolting up the skids in which the motor, magneto and radiator are mounted, from the centre of the main frame, it is simply necessary to remove the three middle rear upright struts and the entire propelling mechanism can be removed bodily.

This can be then further taken apart for the sake of compactness. The removal of the remaining struts and braces, as well as the wires which serve to warp the planes, permits the separation of the planes. These can now be separated into three sections of approximately equal length.

Having now the machine dismounted the construction can readily be seen and many points of interest are brought to light. The first point which strikes one on superficial inspection is the apparently small amount of effort made to save weight and the substantial appearance of the whole machine. The main frame of each plane is formed of wood of a "D" section and is about one and one half to two inches in height. This is bent round at the corners and when joined together forms a rectangle with rounded corners. There are two sets of ribs or rather double ribs which are placed above and below the main frames. They are clamped to the main frames at the front with strap iron. At the rear their ends project and are joined. A wire passes between these ribs and curves round toward the front to meet the rear of the main frame. The planes are covered both top and bottom with canvas and presents a smooth surface to the air. The covering is secured to the ribs by strips sewed to the inside of the covering which form pockets or sheaths for the ribs. It would be interesting to know just how much this smooth double covering adds to the efficiency of the planes by reduction of the skin friction.

The placing of the covering on the frames in such a manner that the threads run diagonally to the length and breadth of the planes is an ingenious idea which does away with any other horizontal bracing of the frames. By this method of laying the cloth on the frames diagonal braces are provided running into the hundreds of thousands.

The methods of holding in position the vertical stays and diagonal stay wires are simple and ingenious. A "C" shaped piece made of a round rod is secured to the plane by a sheet metal ear, the opening of the "C" being upwards. An eye made of the same sized rod is secured to the stay or strut, the eye being of such a size as to allow the necessary play for the warping of the planes. When the diagonal stay wire, if such is used, and the vertical stay is in place, a simple split cotter is inserted in a hole drilled in the "C" piece which prevented the same from coming out acci-dently.

The method of forming the loop in the ends of the stay wires is the same as that adopted by Voisin Bros., the makers of the Farman and Delagrange machines. A small piece of tubing is employed which will allow the wire to be passed through it twice. A length of about an inch or so being employed. When the stay is drawn to the proper degree of tension the end of the wire is bent over and the tube "crimped" on the wire.

The method of warping the planes while similar to that shown in the patent specifications, differs in some details. The rudder and planes each being operated by a separate lever both of which are at the operator's right hand. These are, however, placed so close together as to be operated simultaneously by one hand if so desired. A movement to the rear steering to the right and raising the left of the planes.

It would seem that steering in a horizontal direction by a fore and aft movement of a lever is a serious defect in the design of a machine since it is not a natural action and it therefore takes some time before, it can become to any degree a reflex one. On the other hand a wheel or handlebar steer such as is used on a bicycle or auto-

mobile furnishes a form of stearing gear the operation of which has already become a reflex action to the majority of people likely to operate aeroplanes. It would seem that such a form of steering gear could be easily applied to a machine without greatly increasing weight, complication or expense.

The motor, while it does the work all right, is open to considerable criticism from the view-point of a gas engine designer. No attempt is made to water-jacket the valves which are placed in the head. The inlet valves are of the automatic type and judging by outside appearance are of much too small diameter and too great lift. It is generally the custom where automatic valves are employed to give a lift of not more than one eighth of the diameter in order to allow of quick opening and closing at high speeds. The required port opening being given by increasing the diameter. "Make and break" ignition is employed, current while running being obtained from a direct current magneto driven by friction from the flywheel. For starting, a storage battery, not carried on the machine, is employed. For make and break spark the A. C. shuttle wound type of geared magneto is almost universally employed in automobile practice as it gives a much stronger spark". Pictures of the machine used in France by Wilbur Wright show that a Bosch high tension magneto is employed for ignition.

The method of feeding the gasoline is rather unique. A pulsometer pump placed on the right of the motor and worked by pressure from the crank case feeds the gasolene to a jet which is inside a vertical tube. This vertical tube leads to the centre of a simple horizontal manifold which opens direct to the inlet valves. No attempt is made to keep the length of the induction pipe of equal length to each cylinders as is generally done by a system of branches There is no form of throttle or method of regulating the mixture while the motor is in operation. The only method of controlling the speed is by cutting out the ignition or retarding or advancing the spark. This latter is considered "bad practice" as it tends to heat up a motor.

However, the very crudeness and large weight per H.P. of this motor only serve to emphasize the perfection to which the aeroplane has been brought and to disprove the assertion of many famous scientists that a much lighter and more powerful motor is required before aerial navigation can be an accomplished success. In fact, it looks as if the unmuffled airship motor will, soon be a thing of the past and that soon the aeroplane will be as silent as the modern automobile which will add immensely to its value for military purposes.

The use of an exterior launching apparatus has been much criticised. There is, however, much to be said in favor of its use. In the first place, by its use the machine can get much more quickly into the air. At Ft. Myer the rail employed was only seventy feet in length. It was made in ten foot lengths and could, with its supports, be set up in probably less than five minutes on any but the very roughest ground. The starting tower and weight are somewhat cumbersome. In military work this could probably be dispensed with by employing a detail of a sufficient number of men on a drag rope hitched to a fall to give sufficient speed, the power being obtained by the employment of a large number of men.

This would of course greatly reduce the weight of the launching apparatus to be transported. Under ordinary circumstances the starting weight and tower are much better as they can be handled by a small number of men.

The exact cause of the sad accident which terminated the recent Ft. Myer trials will perhaps never be definitely known. Just before the machine became unmanagable a piece of the left hand propeller blade was seen to drop. It shortly after this canted to the left and pitched forward; some maintain that it turned a complete forward somersault. After the machine landed it was seen that the rear rudder was badly damaged. It is certain that either the breaking of a propeller or the rudder would tend to cause a loss of the lateral stability, particularly the latter.

It is probable that one of the diagonal rudder guy wires in some manner got in (Continued on page 44.)

AERIAL EXPERIMENT ASSOCIATION.

The fourth aeroplane of the Association has now practically been completed and is to be called "Silver Dart." The surfaces are silvered on one side, hence the name.

The changes made in the June Bug, mentioned in the September number, have proven quite successful. The difference in stability was very marked. The machine answered the control much more readily and quickly, that the least possible movement in changing the angle of incidence of the control was necessary to preserve a flight in one horizontal plane.

In removing the tail structure altogether, simply a bamboo support was used for the rudder. The center of the rudder comes just opposite or in continuation of the propeller shaft. The old ribs have now been removed and ribs such as are used in the Silver Dart substituted. These ribs have just the single curve and are made of four plies instead of three, to obtain greater strength.

When the machine was tried with the new ribs of single curvature, and without the tail, the man moving back seven inches to make up for load removed from rear by removing the tail, on August 28, it was found that the machine would glide nicely. Approaching the place where Mr. McCurdy, the aviator, wanted to land, he shut off the motor as in former cases and expected to land where planned but the machine kept on gliding for a distance of 200 feet. Mr. McCurdy was about 15 feet in the air when the power was shut off. Of course, the controls were manipulated to keep on an even keel fore and aft. Mr. Curtiss then tried a flight and repeated the experience.

The flight of the 29th, mentioned last month, was the longest yet made by the Association. A figure "8" was described covering a distance of 2 miles.

The machine is now speedier than before and a new propeller is being used which allows the engine to turn over more slowly and yet produce more push. Here is a comparison of the old and new propellers. A is the one heretofore used in the June Bug and B is the new one.

A—Diameter, szA feet, pitch, 4.2 feet. B—Diameter, 6 feet, pitch, 4.0 feet.

Pull

R.P.M.

M.p.H. •:

A—200

1266

65

200

1266

65

B—215

1104

50.2

210

1062

49.0

These tests were made with the engine in a sling in a large closed room. Readings were taken one right after another. They seem to show that greater diameter and smaller pitch is needed.

The first of October the June Bug was dismantled and no further flights will be made with it.

On Sept. 21st, the Aerial Experiment Association held a meeting at the residence of Dr. Bell in Washington.

The first business was the appointment of Mr. J. A. D. McCurdy, as Secretary in place of the late Lieut. Thomas E. Sel-fridge, after which the following resolutions were adopted:

Resolved, that we place on record our high appreciation of our late Secretary, Lieut. Thomas E. Selfridge, who met death in his efforts to advance the art of aviation. The Association laments the loss of a dear friend and valued associate. The United States Army loses a valued and promising officer; and the world an ardent student of aviation who made himself familiar with the whole progress of the art in the interests of his native country.

Resolved, that a committee be appointed by the Chair to prepare a biography of the late Lieut. Thomas E. Selfridge for incorporation in the records of the Association.

Resolved, that a copy of these resolutions be transmitted to the parents of Lieut. Thomas E. Selfridge.

Resolved, that the members of the Aerial Experiment Association herewith extend to Mr. Orville Wright their deepest sympatic-for his grief at the death of their associate, Lieut. Thomas E. Selfridge. We realize that in this pioneering of the air, the unforeseen must occasionally be disastrous. (Continued on page 27.)

FIRST ASCENSION BY A WOMAN IN CANTON.

By Gladys M. Tannehill

After the first ascension made in this city last Spring in the balloon Ohio by Mr. Lahm as pilot, and Messrs. Blake and Mather as passengers, I was very anxious to make a flight and wished then that at sometime I might have the opportunity. When Mr. Leo Stevens extended me an invitation to accompany him on his next balloon trip in Canton, I gladly accepted it and anxiously awaited his coming.

The morning of our ascension, Sept. 24th, I was among the first at the Aero Club Park and eagerly watched the inflation of the Sky Pilot. When all was ready I stepped into the basket without hesitation or fear, as I had such perfect confidence in Mr. Stevens as a pilot. He then adjusted the ballast and gave orders for "All Hands Off." With the waving of hats and cheers from our friends and the crowds that were watching us, we started to ascend on our aerial voyage, slowly drifting toward the North. This, however, took us directly over the city, which looked like a child's play-grounds, with its cunning little street cars and toy houses.

After drifting out of this toy-land into the broad open country, I beheld the finest panoramic view I have ever seen. Altho at a great altitude, the country looked perfectly flat and with the different colored fields roads and trees it had all the appearance of a crazy-quilt.

At the height of 4,000 feet, a large red butterfly was seen fluttering around the balloon. The greatest altitude we reached was 6,500 feet, but we soon came down

and kept very close to the ground, in fact, so close that the drag rope frequently touched the tops of the trees. We could easily converse with the farmers along the way and they showed their goodwill by inviting us to land.

Four miles from Canton we descended so low that the drag rope fell upon the ground. Friends who were following us in their automobiles caught hold of it and pulled us down. After eating a lunch and procuring more ballast, we once more ascended.

Travelling slowly for about an hour, dark clouds commenced to appear in the heavens and much to my disappointment, Mr. Stevens said it would be necessary to make a landing. Before this was accomplished, we were overtaken by the storm. The wind blew very hard and changed our course entirely, carrying us directly back towards Canton. Then big drops of rain started to fall on the bag of the balloon and it sounded like rain falling on a tin roof. This was really exciting and I liked it immensely, as I had encountered no sensation throughout my entire trip, with exception of roaring in my ears. I should have liked to stay up and land outside the city limits of Canton, but Mr. Stevens' better judgment said "no," and started at once making preparations for our descent.

We made our landing in a cornfield near Cairo, seven miles from Canton, at 4:30, after being in the air almost four hours. I was delighted with the trip and if I should ever have another opportunity would be pleased to go again.

1^

watching the ascent.

THE BERLINER HELICOPTER.

Emile Berliner, the inventor of the telephone transmitter, who has been working ' for some years in aeronautics, makes public the following statement:

"I have lately constructed an experimental propeller of such power that, placed horizontally, it is capable of lifting 360 pounds in a calm straight up into the air.

thrust would be one-quarter of the lifting pressure.

"It is an accepted theory, which has been proved by practical tests, that a propeller moving forward is more efficient than when moored fast in one position. Hence, the lifting power of an aeromobile would increase in free flight."

experimental apparatus recently tested. Weight of motor 100 lbs. Lifting power in fixed position 360 lbs. Size of propeller 17 feet.

"There is no gas bag and no aeroplane; simply a motor weighing a 100 pounds, some framework, gearing and a two-bladed fan, the latter having a surface of about thirty-six square feet. Moreover, the whole apparatus, outside the seat of the operator, is entirely of steel and aluminum, and is built substantially and for practical use.

Scheme of interlocking twin propeller " aeromobile " now under construction. Wt. 500 lbs. lifting power in fixed position 720 lbs.

In order to propel the aeromobile horizontally the propeller will have to be tilted forward, and I have calculated that, while this would reduce the lifting power less than 3 per cent, the resulting forward

Generally considered, it is necessary to have two propellers revolving in opposite directions in order to steady the machine and prevent it from turning around on its own axis in a direction opposite the motion of the single propeller.

"A peculiar importance of these experiments lies in the fact that a power propeller

Scheme of propelling forward by tilting propeller. Inclination 15 deg. loss in lifting power less than .vV. Horizontal push 25V of lifting power. Tiied in actual experiment.

capable of flying straight upward with an operator would, when attached vertically to a modern aeroplane, force the latter through the air at a very high speed, probably from (Continued on page 47.)

FOREIGN LETTER.

Note:—Complete foreign news for the month is mailed abroad on the ist. It usually takes ten days for the mail from various countries to reach us. This, makes it impossible to assemble, set up, print and mail before the 20th of the month. Foreign news from the ist to the time of going to press must necessarily be cabled news and, of course, subject to errors. Any errors are corrected in the following month's issue which takes up the foreign news where it leaves off the month previous.

Austria.

A dirigible is to be constructed at last, after some bankers have efficiently headed a public subscription.

Belgium.

Baron Peter Von Crawhez has an aeroplane under construction of which the trials will be held at the beach near Ostend. It will mount a 50 h.p. motor. Adhemar de la Hault, treasurer of the Aero Club, is completing a 400 Kg. ornithopter with 100 h. p. 100 Kg. steam engine.

England.

The Dirigible II. has been deflated and its motor will be mounted in a new ship with a larger gas bag and frame. Experiments have commenced on a military aeroplane designed by Mr. Cody. Mounted on four wheels, it has made fast preliminary runs on the grounds at Aldershot. Col. Templar, former Commander of the British balloon corps made the statement on his recent trip to the United States, that several airships and aeroplanes are being secretly experimented with.

France.

wilbur wright breaks all duration and distance records for mechanical flight —both for single operator and carrying a passenger

Albthe happenings in France have recently been overshadowed, if not arrested, by the overwhelming sensation of Wilbur Wright's last records in the plains of Au-vours near Le Mans.

The following is a list of flights since those recorded last month:

Sept. 3. About 10 kiloms. in 10 min. 40

sees.

Sept. 4. Flight of 2.5 kiloms. in 2 min. 13 sees, in a wind of 19.8 kiloms. per hour, measured.

Sept. 5. Flight of 19 min. 48 sees, in a measured wind of 22-23 kiloms. per hr., at a speed of 60 kms. per hr. On same day, another of 3 min. 21 sec. in a wind of 3 meters per sec. at 57.8 km. per hr.

Sept. 10. 9 min. 10 sees.; 21 min. 43 sees.

Sept. 11. 2 min. 45 sees.; 4 min. 40 sees.: 4 mins. 50 sees.

Sept. 12. Repairing motor; one short flight of 4 min. 8 sees., and one of 6 min. 41 sees.

Sept. 16. After putting in a new magneto, the first long flight took place of 39 min. 18 sees. Later Ernest Zens, the French aviator, was taken as the first passenger for 2 min. 20 sees.

Sept. 17. A flight of 6 min. 43 sees.

1 hour, 31 minutes alone

Sept. 21. After an interruption caused by the accident to Orville Wright's machine in Washington, Wilbur Wright, recognizing the necessity of dispersing its impression, beat all records by a long perfect flight of 1 hour, 31 min. 25 sec, covering 66.6 kilom. (the actual distance with the turns being more than 90 kilom.), which served the purpose the more efficiently as it was closely watched by Mr. Henry White, the American Ambassador at France, who was equally struck by the perfection of the control and by the high speed of same. This flight won the Aero Club of France prize of $1,000 for the longest flight before Sept. 30.

Sept. 22. Three minutes on a rainy day.

Sept. 24. On a damp gloomy day with a strong gusty wind (eight meters a second) and violent squalls, a flight of 54 minutes, 3 sec. 3o|

Sept. 25. A flight of 36 min. 14 sec. in the morning; 5 min. 5 sec. in the afternoon, and then 9 min. 1 sec. carrying P. Zens as a passenger.

1 hour, 7 minutes

Sept. 28th. One hour, 7 min. 24 sec. alone; flight of 11 min. 35 sec. with M. Tissandier and 7 min. 15 sec. with Comte de Lambert.

Some time was then consumed in completely overhauling the motor and putting on somewhat broader and higher pitched propellers.

Oct. 3. The flight on this day fulfilled one-half the conditions of the Weiller Syndicate contract for a passenger was carried 55 min. 3^' sec, covering 36 miles. In the morning Wilbur Wright flew 4 min. 50 sees., 9 min. 31 sees., another short one and then one of 18 min. 24 sees. Next, one of 3 min. 21 sees, with a N. Y. Herald correspondent.

Oct. 5. Two flights; one with M. Bollee (weight 238 lbs.), the other with M. Pellier (weight 194 lbs.), as passengers.

I HOUR, 4 MINUTES WITH PASSENGER

On October 6, Wilbur Wright fulfilled the conditions imposed by the Weiller syndicate, given in the last issue, by making a second flight of more than 50 kilometers, carrying a passenger. He remained in the air 1 hour, 4 minutes, 26 seconds.

Oct. 7. Six short passenger flights. In one flight he carried Mrs. Hart O. Berg, wife of the Wrights' business representative.

Oct. 8. More passenger flights?) in the presence of Dowager Queen Marguerite of Italy, with Lieut. General Baden Powell, Count Serge Kapnokoff, Madame Bollee and Commandant Bouttieaux.

The Witzig-Liore-Dutillenl aeroplane, the inventors of which were seeking stability in a complicated grouping of multiple surfaces, was entirely wrecked at its first trial by lack of stability on Sept. 30th.

As a sign of the times, there will soon be three airships added to the French aerial squadron. The Astra Motor Company, having taken over the Surcouf balloon factory, is the constructor. They are especially interesting as a return to the original meritorious Renard system, as represented by the "Ville de Paris." One has been ordered by the French government, and very justly been named "Colonel Renard;" the others being the Bayard-Clement (3500 r.b.m., 120 h.p.), ordered by the firm of the same name, and the "Ville de Bordeaux" (3,000 e.b.m., 80 h.p.). Improvements on the original "Ville de Paris" type, stronger motors of 105 and 100 h.p., only four conically shaped stabilizing gas inflated appendages, double

air balloonet, roomy and comfortable car, made of steel tubes covered with aluminum sheeting. "Conning tower" for pilot, steel suspension and tiller ropes.

French authorities are completing two aeroplanes adapted for military use, at Cha-lais-Menclon.

Count de la Vaulx has practically finished a new dirigible for sport, to be inflated with coal gas—700 cubic meters, 16 h.p. Anzani motor 4-meter propeller, with a quadrangular frame of pine, much resembling Captain Baldwin's.

An additional "society for dirigibles" has been formed in France. The relations of the National Aeronautical League with the Aero Club of France seem very helpful, the League financing enterprises, creating prizes, holding contests, etc; the Club providing expert management. The League has already offered its first prize, one of 1000 francs.

The "Republique" has been deflated after its remarkable flight of 125 miles in 6 hrs. 30 min. against a wind of eighteen miles, and the "Lebaudy" is being improved and put into commission as a "school-ship."

Santos Dumont, after a long period of inactivity, has ordered a monoplane with a 20-h.p. Antoinette motor.

In view of the new records in mechanical flight, M. Deutsch de la Meurthe, at the urging of Commandant Paul Renard, has founded a $5,000 prize for a flight over the English Channel, open for both aeroplanes and dirigibles carrying M. Renard in addition to the pilot. An aeroplane will have fulfilled these conditions if it lands -anywhere in England, while a dirigible has to reach one of the great military camps.

On the 10th of September, an "Aeroplane Co." was founded in Paris by Delagrange, starting with a capital of $40,000. Suitable grounds have been procured near Versailles and the Voisin type with Antoinette motor is being adopted. Sheds will be erected and Delagrange will teach those who buy machines, how to fly.

delagrange makes two new records for foreign aviators.

On September 3 Delagrange renewed his experiments, making flights of 1,000 to 1,500 meters with his new 50-60-h.p. Antoinette motor. On the 5th he made 9

minutes 40 seconds for about 10 kilometers. On the 6th he beat his own distance record of 12.75 kilometers (made at Rome in April) and the duration record made by Farman (of 20 minutes 19 seconds) by a flight of 24.75 kilometers in 29 minutes 53 seconds. This is official distance. Actual distance traveled, taking into account the turns around the quadrangular course, was greater and figured a speed of 60 kilometers per hour, according to French statements.

On the 7th, in an attempt to fly at home, he made 28 minutes 1 second.

On the 17th of September he beat this again by a flight of 30 minutes 26 seconds.

farman beats delagrange and makes another record for foreign aviators.

Farman, upon his return from America, has, in his usual systematic way, first procured ideal practising grounds at the sea shore, near the dunes of Boulogne, the other inland on the wide bare plains surrounding the military camp of Chalons. He established himself at the latter place by special permission, and after long preparations flew on the 29th of September continuously for 43 minutes and tried officially to beat the Wright record, but attained only 36 kilometers, thus leaving the 5,000-fr. Aero Club prize in the possession of Wilbur Wright.

Rene Gasnier had on the same day one of the planes of his new machine break in the air and was injured in coming down.

The Malecot aeroplane-dirigible has had many successful trials during the past month. On the 19th of September, it flew over several courses marked out on the ground at Issy by M. Carton, keeping at a height of 130-190 feet. On Sept. 22, it executed a remarkable extended trip, leaving Issy at 8 a.m. and going via Malakoff and Clamart to the aeronautic park at Chalais-Meudon, regaining Issy at 9.45. In view of the trouble so many airships have had with too low center of gravity, the effect of the low-hanging passenger basket under the Malecot, must be most remarkably neutralized by the steadying tendency of the aeroplanes connected with the elongated gas bag. The Malecot displaces 1,000 cubic meters and mounts a 28-h.p. motor driving a 2.60-meter propeller at 1,000

r.p.m. It has a triangular frame, inverted if compared to the usual type, and is very well made.

Melvin Vaniman, the engineer who constructed the Wellman polar airship, has a triplane with curved surfaces 11 meters spread by 2.2 meters, and a total surface of 72 square meters. The propeller is at the rear, driven by a 70-h.p. motor.

Bleriot has resumed trials with his monoplane VIII., which has been somewhat altered. On the 8th of September he made several short flights of a minute. On the following day he made a flight of 40 kilometers an hour against a 10-12-kilometer wind. He did not come up to his 8-minute 24-second flight of July 6. On the 10th he accomplished a short flight at 40 kilometers an hour in a wind of 14 meters a second. On the 12th he had a fall which broke the machine and delayed further trials. He announces his intention of putting a 100-h.p. motor in the new machine.

Ferber made a flight of 230 meters on the 19th, but came to grief in turning. The machine was considerably damaged.

Germany.

The German military dirigible, with four men aboard, made the new world's record for a continuous flight, covering 800 kilometers, on the n-i2th of September, from the drill grounds at Tegel, Berlin, against a wind of eleven meters a second, which at times stopped all headway in spite of both motors working at full power, landing smoothly before its hangar after a voyage of 13 hours 2 minutes.

The "Parseval'' on Tuesday, Sept. 15th, broke its previous records by a continuous flight of 11 hours, with'four men on board, against a wind of 11 meters a second at 1,000 meters altitude. The Parseval III., under construction, will have two motors. Major Parseval is also constructing an ingenious aeroplane.

At the order of the Emperor, who had become interested by these recent records, the "Parseval" and the military dirigible started both for Bornstedter Feld on the 16th of September, where cavalry manoeuvres were then taking place. There was an unusually heavy wind. The military airship managed to reach its destination after

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A golden opportunity for inventors to bring their inventions before the world and attract capital.

Prizes offered in every contest, including, Gliders, Kites (both man-carrying and small), "Wind-Wagons," Models of all kinds, Flying Machines of every description, etc.

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Correspond with The Aeronautic Society.

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AERONAUTICS, 1777 Broadway, New York.

a long struggle, but found a landing impracticable and went back. The "Parseval" gave evidence that its speed possibilities had never been fathomed before, under the full power of the motor. The frame of the left rear stabilizing plane broke and a piece pierced the envelope. The descent to the grounds of a villa was sufficiently gradual and safe, and thanks to the non-rigid construction, the transporting back on a regulation army wagon was easy.

In the old shed at Manzell, the Zeppelin III. of 1907 is being overhauled, and will be taken to the floating government garage on Lake Constance, from where its flights will begin in the middle of October. It will be provided with the improved steering gear of the Zeppelin IV. The Zeppelin V. will then be laid down in the Manzell shed, while the two improved garages planned for the airships on the newly acquired grounds are expected to be ready next summer. Eight airships will be built, and are expected to be completed by fall of 1909. A remarkably practical plan was put into execution in connection with the overwhelming German propaganda that has yielded a million dollars for Count Zeppelin; teaspoons made of the aluminum of the destroyed ship are sold as souvenirs.

The big, four-propeller, semi-rigid dirigible built by the firm of Siemens & Halske, with the co-operation of Captain Von Krogh, is nearing completion. Its hangar will be at the Doeberitz drill grounds near Berlin. Secrecy is yet maintained as to details.

Count Zeppelin states that within two years his system will have been completely perfected.

The Company for exploiting the returns of the national subscription, was incorporated with a capital of $750,000, for the purpose of airship building. Baron Van Gem-mingen-Guttenberg and Baron Von Bassus have been chosen to eventually succeed Zeppelin in the management.

The Motorluftstudiengesellschaft is occupying itself with an aeroplane invented by Prof. Prandtl of the Goettinge University.

The 2,200-cubic meter varnished balloon Duesseldorf, with Captain Von Abercron and Lieut. Von Goltzheim, burst in the air on a trial trip for the Gordon-Bennett cup.

It formed itself at once into a parachute and the aeronauts escaped.

Holland.

A dirigible is under construction by the government, of which the plans are being kept secret. A Dutch engineer has also built a remarkable light and small helicopter in which the authorities are interested. Italy.

The first ascent, on Sept. 21st, of the new Italian dirigible, mentioned in last issue, was very successful. It displaces 2.500 cubic meters and mounts a Bayard motor of 80 h.p.

Russia.

An experimental dirigible of about 1,500 cubic meters displacement, with two propellers driven by a 16-18-h.p. motor, has been constructed by the military authorities and was recently seen in flight near Zar-skosselsk. A 4,000-cubic meter ship will soon be built.

Switzerland.

The Swiss National League for Aerial Navigation has been founded in emulation of Germany and France. It has headquarters in Geneva and will apply itself '''first, to raising the funds for the completion of_the first Swiss military dirigible now in the course of construction. Details were given in the September number.

THE KIMBALL HELICOPTER.

After the preliminary trials of the Kimball helicopter, which was completed at the grounds of The Aeronautic Society at Morris Park Race Track, New York, it was found that there was not sufficient clearance for the propellers and the inventor is now working rapidly on an entire new framework to contain the propellers. A full description of this unique apparatus was given in the September issue.

AERIAL EXPERIMENT ASS'N.

(Continued from page 17.) We hope sincerely that Mr. Wright will soon recover from the serious injuries he has sustained and continue in conjunction with his brother, Mr. Wilbur Wright, the splendid demonstration to the world of the great possibilities of aerial flight.

EVOLUTION OF THE "TWO-SURFACE" MACHINE

By Octave Chanute

(Continued from September number.)

After experimenting with very many models and building no less than eighteen monoplane flying model machines, actuated by rubber, by compressed air and by steam, Mr. Lawrence Hargrave, of Sydney, New South Wales, invented the cellular kite which bears his name and made it known in a paper contributed to the Chicago Conference on Aerial Navigation in 1893, describing several varieties. The modern construction is well known, and consists of two cells, each of superposed surfaces with vertical side fins, placed one behind the other and connected by a rod or frame. This flies with great steadiness without a tail. Mr. Hargrave's idea was to use a team of these kites, below which he proposed to suspend a motor and propeller from which a line would be carried to an anchor in the ground. Then by actuating the propeller the whole apparatus would move forward, pick up the anchor and fly away. He said: "The next step is clear enough, namely, that a flying machine with acres of surface can be safely got under way or anchored and hauled to the ground by means of the string of kites."

The first tentative experiments did not result well and emphasized the necessity for a light motor, so that Mr. Hargrave has since been engaged in developng one, not having convenient access to those which have been produced by the automobile designers and builders.

And here a curious reminiscence may be indulged in. In 1888 the present writer experimented with a two-cell gliding model, precisely similar to a Hargrave kite, as will be confirmed by Mr. Herring. It was frequently tested by launching from the top of a three-story house and glided downward very steadily in all sorts of breezes, but the angle of descent was much steeper than that of the birds, and the weight sustained per square foot was less than with single cells, in consequence of the lesser support afforded by the rear cell, which operated upon air already set in motion downward by the front cell; so nothing more was done with it. for it never occurred to the writer to try it as a kite and he thus missed the distinction which attaches to Hargrave's name.

Sir Hiram Maxim also introduced fore and aft superposed surfaces in his wondrous flying machine of 1893, but he relied chiefly for the lift upon his main large surface and this necessitated so many guys, to prevent distortion, as greatly to increase the head resistance and this, together with the unstable equilibrium, mad^ it evident tia&Lthe design of the machine would have to be changed.

In 1895, Otto Lilienthal. the father of modern aviation, the man to whose method of experimenting almost all* present successes are due, after making something like two thousand glides with monoplanes, added a superposed surface to his apparatus and found the control of it much improved. The two surfaces were kept apart by two struts or vertical posts with a few guy wires, but the connecting joints were weak and there was nothing like trussing. This eventually cost his most useful life. Two weeks before that distressing loss to science, Herr Wilhelm Kress, the distinguished and veteran aviator of Vienna, witnessed a number of glides by Lilienthal with his double-decked apparatus. He noticed that it was much wracked and wobbly and wrote to me after the accident: "The connection of the wings and the steering arrangement were very bad and unreliable. I warned Herr Lilienthal very seriously. He promised me that he would soon put it in order, but I fear that he did not attend to it immediately."

In point of fact, Lilienthal had built a new machine, upon a different principle, from which he expected great results, and intended to make but very few more flights with the old apparatus. He unwisely made one too many and, like Pilcher, was the victim of a distorted apparatus. Probably one of the joints of the struts gave way, the upper surface blew back and Lilienthal, who was well forward on the lower surface, Was pitched head long to destruction.

In 1896, assisted by Mr. Herring and Mr. Avery, I experimented with several full sized gliding machines, carrying a man. The first was a Lilienthal monoplane, which was deemed so cranky that it was discarded after making about one hundred glides, six-weeks before Lilienthal's accident. The second was known as the multiple winged machine and finally developed into five pairs of pivoted wings, trussed together at the front and one pair in the rear. It glided at angles of descent of 10 or 11 degrees or ■ of one in five, and this was deemed too steep. Then Mr. Herring and myself made \ computations to analyze the resistances. We attributed much of them to the five front \ spars of the wings and on a sheet of cross-barred paper I at once drew the design for I a new three-decked machine to be built by Mr. Herring.

Being a builder of bridges, I trussed these surfaces together, in order to obtain strength and stiffness. When tested in gliding flight the lower surface was found too near the ground. It was taken off and the remaining apparatus now consisted of two surfaces connected together by a girder composed of vertical posts and diagonal ties, specifically known as a "Pratt truss." Then Mr. Herring and Mr. Avery together devised and put. on an elastic attachment to the tail. This machine proved a success, it being safe and manageable. Over 700 glides were made with it at angles of descent of 8 to 10 degrees or one in six to one in seven.

The elastic tail attachment and the trussing of the connecting frame of the superposed wings were the only novelties in this machine, for the superposing of the surfaces had first been proposed by Wenham, but in accordance with the popular perception, which bestows all the credit upon the man who adds the last touch making for success to the labors of his predecessors, the machine has since been known by many persons as the Chanute type of gliders, much to my personal gratification.

It has since been improved in many ways. Wright Brothers, disregarding the fashion .which prevails among birds, have placed the tail in front of their apparatus and called it a front rudder, besides placing the operator in horizontal position instead of upright, as I did; and also providing a method of warping the wings to preserve equilibrium. Farman and Delagrange, under the very able guidance and constructive work of Voisin brothers, have substituted many details, including a box tail for the dart-like tail which I used. This may have increased the resistance, but it adds to the steadiness. Now the tendency in France seems to be to go back to the monoplane.

The advocates of the single supporting surface are probably mistaken. It is true that a single surface shows a greater lift per square foot than superposed surfaces for a given speed, but the increased weight due to leverage more than counterbalances this advantage by requiring heavy spars and some guys. I believe that the future aeroplane dynamic flier will consist of superposed surfaces, and, now that it has been found that by imbedding suitably shaped spars in the cloth the head resistance may be much diminished, I see few objections to superposing three, four or even five surfaces properly trussed, and thus obtaining a compact, handy, manageable and comparatively light apparatus.

REPORT UPON FRENCH MOTORS. By W. Rupert Turnbull.

R. M. S. Empress of India, June 30, 1908.—I am just returning from a trip in Europe, where I saw and heard much of interest in aeronautic matters. In accordance with my promise of last October I will try to give you a few notes on French aeronautic engines.

I had an interesting talk with Farman, and he told me that he did not use any radiator with his water-cooled "Antoinette," but simply carried a small quantity of water in water-jackets, etc., and allowed this to boil away, thus his runs were necessarily short.

He is not finishing his "flying-fish" at present, simply because there is no really satisfactory engine on the French market. Apparently all the French motors (particularly the air-cooled ones) give their rated horse power only for about 10 minutes, and then the horse power rapidly falls off as the engine overheats.

I did not investigate the "Renault" engine, but I do not think Farman found it as satisfactory as the "Antoinette."

Farman seems to think that the "Pelterie" is the best of the air-cooled engines, arid certainly the principle, as far as cooling goes, is rather pretty, but I visited the factory and it struck me that the engine was too complicated and delicate.

The "Farcot" engine (from the catalogue) is something like the "Renault," but I doubt if Farcot has the capital or facilities for making the engine he advertises, and I do not think it would be safe to order from him.

In my opinion the best aeronautic engine I saw was the Duteil and Chalmers (81 Ave. d'ltalie, Paris). They have patented a system of cooling, which seems to me promising. Their copper-jackets surround the cylinders, and the gasoline vapor (on its way to the combustion chamber) is passed through these, and thus keeps the cylinders cool enough. They also make air-cooled cylinders, but seem more ready to give a guarantee on the vapor-cooled type. My only objection to their engines is that they only have two cylinders (opposed), but the makers claim the engines are perfectly balanced and run without vibration.

If you decide to order any French engines, of any make, I would strongly advise that they be made on a strict contract, requiring a certain guaranteed brake horse power delivered continuously for not less than half an hour, and at a certain weight, including all accessories.

(From the Bulletins of the Aerial Experiment Association; by permission.)

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.

President: Professor Willis L. Moore.

Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.

Publication Notice.

The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine, and at the earliest date possible, bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.

In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the informal addresses of the Gordon Bennett contestants and others were concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.

The sixteenth paper is begun in this issue: "Principles involved in the Formation of Wing Surfaces and the Phenomenon of Soaring," by Professor J. J. Montgomery, of Santa Clara College.

PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN THE FORMATION OF WING SURFACES AND THE PHENOMENON OF SOARING By Prof. J. J. Montgomery

Although the subject of flight has been a constant and universal study, we find that some of the phenomena are still involved in mystery, while many others present only unexplained anomalies. This of itself would suggest the question: have the fundamental principles or laws been formulated ?

From what 1 have gleaned from the writings of the various students, I believe they have not, and this, for the reason, that because of the apparent simplicity of the phenomena we are tempted to take too much for granted and have been misguided in our trend of thought. My own studies and investigations have forced me to the conclusion, that in flight we have a special and unique phenomenon, which for its comprehension, requires something more than the simple suggestions offered by the study of surfaces acted upon by the moving air, just as the action of the gyroscope presents special phenomena which are in advance of our first ideas of rotation.

Having this view of the subject, I am forced to present it in its entirety, as I have been unable to find any researches of others, to which I could add mine as an amplification, and while brevity forbids that I should enter into the many points involved, I desire to make use of such as seem to constitute a direct and complete line of demonstration using some well known phenomena and principles, developing them in the lines peculiar to this problem.

At the Aeronautical Congress of 1893, in Chicago, it was my privilege to call attention to some phenomena that I had noted. The most significant of which is this: A current of air approaching an inclined surface is deflected far in advance

of the surface, and approaching it in a gradually increased curve, reaches it at a very abrupt angle. This phenomenon is the basis of the observations and studies that I desire to present to your Congress.

In the idea of deriving support by moving an inclined plane through thfc air, the first conception is, the reaction of a mass meeting or impinging upon an inclined surface, in consequence of which, the surface and the mass are forced in opposite directions. This idea would be complete and the resulting phenomena simple and reducible to well known formulae if the mass acting on the surface were a solid; but in the present case this is far from being so, as the mass is an almost perfect fluid, and the resulting phenomena are varied and complicated accordingly. The particles of air coming in contact with the surface are deflected as a solid mass would be, but in being driven from their course, they are forced against other exterior particles, which while deflecting the course of the first particles are themselves disturbed.

The questions presented by these considerations are: first, What is the nature of the movements of the particles due to these deflections and disturbances? Second: What form of surface is best suited for producing the original deflection, and then meeting the new conditions arising from the disturbance in the surrounding air, and third: What is the mechanical effect of the particles thus disturbed or thrown into motion. In the study of the first two questions, observation of the movements of a fluid, is the safest guide. For this observation we may use a gas or a liquid, as both being fluid, show the same phenomena and reveal the same laws; the only important difference being, that owing to the limited viscosity of a gas, its movements are more perfect and rapid than those of a liquid, whose viscosity hinders the perfectly free movement of the particles. But owing to the ease with which the experiments may be performed and the movements detected, the use of a liquid offers many advantages. For the purpose of study, I used a broad sheet of water (preferably distilled, as a slight surface tension in ordinary water prevents certain delicate movements being revealed) which by suitable means can be set in motion, giving a perfectly even stream, whose velocity is regulated at will, to make manifest the various phenomena.

The first phenomena to be noted is when the water is at rest. If a tube be placed close to and parallel with the surface, and a quick blast of air is forced through it, two opposite whirls are formed, which advance over the surface as they increase in size, fig. I. These are made manifest by very light chaff sprinkled on the surface. In passing, I may note the difference between the

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action in water and in air. If a similar puff be made in air, by which vortex rings are produced, we notice that the elements of rotation, forming a section of the ring are much smaller and more rapid than these rotations shown in water.

But if a small flat surface be placed in the water and a steady jet forced through the tube, fig. 2, two whirls are produced and maintained in front of the surface and two in the rear, while some of the rotating elements of thos"e in the rear, conflict and then blend to form a stream "c."

If the surface be placed at a small angle to the jet, as in fig. 3, there is a breaking up of the system of rotations; but that corresponding to 2 (fig. 2),

is developed and predominates. The impulse sent from this jet over the surface, simply reveals the tendency to rotation, when a stream impinges upon a surface. This tendency may or may not appear as an actual rotation according to cir-

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cumstances, as the following will show. If a plane be placed in shallow water, its lower edge resting on the bottom, and moved gently in a direction perpendicular to its surface, then stopped; four rotations corresponding to those of fig. i, will appear, which move away in the directions "c," fig. 4. Again, if this plane be moved at an angle (about 450 seems best) fig. 5, and then stopped, the two rotations corresponding to 1 and 4 (figs. 2 and 4) will have disappeared and those corresponding to 2 and 3 will remain. It will be noted that these two have the same direction of rotation; while at the same time, there is an incipient rotation in the water, as indicated by the small arrows "d."

If at the very instant of stoppage, the plane be quickly lifted from the water, the two rotations, 2 and 3, will immediately blend and form one large rotation, as shown in fig. 6.

From these experiments, we see that a surface moving a fluid has a tendency to build up rotations, which under certain circumstances will blend into one. this being retrograde, as shown in the last experiment, with the ascending element of rotation in advance of the surface. Further tests in moving water will reveal this more completely (with other interesting phenomena applicable to questions of equilibrium).

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A surface "a," fig. 7 is placed in a gentle stream "S" ; and immediately whirls will be noted in its rear, which on examination, are seen to have a syncronous movement, whose time is dependent on the velocity of the stream, and the size of the surface. At one instant the whirl "1" is developed so as to

occupy the whole space, while the whirl '2' is suppressed to a minimum. At this instant No. '1' moves in the direction "c," while No. '2' develops, and another No. '1' exists as a miniature, as shown in "b." Between these alternately escaping whirls there is a wave line, shown at "d," suggestive of the waving of a flag, (the latter phenomenon being probably due to the existance of such whirls) ; while at the same time, on the surface of the water in front of the plane, delicate lines appear, which swing from side to side with the movements of the whirls in the rear. These lines are not ordinary wave lines, but sharp distinct lines of division between the movements, etc., of the fluid immediately related to or influenced by the deflecting surface, and the rest of the fluid mass approaching it, while the whirls in the rear indicate a similar division. These and other phenomena, indicate, that, though there is a general movement in the fluid, produced by a deflecting surface, there is a distinction between that immediately related to the surface and that which is further removed.

When this plane is placed at an angle with the stream, fig. 8, the whirls continue to appear and alternately escape; No. '1,' being more pronounced and powerful than No. "2," while the stream, at "c," rises in front of the plane, and that, at "d," descends. If the planes in these two tests arc pivoted, so as to be capable of a free movement, they take up a slight swinging or rocking motion, responsive to the movements of the whirls. This movement is much more pronounced if similar tests be made by moving corresponding surfaces'through the air.

Up to this point we have seen enough to indicate, 1st; that an impulse in a fluid, tends to set up a series of rotations; 2nd ; that a surface inclined to the impulse tends to suppress some of these rotations while augumenting others, and finally to blend all into one. An analysis of these points must be omitted for brevity sake. However, this element of rotation will appear again in speaking of the proper form and adjustment of surfaces.

In determining the proper form of surface, the first suggestions are derived from the conception of a body projected in a straight line, but deflected from its course by a constant force acting at right angles; as a mass projected horizontally and pulled clown by gravity, thus describing a semi-parabola, according to the well known laws.

In fig. 9, let "a b" represent the direction and distance a mass, projected horizontally, would pass in two instants of time, "a e'' and "e b" representing equal times. But under the action of gravity, the mass will describe the curve "a h d." Drop the perpendicular "e h" to the curve, then the point "h" will mark its position at the end of the first instant; while "d" is its position at the end of the second. (Then as the work performed by gravity during the two periods of time is equal, that, performed on "a h," equals that on "h d.") But as the converse of this is true ; if "a h d" be a curve, and a mass be driven along its surface by a force "f,'' parallel with "a b," its reaction against the curve, will exert pressures perpendicular to "a b," which are equal on the two branches "a h" and "h d." While this idea affords an elementary conception, we find it does not fully satisfy the requirements of a moving fluid mass, and applies only to those particles in contact with the surface. Hence we must look to some other analysis for a full conception.

(Continued in the November number.)

Aviators are cautioned to look out for a dangerous air current over the Hackensack Meadows nearest the river. Several have had trying experiences just north of the plank road.

Helicopters have now been excluded from Central Park and those devoted to this type of machine are bringing pressure to bear on the Park Commission to restrict this discrimination.

THE EXACT DISTANCE TRAVELLED BY A BALLOON.

By Williams Welch, War Department.

Distances measured on a good map, which is made on what is called a "polyconic projection," are very close when they are near the center of the map and are short and run north and south or east and west; but there is considerable distortion near the corners of the map, and long distances measured diagonally across the map are slightly too great.

In computing distances by spherical trigonometry (as explained in "Aeronautics," July, 1908, page 38), there are some difficulties in being precise. The earth is not a true sphere, and the degrees of great circles on its surface vary in length; therefore, it is necessary in that computation to arbitrarily assume a true sphere whose circumference is equal to the mean circumference of the earth or whose surface is equal to the surface of the earth. This value is exact only at a latitude of 480 15', and varies slightly elsewhere.

The computations can be made exactly upon the spheroid; but it is useless to try to make them closer than the data upon which they are based, which is latitude and longitude. In the very best work latitude can be measured astronomically to within about to feet, but the earth wobbles 30 or 40 feet, and makes the measurements a little uncertain. Longitude cannot be measured astronomically much closer than about 25 feet. Ordinarily the errors are many times greater. Mr. Hayford, the Chief of the Computing Division of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, is of the opinion that computed distances do not differ more than one mile in 300 from the actual distances which would be ascertained if it were possible to measure them accurately in a straight line on the surface of the ground at sea level.

The greatest uncertainty is in finding exactly where a balloon lands. If aeronauts on landing would always give the (a) nearest post office, (b) county, (c) distance and direction from the nearest towns, (d) exact measured distance and direction to the nearest railroad, road, steam, shore line or other well-defined topographic features, which usually appear on maps, their place of landing might be determined very closely.

In the International Race last summer the "Pommern" happened to land in a town. There were excellent maps of both St. Louis and the town of Bradley Beach, where it landed, and the distance between the two places had been determined exactly by triangulation; so that distance was obtained exactly by triangulation; so that distance was obtained very closely. A map was sent to the postmaster and he marked the spot in the square where it landed.

The actual distance travelled can be obtained by plotting the course of the balloon on a large map and measuring it very carefully. The aeronaut's log and reports from the towns he passes enable this to be done. As a balloon usually travels at almost a uniform rate and in nearly a straight line after it gets up high, errors in time or place are readily detected.

GORDON BENNETT BALLOON RACE

As we go to press,, it is reported that the three American entries have lost. One, the balloon "Conquerer," burst at a height of 4,000 feet and the "St. Louis" landed in the Baltic Sea. Several other balloons landed in the water and a Spanish balloon burst at a height of 6,000 feet.

The American entries were: J. C. McCoy in the balloon "American II.", N. H. Arnold in the balloon "St. Louis" and A. Holland Forbes in the balloon "Conquerer."

The balloon "Conquerer" struck the fence in leaving the ground. It then ascended rapidly to a height of 4,000 feet, at which point it was seen to rip open. It quickly "parachuted" and came to earth safely about two miles away from the start.

A significant remark is reported to have been made by Augustus Post, Secretary of the Aero Club of America, who accompanied Mr. Forbes: "It has come," which suggests that Mr. Post had a premonition of an accident through some arrangements made by Mr. Forbes with respect to the balloon, objected to by Mr. Post.

The balloon "Conquerer" was built by A. Leo Stevens and has made but three flights, all of which were perfect in every particular. The system mentioned on pages 31 and 32 of the last issue as planned by Stevens to be used by Mr. Forbes in this race was not used. Mr. Forbes changed his mind about ten days before sailing and employed a system of his own.

Mr. Stevens attributes the accident to the fact that "the appendix probably became fastened is some way; and also that Mr. Forbes tried to leave the ground too heavy. On

striking the fence, too much sand was thrown out which caused the balloon to ascend to a great altitude too quickly, the gas expanding in an instant. The appendix of this balloon was 48 inches in diameter while the arrrangement to which Mr. Forbes had attached the appendix was only 2.y2 inches in diameter, not allowing the gas to pass freely. It is most important that every balloon should be untied at the appendix prior to the balloon's leaving the ground, as expansion occurs so rapidly that one has little time to untie same. The balloon had been revarnished just before the race and was in excellent shape prior to leaving America." Mr. Stevens has at least 20 balloons in use in different parts of this country and this is the first accident of its kind that has ever occurred to a Stevens balloon.

A complete record of the big race, in which 23 balloons competed, will be given in the succeeding issue.

HIGH EXPLOSIVES AS POWER FOR FLYING MACHINES.

Professor Carl Barus, of Brown University, considers the possibility of the employment of high explosives in flying machines in a recent issue of Science. He thinks that though motors have been built strong and light enough to propel an aeroplane yet the required excess of power has not yet been reached. He remarks:

"The fact that a machine of the aeroplane type built entirely of metal and canvas may be made to fly by the power of an ordinary steam-engine judiciously constructed was practically demonstrated some time ago by S. P. Langley. More would, therefore, be expected from the gas-engine, if constructed with equal forethought. I have always had some misgivings, however, as to whether these experiments, into which so much devoted labor was put actually met the real issue involved. It seemed to me that they proved that the power available in case of the ordinary engine is just about sufficient to maintain flight and no more; whereas a really practical machine should be provided with a motor whose output of work per second and per kilogram of weight could be made enormously to exceed the demands upon it, under conditions of smooth soaring.

"If one is in search of a maximum of power combined with a minimum of weight, one involuntarily looks to some form of modern explosive and in particular to those which can be worked up into wicks or ribbons. These could be adapted for use in connection with the rocket principle which has so frequently stimulated the imagination of inventors, in a way to require the least amount of subsidiary mechanism. In fact, such expansion is virtually its own propeller. The only question is, how can this quite prohibitively excessive power be controlled? In other words, how may the enormous per-second expenditure of energy be reduced in any desirable amount at will, and compatible with safety and the need of the operator?

"Now it occurred to me that in case of the nitrogen explosives there may be a method of obtaining a continuity of power values within safe limits from insignificant amounts up to the highest admissible, by using some appropriate method of very cold storage. It is well known that at sufficiently low temperatures phosphorus and oxygen cease to react on each other, that fluorin is indifferent to hydrogen, etc. Is it not, therefore, probable that an explosive tendency will be toned down as temperature decreases; or that a molecular grouping which is all but unstable at ordinary temperatures will become stable at a temperature sufficiently low and proportionately stable at intermediate temperatures? This is then the experiment which I would like to see tried, the endeavor to get a gradation of power values ending in prohibitively large maximum, by the cold storage of explosives. If it succeeds, it seems to me that a motor yielding per pound weight not only all the power needed in the flying-machine under any emergency will be forthcoming, but that large amounts of the inevitably dangerous source of such power may be taken aboard for use en route. The lower temperature of the upper air would here itself be an assistance."

Adjoining the grounds of The Aeronautic Society is Woodmansten Inn, a famous roadhouse. W. R. Kimball stored his helicopter in the Inn's shed temporarily with disastrous results for the proprietor, Mr. Beiswenger. As soon as the chef had prepared his orders, he would rush out to see the flying machine. Not a waiter could be found in the dining room when automobilists rode up. All were out at the shed. There was nothing doing in the eat and drink line till a couple of men were fired.

"Please take notice that this is the second notice to discontinue my subscription for a period. Because lack of enthusiasm and interest by capitalists and aero clubs."

John C. Reckweg.

CLUB NOTES.

Aero Club of America.

A large number of enthusiastic members of the Club were present on the morning of Sept. 24th, on the steamer Deutschland, to give their champions in the Gordon Bennett, '08, a hearty send off. Those of the team who sailed were Mr. A. Holland Forbes, Pilot of the balloon Conqueror, and his aid, Mr. Augustus Post, Secretary of the Club; Mr. Nason Henry Arnold, Pilot of the balloon "St. Louis," and his aid, Mr. Harry J. Hewat. On Saturday, October 10th, the day before the great race, the Aero Club of America cabled its representatives its final best wishes for success. Each pilot carried with him a Club flag to fly from his balloon.

The sympathies of the Club were wired the parents of Lieutenant Selfridge, and a committee was appointed to represent the Club at the Lieutenant's funeral, consisting of A. F. Zahm, Alexander Graham Bell, William J. Hammer, Geo. Oakley Totten, Jr., and Gutzon Borglum. A large flora! piece was sent by the Club. The sympathies of the Club and offer to assist in any way possible were also sent to Orville Wright.

The following names have been proposed for membership: H. Fahrman, Alfred WagstafT, Jr., Harry J. Hewat, Emerson Raffe and Lewis P. Strang.

Aero Club for Hartford.

Charles J. Glidden has just founded an aero club in Hartford, Conn., at the first meeting of which A. Leo Stevens, the balloon builder, was present. The new club is composed of prominent business and manufacturing men of Hartford, and the president is Hiram Percy Maxim, the inventor of the noiseless gun and son of Sir Hiram Maxim of England, whose wonderful flying machine of years ago will be remembered by those interested in the art. Hiram Percy Maxim has been a member of the Aero Club of America almost since its inception.

Aero Club of Denver,

A new aero club is now being formed in Denver, Colo., to be called the Aero Club

of Denver. A large and influential membership is being enrolled, and it is anticipated that within a week or so the Club will be organized and will then elect its directors and other officers.

The Club has secured the right to use Overland Park, a magnificent sight, for trials and as a starting place for ascensions.

Though the main object of the Club is to encourage aeronautics generally, special endeavors will be made in regard to heavier-than-air machines.

It is the intention of the Club to purchase a balloon so that its members may learn to appreciate the charms of that sport. At the same time an aeroplane-helicopter is to be built by the Club according to the designs of one of its members.

The organizers of the Club are Mr. John M. Cage, the inventor of the Cage Submarine Boat, and Mr. H. N. Spicer.

The Aeronautic Society.

During September a catapult, similar to that used by the Wright Brothers in launching their power machine, has been erected in the in-field of the Morris Park race track for the launching of gliders. By this means, exact data can be secured. The propelling force can be definitely measured and is invariable. This known, the changes in the machine can be considered as advantageous or otherwise by the direct results secured.

Thirty new members have been admitted to membership and several will be acted upon at the next meeting. Meetings are regularly held every Wednesday evening at the club house on the grounds.

There are two full-sized machines at the grounds—the helicopter, of Wilbur R. Kimball, and the monoplane of C. W. Williams. After several trials in running the propellers on the Kimball machine, a new framework containing same is being built which will give more clearance for. the screws. The engine has been working beautifully. The Williams monoplane is nearly ready for trial.

One enthusiastic new member is erecting a machine shop for personal use which he

will donate to the Society after the completion of a pretentious machine which an experienced engineer is to build for him. Details are not available at the present time. In addition to this machine, during October several others will be started.

The roofs of two of the sheds are now being repaired and the sheds will be enclosed to securely house the machines for the Winter while work is being done on them.

All efforts of the members are now being devoted to the various numbers of the exhibition to be held Election Day, Nov. 3.

exhibition.

Arrangements have been completed with the Federation of American Motorcyclists Meet Club to hold their three National championship races under the auspices of The Aeronautic Society in connection with their exhibition and tournament on Election Day. There will be three races of 1, s and 10 miles, respectively, for the championship of the United States. Valuable gold prizes are offered and the contestants will consist of the best riders in the country, the president, Earle L. Oving-ton, asserting that every mile will be covered in less than a minute.

There is expected to be not less than six full, sized apparati present on the day of the exhibition. In the meantime it is expected that two of these will be making successful flights.

To insure the success of this feature, or number, of the program, the Aerial Experiment Association has been asked to exhibit the June Bug and the Silver Dart in actual flight over ,the large course. The consent of the members of this Association depends upon Dr. A. Graham Bell's acquiescence. It is hoped that this consent will come soon, as it will insure a field day for Mr. Curtiss, who is to contest in the motorcycle races, and is desirous of flying in one of the other aeroplanes. Mr. McCurdy would probably fly the other.

There will also be a division for wind-wagons. Prof. W. H. Pickering, of Harvard University, has kindly offered and presented the Society with his historic man-propelled wind-wagon. Dr. J. P. Thomas has entered his wind-wagon in the contest.

Renault Freres agrees to fit up a chassis with propellers, and other auto manufacturers will be represented. This contrast cannot well be divided into classes, obviously. The speed attained by each machine will be considered in selecting the winner, with relation to the horsepower used, the friction with the ground, the weight, size and pitch of propellers, etc.

chanute prize.

For the gliding contests Mr. Octave Chanute has honored the Society by offering two valuable prizes, first and second, for the longest glide. Four members of the Society are now building gliders to take part. These will all be launched from the catapult.

A series of kite flights will be held, both man-carrying and other. A number of entries have already been received for this division. There is also promised a sort of "kite game," played by the Chinese, in which each kite is equipped with a sharp knife, and the object of the contest is to cut the other fellow's string.

Prizes will also be offered for the best photographs taken from kites or balloons.

Power and non-power models will enter into competition, classed according to weight, size, power, etc., along the lines of the rules adopted at the very successful model competition of the Aeronautique Club de France held this Spring. At this, such well-known men as M. Archdeacon gave prizes and judged the contests.

In endeavoring to show all phases of travel by air, a historical exhibition will be made of hot-air ascents, with parachute drops. These will be for a prize offered by A. Leo Stevens.

An interesting feature, which illustrates the development of the explosive motor, will be the demonstration made of the Thomas New York-Paris car by its famous driver, George Schuster. It will be remembered that the Thomas car won the long race and circled the globe in its journey.

Mr. William J. Hammer is now in Washington making arrangements for the United States Weather Bureau to give a demonstration of by sending up sounding balloons and kites, of their methods of obtaining meteorological data for weather forecasting.

. ■ , dirigibles.

There will be hung up a $i,ooo prize for a 5-mile dirigible contest. Two owners have • already given their consent to take part., and the entries are still open for this most interesting feature.

If the plans of the Society are carried out, th,$;_event will prove a wonderful stimulus to the Art. It will enable the public in the vicinity of New York to see the flights about which they have been reading. It will giye a general view of the. subject and show,,the great amount of effort being put oftijt by serious-minded inventors. The exhibition of motors,, bearings, castings, metal tubing, magnetos and all material which enters into, the construction of apparatus designed for aerial locomotion, will have an educational effect upon the large number, of people who are expected to be present.

The event will afford opportunity alike for the manufacturer of light motors and other items applicable and for the inventor who is so anxious to have those likely to become interested in his idea see a tangible illustration. The successful flight of small models should be of immense value to their owners.

The Society is anxious to hear from any one who may have any kind of apparatus, gliders, models, kites, and so forth, or other material, in any way relating to aerial locomotion. Communications should be addressed to the secretary, Morris Park Race Track, Westchester, New York City.

No such extensive plans have ever been laid by any organization for an exhibition and no exhibition has ever taken place covering such a large field. If a success, the affair certainly will be of advantage to the Art. It ought to be a success.

A banquet will be given on Election Day at Woodmansten Inn, across the track from the club house.

Aero Club of New England.

The annual meeting and banquet of the Club will be held Nov. 21st, the 125th anniversary of the first ascension of man in a balloon; time and place to be announced.

The Membership Committee will meet previous to the meeting to act upon applications. Friends of members desiring to

join the Club should send in their applications at once, as it is intended to limit the membership.

Members are requested to write to the Secretary stating the number of ascensions made to date, that they may be recorded and published in the Club's Annual. The following form can be used in reporting ascensions in the past and future:

Ascension No.....................

Date .............................

Balloon ..........................

From ............................

To ..............................

Time up ........................

Time down .....................

Time in air.......................

Miles ............................

Air line ..........................

Altitude ..........................

Passengers .......................

Pilot .............................

The Club's balloon, "Boston," has made 15 ascensions and is in excellent condition. It is now located at Springfield.

The Committee on Balloons. Parks and Ascensions has designated Pittsfield and North Adams as suitable places for ascensions in balloons of 50,000 cubic feet capacity; Springfield for the "Boston" of 35.000 cubic feet capacity and Fitchburg for one of 20,000 cubic feet capacity; while excellent facilities are also offered at Nashua and Lowell.

The Committee anticipates that the demand for ascensions will necessitate the purchase of two balloons, one of 50,000 cubic feet to be called the "New England" and one of 20,000 cubic feet to be called the "Fitchburg." The cost of leaving the ground in the balloons would be as follows:

(Exclusive of cost of using balloon.)

"Fitchburg," two persons.............$18.00

"Boston," three persons..............$31-50

"New England," four persons........ 45-00

To increase the interest in aerial navigation a half dozen members should qualify as pilots to be ready to take members into the air in 1909.

The Modern Version—If at first you don't succeed, fly, fly again.—G. H. Kerr.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

NEW YORK'S LEADING MANUFACTURER

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will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revaruishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

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A TEXT-BOOK OF AERIAL ENGINEERING

TIMELY BOOK

THE PROBLEM OF FLIGHT,

By HERBERT CHATLEY, B.Sc. (Engineering), LONDON Lecture in Applied Mechanics, Portsmouth Technical Institute SIXTY-ONE ILLUSTRATIONS OCTAVO CLOTH, $3.50 NET

The author takes advantage of the encouraging outlook for a practical solution to the problem of aerial navigation and in this work submits to the engineering profession an epitome of the knowledge at present available on the subject.

While intende I especially for the engineering profession, the book should be of value to any one interested in a topic that is receiving so much studv and attention at the present time.

OUTLINE OP CONTENTS—The Problem of Plight, Essential Principals, The Helix, The Aeroplane, Avlplanes, Dirigible Balloons, Form and Pipings of the Airship.

An appendix furnishes much instructive miscellaneous information.

AERONAUTICS

H. S. ORR

OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHER OF " AERONAUTICS " and THE NORTH ADAMS AERO CLUB

Photographs of all Ascensions at Pittsfield and North Adams

POSTCARDS lO CENTS Box 501. North Adams, Mass. For Sale also at "Aeronautics"

No collection is complete without

BALLOONING AS A SPORT

By Major B. Baden Powell President of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain

A hand-book of ballooning; a guide for the amateur

PRICE $1.10 AEIRONAUTIOS

THE NATIONAL HILITARY WEEKLY $3.00 a year

General James A. Drain, Editor

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ASCENSIONS.

Aug. 22. Unrecorded last month. William F. Whitehouse, Norman Whitehouse and Sumner K. Gerard and William Baldwin left St. Cloud at 10 a.m., landing at the German frontier at 2 o'clock. Rained most of the time. Started with six bags and landed with none. Mr. Whitehouse reports: "Broke some railroad telegraph wires at a place called Rethel, so went on further, as the officials seemed excited." Naturally. Greatest altitude, 7000 feet.

Sept. 2. William Van Sleet, Oscar S. Hutchinson and Frank Smith left Pittsfield at 10.30 a.m. and landed at South Deerfield, Mass., at 2 p.m. Distance, about 30 miles, and highest altitude, 9,000 feet.

Sept. 2. Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, Lieut. Foulois and Lieut. T. Selfridge left Fort Myer in the Signal Corps, No. 12, at 8.30 a.m., landing 4 hours 30 minutes later at Pocomoke, Va., a trip of 100 miles. The balloon was filled with hydrogen and has a capacity of 540 cubic meters. It is one of those recently supplied the Signal Corps by Capt. T. S. Baldwin.

first race for canton.

Sept. 7. J H. Wade, Jr., Dr. Sigler and A. H. Morgan left Canton, O., in the Sky Pilot at 12.15, landing five miles east of Kimbolton, O., at 4.15, a distance of 50 miles.

Sept. 7. Dr. H. W. Thompson, of Salem, O., Louis H. Brush and J. N. Blake left Canton in the "Ohio'' at 12.17, and came down near Sewellsville, O.

These two ascensions make the first balloon race of the Aero Club of Ohio. Dr. Thompson's balloon made a couple of miles greater distance.

The story of the trip, as related by Louis H. Brush, one of the Ohio's passengers, follows :

"When the Ohio cut loose at Canton it rose to an altitude of 5,000 feet, drifting off to the south. When about five miles away, it ran into a cold current and dropped to about 300 feet when we had an unusual occurrence. Our drag rope caught at the end in the wires of a telephone line. Spectators cut the rope at our request and the balloon shot up to an altitude of 9,000 feet. During

the balance of the trip the altitude varied from six to twelve thousand.

"After leaving North Industry, we passed over Sparta, Mineral City, New Philadelphia, Dennison, Tippecanoe, Freeport, Smyrna and landed after a three hours' trip at the Dessie Kirk Farm in Kirkwood township, Belmont county, a distance of 49 miles on a direct line from Canton, 20 miles due west from Wheeling.

"The greater part of the trip was above the clouds, and we could only see the earth during occasional breaks in the vapor masses. At one time we were entirely enveloped in the clouds, could see nothing below and only the ropes leading up into space. The balloon above our heads was completely hidden. However, to our surprise, instead of the cloud being cold, it was extremely hot, the thermometer registering 98 degrees. This caused, of course, an expansion of the gas and it shot up over 12,000 feet.

"Words are lacking to fitly describe the grandeur of the cloud panorama spread out below us. The clouds look like mountains of pure white snow and ice, and with the blue sky above we seemed to be traveling in a yacht sailing in the deep blue ocean. Now and then the balloon's shadow would create ringed rainbows, their iridescent hues being most beautiful. Then stretching away as far as eye could reach was one glorious mass of green. There was the darker side of the forest trees and farm lands, and over it all from our point of view far from the earth was seen the magnificent effect of the sun on the clouds and the marvelous expanse visible from our tremendous altitude.

"Dr. Thompson sustained his reputation as a skilful pilot. This trip makes his 98th ascension in the air. If it had not been for the unfortunate incident at North Industry when he was compelled to waste two sacks of sand, he would have easily made another 50 or 60 miles before landing. When he decided to land the 'Ohio' was at equilibrium at about 7,000 feet and traveling at 20 miles the hour."

It was the aim of the aeronauts in the "Sky Pilot" at all times to travel low, the

highest altitude they reached at any time being 6,200 feet. They passed the "Ohio" at North Industry, O., where the latter balloon was held up by their drag rope becoming caught in the telegraph wires.

They finally came down on the farm of D. S. Patton, near Kimbolton.

Some difficulty was experienced in making the landing on account of the dense woods, but eventually a safe descent was made in a clearing, and after spending the night with a family named Ellis, Messrs. Wade, Morgan and Sigler took the train at Kimbolton and returned home.

Dr. Sigler and Mr. Morgan express the greatest commendation for Mr. Wade's work in piloting the "Sky Pilot" on the trip, which went through without mishap.

Sept. 8. Albert Bond Lambert and H. E. Honeywell made an ascent in a balloon from the gas tank at Second and Rutger streets, St. Louis, at 4.52 p.m., and landed safely near Creve Coeur Lake about 7 o'clock at night on a farm about twenty miles west of the city. When the city limits were reached the aeronauts cast out sand and ascended to a height of about 5,000 feet and cast out their trail rope. By this means they were aide to make several landings before they finally descended. They returned to the city on the street cars after packing the balloon, which they left on the farm.

The start was made without mishap. Mr. Honeywell arrived in an automobile about 3 o'clock, and the inflation was begun almost immediately. At 4.52 p.m. they let go, and ascended to a height of about 1,000 feet. There they struck a current of wind which carried the big bag almost due west.

A. B. Lambert is the first of the members of the Aero Club of St. Louis to win a pilot's license. He qualified a>- a practical balloon pilot by making several ascensions in and near Paris. This .was his first flight in the United States.

Sept. 10. Charles J. Glicldcn and H. Helm Clayton left Springfield in the "Boston" at 12.38 a.m., landing at Bridgewater, Mass., at 5.23 a.m. Duration, 4 hours 45 minutes. Distance, 82 miles. Altitude. 3.300 feet.

Mr. Clayton, upon his arrival in Boston, told of some very interesting as well as important details of his balloon trip. During the journey a sextant was used in deter-

mining the speed made, the first time such an instrument has been so utilized in this country. It was especially designed for the purpose in Germany. "We found that our rate of progress varied from fifteen to twenty miles an hour," said Mr. Glidden, "and we were able to corroborate our observations by timing our distance between familiar points. The new method marks an advance over anything of the kind which has yet been attempted. The course did not vary greatly from a straight line, and we passed over Worcester on our way. In all we travelled a distance of from ninety to one hundred miles, while in an air-line East Bridgewater is about eighty miles from Springfield. As is usual, we found that the temperature dropped until we reached a height of one thousand feet and rose as we approached two thousand feet, above which it again decreased. We were but a short time at this altitude.

"A feature of the trip was the echo which we obtained. On one occasion, on passing over a town, Mr. Glidden called down: 'What place is this?' and we heard the echo reply very distinctly.

"The flight was filled with most interesting incidents. When we were close to the ground we heard very plainly the whip-po'-will and occasionally the cries of startled crows as they saw us pass over them. We also heard the sound of the katydid, which came to us in a soft and soothing sound, as the night was so quiet.

"At dawn we could hear the rumble of farmers' wagons on their way to market, and Mr. Glidden called to a man whom he saw driving a pair of horses. He yelled several times, but the man made no response. The man finally yelled 'whoa' to his horses and remained as if frightened. I bet he thought he had heard spooks as I do not believe he made out the balloon at all. I used a flashlight to make my astronomical readings. We saw nothing of the other balloon.

"The flight verified my experience that in the early morning the prevailing air currents are to the Southeast."

Mr. Clayton, who made his first balloon trip less than a year ago, when he was one of the crew of the German balloon Pommern, which won the Gordon Bennett cup

race from St. Louis last October, has now made ascensions totalling a distance of 1,020 miles.

Sept. 10. William Van Sleet and Dr. S. S. Stowell left Pittsfield in the "Heart of the Berkshires" at 12.15 a.m., and landed in Kingston, Mass., at 5.25 a.m., half a mile from the ocean. This balloon landed within 15 miles of the "Boston," in which were Messrs. Glidden and Clayton, and only a few minutes apart. The distance traveled by the "Heart of the Berkshires" is given as 136 miles.

Sept. 11. Charles J. Glidden and Hon. John Barrett left Springfield in the "Boston" at 4.45 p.m., landing at Stafford, Conn., at 6.30 p.m. Duration, 1 hour 45 minutes. Altitude, 2,100 feet. Distance, iS miles.

Sept. 12. A. H. Morgan and J. H. Wade. Jr., made a night ascent from Canton, O., in the "Sky Pilot," leaving at 11 p.m., and landing at 6 a.m. the following "morning two miles south of Lewisville, O., a distance of about 100 miles. The smoke from forest fires was so dense that the aeronauts could not see the earth from the time of starting until the landing.

Sept. 15. Charles J. Glidden and Prof. W. H. Pickering left Fitchburg, Mass., in the "Boston" at 3.55 p.m., landing at Win-chendon at 5.17 p.m. Distance, 13 miles. Altitude, 3,700 feet. This was the first ascension for Fitchburg and was witnessed by about twenty thousand people.

Sept. 17. Charles J. Glidden, Dr. Charles T. Clifford and Alfred R. Shrigley, Secretary of the Aero Club of New England, left Nashua, N. H., in the "Boston" at 5.15 p.m., and landed at Chelmsford, Mass., at 6 p.m., after a trip of 45 minutes. Distance, 18 miles. Altitude, 1,700 feet.

Mr. Glidden's total aerial mileage is 677, and duration 39 hours 50 minutes.

Sept. 18. Dr. R. M. Randall and Frederick Wallace left Fitchburg in the "Grey-lock" at 3.20, and landed near Providence, R. I., at 5.40 p.m. The distance is given as 70 miles.

Sept. 19. Hon. C. S. Rolls, Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, Professor Lowell, Captain Cloman and the Hon. Mrs. Ilarbord made an ascent from Chelsea, England, in the

"Valkyrie," Mrs. Harbord's balloon, at 2.50. A temporary landing was made to communicate with some friends who were following in a motor car. The balloon was then allowed to rise steadily and continuously while observations of the falling temperature were recorded. Eventually at 4,000 feet the bottom layer of clouds was reached and at 5.500 feet the aeronauts emerged into bright sunshine.

Seas and mountains of cloud lay all around, the peaked clouds on the horizon having exactly the appearance of the Arctic regions; the sky above them was a rich dark blue, while below them was the shadow of the balloon clearly set out on the cloud surface.

Several times the aureola was seen—a phenomenon of rare occurrence known only to aeronauts and consisting of a halo of coloured rings encircling the shadow of the balloon on the clouds.

Some interesting meteorological observations were made and photographs taken, after which a descent was decided on to verify the position of the balloon since the last sight of land.

A landing was made for tea at Shephal-bury Park, near Stevenage, the partj' being most hospitably entertained by Colonel and Mrs. Heathcote, after which the travelers again entered their balloon and continued their journey till dark, the third and final landing being made at Hitchen at 7 p.m.

The distinguished astronomers were enthusiastic over their trip and at once applied to join the British Aero Club.

Sept. 22. Charles J. Glidden and W. C. MacBrayne left Lowell, Mass., in the "Boston" at 4.38 p.m., landing at Pelham, N. H., at 5.41 p.m. Distance, 9 miles, for a flight of 1 hour 3 minutes. There was no wind at 2,800 feet; 15 miles an hour at 1,300 feet.

Sept. 21. G. L. Bumbaugh and R. F. Donaldson left Springfield, O., in the "Springfield." at 10.25 a.m., landing 2 hours and 15 minutes later near Petersburg, a distance of 40 miles.

Sept. 22. A. Leo Stevens, W. R. Tim-ken, John Rommel, J. G. Obermayer, C. A. Dougherty and H. M. Naugle left Canton. O., in the "All American" shortly before 1 p.m. The landing was made at 4.10, after

covering about 40 miles. One descent was made. After reascending the balloon came near Akron, then turned back over the same course. The wind was increasing and a landing was made to avoid a coming storm.

Sept. 24. A. Leo. Stevens and Miss Gladys Tannehill left Canton, O., in the "Sky Pilot" at 11.45 a.m., landing at 4.30 p.m. at Cairo. There was very little breeze and a landing was first made at 2.30; then they reascended and continued. Four hours were spent in the air. The flight was for a silver trophy offered by Messrs. Wade and Morgan, mentioned in a previous issue. Miss Tannehill is the first Canton woman to make an ascent.

Sept. 25. A. H. Morgan ascended from Canton in the "You and I" at 11 a.m. This makes nine flights for Mr. Morgan. Only one more is necessary to qualify as pilot.

five trips at one filling.

Sept. 25. A. Leo Stevens made an ascent in the "U & I" with the same gas used by Mr. Morgan. Mr. Stevens followed the trip of Mr. Morgan in an automobile. When the latter landed, Stevens jumped in instead and made ten miles more, when the second landing was made. This time Mr. Stevens left the basket and Miss Gladys Tannehill took his place, making alone her second ascent.

After a short run she in turn descended and her uncle and grandfather climbed in and traveled still a little further, the automobile following. Thus five people consecutively used the same balloon on the same day in the same trip.

Mr. Morgan made seven miles, Mr. Stevens ten and the others just short distances. There was little wind.

Sept. 30. Charles J. Glidden and Henry A. Morss left Springfield in the "Boston" at 2:35 p.m., landing at Grandby 1 hour and 50 minutes later after a trip of 12 miles. Altitude 3,250 feet. This makes 21 ascensions for Mr. Glidden.

Sept. 26. J. H. Wade, A. H. Morgan and A. Leo Stevens left Canton and landed at Akron, a distance of 22 miles. The trip lasted four hours. Messrs. Morgan and Stevens were scheduled to make another trip but it had to be postponed on account of a storm.

SOME CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF THE WRIGHT AEROPLANE.

(Continued from page 16.)

the path of the propeller blades, got tangled up in the blade, which snapped from the strain. This would account for the breaking of the rudder and the propeller.

The accident has led to much criticism of the use of twin propellers. The advocates of single and tandem propellers claiming that in case of a break of one of the propeller blades of either single or tandem screws there would be no tendency to swing round in a circle thus tending to destroy the lateral equilibrium. While this tendency to swing in a circle doubtless did contribute to the cause of the accident, it seems reasonable to suppose that the loss of control of the rear rudder had at least an equal share. It is extremely likely that if the rear rudder of a similar machine to that used at Ft. Myer, but fitted with tandem or a single propeller, had been disabled that the result might have been the same. Twin propellers, moreover, have decided advantages over singles or tandems owing to greater efficiency, considering the limitations of an aeroplane, and also to lack of effect on the lateral stability. It would therefore seem that the points to be observed to prevent a recurrence of a similar accident would be to so design and construct the framing that there will be absolutely no danger of either guys or stays coming in contact with the propellers and also to make these latter of as strong a construction as is possible having due regard to lightness.

PATENTS.

Wilson. No. 897,504, Sept. 1; Schiarone, No. 897-666, Sept. 1; Wolff, No. 898,081, Sept. 8; Steinhaus, No. 899,350, Sept 22; Silverton, No. 900, 041, Sept. 29.

A. Leo Stevens has sold a 70,000 cubic foot balloon to the Aero Club of New England through Chas. J. Glidden. Another one has been sold to the newly organized Hartford club.

COMMUNICATIONS.

To the Editor:

I read with interest the article in regard to soaring in the September number. Articles of this kind seem relatively quite frequent and one does not go any farther than the other, while articles dealing with the principle of the observed phenomena, are comparatively few. Countless varieties of birds and bugs and insects are able to fly at will where they desire by their own power, but only a very few are able to soar by the "power of the wind" to wherever they want to go and these few must "learn to soar" though they are endowed by nature with perfect soaring machines. Sidewise flying by humanly devised motor propelled machines, is comparatively easy and has been accomplished, but flying without any motive power is the supreme achievement. No one can ever reasonably expect to accomplish soaring without knowing the principle of the feat—much less build a machine for that purpose, and I would call your attention (purely from an interest in the subject) to my article on the subject which appeared in the correspondence column of the Scientific American Supplement No. 1554, October 14, 1905. After three years I cannot see but that the article is, in the main, absolutely correct though in two points it is not correct and I would like to see if your readers can find these two points of error. Once get the principle of the thing, and it will be easy to soar in a perfectly horizontal wind with a properly designed machine as I said in 1905 and again repeat.

H. PI. Wixon, 3514 S. California Ave., Chicago, 111.

Editor's Note—The article mentioned by Mr. Wixon covers nearly a page in the Scientific American Supplement. We regret that lack of space prevents our printing the article. The Supplement can be obtained from the Scientific American, 361 Broadway, N. Y., at ten cents. The article is very interesting, and we would suggest obtaining it.

To the Editor:

Referring to Mr. Lancaster's article in the September number: Mr. Lancaster is a

great observer and gives the details with exact accuracy and I wonder why he did not detect the soaring power while he was so near the soaring object. A Frigate Bird or any other bird which is heavier in weight, uses a greater soaring circle than his lighter weight companion as the physical laws of other moving objects can be applied to the birds.

In Coney Island is a "Loop the Loop" which makes a circle from the received momentum of gravity and the weight of car and occupants carries it around a circle. If the weight would be smaller, the circle would have to be smaller or the momentum force would die out before the highest point would be reached; where if the weight would be so much greater of car and occupants, the circle could be larger as the much heavier weight maintains the received momentum so much longer.

When a Frigate Bird starts to circle in soaring, he also receives a great momentum going with the wind and this momentum in connection with his soaring power carries him around in a circle. He receives of the wind a new momentum by every turn and the received momentum of a light bird dies out sooner as the one of a heavier bird and that is why a heavier bird, always, in line of laws of nature, uses a larger circle. Birds ascending, circle in a smaller radius. If they want to remain in the same altitude, they use a certain radius to suit their weight and use a greater radius by descending slowly. Birds of very light weight, use a small soaring circle while birds of heavy weight use a very large soaring circle which always corresponds with the received momentum of a certain velocity of the wind and the resistance going against the wind until the next rounding where they receive again the new momentum. A heavier weight maintains the momentum for a longer period of time than a small weight, so the momentum law is with birds the same as on other moving objects only that they combine soaring and momentum for a successful flight—R. Dressier, West 8th Street, Coney Island.

To the Editor:

In my paper on the soaring birds, no reason was given for the soaring action, for the reason that I was then totally ignorant of the cause of that action.

That cause is the transformation of the weight of the bird into a pressure. Simply the substitution of one force for another.

Weight has no component but brings the bird down. Air pressure acts in all directions indifferently. It is very wasteful of force this soaring method, and probably nine-tenths of all the air pressure is wasted, but as soaring would be impossible if weight were not transfc med, we get the navigation of the air on very cheap terms.

I. Lancaster, Fairbone, Ala.

NOTES.

The Parrott Aerial Navigation Company has been incorporated in Seattle for $250,000, and is now selling stock at $1.00 per share. They are to build a machine to sail from there to "New York in 70 hours." The gas bag or retainer is to be made of metal, 200 feet long, driven by a new model of reversible propellers, operated by a 120 h.p. engine weighing 187 lbs. This machine is to carry five passengers.

Mr. Hugh L. Willoughby, a prominent member of the Aero Club of America, will shortly start work upon an aeroplane at his winter home at Sewall's Point, Florida. This work will be based partly upon a model which he constructed in 1888 and partly from observations made in the intervening years.

Mr. L. G. Mecklem, of Seattle, has constructed and successfully operated a dirigblc for exhibition purposes. The bag is 63 feet long, 17 feet diameter at the center; its shape might be described as a true spindle. Is made of Chinese silk, varnished with his own flexible varnish. The frame is 40 feet long, carrying a car containing motor, clutch, and reversing gear. Frame, car and propeller blades are made of white pine and Alaska cedar. The motor is two cylinder Curtiss, the clutch and reversing gear made by himself. With this machine he has now made many flights, all of which

were successful and most of which were return flights. It is to be considered that a part of every one of these flights was made over water and all in winds from 5 to 18 miles per hour; this is a remarkable record.

On the showing made by this machine, he has received two contracts to build machines for other people, one to be a three passenger outfit, 130 feet long, 26 feet diameter, to be equipped with a 40 h.p. motor. The other machine, is to be a small exhibition outfit driven by foot and hand power.

On July 19th, he made a trial flight in an aeroplane built in Seattle by M. Vorroun. The machine worked beautifully until one of the control cords parted, letting the forward part of the aeroplane start towards the ground and finally causing the whole machine to turn over and light on its back from a heighth of about 60 feet, completely wrecking it. Mr. Mecklem escaped without a scratch. The length of flight was 461 yards, in about 36 seconds at an average height estimated at 50 feet.

On Thursday, October 8, the Philadelphia Inquirer made a name for itself. Lincoln Beachey with his dirigible, named for the occasion "The Inquirer Airship," delivered a message to Rear Admiral Marix on board his flagship Idaho anchored in the Delaware River. After circling over the streets, Beachey headed over the river for the fighting tower of the battleship where an expectant sailor stood ready to catch the envelope. The feat was successfully accomplished in spite of the strong wind, and the return made. The week ending October 10 was "Founders' Week," celebrating the founding of Philadelphia by William Penn.

A weekly journal of aeronautics, called "l'Aero," has made its appearance in France, edited by M. Fafiotte, with offices at 198 rue de Courcelles, Paris. The subscription price is 8 francs.

Wm. Haggerty, of Baltimore, is working on an aeroplane. The same is true of Milton Smith in Washington, and of Ernst and Claude Lloyd and Edward E. Harbert, of Elgin, 111.

NOTES

What is an aerodrome? Dr. Bell has always used the word to mean the machine. Langley used it in the same sense. Air. Willoughby takes exception to the Wright machine being an "aerodrome" with superimposed aeroplanes." He says: "The President of the St. Louis Exposition called the balloon house an 'aerodrome,' which was quite correct. If we draw an analogy from our word 'hippodrome' the application of the word aerodrome seems naturally to follow. 'Hippodrome' is derived from the Greek 'hippus,' a horse; and 'dromos,' a course. Or, a place in which horses are kept and raced. An aerodrome should be an enclosure where airships are kept and operated."

Mr. Willoughby asks also why the word "airship" can not be equally well applied to spherical balloons, dirigibles, aeroplanes, helicopters, etc., and not to dirigibles only. "Do they not all navigate the air?"

Our own idea is that "navigation" as applied to aerial locomotion is not good, despite the fact that Century dictionary says the word "navigate" is "also used by extension, in all its senses, of balloons and their use, and colloquially of other means and modes of progression." Xote the characterization "colloquially."

We agree that "aerodrome" ought to be the "course," and perhaps the building as well.

Another trans-ocean balloon voyage— Last month we stated that the Philadelphia project for crossing the Atlantic by balloon was not dead. Dr. Frederick J. Fielding, founder of the aero club at San Antonio, Texas, with H. E. Honeywell, the St. Louis balloon builder, has ordered a monster balloon from the latter. A trial will be made first from San Antonio.

The Aeronautical Society, of England, is arranging to have experimental grounds for its members.

Robert James Dinning, Jr., is organizing the Aero Club of Omaha.

John Berry, of St. Louis, is now building the motor for his dirigible.

In Chicago, Horace B. Wild, whose gallant fight in his dirigible at the St. Louis races last year, many will remember with pleasure, is hard at work building an aeroplane. Others in the same city, Carl Bates, Ray Harroun and J. C. Scott, are likewise working on aeroplanes.

Ernest F. Sitts, of Mohawk, N. Y., would like to borrow a 7 h.p. motor to try in his aeroplane which is now complete. His small model flew 30 feet with clock-work power.

An aero club is being planned for Cincinnati.

The balloon donated by Col. Pabst to the Milwaukee Aero Club will soon arrive in the city and be ready for use.

BERLINER HELICOPTER.

(Continued from page 19.) 75 to 100 miles an hour, and would double the present speed of dirigible balloons.

"I am planning also to apply small aeroplanes to this apparatus of just enough surface to help in lifting and in landing. There will be the usual rudders, such as are used on dirigibles and aeroplanes."

The principal advantages of this class of aerial craft will be that they can rise straight up and that they will be able to fly in almost any wind, it is claimed.

A complete helicopter flying machine has not yet been produced by Mr. Berliner, but he expects to reach this stage in the near future. In view of the advantages which the helicopter apparently has over the aero" plane, and the discussions of such advantages which have appeared in previous issues of this journal, we shall look forward with great interest to the trial of the completed machine.

The motor used in the machine illustrated is an Adams-Farwell 36 h.p. (at 1400 r.p.m.) The speed at which the motor was run was about 1200 r.p.m. so that the h.p. was probably 30 or less. The propeller makes 150 r.p.m. and is geared 1x8.

FIELDING—SAN ANTONIO

70,000 Cu. Ft. Built and Piloted by HONEYWELL

WINNER LONG DISTANCE AND ENDURANCE CUFS

CHICAGO A. C. CONTEST, JULY 4, 1908

AGAINST A FIELD OF E,IGHT

V

Fielding-San Antonio Getting Away—Foreground

THE DEFEATED

ILLINOIS, 72,ooo cu. ft., J. l. Case, Builder.

UNITED STATES OF MINNEAPOLIS, 70,000 cu. ft., Mallet, Builder. CHICAGO, 110,000 cu. ft., Bumbaugh, Builder.

COLUMBIA, 75,000 cu. ft., Bumbaugh, Builder.

AMERICA OF ST. PAUL, 78,000 cu. ft., leo Stevens, Builder. KING EDWARD, 65,000 cu. ft., Canada.

CINCINNATI, 87,000 cu. ft., Haddock, Builder.

VILLE DE DIEPPE, 65,000 cu. ft, Mallet, Builder.

At a recent gathering of aeronauts in New York, an eastern member of the profession saw fit to condemn the Fielding-San Antonio by calling attention to the fact that the netting was broken before start and at finish. This is true—but he was not sportsman enough to give reasons—mob swarmed over inclosure, interfering with inflation and hanging on netting and sand bags.

Landed in storm, netting torn on fence.

This true sport neglected to explain why his balloon of superior make and capacity did not make at least a decent showing in the contest.

EVERY KNOCK IS A BOOST.

Our material and workmanship speak for themselves. Write for samples and prices.

FRENCH—AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

3958 Cottage Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.


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