Volume 3 - No. 2 - 1908 August
|Table of Contents|
The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.
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Vol. Ill August, 190S No. 2
Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics. Contributions are solicited.
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THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF INTEREST IN AVIATION
N the opinion of many, it was thought that the public flights of some famous experimenter would be of the very greatest benefit to the art in America by showing to the general public the practicability of dynamic flight.
This opinion is still held.
The failure of the Brighton Beach—St. Louis plan is most regrettable. Mistakes were made in the handling of the matter which, probably, have resulted in the failure of the whole plan. Sufficient time was not given in which to advertise the event. The selection of Brighton Beach track was an error. If the grounds provided had been large enough to admit of circular flights of miles in length, and the first flight had been successful, people would, no doubt, have been anxious to see the flights. But with a straight flight of only a few hundred feet possible, people thought they had not seen enough for their money.
We realize that a flight of any length is yet wonderful but the general public wants to see a spectacle, which a short straight flight is not.
There are available grounds in the vicinity of New York of over a mile square where records could have been made.
As far as the public is concerned, aviation has received a hard blow and it will be some time before a full recovery is attained. The present event effectually bars anyone else from conducting the same sort of demonstration with pecuniary profit. Had the St. Louis people the services of an experienced publicity man at the outset and selected the proper grounds, the affair could undoubtedly been made a great success.
Even under present conditions, the lack of interest taken in the flights of Mr. Farm an by those actually known to be interested in aviation is surprising. Mr. Farman certainly fulfilled his side of the agreement as far as the limits of the ground permitted and must be of the opinion that interest in aeronautics on this side of the pond is really less than he anticipated.
For the June number we wrote letters to various ones prominent in aerostation and aviation, editors of newspapers and scientists, business men and those generally interested, asking their views as to the present state of the art, its future, criticisms or words of encouragement—just as it appeared to their individual minds. A number of these were omitted for lack of space in the June number and were continued in the July issue. These most interesting contributions are herewith concluded.
HERMANN W. L. MOEDEBECK, MAJOR IN THE BADENSIAN FOOT ARTILLERY REGIMENT.
If one wishes to form an impartial opinion of the present state of aeronautics, it is necessary to pass in review all the nations that have occupied themselves with this most attractive and difficult science, and to scrutinize them with reference to their achievements.
Since the reviewer is most familiar with the labors and achievements of his own countrymen, foreign nations may suffer somewhat in his estimate. This must be remembered in the following remarks by myself on the present state of aeronautics in general.
But in mitigation of any bias of which I may be possessed, I may say that I shall endeavor to deal fairly by all and that for twenty-five years I have watched the development of aeronautics with the greatest interest. I have, moreover, been so fortunate as to witness its progress on the spot in the principal countries of Europe— Austria, France, England, Italy and Russia.
On the basis of my observations I must award the palm for the greatest progress in aeronautics to Germany. We make no boast of this and do not with vain conceit look down on other countries, for the development in this field of endeavor is fundamentally international. The experiences of one na-Maj. H. W. L. Moedebeck. tion soon accrue to the advantage
of all others. We have given many of our ideas and experiences to France and England, and in turn these countries have done likewise by us. But the fact is, that up to about 1900, the Germans, the French and the English alone advanced aeronautics through their military interest in it.
By their scientific and successful experiments the French are entitled to the greatest credit in the work of the overthrow and destruction of the prejudices which, thanks to the opinions drilled into us in the schools, until only a few years ago swayed the entire civilized world. Charles Renard's fame is world-wide.
Englishmen, ever preeminently practical, have created an extraordinarily simple technic for military aeronautics, and it is Colonel Templar who deserves special credit here.
Germany and Austria first elaborated the true principles to be observed in the construction of airships and flying machines. I mention Hanlein's airship which was successfully launched in model at Mayence in 1871; the virtually successful flights of the engineer, Otto Lilienthal; and the flying apparatus of Wilhelm Kress in Vienna.
Renard and Krebs, and later Julliot, in France, availed themselves of these principles in the work of furnishing an improved airship. In the practical execution of their work these builders naturally made great advances in the technic of aeronautic construction.
The art of flying was taken up by Pilcher and Patrick Y. Alexander in England; Octave Chanute, the Wright Brothers, A. M. Herring, and not to forget Professor Langley in America; and Captain Ferber and the engineer Archdeacon in France. In this specialty, France and America so far show the greatest progress. But the subject is so popular that also in many other smaller countries able engineers are seriously taking hold of it.
We must not be surprised, therefore, if the honor of being the first man who rose from the earth in a motor flying machine is rightly claimed by the Danish engineer, Ellehammer. Ellehammer made his first free ascent September 9, 1906, before credible witnesses. It is, moreover, attested to by photographs.
I shall, of course, be told that the Wright Brothers were in the field as early as 1905, and I will concede this if it shall be shown that they fly. In my opinion, the Wright Brothers have made a great mistake by their secretiveness and have accomplished absolutely nothing, as events in Europe show. Many roads lead to Rome, and there will be flying without the secret of the Wright Brothers. Without curiosity I have in vain tried to persuade them to repeat at least once, for their own good, their flight, in the presence of genuine experts, Americans of course. I think they would have done well to listen to the counsel. (In regard to "this so-called "secrecy," I was informed by one who may be said to be in close touch with the affairs of the Wright Brothers that "the policy of secrecy has been found eminently successful and the Wright Brothers are not likely to depart from it." Photographs of the flights, in 1903, of the Wright Brothers' first motor machine are to be published in the September number of Century Magazine.—Editor.)
And now permit me to direct your attention once more to Germany and Austria, where Wilhelm Berg, David Schwarz and Count Zeppelin, after a long series of painstaking experiments, and after many failures, amid the sneers and gibes of conceited colleagues, calmly developed the rigid system of construction of the aluminum airship, with which to win the world's record for speed and endurance.
On the other hand, we see Major Parseval building one of the simplest of elastic airships, in which there is nothing firm and rigid except the car; and we find the engineer, Bazenoch, following in the footsteps of Paul Hanlein, still further perfecting this type of airship which Julliot had already done so much to develop.
And the ideas of Count Zeppelin, at first derided and depreciated by small-minded people, are more and more taking definite shape. The ballonet airships are growing larger and larger, the cars and motors are multiplied in obedience to Hanlein's suggestion, the stiffening of the large ballonet airships becomes more and more extensive, more Zeppelin-like, and I merely ask, how and where are these hulks to effect a landing?
Thus we see developing before our eyes the problem of the immediate future concerning aeronautics. We must now shape the surface of the earth in such a way that our precious aircraft may find shelter on it against storms and inclement weather. J Now we are beginning to put airships to use, endurance tests are' being made, the problem of anchorage is being looked into. A beginning had already been made in this respect with the Lebaudy airships in 1894, but the unfortunate escape of "La Patrie" in 1907 urges us no longer to delay building airship harbors. They are, moreover, a necessary condition precedent of future air communication by means of airships, which is most likely first to be realized in the country where, on the basis of some practical system of airship construction, the first aeronautic stock company shall be formed.
It is to be noted that air communication will always depend more or less on the weather and may be compared to communication by sailing vessels. But the uncertainties incident to it are fully compensated by the advantage of the direct air line, the very quick time which can be made, and the clean and interesting trip.
Flying machines will be perfected through sport and from military motives. We may not say before another year just when something practically useful will be achieved in this line. The experiments are still too new, the results still too meagre— flying is still too uncertain.
"I sent for a two years' subscription to your paper when you started it. I have received it regularly and enjoy same very much." A. L. ARMENTA.
J. SAUNIERE, PRESIDENT AERONAUTIQUE CLUB DE FRANCE AND THE PREPARATORY SCHOOL OF MILITARY AERONAUTS.
Permit me first to express my best wishes for success for the good work which you have undertaken in publishing your interesting review of aeronautics. I hope it will be one of the vehicles of the greatest power for progress in aerial navigation in your country, where everything is accomplished on such a grand scale and is executed so rapidly.
In writing a few words on aviation, I cannot do better than to state what the Aeronautique Club de France has done on that score.
Following the principle adopted since 1897 we have thought, above all, it was necessary to learn to "fly" so as to be able later on to guide the flying machine of whatever nature through the ether. To arrive at this end we have con-M. J. Sauniere. structed an aeroplane of the Chanute
model, and we have repeated the experiences of the great savant at our park of Champlan Palaiseau. There a number of students have familiarized every Sunday with the new sensations of gliding. They either use our apparatus or machines of their own construction, and study at the same time the plan of surfaces in accordance with how they behave in the air.
Well, according to my judgment, it is the schools of this style which must be created everywhere to encourage, for if a number of flying machines actually exist, the trained motormen are totally lacking, and that is the reason the results obtained with aeroplanes are so very mediocre.
In fact, there is no reason why an aeroplane which can stay in the air ten minutes cannot stay an hour or more. The fault is in the aviator who hesitates and fears to manipulate the mechanism of his apparatus.
To summarize, if we want to see aviation progress rapidly and become practical we must begin to educate aviators.
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the balloon VS. the aeroplane.
Up to the present time only the balloon has enabled man to rise freely in the air to considerable heights and to travel through it for long distances.
Soon after the invention of the hydrogen balloon in 1783, it was proposed to control its direction, and our illustrious countryman, Benjamin Franklin, after witnessing the early ascensions in Paris, shrewdly remarked that "perhaps mechanic art may find easy means to give them (the balloons) progressive motion in a calm and to slant them a little in the wind."
Not until one hundred years later was this successfully accomplished in a cigar shaped balloon constructed by Messrs. Renard and Krebs of the French Army, which returned to its starting point five times out of seven. This balloon, driven by a nine horse-power electric motor, attained a speed of fourteen miles per hour. The light gasolene motors which have been developed for the automobile, have been the chief factor in the recent progress in aerial navigation, and foreign military balloons of the types of the ill-fated Patrie in France and Zeppelin's gigantic airship in Germany, the latter having double engines of 160 horsepower and capable of carrying a dozen men, are propelled through calm air at a speed of about thirty Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch. miles an hour_
These balloons, therefore, are independent of a wind blowing with slightly less velocity, which may be taken as the wind rate prevailing a few thousand feet above the surface of the earth.
The bulky gas bag, with its delicate fabric, cannot be driven through the air at a much greater speed, even if sufficiently powerful motors could be built of the requisite lightness. Therefore, it may be affirmed that dirigible balloons will always be influenced by strong winds and cannot serve as a means of regular communication, finding their most important application in military reconnoitering and possibly in offensive warfare.
Authorities_ agree that the practical flying machine will be of the "heavier-thau-air" type, that is, it will not be supported by a gas bag. The speed which can be imparted to an aeroplane on account of its rigid construction and small head resistance will enable it to make headway against all but the strongest winds, but the high speed necessary to maintain such a machine in the air will greatly increase the difficulties of launching and landing, with the attendant danger to aeronauts and landsmen.
While the balloon is essentially a French invention, the first successful motor aeroplane is American. The gliding experiments of Lilienthal in Germany opened the way for the experiments in the United States by Chanute, Langlcy and the Wright Brothers, the latter having, no doubt, executed the longest flight—twenty-four miles at the rate of thirty-eight miles an hour—on a machine heavier than air three years ago. The French experimenters, Farman and Delagrange, have only this year flown a much shorter distance.
(Continued on page 28.)
FARMAN IN AMERICA.
What should be the greatest stimulus to aeronautics in America is the arrival of the famous aviator, Henry Farman, who is to make as many flights as possible beginning August i and continuing until August 15th.
These public demonstrations ought to bring about a great popular realization of the practicability of dynamic flight and tend to bring capital into the industry. From New York Mr. Farman is to go to other cities and make flights.
A syndicate of St. Louis men has provided a fund of $24,600 for fifteen flights, and a rate per flight for each succeeding flight. The flights in New York are held under the auspices of the Aero Club of America.
On Thursday evening, July 30, was held at the Hotel Astor a reception to Mr. Farman, which was well attended by members of the Aero Club of America, The Aeronautic Society and various other interested people.
Charles Jerome Edwards, the Treasurer of the Club, introduced Mr. Farman with a fitting speech.
General James Allen, Chief Signal Officer of the Army, was called upon and spoke of the progress of aeronautics in the Signal Corps.
Mr. Edwards gave credit to Professor Langley for bringing about a realization of the possibility of dynamic flight with means already at hand, and called upon Charles M. Manly, who was Professor Langley's assistant in his work. Mr. Manly welcomed Mr. Farman and told of the work of Professor Langley and the accident to the completed machine.
Colgate Hoyt, the President of the Automobile Club of America, gave a good view of the status of aeronautics from the point of a layman by stating that when flying machines were as practical as automobiles he would have one.
Captain Homer W. Hedge, the first President of the Aero Club of America and one of the founders, gave the history of the inception of the Club, spoke of the future and urged the appropriation of money for aeronautic work in the Signal Corps.
Dr. Albert F. Zahm, of the Catholic University of America, in Washington, spoke of the work of Farman and described him as having "the energy of an Englishman, the equilibrium of a Scotchman and the speed and daring of a Frenchman." He congratulated France on the "esprit de corps'' of her experimenters and expressed the hop^ that this spirit will spread. "Farman will be destined to do great good for aeronautics and create enthusiasm among millions of people." Dr. Zahm told of the changes and progress since the Congress in Chicago, and mentioned the one in St. Louis, and in New York, the latter held last Fall. He also commented upon the formation of The Aeronautic Society in New York," devoted especially to the scientific side of aerial navigation, and clay before yesterday plans were laid for starting a national organization exclusively for scientific development. These societies will not interfere in any way with the clubs—co-ordinate with all."
Charles J. Glidden, the round-the-world automobile tourist, made the good night address and told of seeing "Farman make his first flights in an automobile in Ireland, but to-morrow or Saturday he will fly off the ground. The world is to be congratulated on the work of Farman."
grounds too small.
It is to be regretted that the Brighton Beach racetrack, where the flights are being made, is entirely too small for any record flights. It is unreasonable to expect within this confined space to make circular flights. The most that can be expected is a straight flight, with perhaps a small curve at the end of the flight.
The entire length of the field within the bounds of the race track is but 840 yards, and in making the flights a couple of hundred feet must be deducted at each end for arising and alighting.
And there are miles of bare ground where record flights could be made, fairly accessible to New York.
On Friday, July 31, late in the afternoon, two short trial flights were made.
On the first advertised day, August 1, the wind blew so strongly that a flight was impossible, and the crowd of 8,000 people were told that they could use their tickets for a succeeding exhibition.
While waiting for Farman to appear with his machine, the attention of the crowd was drawn to a large box kite which appeared on the far side of the track. After it was well in the air a banner appeared, and as it drew over the center of the field the banner unfurled and there appeared in enormous letters, "Read Aeronautics." This banner was flown during all the flights by Samuel F. Perkins.
Sunday, the 2d, saw a short flight, the length of the field, in the presence of about 1,000 people. No announcement was made of the flight, but many who had failed to see the flight the previous day were on hand with the hope that Farman would make a flight, and they were not disappointed.
After sun-down the machine was taken to one end of the field and the flight begun. After a run of about 200 feet the aeroplane rose at a slight angle and continued at a height of about 10 feet. At the end the flight the motor was stopped, the slant downward begun, the motor started again for a few revolutions to lessen the shock of landing, the machine lit and rolled along the ground for about 100 feet.
During the flights of Friday evening, and after the flight of Sunday, Charles K. Hamilton sailed over the grounds, back and forth, in his dirigible. On Friday evening he landed between the grandstands near the betting ring, reascending and returning to his hangar.
On Monday, the 3d, Farman accomplished easily three flights the length allowed by the inclosure. Three flights were also made on Tuesday evening./^ ^
On Wednesday the wind blew very strongly and at one time threatened the machine. As it wai, the force of the wind bent some of the rods leading to the horizontal steering planes. No flight was made.
On Thursday there w^'s a severe rainstorm and no flight was made. Friday, the same. On Saturday and Sunday three flights each were made.
Not more than 500 people viewed the flights during the week. The only large crowd was that of the first day. the reason seeming to be that the people of New York expected to see a circus and found a scientific demonstration.
The Farman Flying Machine.
corrected by mr. farm ax.
Speaking generally, the machine consists of the following parts:
(a) A double-decked aerosurface; the main sustaining surface.
(b) A body for carrying passenger, motor, etc.
(c) Small balancing planes, in front of the main aerosurface, for steering in the vertical plane, with a separate vertical rudder, etc.
(d) A box-shaped rudder, in rear of the main aerosurface, for steering in the horizontal plane.
(f) A propeller fixed in rear of the motor, working like the propeller of a marine ship.
(g) A chassis fitted with wheels, to facilitate starting and alighting.
(h) Seat for passenger.
As regards the general construction of the machine, etc.
(1) The framework of body is made of wood; the covering of aerosurfaces. etc., being of Continental rubber cloth.
(2) The total weight, ready to fly, is 530 kilog. (1,168 lbs.).
(3) The total sustaining surface is 52 sq. m. (560 sq. ft.). The area of the balancer (c) is not counted as a sustaining surface.
(4) The sustaining velocity does not seem to have been accurately measured, but apparently the machine moved on a level course, when its speed was from 14 m. (45.9 ft.) to 17 m. (55.8 ft.) per sec; the inclination of the sustaining surfaces being about 8 degrees in the former case and about 6]/2 degrees in the latter.
(5) The main aerosurface consists of two superposed surfaces each 10 m. (32.8 ft.) wide by 2 m. (6.56 ft.) in length, the total surface being equal to 40 sq. m. (430.5 sq. ft.). The surfaces are arched, the arching being about 1-14. When the machine is in full flight the angle of inclination of the chord of the arch varies between 8 degrees and 6l/2 degrees. The vertical distance between the two surfaces is 1.5 m. (4.92^ ft.) and the connecting posts are stayed and kept in position by suitable wire guys.
(6) The body consists of a wood framework covered with canvas, fan-shaped in front, but with a vertical stern. The extreme width (transverse direction) is 0.75 m. (2.46 ft.); length 4 m. (13.12 ft.). The passenger's seat is in such a position that his centre of gravity seated is in a vertical line, passing through a point 0.25 m. (.81 ft.) in rear of the front edge of the main aerosurface.
(7) The balancing planes consist of two wooden surfaces each 2 m. (6.56 ft.) by i m. (3.28 ft.). In section the planes are arched above, but have very nearly flat under-surfaces. They swing on a pivot fixed at 0.25 m. (.81 ft.) from their front edges, and can be moved up and down by a suitable gearing worked by the passenger.
(8) The box-shaped rudder is 2 m. (6.56 ft.) wide, and 3 m. (9.84 ft.) long. The lower and upper surfaces are arched 1-14, and the angle of inclination of these surfaces in full flight is about 18 degrees. The stays, guys, etc., are similar to those used on the main aerosurfaces. The area of the upper and lower surfaces, which both help to sustain the machine, is 12 sq. m. (129.17 sq. ft.). The front edge of the box is 6 m. (19.68 ft.) in rear of the front edge of the main aerosurfaces.
(9) The motor is an 8-cylinder petrol Antoinette, giving 50 French horse-power as a maximum. Its weight is 80 kilog. (176 lbs.); there are no cooling appliances. The center of gravity of the motor is in the vertical line, passing through a point about 0.7 m. (2.3 ft.) in advance of the rear edge of the main aerosurfaces.
(10) Propeller. This is of the driving type used in marine ships; it has a steel frame and is covered with aluminum sheeting. The diameter is 2.3 m. (7.54 ft.); pitch, 1.4 m. (4.6 ft.). It is mounted directly on the motor shaft and at 1050 revolutions per minute requires 38 French horse-power to drive it.
(11) The chassis is constructed of steel tubing, the wheels are of the usual bicycle type, the front one being .25 m. (.81 ft.) in diameter, the rear ones .13 m.
(.425 ft.) ....
(12) Starting: To start, the machine is simply run along the ground under its own power until it rises in the air, movements in a vertical plane being controlled by the balancing planes.
(13) Alighting: To alight, the power is shut off, and the machine glides down to the ground on a gentle slope.
August 10.—Newspapers this morning report the dissolution of the syndicate which brought Farman to America.
T. R. MacMechen worked on the scheme and enlisted St. Louis capital to some extent. When time came to make the first payment to Farman of $6,000 the syndicate members got "cold feet" and at the last moment William Engeman, chief owner of Brighton Beach track, was induced to put up $5,000. This enabled the syndicate to get Farman here, taking chances on the gate receipts to make good for the rest of the contract, which was for $24,600, for a period of 90 days, and $200 extra for each day on which there was a flight, plus all expenses of Farman and his mechanics. The syndicate was unable to meet Mr. Farman's demand for his week's salary, and it was found that one Bowman, of the syndicate, had left hastily on the train for home. Mr. Farman is practically the sole creditor. The Aero Club of America lent its name to the series of flights, sharing no part in the financial responsibility.
What might have been made the greatest stimulus to the art has been turned into a detriment—unless the situation can yet be saved. The action of the St. Louis men in leaving the prime mover, MacMechen, stranded is certainly disgraceful. The organization which actually brought Farman here is called "The Aeroplane Co. of New York," with Samuel Bowman president, Wm. Engeman treasurer and T. R. MacMechen secretary.
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Uncle Remus' story of how Brer Tarrypin wanted to learn to fly has a moral for all aeronauts. Brer Tarrypin had seen Brer Buzzard sailing in the air, and he thought he could sail, too. So he persuaded Brer Buzzard to take him on his back and give him a start. Brer Buzzard carried Brer Tarrypin in the air and dropped him. He fell, plunk, and nearly killed himself. He was very angry with Brer Buzzard, not because he failed to fly, but because Brer Buzzard failed to show him how to light. "Flying," said Brer Tarrypin, "is easy, but I don't 'speck I kin learn how to light."—Boston Herald.
Charles E. Duryea, of Reading, Pa., who some years ago built a number of small aeronautic motors, has a couple left. One is a two-cylinder, oscillating two-cycle which weighs about 20 pounds and gives 2 or 3 horse-power. This can be had for $25. The other is a four-cycle air-cooled which has been tested up to about 18 horse-power and weighs about 180 pounds—for $100.
On the ground that he was about to ascend in his balloon when he was served with notice of a suit, Charles A. Coey succeeded in Municipal Judge Hume's court in having a judgment against him for $60 set aside. The judgment had been entered July 8 in favor of Edwin Levick, a New York photographer.—Chicago Record-Herald.
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The cylinders are bolted together and revolve as one piece about the vertical stationary crank shaft (0) which is keyed to the base supporting the motor. The pistons and connecting rods revolve around the single stationary crank pin (0')—No part ever comes to a stop while the motor is running and the pistons must travel in a perfect circle.
Incidentally w e eliminate everything connected with a gasoline motor except the actual power producing elements, thus reducing the weight to 2.7 lbs. per h. p.
horizontal section of 36 h. p. motor.
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William Morgan, of Fort Plain, N. Y., has just received patents ifl new improvement in flying machines. Many will remember the model ;by Mr. Morgan which fly so nicely.
M. W. Griswold, of Highwood, N. J., has a good suggestion for be idea is to have large buildings in towns and cities paint on the roofs i the name of the town. He would also have the railroad stations bear tb roof or have the flower gardens show the name, as is now done in som
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THE MONTH ABROAD. England.
On July 24 the rebuilt British "Dirigible I" made its first ascent. After mane ver-ing for about 20 minutes, a landing was made not far from the point of start. The new airship is considerably improved over the "Nulli Secundus," and the "pitching" has been done away with. A description of Nulli Secundus was given in the October. 1907, issue. The September. 1908. issue will contain a more detailed account of the altered airship.
Bleriot, who made his first trial with his "Vlll-bis" on June 23, recorded in our Jul}r issue, was out again on the 1st of July. On the following day he succeeded in driving his monoplane twice around the field of Issy-les-Moulineaux and covered 1 kilometer. This performance was repeated on the 3d, remaining in the air 2 minutes 25 seconds. On the 4th he covered 6 kilometers in 5 minutes 47 seconds.* The next day he made 4 times the circuit of the field at a height of 6 to 7 meters, being in the air 3 minutes 4 seconds, maneuvering and steering in the wind with perfect mastery of the machine.
On the 6th we saw two machines of different types competing for the same prize— the 10,000 francs of Armengaud—for 15 minutes in French air.
The wind was blowing 5 to 6 meters a second and Bleriot flew even over the trees and reached heights of 10 to 15 meters from the ground. In the two trials by Bleriot, he made flights of 3 minutes 9 seconds and 8 minutes 24 seconds, respectively, the latter flight being stopped by the loss of pressure in the gas reservoir.
bleriot "vih-bis" in flight.
The Bleriot Vlll-bis is practically a new machine. It is of the monoplane type, with a spread of wings of 8.5 meters and a total supporting surface of 22 square meters. The weight is not less than 480 kilos; that is, it flies under a weight of more than 21 kilos for each square meter, the greatest weight that thus far has been carried. The two small planes in the rear "which act as rudders for up and down steering and of which the inverse action helps to steer, appear to give the best results—at least as good as those promised by the Wright Brothers with their scheme of distorting the wings. All the movements of direction are by an ingenious patented device worked by only one lever. The Bleriot IX, more powerful (60 h. p., Antoinette 16 cyl. engine) will show the various special devices that have enabled the Bleriot VIII to fly with so much success. This latter apparatus is about ready to start trials." A greater supply of gasolene will also be carried.
On July 17 Bleriot, at a height of 5 to 6 meters, remained in the air for nearly 1 minute, steering around very sharp angles. After an hour another demonstration was made of the machine.
On the 26th the Bleriot monoplane was smashed practically to pieces. The accident occurred in making a short curve. The machine dipped a little and a gust of wind hit the machine at the same moment and landed all on the ground before the correction could be made.
arm en gaud prize won—20 minutes 20 seconds in air.
In a flight lasting 20 minutes 20 seconds, Farman succeeded in winning the Arraen-gaud money in a flight estimated to be 19.7 kilometers in length—just 300 meters short of winning the first Michelin prize. The previous European duration and distance record for gasless machines was made by Delagrange at Rome, 12.75 kilometers in 15 minutes 26 seconds on May 30 (See July issue). The Archdeacon Cup also now goes to Farman.
The Breguet giroplane or helicopter, after covering 10 meters on the ground, rose in the air to a height of about 4 meters and flew for a distance of 20 meters. The ascent was made at such speed that the aviator was obliged to stop his motor. In coming down the front part of the apparatus broke, necessitating several days' delay for repairs. •'• ^ fc< < » -■
A new machine has been able to fly—'that of M. Chedeville at the race-course of Fiers de l'Orne. This biplane machine at its first trial left the ground and covered 350 meters* at a height of 4 meters. The aviator will soon attempt turning. A 60-horse-power motor is used.
Flights are expected any day by Wilbur Wright at the Mans race-course. "The machine has been put rapidly together with the aid of Leon Bollee. The motor will be 25 horse-power and weight 75 kilos. It is a copy of the motor designed by the Wright Brothers themselves and has been constructed by Barriquand & Marre, who will deliver six others exactly the same." Wilbur Wright will remain in France, and the trials at Washington will be conducted by Orville Wright.
The military grounds of Issy have now been closed to experiments in aviation on account of the impossibility of protecting the public from the possibility of injury.
The trials of the dirigible Republique, mentioned in the last number as having been begun, were resumed the first of July. Seven people made an ascent at one time. Two trips were made, 30 and 40 minutes, respectively. Other ascents were made, manoeuvering, and the delegates of the Minister of War have accepted the airship on behalf of the War Office.
On the 23d the Republique was out again, after some alterations. The car has been placed a little more to the rear, the pitch of the screws increased so that the speed is augmented. Though not having been reinflated or filled up with gas, it retained an ascensional force of 1,100 kilos. Five people were carried during the manoeuvers.
During the first half of July experiments were conducted with the Malecot "mixte" dirigible-aeroplane, for which a shed has been built at Issy. A description and illustration was given in the October, 1907, issue.
The new Gross dirigible made an ascent on July 1 in a strong wind. The airship landed disastrously in the forest of Griinewald. The nine passengers slid down ropes to earth.
The Gross II is 66 meters long, diameter 11 meters. The frame is of aluminum, has 2 motors of 75 horse-power each. Each motor runs one propeller having 3 aluminum blades. The propellers are immediately under the bag and the rudder for left and right turning is controlled the same as the rudder of a boat. The rudder for rising and lowering has been replaced by sails in the front. There are 2 air balloonettes. To the difference between a rigid system and a semi-rigid system attention might be called in this connection—both the Zeppelin IV and the Gross II having been caught in the same storm with safety for one and the opposite for the Gross II.
On July 11 an ascent of 1 hour 17 minutes was made at night. The height was varied by shifting a weight of 125 pounds. A signaling system was successfully tried, as well as the use of a luminous compass, such as is now used by the United States Army and sold in sporting goods houses in New York.
The trials of the Zeppelin IV, mentioned in the July number as having been begun, were continued.
world's record flight. Starting from its shed on Lake Constance, on July 1. the Zeppelin IV made a new world's record for distance and duration—375 kilometers in 12 hours without a stop, an average of 31.25 kilometers per hour. The former record was held by the Zeppelin III.
On the 3d three flights were made in which the King and Queen of Wurtemberg and the niece of Count Zeppelin participated. The first two lasted each about 15 minutes, the flights being out and back to the start. The third trip lasted 1 hour 30 minutes. On the 14th another flight of \Y2 hour was made.
On the 15th an ascent was planned, but in taking the airship from its shed the forward car became submerged, one of the left horizontal rudders broke and fell in the water, a propeller had its frame damaged and a large portion of the envelope torn. The balloon was then deflated.
On August 4th the monster airship started on the 24-hour flight, which was to qualify it for acceptance by the Government, and had nearly completed its long journey when an adjustment to one of the motors compelled a descent. A gust of wind tore the airship loose, flames were seen to come from the bag and an instant later an explosion followed. It is reported that the bag was struck by lightning and it is said that a tree nearby was split open. No doubt a thorough investigation of the accident will be made to determine the exact cause of the disaster. The determination of this will be of enormous value to students of dirigibles.
The Zeppelin IV resembles very much its predecessor. There are 2 cars, 2 pairs of propellers arranged exactly the same as on the former ship. The only changes are in the planes at the rear. Between the two nearly horizontal planes on each side of the rear of the Zeppelin II were systems of movable vertical planes. In the last model there only 2 of these vertical planes on each side, placed at the extreme rear ends of the horizontal planes. These vertical planes cause the turnings to the right or left, together with a vertical rudder of large dimensions placed at the rear extremity of the body.
The dimensions of the Zeppelin IV are greater than those of the "III." The "III" was 128 meters long and had 2 motors of 85 horse-power each. The "IV" measures 136 meters long and 13 meters diameter, with a volume of 13,000 cubic meters. There are 2 Daimler motors of 110 horse-power each. The gas chamber has a rigid metallic body covered with Continental rubber fabric. In the interior are 17 balloons filled with hydrogen. These balloons are separated from the envelope by an air mattress which prevents to a great extent expansion of the gas through heat and condensation through cold. Each motor runs 2 propellers.
The total ascensional force is 14,690 kilos, but the ascensional force capable of being utilized would only be about 5,000 kilos, this available for the carrying of gasolene, the motors, propellers and crew. The Republique has an available ascensional force of 5,000 kilos, or more, with but half the volume, or 6,500 cubic meters of gas.
In the flight of June 29th, lasting 4*4 hours, an average speed of 50.6 kilometers an hour was obtained.
Immediately after the accident, a subscription was circulated throughout the Empire, and it is reported that nearly a million dollars has been raised to enable Count Zeppelin to go on with his work.
Germany will soon possess a fair array of dirigibles. The Siemens-Schuckert Company is constructing a new balloon of the non-rigid type; there is the Zeppelin III, probably another Zeppelin IV, the semi-rigid Gross I and Gross II, the old and the new Parseval.
"No, suh," said Brother Dickey, "dey kin make all de a'rships dey wants ter make, an' rise an' roll in um dess lak dey wants ter, but yer's one sinner what's gwine ter steer cl'ar er um—sho's you bo'n! Wen my time come ter fly de Lawd'll furnish de wings, an' even den I'll be all de time 'fraid dat Satan'll strike a match an' set fire ter um 'fore I'm half-way ter heaven!"—Atlanta Constitution.
Two courses have been laid out, each about five miles long, running south and southwest from the drill ground at Fort Myer, Va., for use in the dirigible balloon and aeroplane tests.
The parts of Captain Baldwin's airship arrived during the week of July 20th. These are now being assembled by Captain Baldwin at the balloon house, Fort Myer. His gas generating plant came with the airship. The official trials of this dirigible balloon are to begin as soon as it is assembled. The tent for housing this airship is due at Fort Myer on the 30th.
Two spherical balloons, one a 540-cubic-meter captive, the other a 1,000-cubic-meter free balloon, were delivered to the Signal Corps by Captain Baldwin and accepted on the 25th. These balloons are of silk material, with a layer of rubber between.
The work of the aeronautical plant at Fort Omaha is being pushed as rapidly as possible.
By the time that this number is issued. Captain Baldwin will have had the trials of his dirigible, and the date for the delivery of the Herring flying machine will have expired. In the September number will be given full details of the trials of the dirigible and the two flying machines of Messrs. Herring and the Wright Brothers. The Wright machine is to be delivered by August 28.
The Baldwin dirigible has acquitted itself admirably in the builder's trials that have been in progress during the past week at Fort Myer. Captain Baldwin himself is on the ground, and with his able coadjutor, Mr. Curtiss, the manufacturer of high-power gasoline motors for dirigibles, has worked night and day to make his ship ready for the test to be made of its capabilities. The ship, which is to be known as "Dirigible No. 1," is a very pretty piece of mechanism. The gas bag is ninety-six feet long, and the car seventy. The envelope of the bag is made of two thicknesses of silk, with rubber between. Within the bag are balloonets and an air compartment to relieve undue extension in high temperatures. The engine is a marvel of power in small space, having 30 horse-power, with a total weight of but 120 pounds. There are four cylinders, with a compound shaft working a speed gear by means of a chain to operate a shaft at the front end of the car on which is a 10-foot propeller. The first trial flight was made Tuesday, Aug. 4, in the presence of Secretary Wright, Assistant Secretary Oliver, Major General Bell, Brigadier General Allen, Chief Signal Officer of the Army, and many hundreds of officers and officials and many civilian spectators. The ship sailed aloft from the balloon tent at a few minutes past six o'clock, and remained in the air for 20 minutes. Mr. Curtiss worked the motor and Captain Baldwin managed the tiller ropes. The pretty craft was as responsive to the wish of its daring navigator as an intelligent horse out for a speeding exercise. It went up and down the reservation, cut "figure eights" across, arose and descended, and, in fact, did every evolution that was asked of it.
Pretty much the same performance was repeated the next night. Thursday night the motor acted indifferently and no flight was made. Since then the ship has again made acceptable flights. The long propeller shaft was in some manner twisted and it became necessary to send to Hammondsport for another or the official trial would have been pulled off Friday. As soon as the dirigible becomes Government property, regular drills will be undertaken in her, and these officers have during the past week been studying every part of the mechanism of the ship and preparing themselves for their future work. A large force of bright, keen young men of the Signal Corps has been busy during the week assisting in getting the ship in shape. It is the present plan to send her to Omaha after a few weeks to be placed in the balloon house there and used in connection with Signal Corps work that is in progress at Fort Omaha. Possibly later she may be sent to Fort Leavenworth, where the student officers at the Signal School will have a chance to make use of her. There is little doubt that this first dirigible will meet every requirement placed in the contract. General Allen is entitled to great praise for his steadfast adherence to the purpose to secure a dirigible, and he has been fortunate in having the work of Captain Baldwin and Mr. Curtiss' available in this initial effort. One of the noticeably good things connected with the trial of the Baldwin dirigible is the Boyle balloon tent. It affords a strong, capacious and handsome housing for the airship and proves conclusively that some such protection -is indispensable if such accidents as that with the Zeppelin airship are to be avoided.—Army & Navy Journal, Aug. 8.
NEW RULES FOR SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN FLYING MACHINE TROPHY.
Since the first and only competition for this cup, July 4, 1908, when it was won by G. H. Curtiss in the June Bug of the Aerial Experiment Association, the Contest Committee of the Aero Club of America has formulated new rules and announces the annual contest for 1908 to be held at New York on September 7, at a place to be named when at least three competitors have made formal entry.
Synopsis of Conditions.
Open to competition by inventors of the world. If won by foreign contestant, his home club holds the cup, but if no annual contest therefor is held by such club within one year from the date of winning, the cup to be returned to the Aero Club of America.
Contest to be held at least once each year, and the conditions are to be progressive in requirements and formulated anew each year in accordance with results obtained in preceding contest. If cup i.s won by same competitor in three different years it becomes his personal property.
Gasless machines of any t}-pe may compete.
The machine which covers the greatest distance exceeding 25 kilometers, including a return to the point of starting and a descent or alighting at a point not more than 300 meters from the point at which the machine rose from the ground, and with the best display of stability and ease of control, shall be declared the winner, taking into consideration also questions of safety and speed. If several machines perform equally well the Committee shall have right to ask for further flights to determine the winner. If no machine makes the required flight on the date set, the Committee will in its discretion announce a time and place for another contest.
The flights to be made in as calm weather as possible, but the Contest Committee will, at their discretion, order the contest to begin at any time they see fit, provided the velocity of the wind does not exceed 20 miles an hour. Machines may start by running on the ground or upon a track under their own power for a distance not exceeding 100 meters, but no special launching device permitted. Smooth road or turfed field will be provided. No requirement as to height, but machine must demonstrate ability to rise or descend and circle to right or left at will of operator. Any damage in starting, flying or alighting which is not sufficiently repaired by the operator or crew in 30 minutes and entirely from materials and with tools carried by the machine, to enable the machine to immediately make another flight, fulfilling the other conditions, will be disqualified. Committee can order demonstration in case of any damage occurring.
Complete specifications of the competing machine, giving weight, supporting surface and power of engines, together with a description of the best trial of the machine, shall be forwarded when making entry.
If machine is adjudged impractical or dangerous the Committee may require demonstration to remove objections.
Entry must be filed with the Contest Committee of the Club on or before September 1st, 1908.
THE WORK OF THE AERIAL EXPERIMENT ASSOCIATION FOR JULY.
It will be remembered that on July 4th the aeroplane June Bug won the Scientific American Flying Machine Trophy.
On the 5th the attempt was made by G. H. Curtiss, operator, to make a complete circle. The start was made as usual and after traveling half a mile the curve was begun. The rudder was inclined to the right with the right-hand wing tip down. The half-circle was made and the return trip begun, out around the corner of the vineyard in the middle of the grounds over the same course as traveled during the first half of the flight. Owing to local conditions it is impossible, after making the half circle or bottom of a "U," to come straight back on the leg of the "U," as it would necessitate going over the tops of the poles in the vineyard, so that nearly a complete circle must be made at the bottom of the "U" and a course taken back over the same leg over which the outward portion of the flight was made.
Considerable momentum was lost in the turn and the speed was so reduced that a landing had to be made. This broke a strut in the right wing and broke the front wheel.
On the 8th, after some slight alterations, another trial was made with the idea of completing the circle and returning to the start. It was nearly dark and barely possible to see the fences. After passing over one fence it was decided to come down and not attempt the circle.
On the ioth another attempt was made, in which a mile was covered. A circle was made around a large tree in the meadow, but again it was impossible to make the second turn to get back to the start.
HOW IT FEELS TO BE UP IN A BALLOON. By Johnson Sherrick, President Aero Club of Ohio.
One who has always been on land dreads to venture on the sea. Modern methods have removed the danger that once prevailed, and to-day seamen live on water with as little concern in regard to danger as those who live on land. We are really safer in the midst of the Atlantic ocean on one of the modern ships than on any railroad car in America. I would feel less fear while seeking my couch to sleep, on any of the great Atlantic liners than 1 would in nine-tenths of the hotels in our country.
1 am well aware that the people generally will not agree with me m this statement; neither will they agree with me when I state that traveling through the air—and far above the land on which we live—is attended with very little danger, especially if the craft on which one sails is managed by a skilled operator. When I made my first ascension last Thursday I was not in the least afraid for I fortunately had a pilot whose reputation is not limited to America but stands highest in all the world. My confidence in Mr. Stevens banished all fear and T entered the balloon basket expecting to fly high above the earth with more pleasure than you realize or I adequately express.
It was a beautiful day. The morning sun shone brightly, the winds were cooler and »11 the surrounding conditions very inviting; just such a day as would suit a novice to make his first flight. The order "let her go" was very pleasant to hear. As the great balloon rose and sailed so gracefully away we looked with intense interest at the receding scene. As the sun shone on the friends who stood watching our journey upward, it made for us a most beautiful picture, so grand that it can never fade from my memory and so magnificent that words cannot describe it. I can scarcely realize that scene or separate it from the thoughts of a passing dream.
If there had been any fear in my mind on that occasion, the admiration for our friends who stood below and the soul-stirring picture they made, would have banished it at once.
railroads like shoestrings.
As our craft rose higher and higher the world below grew smaller and smaller; the city put on an air of quiet, the streets seemed to be deserted and the railroads looked like shoestrings. Long trains moving through and around the city appeared like snakes crawling over the ground. Soon the country came in sight and we could see good homes and fine farms for miles and miles over the landscape, stretching far out from the city. The fertile fields and the many beautiful gardens that we could view from our swinging basket more than a mile high, made a scene grand and strange.
huge ''crazy" ql'ilt.
The many fields with their varied colors grew smaller as we slowly rose higher. The surface of the earth seemed to be covered with one huge "crazy quilt." So wonderful was our view as we beheld it from the clouds that a feeling came to me that we had left our earthly sphere and were sailing in another world. Mr. Stevens asked, as our aerial ship was hanging on the borders of clouds and as the rays of the bright sun were peeping gently through the feathery mists, "How do you like to sail in the pure air in company with these clouds?" but I could only answer, "I have no words to describe the pleasure. To you, Mr. Stevens, I owe a debt that I fear never can be paid." And he only answered, with a pleasant smile, "It is paid."
After two hours or more spent in hovering over and near the city we started downward hoping to find a landing place in some field near the town. After descending a half mile or more we struck a gentle breeze from the north that grew stronger as we nearcd the land. We noticed a storm cloud gathering in the northwest and that quite a gale from that direction was after us, driving the balloon at the rate of about thirty-five miles an hour, towards the rugged hills of Pike township and directly towards the r\arrows, a place very uninviting at which to reach the earth.
I cooly remarked to Mr. Stevens, who of course knew nothing of the nature of the Pike township Narrows, that wc were rapidly coming to a bad place to land. Just a half mile in front was a field in which men and women were at work making hay. It was the last open space in our track on the brink of a hill on the east side of the creek, about a half mile south of the village of North Industry. Mr. Stevens quickly said, "Get our your pocket knife. Cut loose the grapple hook." In an instant it caught in the ground. Mr. Stevens pulled the emergency cord which ripped open a section of the great gas bag.
(Continued on page 43.)
JULY BALLOON RACING. Chicago, July 4.
Nine balloons left Chicago, 67th St. and South Park Ave. in the second balloon contest held in the United States, on July 4th, this one under the auspices of the Aéronautique Club of Chicago. The balloons and their occupants were as follows:
"Chicago," 110,000 cubic feet, C. A. Coey and G. L. Bumbaugh—the balloon was built by G. L. Bumbaugh of St. Louis.
"Columbia," 75,000 feet, C. H. Leichliter and Captain Martin Peterson, a National Guardsman commissioned to make the trip with the view of gaining experience of value in possible future work of the Guard.
"King Edward," 65,000 cubic feet, John Bennett and Gerald Gregory.
"Fielding-San Antonio," 70,000 feet. H. E. Honeywell and Dr. Frederick J. Fielding—the balloon built by Honeywell of St. Louis.
"United States of Minneapolis," 70,000 feet, A. P. Shirley and H. B. Wild—this is the balloon in which Lieutenant Frank P. Lahm won the Gordon Bennett Cup on its first offering and which was sold by A. Leo Stevens to Mr. Ferris of Minneapolis who re-christened it United States of Minneapolis.
"America of St. Paul." 78,000 feet, P. S. Hudson and Lieut. J. J. Meade—this was built by Stevens and used by J. C. McCoy in the Gordon Bennett from St. Louis last year. It was sold this Summer to L. N. Scott of St. Paul by Mr. Stevens and rechristened as above.
"Cincinnati," 87,000 cubic feet, L. B. Haddock and George Howard—the balloon was built last year by Haddock for Norman J. Kenan of the gas company in Cincinnati.
"Ville de Dieppe," 65,000 cubic feet, A. E. Mueller and George Shoeneck.
"Illinois," 72,000 cubic feet, C. H. Perrigo and J. L. Case.
"1 Will," was also entered but collapsed in a trial.
WON BY DR. F, J. FIELDING.
The contest was won by the balloon "Fielding-San Antonio," belonging to Dr. Fielding who organized the San Antonio Aero Club (See July issue). The balloon was built by H. E. Honeywell of St. Louis, who piloted the balloon on the trip. It was the Doctor's first ascent, but during the first part of the trip Dr. Fielding acquired experience enough to pilot while Honeywell sleplT Thi^Tanding was made within two miles of West Shefford, Quebec, after a flight oi 786^ miles.
The Illinois landed in Lake Quinte, near NsÈlgn Island, five miles from Picton, Ontario. The aeronauts were rescued by a boating party.
The Ville de Dieppe dropped into Lake Michigan about three miles off Benton Harbor, Mich. After a flight, in which every ounce of weight was thrown away, the pilot Mueller managed to get the balloon ashore, together with his fifteen year old companion.
The United States of Minneapolis, Columbia and Chicago landed in three adjoining counties of Ontario.
The Cincinnati landed at Covert, Mich., not far from Benton Harbor.
The United States of Minneapolis descended a mile east of Pinkerton Station, Ontario.
The Columbia landed one mile east of Clinton, Ontario. A strong wind dragged the balloon and the aeronauts were bruised. Captain Peterson sustained a broken rib.
The King Edward dropped four miles west of Port Huron, Mich. The America of St. Paul landed near Carsonville, Mich.
the distances made, with landings.
Fielding—San Antonio, West Shefford, Que., 786^ miles, elapsed time 23 hours 15 minutes.
Illinois, Lake Quinte, Ont., 551 miles.
United States of Minneapolis, Pinkerton Station, Ont., 362 miles in 11 hours 42 minutes.
Chicago, Atwood, Ont., 358 miles in 14 hours 48 minutes.
Columbia, Clinton, Ont., 333 miles in 8 hours 26 minutes.
America of St. Paul, Carsonville, Mich., 275 miles in 13 hours 40 minutes.
King Edward, Port Huron, Mich., 271 miles in 8 hours 3 minutes.
Cincinnati, Covert, Mich., 78 miles in 9 hours 33 minutes.
Ville de Dieppe, Lake Michigan, Benton Harbor, 60 miles in 6 hours 2 minutes. These distances have been kindly computed by Mr. Williams Walch of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer of the Army. Their accuracy depends upon how closely
the landing places of the balloons are described and can be found on the Government maps. This same also applies to the distances given in the race from St. Faul.
The record distance of the United States made by Oscar Erbsloh, in the I om-mern." in the Gordon Bennett of 1907, 872^ miles, still stands The distance made by Dr. Fielding was beaten by three of the contestants in the Gordon Bennett. I tow-ever, the distance made is most creditable, considering the differences in the impermeability of the balloons "Pommern" and "Fielding-San Antonio," and the poorer location of Chicago as compared with St. Louis.
St. Paul, July, 18.
Five balloons started in a long distance race from St. Paul under the auspices of the Aero Club of the Northwest, finishing as follows:
Balloon Chicago, 110,000 feet, C. A. Coey and G. L. Bumbaugh, started 6:40 p.m., landed at Blooming Prairie the following day at 11:23 a-"1- Distance 74 miles. Duration 16 hours 43 minutes. Owned by C. A. Coey of Chicago.
America of St. Paul, 78.000 feet, P. S. Hudson and H. B. Wild, started at 5:05 p.m., and landed at Owatonna at 10 p.m. Distance 60 miles, duration 4 hours 42 minutes. The balloon is owned and entered by L. N. Scott of St, Paul.
United States of Minneapolis, 70,000 feet, A. E. Mueller and XV. B. Shepard, left at 5:45 p.m., landing at 8 p.m., at West Concord. Distance 56 miles, duration 2 hours 15 minutes. Owned and entered by "Dick" Ferris of Minneapolis.
Pommern, 78,000 feet, Dr. Julian P. Thomas, left at 6:15 p.m., landing the following morning at 10:30 at Warsaw. Distance 52 miles, duration 16 hours 15 minutes. Owned and entered by Dr. Thomas of New York.
King Edward, 65,000 feet, J. G. Bennett and G. H. Adams, left at 4:51 p.m., landing at 6 p.m., at Hampton. Distance 25 miles, duration 1 hour 9 minutes. Owned by Paul Lucier.
The Chicago, won both the distance and the endurance medals. The Pommern, was second in point of endurance.
The balloon Fielding-San Antonio had been entered but an accident prevented its arrival.
The gas lifted only 27 pounds to the 1000 cubic feet.
The "Hedges-Butler" Long-Distance Race (confined to the United Kingdom) had to be cancelled July nth, owing to the violence of the wind. Four balloons, however, made ascents, "hors concours" namely, "The Lotus." of Mr. Griffith Brewer, "The Nebula," with Major Sir Alexander Bannerman, Bart, "The Kokoro," with Professor Huntington, and "The Britannia," with the Hon. C. S. Rolls. The latter ascended with six people, namely, Dr. Lockyer the head of the Solar Physics Observatory, South Kensington; Mr. Frank Maclean; Lieut. Westland, R. E.; Major Crookshank, R. E.; of the War Office; and Mr. Vivian Simon.
The descent of the "Britannia," was made at Brandon, on the borders of Norfolk and Suffolk, a high speed being maintained, i6l/2 miles having been timed in 21 minutes, also 9 miles in eleven minutes, representing a speed of just under 50 miles an hour.
The party was most hospitably entertained to dinner after landing by Colonel and Mrs. Spragge.
During a part of the trip a sort of ding-dong race took place between the "Britannia." and "The Kokoro," which started some time before. At one time one balloon was ahead and at one time the other, according as they varied their altitudes.
Brussels, July 21st.
Fifteen balloons started from Brussels, in a contest to reach a predetermined objective point On the same day seven balloons left in a distance race in training for the Gordon Bennett. One balloon did not land until the following dav after a flieht lasting 43 hours. &
A new aeroplane has appeared at lssy les Moulineaux, the Bousson-Borgnis. It was to have been tried last week, but a mishap occurred to the motor which compelled a postponement of the first trial.
For news of the Aero Club of America read the Paris Herald! At the start of the balloon race ot the AC. F., on the 16th, there were present J. C. McCoy, Samuel H Va entine, directors of the Aero Club of America, as well as other members of the club. lo quote: 'Mr. Glulden considered and M. Miaddison agreed that it would be an excellent thing if the aero clubs of Massachusetts and New York State could combine and create a joint aero park somewhere between Boston and New York Mr Valentine suggested Pittsfield as a suitable centre."
June 20. L. B. Haddock, YV. C. Collins and G. R. Howard left Cincinnati in the Cincinnati, 87,000 cubic feet, at 5:30 p.m., landing 2 hours 30 minutes later near Lin-wood baseball grounds in the outskirts of the city. The air was almost calm.
July 2. Chas. J. Glidden left North Adams at 3 a. 111. in the Boston, unaccompanied, on his nth trip. The landing was at Wilmington, Vt., 1 hour 15 minutes later. Distance 17 miles. This was made alone and at night for the purpose of completing the conditions necessary for pilot's license. Mr. Glidden wrote letters of thanks to his instructors in the ten previous flights: M. Leon Barthou, A Leo Stevens, Griffith Brewer, A. Holland Forbes and J. C. McCoy.
July 3. Cortlandt F. Bishop, David Bishop and Miss Bishop left St. Cloud in the Aero Club No. 2.
July 4. N. H. Arnold, R. L. Gardner and G. A. MacDonald left Springfield, Mass., in the North Adams No. 1 at 12:32 p. m., landing at Shutesbury, Mass., 1 hour 53 minutes later. Distance 28 miles.
July 4. Dr. R. M. Randall left Springfield, Mass., in the Greylock at 12.09 p. m., landing at North Dana, Mass., after 1 hour 48 minutes. Distance 48 miles.
July 5. Edgar W. Mix and J. C. McCoy left St. Cloud in the Aero Club No. 5, landing at La Frette after a trip of 3 hours 28 minutes.
July 8. Alan R. Hawley and Frank B. Comins left North Adams in the Boston at 10:18 a. m., landing 1 hour 52 minutes later at Hubbardston, Mass. A heavy wind was encountered and they drag-roped over the trees for 10 miles, before a clearing was found. The landing was in a pocket of the mountains where the air was calm. Distance 59 miles.
July 22. A. Leo Stevens, J. H. Wade, Jr., and A. H. Morgan left Canton, O., in the sky Pilot at 10:45 a. m. There was little wind and the balloon moved scarcely at all for a long time. A landing was made at 12:15. The balloon was followed by an automobile in which were Louis H. Brush and Dr. Sigler of Salem, Chas. A. Dougherty and J. A. Rice. The final landing was near New Harrisburg, O., at 3 p. m.
This makes practically two complete ascensions with one filling of gas.
July 23. Johnson Sherrick, President of the Aero Club of Ohio, made his initial trip, with A. Leo Stevens as pilot, in the club's balloon. Ohio from Canton at 11:30 a. m. After hovering over the City for an hour and a half before a breeze came, the landing was at 1:55 p.m. near North Industry, O. The balloon was followed by Messrs. Wade, Morgan, Brush and Sigler in an automobile.
July 24. J. H. Wade, Jr., with A. Leo Stevens as pilot, left Alliance in the Sky Pilot at 12:05 p.m. The gas being poor, but two people ^could ascend, with but three bags of ballast. Messrs. Wade and Morgan tossed a coin as to who should go. The landing was made two miles north of Canfield, O., at 3:15.
July 23. N. H. Arnold left North Adams in the Greylock at 9.33 a. m., landing at Savoy 1 hour 12 minutes later. This is Mr. Arnold's fifteenth flight and by this one he qualifies as pilot. Distance 9.5 miles.
July 24. Chas. J. Glidden left North Adams in the Boston at 5:20 p. m., landing 1 hour later at Petersburg, N. Y. Distance 12 miles. This makes twelve flights for Mr. Glidden and qualifies him as pilot of the Aero Club of France and the Aero Club of United Kingdom.
July 25. A. Leo Stevens. Louis Brush and Dr. W. D. Sigler left in the Ohio from Canton at 12:30 p. m. The balloon carried an American flag and a Taft banner. The first landing was made near Louisville, O., where Dr. Sigler left the basket. With an additional supply of sand, Stevens and Brush continued a few miles. An approaching rain storm compelled an early descent after a short distance. The balloon was trailed by an automobile which brought Dr. Sigler back to town.
July 29. A. Leo Stevens, Alan R. Hawley and William Van Sleet left Pittsfield in the Pittsfield club's new balloon "Heart of the Berkshires," at 3:43 p. 111., landing at Wahconah Falls, a distance of 8 miles 47 minutes later.
July 29. Charles J. Glidden and H. H. Clayton left North Adams in the balloon Boston, landing in an hour at Monroe, Mass. Distance 7 miles.
While crossing Florida mountain they struck a cold air current which always prevails there, according to the previous experience of aeronauts, and dropped about 600 feet a minute until the trail rope touched the trees.
At one time the basket of the balloon was in a dense cloud while the envelope was above it, giving the occupants of the basket as they peered upwards a most beautiful effect.
Mr. Clayton took observations throughout the trip. When he started the mercury registered 86 degrees on the ground. Fifteen minutes later at an elevation above sea level of 2,000 feet the temperature was 75 and 20 minutes later while over the mountain at an altitude of one mile the thermometer registered 68 degrees.
(Continued on page 44.)
THE STABILITY OF AEROPLANES
By C. J. Hendrickson
As the question of stability is of vital importance in the design of aeroplanes, I therefore believe the following discussion may help to solve the problem of dynamic flight.
The point I wish to make clear is the fact that, given an aeroplane travelling in a curved course and propelled by a single propeller, then by virtue of this condition, a couple is developed in the propeller which tends to rotate the whole machine in a plane at right angle to the plane in which the propeller rotates and at right angle to the plane of the curve in which the aeroplane is flying. The cause of this couple is very readilv seen when we consider an)' point a (Fig. r) in
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I can hardly wait each month for the magazine. I find it very interesting Before you star ed publication. I was subscribing for the Aeronautical Magazine of Great Bnta.n, and besides patromzmg a press clipping- agency in this count?ffoi-the hates Amencan news, sometnnes paying as much as $5 per month for clippings Now find your magazine covers the entire Held at as little as I formerly pSd for' one month's ° FRED GOSS.
the blade of the propeller. As it recedes from O its velocity parallel to the motion of the aeroplane is increasing. In other words, A is being accelerated. Therefore, there must be a force exerted to produce this acceleration. B is affected in the same way but by a negative acceleration, or a force acting in the opposite direction from that acting on A.
Now, by assigning numerical values to the known quantities in the problem, we may form some idea of the importance of this force under these conditions.
Let V = Speed of aeroplane, 60 feet per second
R = Radius of curve on which aeroplane is moving = 300 ft.
W = Angular velocity of propeller = 2i.2i| R. P. S.
A = Center of gyration of one blade
r = Radius of gyration of propeller = 3 ft.
v = Linear velocity of A due to W
v = w. 2 >i r = 400 ft. per second
V1 = Velocity of A, parallel to V, after one second's constant acceleration
V (R + v) = -^-= 140 ft. per second
f — Maximum acceleration of A parallel to motion of aeroplane, or = the change in velocity of A during one second, f remaining constant
V (R + v) = V1 — V = ——- — V =
V (R + w 2 nR) R
V = 80 ft. per second
Mass of one propeller blade = 5 lbs.
Force acting at A produced by acceleration of m —
f = 12.42 -f- lbs. weight
P1 = Force acting at B but since a negative acceleration is produced at B, therefore, P1 must be negative, or act in the opposite direction from that in which P acts. P and P1, therefore, form a couple whose arm is 6 ft. and whose moment is 74.5 foot-pouuds.
It should be understood that P is variable and its value here given is taken at the instant it becomes a maximum.
This force may appear small, but when we consider that a change of only a few inches in the center of gravity of the aeroplane may mean a bad accident to the operator, then we can appreciate how important these details become.
On way to balance these forces would be to use two propellers turning in opposite directions and a fly-wheel whose moment of inertia is equivalent to that of the rotating parts of the engine and turning in the opposite direction of the moving engine parts. By using this arrangement the unbalanced torque of the single propeller machine is eliminated.
The object of this article has been simply to show that, due to single propeller, there are unbalanced forces acting to destroy equilibrium that these forces are great enough to warrant consideration and to suggest a remedy.
Note :—(«)= 3.1416
INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.
President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.
The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine, and at the earliest date possible, bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.
In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the informal addresses of the Gordon Bennett contestants and others were concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.
The report of the "Balloon Accident," contributed to the records of the Congress by Brigadier-General James Allen, Chief Signal Officer of the Army, begun in the July issue, is concluded in this number.
Then follows the fourteenth paper, viz.: "Kite Manipulation and the Record Flight," by Dr. W. R. Blair, U. S. Weather Bureau.
(Continued from July issue.)
A case covered with a light coating of aluminum powder, such as had been submitted for examination, would have but acted as if the aluminum powder had not been applied; should this aluminum powder, however, be applied in a different manner, for instance by electrolysis or else in the way of an "aluminum sheet," the electrical conditions might then become entirely altered.
Such would be the case by similarly using ordinary liquid gold paint.
A light metallic veil of powdered aluminum constitutes in no way a danger to. aeronauts.
Numerous experiments regarding this have established that a cloth covered wit hi a light powdered aluminum veil insulates perfectly, and no less than a cloth without the aluminum; and, furthermore, that in the former case no dispersion of electricity was to be noticed, as may have been thought on comparing the small parts of the powdered aluminum to so many small points.
This coating of powdered aluminum has, however, an advantage in the way that while a cloth simply covered with aerostatic varnish is easily electrified by friction, it is hardly possible to electrify a cloth covered with aluminum even after a length of friction.
As soon as a balloon has entered a cloud, it assumes the potential proper to the cloud and is no longer in danger; it runs, however, risk before and after this.
The danger in the first case is caused by the fact that it might possibly form a discharge between a cloud and the earth on account of the body of hydrogen which is a conductor of electricity, and this discha rge may set the balloon on fire hy striking it.
Danger in the latter case is due to the fact that the balloon comes out of the cloud charged with the same potential as the cloud, and it may be struck by lightning through the action either of the earth or another cloud.
In this case the metallic veil of aluminum docs not alter the balloon's conditions.
The electrical conduct of a balloon in a storm cloud is, in other words, presumably identical, whether its cloth is covered with aluminum or not; and if some difference is found this goes towards the favorable use of aluminum. When the balloon is entirely closed, that is, when there is no escape of gas, the hydrogen fails to catch fire, for the internal part of the balloon does not possess the burning element.
The action of an eventual electric discharge alters simply the potential of the surface.
This has been demonstrated by a fact of the greatest value which occurred in 1898 during the Grand Maneuvers, at the aerostatic park under the direction of Capt. Cesare Dal Fabbro and Lieutenant Grimaldoni.
A balloon was being carried by maneuvering ropes and by four groups of soldiers when suddenly, upon reaching a tree, a flash of lightning occurred between a storm cloud and the balloon case, and between the case and the tree. A double flash was seen clearly by all present and the soldiers who were holding the ropes wet with rain felt a powerful shock. This, however, was all and none of the men were injured.
Of course this was due to the fact that the lower valve of the balloon was closed and there was thus no escape of hydrogen.
The same though, fortunately, cannot be said of the recent case of June 2d.
The balloon having reached an altitude of 800 meters, must have probably passed the equilibrium zone, as is always the case, and the escape of hydrogen out of the lower valve must have been rather abundant; this escape of hydrogen by rising more rapidly than the balloon itself kept skimming over the case. The lightning discharge between the aerostat and the cloud or else between the two clouds met thus an "external" zone composed of a mixture of air and hydrogen which caught fire instantly.
The power of fate has had, however, to do with this accident, since many and many aeronauts have frequently found themselves in the midst of storms during their ascensions, and this has happened during the frequent ascensions of the Specialist Brigade, and no one suffered the least injury, although the balloons were covered with aluminum.
Prof. Alfonso Sella of the Physical Institute at Rome, a well-known scientist and aeronaut, fully agrees with Lieutenant Cianetti that in aerial navigation in a stormy zone, a balloon is no more apt to be struck by lightning than a person would be while walking in the open country.
It is stated that in France during recent balloon ascensions the aeronauts noticed that during a storm their fingers and hair were affected by electrical effluvium, and these phenomena were followed by crackling of the balloon ropes.
These facts demonstrate that an aerostat driving through a stormy zone has to fear no electrical discharge; it should, however, try to avoid the storm, since this frequently gives rise to powerful aerial currents in the most varied directions, as well as to ascending and descending water-spouts and whirlwinds, so as to render the balloon no longer subject to the control either of the valve or the ballast.
Lieutenant Cianetti states that on the afternoon of May 16. 1906, two aerostats were ready to start from the aerostatic park at the Milan Exhibition, when a storm suddenly took place, which made the mooring of the balloons very difficult. A young man was to accompany Mr. Hollecker on one of the balloons (the "Sparviero" covered with powdered aluminum) became scared, and Lieutenant Cianetti most willingly took his place.
These two gentlemen found themselves all at once surrounded by a black cloud, only brightened every now and then by flashes of lightning followed by thunder.
Navigation lasted two hours and the balloon finally descended safely at Cazzano near the lake of Orta at about 90 kilometers from the starting point.
The other aerostat which had left shortly after, likewise descended safel)r in the neighborhood of the Ticino river.
On June 10, 1906, during the inauguration of the Turinese Section of the Italian Aerostatic Society, four aerostats left the royal garden of Turin.
A very large storm cloud was extending over the city at the moment fixed for departure. The first three balloons rapidly rose to 800 meters entering partly the lower portion of the clouds and remained nearly motionless in a zone of calm while a cool wind was blowing over the lower ground.
Lieutenant Cianetti started alone with the fourth balloon made of silk covered with powdered aluminum. In order to rise from the ground and make headway, by taking advantage of the wind, he kept himself low and remained at a stead}- equilibrium altitude of 400 meters for 20 minutes.
The impending storm was proceeding at a much greater velocity than the balloon whichwas caught by an ascending water-spout, and turning rapidly and violently upon itself in a large spiral, rose rapidly higher. Lieutenant Cianetti having at his disposal a good quantity of ballast, in order to descend and avoid the whirlwind opened the upper valve.
Although the valve was kept open, he continued to rise to 900 meters, where he entered the clouds and the balloon continuing its rotating movement reached an altitude of 2,000 meters in the midst of thick darkness brightened only at times by flashes of lightning.
Immediately after, having gotten out of the water-spout, the balloon descended with much rapidity and the descent was only checked at a certain moment, by throwing out 160 Kg. of sand.
When the balloon came near the ground, navigation was interrupted by a violent
Lieutenant Cianetti states that he made another ascension on the evening of July ioth, from the same aeronautic park with a 900 m. balloon likewise of silk covered with powdered aluminum.
The balloon drove all night and all the following day making, however, not much progress. After 20 hours he found himself at an altitude of 4.200 meters above Lodi. A storm cloud was seen beneath the balloon at an altitude of about 200 meters; the cloud appeared quite dense and dark with neatly rounded edges and purple reflections, and its upper crest nearly reached the balloon's position.
Another cloud was also to be seen at about 1,000 meters above the balloon; the latter was very extensive and its lower edges kept touching the heights of the Appen-nines of the Emilia.
While his attention was engaged in observing that fantastic sight, a flash caused by the two clouds appeared vertically in direction of and close by the balloon.
Still convinced of the fact that danger is only incurred by a balloon when as in this case, it might find itself on the same trajectory of an electrical discharge and in such a position as to reduce the explosive distance between the two ends of the spinthermometer, he rapidly descended driving through the lower clouds.
After these experiments Lieutenant Cianetti states that he is fully convinced that aerial navigation is not dangerous during a storm.
lie also says, that in the quality of second officer of the Aerostatic Park, he had directed on June 2d the balloon's maneuvers and its departure, and adds, that the late Captain Ulivelli expressed no fear as to a possible danger from the impending stc rm.
The opinion of Lieutenant Cianetti who witnessed the ascension and examined the remains of the balloon is, that the discharge which took place between the clouds and the aerostat was due to the fact that the balloon diminished the explosive distance between the two points charged with a different potential, that the flash struck the case near the upper metallic valve (which does in fact show signs of having been burnt), and finally that the setting on fire of the hydrogen was due to the explosion of the mixture which was necessarily bound to take place through the contact of the oxygen of the air with the hydrogen escaping from the lower valve and which was surrounding the lower part of the case, forming of course around it an easily inflammable atmosphere.
The President: At Mount Weather, Virginia, it has been the aim of the weather service to recruit young, active, vigorous scientists, "whose future," as the Irishman says, "is not behind them." In selecting the staff to work at that institution we have taken the recommendations of professors in physics with a view to getting the best material possible for this institution. One of the men who came to ns endorsed by Professor Michelson as the brightest he had graduated is the man who will speak to us next, on kite manipulation, Dr. YV. R. Blair, United States Weather Bureau.
KITE MANIPULATION AND THE RECORD FLIGHT.
Dr. W. R. Blair, U. S. Weather Bureau.
J did not know until recently that so many people were flying kites, but a number of inquiries have come of such sort as this: "What sort of string do yon use on your kites when Hying them four miles high?" This and other inquiries of a different sort may be answered by just a few remarks on kite manipulation, as we manipulate kites at Mount Weather. The kites we use are box kites. The ratio of the steering plane surface to that of the lifting is about one to three, this ratio being greater for kites used in high winds and less for those used in low winds.
The line by means of which the kites are flown is made of piano wire and the drum upon which the wire is wound is loaded about as follows, the heavier wire beine next to the drum :
5,000 12,000 20.500
Diameter. .026 inch .028 .032 .036
For the purpose of attaching- them to the line, the kites are provided with an elastic bridle arranged as shown in the following sketch.
This arrangement not only protects the line from sudden jerks because of the elasticity of the rubber, but as a puff of wind stretches the rubber to a considerable extent (determined by the proportions of the bridle), the point of application of the pull is transferred along the main rib to points farther up, the kite takes a smaller angle to the wind, and its pull is less than it would otherwise be. The head kite, which carries the instrument, is fastened directly to the end of the wire. Secondary kites are attached to the wire by means of cords about 100 feet in length and a splice made of soft iron wire.
The drum was at first made of cast iron, but on account of its breaking we have now one of forged steel. The necessity for a strong drum is easily seen. If there are, say, five kites on the line, the pull may reach two hundred pounds or more. Xow since the drum has a circumference of five feet, there will be a great many turns of wire at this tension, consequently a great strain on the drum. This drum is geared to a two and one-half horsepower motor in such a way that the wire ma}- be brought in at any rate from zero to four and one-half miles per hour. The kites themselves furnish the power for reeling out.
In the apparatus for the manipulation of kites, the most important thing is a reel which is always under the control of the operator so that the speed can be increased or decreased at will. This is necessary both-in the starting and in the landing if we would save the kites from breaking. Our reel at
present is arranged with a power and a brake clutch. With these two friction clutches the speed can be completely controlled within the above mentioned limits. The power clutch may be allowed to slip a little or the brake clutch applied or both.
Aside from the reel there should be of course a sufficient field in which to land the kites and. most important of all. men in this field who can think and act promptly. This is a qualification which is fully as important in a kite field as it is in a football field. We have men at Mount Weather who, I think, are hard to beat at this work. Kites are landed day after day without breaking There is of course an occasional smash-up which cannot be foreseen.
With reference to the flight of October 3, 1907, we had out on that day thirty eight thousand five hundred feet of wire and eight kites with a total lifting surface of five hundred and fifty square feet. The pull on the wire was about two hundred and fifty pounds. When we started out in the morning the flight did not promise to be a very interesting one. The kites floated in a west wind from seven until eleven a. m., then the head kite was picked up by a stronger upper current and drew the others up. When up a height of two miles they swung a little to the right and went on up to the east as far as we could let them have wire. If we had had more wire and more kites, we could have gone considerably higher. We obtained a very clear record. I have here a copy of it which I shall start around among you. You may examine it at your leisure.
The President: We feel that the achievements of Dr. Blair, who is immediately in charge of the aerial research, is unprecedented in getting observations in the upper air. He has been getting observations every day since June. On this day, October 3rd. we find the temperature at that altitude was 5.4 degrees below zero.
Captain Chandler: Will Dr. Blair tell us what instruments they carried on these kites?
Dr. Blair: We used only instruments for getting the pressure and temperature. I will say while you look at those sheets, the constant of the pressure sheet was about two. Every division here means about twice what it is marked.
The President: How did you measure your elevations?
Dr. Blair: We checked the elevation by angles taken on the kite and the wire. With more than one kite on the wire these data are insufficient to get the altitudes very accurately. Altitudes are all finally computed from the air pressure by the usual formula.
Dr. Humphreys: It might be interesting to state that this particular instrument was subjected to a pressure test immediately upon the kite coming down and before the pens were lifted, and so on that same sheet is the test record as well as the flight record.
PROF. A. LAWRENCE ROTCH.
(Continued from page 7.)
In view of these results, it cannot be denied that human flight is not only possible, but practically realized, although many years may be required to perfect the art. It does not appear probable, however, that flying machines of any kind can ever compete with vessels or railway trains in transporting heavy materials, so that such machines, besides their use in sport or warfare, will be limited to carrying passengers or the mails in an "air-line," independently of mountains, lakes and rivers, or political frontiers.
CLUB NOTES. Aero Club of New England.
The Club balloon "Boston," has been thoroughly inspected by the maker, after making four ascensions, and will be at the service of Club members from July 24th.
Mr. Chas. J. Glidden, member of the Committee on Ascensions, can be addressed care E. C. Peebles, North Adams, Mass., until August 30th. Mr. Glidden will arrange ascensions, the cost of which will be about as follows:
Use of Club balloon, $25.00: (add $10 if member is a non-contributor to purchase of balloon; gas and filling, $3i-5o; Total, $56.50.
To this add cost of repairs, if any, expense ofshipping the balloon to North Adams or Pittstield, and expenses of pilot, no charge being made by pilot for his services.
The amount of money contributed by members toward cost of balloon will be credited on account of ascensions they may make.
Milwaukee Aero Club.
Colonel Gnstave Pabst, President of the Pabst Brewing Company of Milwaukee, has made a notable contribution to aeronautics in Milwaukee by making a voluntary gift of a first class balloon to the Milwaukee Aero Club. Col. Pabst is a charter member of the Club and when a committee of its members approached him with a suggestion that he purchase a balloon for his own use, he very generously offered to buy a balloon and present it to the Club. At a complimentary dinner given to Col. Pabst by the directors of the Aero Club on Wednesday, the 8th of July, the offer was accepted with thanks and Col. Pabst was made an honorary life member of the Club. In a short talk, Col. Pabst stated that he had made the gift in the hope that it would prove an incentive to the Milwaukee Aero Club to build up a strong membership and accomplish real things in aeronautics. He stated that there were no strings attached to his gift and he desired the club to purchase a balloon which would be a credit to the Club and to the city of Milwaukee. Major Henry B. Hersey, of the United States Weather Bureau, who is a director of the Aero Club and its only licensed pilot, was commissioned by the directors to make the purchase of a balloon as suggested by Col. Pabst and the directors voted unanimous-
lLt0r!nn£e M, I^tT ^ J"™ H. MOSS, PRESIDENT MILWAUKEE AERO CLUB.
the donor. Alajor Hersey immediately opened negotiations for the purchase of a balloon for deliver}' before the close of the summer season and it is expected that a number of important ascensions will be made under the auspices of the Club during the months of September and October.
The Milwaukee Aero Club is composed of representative business men of Milwaukee and organized along the same lines as the Aero Club of America and the Aero Club of France. It has adopted practically the same rules for the issuance of licenses to pilots as those.of the Aero Club of America. With the new balloon and one of the most distinguished pilots in United States to direct its ascensions, things may be looked for from the Milwaukee Aero Club and it is only a question of a short time before several other balloons will be added as hailing from that city.
Major Hersey has since purchased for the Milwaukee Club a 1600 cubic meter balloon from A. Leo Stevens, complete with instruments, spread cloth, etc. Messrs. Hersey and Stevens will make the first ascent with the new balloon on completion.
Aero Club of America.
The pilot named for the Gordon Bennett at Berlin, October nth to ^ZlTe America are as follows, with their alternates: Lieutanant Frank P. Lahm alternate N. H. Arnold; J. C. McCoy, alternate Captain Chas. De F. Chandler; A. Holland Forbes, alternate Major Henry B. Hersey. rr„ffmnn
Members proposed: H. Faehrmann, Frederick Weston and C. Gouverneur Hoffman.
Pilot license No. \2 has been issued to Charles J. Glidden.
It has also been decided by the Club that the night trip necessary to qualify must be begun before midnight. Several have made their night ascents early in the morning so as to have daylight for landing.
An order has been given to A. Leo Stevens for two balloons; one of 600 cubic meters and one of 1000 cubic meters. These will be rented to members at ?20 and $30 respectively. They must be in charge of a regular pilot of the Club.
The clubs now affiliated with the Aero Club of America and thus having representation in the F. A. 1. through the A. C. of A. are those of St. Louis, Milwaukee, Ohio and New England.
The Aeronautic Society.
Four illustrated lectures have been given at the temporary headquarters of the
"Development of Ignition," by R. B. Whitman, Director of the N. Y. School of Automobile Engineers, showing pa'st methods as well as the latest and most efficient improvement.
"Ballooning," was given by A. C. Triaca, proprietor of the International School of Aeronautics, in the absence of A. Leo Stevens, who was to have told of the Chicago and St. Paul balloon races.
"The Action and Balance of Four-Cycle Engines," by R. B. Whitman, a most interesting and instructive talk on what actually takes place in a gas engine.
"The Helicopter," by Wilbur R. Kimball. Four distinguished men of aviation have been elected Honorary Members: Octave Chanute. Henry Farman, Wilbur and Orville Wright. Mr. Chanute is the pioneer in America; the Wright Brothers the first in the world to successfully and repeatedly fly in a motor aeroplane; and Henry Farman has done a great work in bringing about a public interest in aviation by his many flights.
The Aeronautic Society sent a telegram of welcome to Henry Farman on board his-steamer. A cablegram of condolence and encouragement was sent to Count Zeppelin on the occasion of the accident to his dirigible, No. 4.
Mr. Chanute paid a visit to the Society at one of the regular meetings and seemed to be impressed with the aims and projects.
At a general meeting it was decided to abandon its plans for inviting Delagrange to make public flights in America as the idea of the Society had been taken up in effect by the St. Louis syndicate's bringing Farman to this country.
The flights of Farman would have the same effect as those of Delagrange and there was no need of continuing as the early ideas of the Society were realized by the coming of Farman.
Persistent work has been done towards securing grounds large enough and within the shortest possible distance from New York. The best grounds were not available. Three locations, two of which are very accessible, are now under consideration. Each one of these is at least a half mile square.
As soon as the grounds are secured, sheds will at once be erected, motors obtained, and machine shop installed. Half a dozen members will either try out their machines at the grounds or commence construction the moment the grounds and buildings are available.
The Society will invite bids from motor manufacturers to supply motors. It will be seen that great benefit will come to manufacturers whose motors are used, so the actual work of the motors will be seen by great numbers and each member who is experimenting will be in the market for a motor the moment his experiments are concluded.
The membership is rapidly growing. Those building machines, or contemplating doing so, should find the Society of material assistance.
Aero Club of Philadelphia.
A suggestion has been made by the A. C. of Philadelphia to the Ben Franklin Aeronautical Association for amalgamation, and same was favorably received, as nearly all the members of the Club are also members of the Association. A meeting to perfect plans will be held on August 7th.
On July 10th, Dr. Fulton attempted to inflate the Initial but a heavy wind caused the balloon to burst just before completion. Various ascensions are planned for August.
Glidden Tour An Auto -Meter Parade
It was a walk-over. The men who put their best efforts into making cars for this big event knew what speed indicator to buy—for every Warner used in this event was purchased and we can show the official order.
This big Warner percentage is a mighty potent fact. The 1908 Glidden Tour was a manufacturers' battle ground—a struggle for blood. Every firm put out its best product and its best driver. None but the best of accessories were considered for a moment. Not a detail was overlooked that could in the least contribute to the possible winning of the famous trophy. No manufacturer who is out to make a record—amid company he dare not think of despising—would make the fatal mistake of using an accessory that is liable to fall down on him. He will scrutinize. He will investigate.
He will rigidly try out everything that goes to make up his equipment. Naturally he is going to use that which proves to be the best.
A WARNER WALK=OVER
57 Entrants—36 of them Warner-equipped—63 per cent, of the whole.
When manufacturers will turn down instruments that have been offered to them as gifts and pay out their good coin for Warner Auto-Meters there must be something in it when we say that we make the only speed indicator on earth. This proves the supremacy of the Magnetic Principle—for manufacturers are discerning men.
That which is good enough for the Glidden Tour entrants is surely gb&d enough for you.
And you don't have to pay one cent to try one of them, either. We'll put an Auto-Meter on any car on earth for a 30-day trial—no deposit—no agreement. Nothing but your promise to give the Auto-Meter a fair trial.
Write us to-day and ask us to send you one. Just tell us the make, year and model of your car, with size of wheels and tires. You'll get one by express prepaid. If it doesn't suit you return it at our expense. There will be no argument.
Warner Instrument Co. 225Jnhuefr Beloit, Wis.
CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN
NEW YORK'S LEADING MANUFACTURER
PILOT AND MANUFACTURER
BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL
of which the Government airship and balloons are being constructed will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishiug. The coining balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.
Prices and samples on application
Box 78 Madison Square P. O.
North Adams Aero Club.
The first point to point balloon race ever held in America will take place Friday, August 14, from North Adams. A beautiful cup presented by A. Holland Forbes will be competed for.
The race is novel in the condition imposed, as each pilot is required to select the town, outside 30 miles radius from North Adams, where he will land. To win the cup he must land within 10 miles of the post office of the town named, or if two or more balloons land within this distance, the winner will be the one who lands nearest.
The balloons entered are: "The Heart of the Berkshires,'' owned by the Pittsfield Aero Club, pilot Alan R. Hawley; "The Boston." owned by the Aero Club of New England, pilot Chas. J. Glidden; the "North Adams No. 1," owned by the North Adams Aero Club, pilot Arthur D. Potter accompanied by A. Holland Forbes; the "Grey-lock," owned by Dr. R. M. Randall and piloted by him; the "Sky Pilot," owned by J. H. Wade and A. H. Morgan of Cleveland, piloted by J. H. Wade; five in all.
Entries close August 7 and it is possible other entries will be received by then.
The winner of the trophy is to have possession, subject to challenge any time after six months from date of winning and must defend same within ninety days Forbes Cup.
from receipt of challenge. All contests for the trophy must be held under the auspices of the North Adams Aero Club. At least two balloons must start. No restrictions as to size of persons carried. If the trophy is not won in the first race the club is to hold another race within three months and as often thereafter as is reasonable until it is won.
The start of the race will be from the balloon grounds on West Main Street and it is intended to get the last of the balloons away by 12 o'clock noon if it is found possible.
The members of the club will be in charge of the event and the grounds, as usual, in charge of Superintendent E. C. Peebles of the gas company. The balloons will be sent away at either 15 or 30 minute intervals, each pilot just before starting announcing the point for which he will try.
Numerous pilot balloons will be sent up at intervals before the race starts in order that the pilots may have opportunity of judging the direction of the wind in the upper currents and thereby decide what town or city they will select as their landing place.
Special arrangements are to be made with transportation companies to accommodate the crowds that will come to the city to witness the sending away of four balloons in a race, a novelty that only St. Louis, Chicago and St. Paul have had in this country and those all within the last year and two of them within the last month.
Pittsfield Aero Club.
The club's first balloon. "The Heart of the Berkshires," was christened on July 29 by a young lady, the niece of ex-Mayor Daniel England, who threw a beautiful bunch of flowers into the basket.
On the envelope is painted a large red heart on which is the name of the balloon. On the other side of the bag is the word "Pittsfield" in large black letters.
The balloon was built by Stevens and was delivered on the very day of the flight.
The initial trip was most interesting. The North Adams Herald says:
"The balloon rose to a height of 1700 feet and finally nearly an hour later drifted to Dalton where it slowly circled the town twice and then what appeared to be an upward current of air sucked them upward into a dense black cloud.
"Stevens, over the telephone, said that so suddenly did things happen that they hardly know exactly what transpired. All three were thrown to the bottom of the basket and the trail rope nearly 300 feet in length was snapped out nearly straight behind the basket. At times the end of it was carried higher than the top of the balloon itself It was an entirely new experience for all of the aeronauts and a hurried consultation decided all to open the valve and drop back to earth, preferring to drop rapidly and 'take w hat was coming to us,' as Mr. Stevens said, than to chance going higher as they were then doing rapidly. . iU
"Accordingly Stevens opened the valve and at the same time apparently the upward current of wind ceased and they began to drop from their altitude of 9000 feet at a thrilling rate of speed. The bag and a half of sand they had with them went overboard to lighten the car and eventually everything in the car even to the rug except the instruments, was tossed over to lighten it and at 4:30 o'clock they landed in a hay field of Fred G. Crane two miles north of Dalton and landed hard, the men taking to the rigging over the basket to lighten the jar of landing.
"Mr. Hawley in talking with N. H. Arnold over the telephone, said that to put it mildly all were mighty glad to get back to earth and be able to tell of their experiences. He said that he had a tracing by his self-registering barometer that had probably no equal in the world. The mark indicates an absolutely straight drop of 9000 feet."
Aero Club of St. Louis.
The Aero Club of St. Louis, will not hold any contest this Fall, although the purchase of two balloons to be at the service of members of the club is contemplated. Besides, the club is looking about for suitable grounds near the gas supply where balloon ascensions might be made.
The St. Louis organization did contemplate another contest of balloons this Fall, but before reaching any favorable conclusion it was agreed that foreign clubs might attach an incorrect motive to such an event, inasmuch as the American entry was defeated in the Gordon Bennett of last year. Next year, however, the St. Louisians will again become active in aer.onautics and intend in that and each succeeding year to hold an aeronautical contest of some sort in St. Louis.
At the last meeting of the club a reorganization took place which made the Aero Club incorporate under a state charter, such as is applied to benevolent and educational societies. The officers remained the same at the new election, and there were but few changes in the board of governors, as follows; Judge Daniel G. Taylor takes the place of E. C. Cowdrey who has moved to Chicago; Edward A. Faust replaces A. A. Busch at the latter's suggestion; and H. N. Davis replaces R. K. Evans.
Lieut. Lahm, who represents the Aero Club of St. Louis in the Gordon Bennett from Berlin on October 11, has been elected an honorary member of the club. It was also decided to present gold medals to Oscar Erhsloh and Alfred LeBlance; to the forme for covering the greatest distance and the latter for remaining the longest time in the air in the Gordon Bennett of 1907.
A committee composed of L. D. Dozier, president of the Aero Club; Councilman Albert Bond Lambert and George D. Hirschberg has been appointed to arrange for the purchase of two balloons. Another committte, of which Captain McCullough, general manager of the United Railways Company, is chairman, will look after the grounds and gas supply.
The new balloon will probably be known as "St. Louis II."
According to J. W. Kearney secretary of the club, the flights made recently from Chicago and St. Paul will not be recognized as official by the Aero Club of America and none of the distances covered in these contests will be placed on record.
Aero Club of Ohio.
Six ascensions have been made thus far in the history of the Aero Club of Ohio, up to July 25th, 1908.
Messrs. Wade and Morgan have offered a silver cup to be known as the "Sky Pilot Trophy," to the man who makes the longest trip, over 100 miles, out of Canton before January 1st.
Manager Charles Dougherty, of The Courtland, has offered a trophy to the auto-mobihst who is the first to reach the balloonists on the next ascension from Canton.
Aero Club of France.
The first half of 1908, at the aerostatic park of the club at St. Cloud, there were 186 balloon ascents, with a total consumption of 199,185 cubic meters of gas. There were 512 aeronauts carried, among them 74 women. If the balance of the year keeps up with this record, the year 1908 will show a decided increase over 1907.
During the same period over a hundred experiments in aviation were made at the aviation grounds of Issy, with very remarkable success.
Aeronautique Club de France. On the 10th of July was held the regular quarterly dinner, with many people present; President Sauniere, Ernest Archdeacon, Captain Ferber, M. Paulhan and others.
With the champagne, M. Sauniere thanked the Members of Honor for their presence and presented M. Pietri, Vice-President of the "Association des Palmes," a souvenir of the occasion of his being appointed an officer of the Academy.
MM. Archdeacon and Captain Ferber presented M. Paulhan with the prize offered by the Minister of War and won at the model contest of June 21.
H. Archdeacon then congratulated the President on the prosperity of the club and its democratic character.
The Aero Club des Pyrenees has been founded at Toulouse to encourage aerial navigation, automobiling, and every form of sport associated with motors. Andre Bouche is President and Edmond Sirven Secretary.
The Aero Club de Namur has just been formed in Namur with a temporary committee in control.
National Aeronautical Society.
At an informal gathering in Washington, at which were present Dr. A. F. Zahm, Augustus Post, Lieutenant Lahm, Dr. Fairchild, Professor Willis L. Moore, and others, the formation of a scientific aeronautical organization for Washington was discussed. Definite plans were not made at the time but the intention is to extend the field of work until it becomes a national organization.
The co-operation and assistance of various departments of the Government, the Weather Bureau, Smithsonian Institution, etc., have been assured. This organization or suggestion of such has been largely brought about by the enthusiasm created by the public demonstrations of the past year.
Farman says that with his present apparatus on a larger field than Issy he expects to be able to stay 25 minutes in the air and travel at 80 kilometers an hour, and with further improvements to establish a record for the hour.
The Kapferer monoplane is now completely finished, and trials will begin very soon.
M. de Pischoff, whose first Aeroplane was described in February "Aeronautics," is now building a monoplane. The apparatus will have a fusiform body of a total length of 10.8 meters, with three planes laid tandem, each one decreasing in size from front to rear, the greatest spread being about 6.5 meters. The total surfaces reach 20 square meters. The wooden propeller, 2 meters diameter, will be placed in front and operated by a 35-h. p. motor. The total weight will not be over 300 kgs. Trials will be made the early part of June.
The following letter was received by Mr. G. H. Curtiss, of the G. H. Curtiss Mfg. Co., Hammondsport, N. Y., from Chas. L. King, the owner of an adjoining farm:
"My dear Mr. Curtiss:—I was in Hammondsport Saturday and tried to see you in the evening but, finding you were at the dinner party at the hotel, I did not interrupt. I wanted to speak to you about the refuse from the chemicals used in making the gas for the balloon. The owner of one of the cows pastured on my farm last summer, said that his cow, being of an inquisitive nature, licked some of the refuse and was inflated by it. The owner of another cow made a similar complaint. What I suggest is that you fence off a small piece near the inlet, where you can dump the refuse so that it will not permeate the springs or be_jn_reach of the cows.
"In making this request, I am prompted by the desire to protect my land, and also to save the art of aeronautics from the humiliation of witnessing the commonplace stunt of a mother goose's tale of the cow over the moon put into practical application, by some of my tenant's cows licking the by-product of a balloon ascension."
WIRELESS TELEGRAPHING TO A BALLOON.
Diagram of Circuit
A - antenna
B « receiver
C - battery
D» variable inductance
X = barrier
F =■ variable condenser
G - 'ground"
than seventy pounds horsepow specially designed motor.
A wireless telegraph receiving station could be easily installed in a balloon. A transmitting station, however, would be too heavy and the spark might ignite the gas. A telegraph station would be better than a telephone for it could receive messages from greater distances.
The antenna might be insulated, stranded, copper wire braided into the valve rope its full length, without interfering in the least with the operation of the valve. The same length of wire could be braided into the guide rope as "ground." The length of the wave used should be twice the total length of the two wires. Where the two wires meet in the basket there should be inserted a varible inductance in series with a detector of the barretter type ; as the electrolytic t\pe might freeze, the coherer will not stand jirring and the magnetic is to heavy. Shunting the detector, there should be a variable mica condenser and a high-inductance telephone receiver, supplied with headgear, in series with a few dry cells.
The total weight would be less than twenty-five pounds and the cost less than twenty dollars.
The shortness of the wave length occasioned by the short distance between the basket and the valve would not make much difference as there would be no obstructions for the waves to encounter.
A transmitting station already established would probably consent to send the messages.
It might be better to use a uminum throughout instead of copper because, weight for weight, it is more conductive but takes up more space.
A wireless outfit might be dangerous in a thunderstorm.
Wireless waves might be used to control balloons or airships containing no passenger-;, in the same manner that torpedoes are now controlled.
One of the first dirigibles was propelled by electricity, and now that the storage battery has been reduced to less er per hour it might be worth while trying again with a
Mm. H. and A. Dufaux, the Geneva automobile constructors, who some months ago presented a reduced model of an aeroplane which attracted much attention, have now built a full-sized aeroplane on the plans of this model. The apparatus has a total surface of 60 meters, and its weight with the aviator on board is only 500 kilogrammes. The aeroplane has been mounted on floats, so that it can be tested above the Lake of Geneva. According to the "Aerophile," it is fitted with a 120-h. p. Dufaux motor which weighs only 85 kilogrammes. This motor has 20 cylinders, mounted in five groups of four, working on a five-crank shaft. Each group is composed of two double-effect, tandem-mounted cylinders.—Paris Herald.
The society which bought the ground where is installed the aerostatic park of the Aero Club of France, at St. Cloud, had a good idea and made a good investment. Is it so hard to organize a society to establish a park for aviation? Some sheds could be built and rented to the aviators, and there could also be a shop for repairs. The experimenters would get their training in all security of mind with their apparatus, and the shareholders would get good dividends. Everybody would be delighted and we would be delivered of Issy les Moulineaux.—Les Sports.
The Kaiser gave authorization to Major Gross to put the military aeronautic brigade at the disposition of Count Zeppelin for the trials of the new dirigible which will take place this month.
(i) M. Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe has offered a new prize of $5,000, open to either lighter-than-air or heavier-than-air apparatus, for the first "aeromobile" to transport Commandant Renard, one of the pioneers of aeronautics in France, to England, if the Commandant is carried by motor balloon, the descent must be at the military camp at Aldershot; if by the gasless type of apparatus the landing may be made anywhere in England. The announcement was made at a dinner given by M. and Mine. Armengaud, Jr., at their villa at St. Cloud, where the Aero Club of France has their aerostatic park. Henri Deutsch is the man who, with Ernest Archdeacon, offered the $10,000 prize to the first aeroplane to fly a kilometer, and which was won by Far-man in March, 1908. He has offered many other smaller prizes in connection with aeronautics.
bretton woods cup.
(2) Anderson & Price, the managers of the famous White Mountain hostelries, The Mount Pleasant and The Mount Washington, have offered a handsome cup for balloonists. The first balloon which, starting from any point 100 miles away from Bretton Woods, lands within 5 miles of either of the above mentioned hotels, will be deemed the winner. Seven trials have already been made and one balloon accorrr-plished about half the distance.
(3) Henri Desche, the Mayor of Marsang-sur-Orge, has offered through Les Sports and the Aero Club of France a valuable piece of ground worth 30,000 francs to the first aviator who, starting at least 20 kilometers away, will first make a landing within the confines of the town. The offer is good until the end of 1909.
(4.) It is reported that a department of the Russian Government is to offer ■$25,000 in prizes for an aeroplane competition to take place next year.
(5) The King of Italy has manifested an intention of giving a prize of 50,000 francs to the aeroplane which will stay in the air 30 minutes. The contest to be held in Italy, but open to everyone.
In speaking of the experiences of Messrs. Glidden and Clayton in their trip of July 29th, the North Adams "Herald" has an interesting interview with Mr. Clayton, as follows:
"Mr Clayton explained in detail the conditions which made it possible tor such a thing to happen.
"Wherever there are thunder caps, as they are called, the huge white banks of cumulous clouds, there is a whirlwind. These clouds are formed by the rising of heated air and the condensation of it into moisture. When the clouds are of sufficient density they become shower clouds.
"While we do not know exactly just how far from those clouds the influence of the whirling wind is felt, it is safe to say that within a half mile certainly and probably for a mile in circumference from the clouds of that nature its effect would be felt by a balloon and slowly but surely it would be drawn into the maelstrom of the air.
"As the balloon was sucked into the center of this it would be whirled and forced upward at a tremendous rate, the pressure of the air and the speed forcing a large amount of the gas contained in the envelope through the vent so, that when the balloon was thrown out at the top of the cloud or the whirlwind, it would have little lifting or sustaining power and no matter how much ballast remained to be thrown out, it would drop witli fearful rapidity.
" 'However,' continued Mr. Clayton, 'the dropping would not necessarily be dangerous or fatal, as has been proven time and again. Numerous balloonists have experienced similar ^phenomena to that Messrs. Stevens, Hawley and Van Sleet went through yesterday.ifeohn Wise, a practical aeronaut of the early days, whose book is a wonderful regPfon of his experiences of hundreds of ascensions, proved that a balloon can bupt in midair and the passengers may land safely, although, perhaps a little hard, because the big envelope forms a parachute.
" 'Wise had an even more vivid experience with a thunderclap than did the men yesterday. Three times he was sucked into the whirlpool and partially thrown out at the top only to fall back again and be sucked upward through it again. Yet he landed safely with practically no gas in his balloon, it all having been forced out through the vent on his upward fliglns.
" 'The balloonist has two alternatives when approaching a large cumulus cloud. If he is ballooning for pleasure he should open the valve and make a landing before getting within the range of the suction which, as I say, may extend a mile beyond the cloud, although that we cannot say definitely. Or, he may give up ballast and go above it finding there the wind which will throw him away from the cloud and permit him to continue his flight. In going above it, however, he may find it necessary in the case of a very dense cloud, to go to a height of probably two and a half or three miles before he would clear the cloud.
"'All this has been proven and to those who have made the scientific study of clouds and winds it is well known that the cumulus clouds aways contain a whiring wind which is, to a balloonist, not a pleasant thing to encounter and one which may be avoided by ordinary care.' "
Airship Line for America.
Charles J. Glidden has organized the "American Aerial Navigation Co.," to operate a dirigible service between New York and Boston. Two supply stations are to be established along the line. Knowing Mr. Glidden, this most optimistic project should receive credence. Mr. Glidden states: "I can say nothing more at present regarding the Aerial Navigation Co.. than has appeared in public prints, which is substantially correct. The organization will be completed in October. Irî the meantime considerable work is being done toward the end that the Company is organized for."
To Recommend Appropriation of $1,000,000 for Aeronautics.
Encouraged by the general interest manifested in the coming Fort Meyer balloon test and prompted by the advancement of other nations in aeronautics, Gen. James Allen, chief signal officer, and the board of ordnance and fortification' of the War Department will recommend the appropriation by Congress next winter of $1,000,000 for aeronautics.
With this money General Allen proposes to erect two balloon stations on the Atlantic coast, at I\ew York and at Fort Monroe, Va., and to purchase two balloons of the type of the République, the immense dirigible built by the French government to replace La Patrie, which was lost at Verdun, France, last winter. A balloon of this size would cost about $100,000. General Allen is of the opinion that two of these ships at each balloon station would be of great service in warding off an attack by warships.—Arms and the Man.
The Cost of Ballooning.
At the dinner of the Aero Club of New England, mentioned in the July number, Mr. Glidden read a paper on ballooning. In this paper he gives the following interesting information:
"As my ascensions have been made in three countries and under varied conditions, the expenses in connection with them will form a fair basis to estimate the cost of ballooning. The expenses of the 10 ascensions total $721.22, an average of $72.12 for each ascension.
"The balloons have carried on an average 2.3 passengers a distance of 455 miles, and remained in the air 24 hours. This would make the expense of travelling in the air for each passenger 68^4 cents per mile, and the cost to remain in the air to each passenger $13.04 per hour.
"A balloon to accomplish the above results costs $800 and the necessary instruments $100. The average life of a balloon is about 50 ascensions, after which it can be sold for exhibition work at about 25 per cent, of the original cost.
"The art of managing the balloon is in making as straight a line as possible, which is recorded /on the barograph, and an easy landing. Under favorable conditions the line\should be^ugajJy- as straight as an experienced navigator would make in steering his lViwic^^kaTis, the rise and fall should not exceed 300 feet. If the sun plays hide ajwpwek with the clouds the line would appear like the teeth of a large saw with paj^tftthe saw chipped out, or a line of jagged mountain peaks as /seen from a^jsfrance." q ^
TWFlrst Airship Law. (J\f Yo Yld.^Tl< S , j\ ^ ' 1^0^)
The first ordinance of record to be passed regulating the use of airships, providing vfax, etc., has been framed by the town of Kissimmee, Florida, and P. A. Vans Agnew, (■ an attorney, Avrites: "The ordinance has not yet been adopted by the Council but will in all probability be passed at the next meeting. It may interest you to know that the 'raisen d'etre' for the ordinance is the presence in this town of a local airship genius, who is experimenting with the construction of an amateur airship, and is suspected of an intention to soon launch his invention on the main street of this town. In dealing with this local emergency, it was thought advisable to provide for future contingencies in view of the extraordinarily rapid progress now being made in aerial navigation."
The ordinance has been published, according to law, and is as follows:
"An Ordinance Regulating the Status and Employment of Airships Within the
Town of Kissimmee City: Be It Ordained by the Council of the Town of Kissimmee
"Section 1. For the purpose of this ordinance, the boundaries of the town and the boundaries of the airship limit of that town shall be held to extend upwards in a vertical direction to a distance of twenty miles in the sky; and the area of the airship limit of the town shall be the same as that of the fire limit of the town.
"Section 2. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to keep an airship shed, barn or garage for the stalling or repairing of airships, or an airship station, depot or terminal for the shipment or discharge of either freight or passengers within the airship limit without the permission of the council, which privilege shall be subject to be revoked at any time upon six months' notice.
"Section 3. Every person, firm or corporation keeping an airship shed, barn or garage shall pay an annual license tax of $100 for each such place of business, the same to be collected in like manner as other licenses.
"Section 4. An annual license tax is hereby imposed upon all airships kept or used for hire within the town, the same to be collected from the owner of such airship in like manner as other licenses. Said license tax shall be graded as" fotllows:
"Balloons stationary, $20; powerless, $30; dirigible, $50.
"Flying machines—aeroplanes, $100; helicopters, $150; ornithopters, $200; all other types $300.
"Said amounts shall be increased according to carrying capacity in the following rates:
"Five to fifteen persons, 10 per cent, increase; fifteen to thirty passengers, 20 per cent, increase; thirty to sixty passengers, 35 per cent, increase; sixty to 100 passengers, 50 per cent, increase; 100 to 500 passengers, 100 per cent, increase; 500 to 1000 passengers, 200 per cent, increase; over 1,000 passengers, 400 per cent, increase.
"Section 5. For the purpose of encouraging the transportation of freight by aerial common carriers no license tax whatever shall be imposed upon any aerial common carrier for the term of 15 years from the date of this ordinance.
"Section 6. No motor or powerless balloon, aeroplane, helicopter, ornithopter, or other type of flying machine or airship, shall travel upon any street or alley of the town within ten feet of the surface at all, or within 20 feet of said surface at a speed
greater than 8 miles an hour; or within 50 feet, at a speed greater than 15 miles an hour; or within .oo feet, at a speed greater than 25. miles an hour; or within 200 feet at a greater speed than 50 miles an hour; or within 500 feet at a speed greater than 100 miles an hour; or within 1000 feet at a speed greater than 200 miles an
h0lir"Section 7 It will be unlawful for the occupant, or occupants, of any balloon, either stationary, powerless or dirigible, or aeroplane, helicopter, ormthopter, or other typc of flying machine or airship, to drop, throw, discharge or otherwise eject any substance, fluid or solid, from such airship, upon any of the streets, alleys or parks, or public or private lots, blocks, or buildings within the town. _
"Section 8. It shall be unlawful for any such balloon or airship to collide with, break, destroy, deface or otherwise damage any electric, telephone, telegraph wires or poles'or any part of any public building, or other public property within the town.
"Section 9. All such balloons or airships shall be properly equipped with, and shall use. such bells, whistles or horns, brakes, lights and other signalling and controlling apparatus, and nets, parachutes, flying belts and artificial wings, and other safety apparatus as are prescribed by the rules and regulations adopted and enforced by the aeronautic and aerostatic bureaus of the United States government.
"Section 10. As soon as practicable, the council shall purchase an aeroplane of approved modern type for the use of the marshal in the performance of his public duties and to enable him to properly enforce the provisions of the ordinance.
"Section 11. Any violation of any of the provisions of this ordinance shall be punished upon conviction by a tine of not more than $500, or by imprisonment in the town calaboose for not more than ninety days, or by both such fine and imprisonment."
Langley Machine to be Flown—Langley's Memoirs.
Charles M. Manly, who was Professor Samuel P. Langley's _ assistant during his experiments and the construction of the full sized machine, nicknamed by the newspapers "The P.nzzard," is planning to bring the Langley machine forth from the Smithsonian Institution and demonstrate in actual flight the correctness of the principles expressed concretely therein.
Mr. Manly will shortly complete his labors on the third volume on the work of Professor Langley. This volume will be entitled "Mechanical Flight, by Professor Samuel Pierpont Langley; Edited by Charles M. Manly." The other two volumes of the set are: "Aerodynamics," and the "Internal Work of the Wind." This third volume will be published, the same as the others, by Smithsonian Institution among their other contributions to knowledge.
Percentage of Leakage Through Balloon Cloth.
In response to an inquiry, Captain Chas. De F. Chandler has kindly given the following information:
"Nearly a year ago I started some tests at Washington along that line, but the men of the balloon detachment were ordered to St. Louis and then Fort Wood, and I have not had an opportunity to complete the tests since then.
"However, the results of the experiments indicate that it will be impossible to state the percentage of leakage through balloon cloth without having a complete description of the kind of cloth and its preparation. The only way leakage can be determined is by experiment. The leakage through varnished cotton or silk varies between wide limits, depending upon the number of coats of varnish applied to it, and whether the varnish is fresh, or old, hard, and cracked. I remember that several pieces of German and French balloon fabric, having layers of rubber between cotton or silk, subjected to an air pressure of twenty-one inches of water for about seventeen hours, allowed such slight leakage that the amount could not be determined from the ruler scale used; in fact, no leakage was apparent to the eye."
Rubber-silk cloth is being used by Captain Baldwin in the Government dirigible. The fabric manufactured by the Continental Caoutchouc Co., is of cotton and rubber. Both fabrics can be furnished in any weight.
The Turning of Aeroplanes.
During the last meeting of the Academy of Science, M. Deslandres analized the notes of Commandant Renard and on the turning of aeroplanes.
An aeroplane turning must incline transversely towards the interior of the curv* The transverse inclination is determined by the degree of curve and the speed. If the speed is too low the aeroplane is pushed towards the exterior of the curve. If it is too great the machine slides towards the interior. Respectively, if the aeroplane inclines it shows a curve on the side on which it inclines even without the help of the rudder. Then all steering compels the aeroplane to make a descending trajectory. In order to avoid losing the height the aviator will have to elevate himself before beginning a curve. These mechanical laws enable one to explain peculiarities and certain incidents and to avoid their being repeated.
The London Balloon Company.
Referring to the interesting review of aeronautics in Great Britain in the July number, we quote as follows, and add thereto the circular letter sent out in forming the Balloon Company.
"For some time past efforts have been made to call into being a corps of aeronauts whose services could be placed at the disposal of the military authorities in time of war, to supplement the regular balloon section of the Royal Engineers. That the experience of such a body of men—trained aeronauts every one—might prove of inestimable value is incontestable. Two associations in France, the Aéronautique-Club and the Aéro-Club du Rhône, have for many years past conducted a school for the training in every branch of aeronautical science of a number of young men whom the experience thus acquired enables to join the various balloon batallions during their period of military service. These efforts have been crowned with the greatest success. But, in the absence of compulsory military service, the scheme could not very well be made to apply to this country; and it was felt that the formation of a corps of aeronauts attached to the volunteers was the best way of attaining the same object.
"With the inauguration of the Territorial Army this has now become an established fact. On May 5 the first members of the London Balloon Company, the first aeronautical unit of the Territorial Force, were sworn in. This company will have a full strengtli of sixty men, who will undergo a thorough course of theoretical and practical instruction in every branch of aeronautics, at the hands of instructors selected from the regular balloon section. Two army balloons will be allotted to the company, in addition to several old balloons, material and equipment to be used for instruction in packing, transport, repairing, and so forth. More important still, this and every summer the corps will go into camp near the Military Balloon Factory at Farnborough for their practical training."
103a Copleston Road, Grove Vale, Dulwich, S. E.
London Balloon Company. Royal Engineers,
Drill Hall, Regency Street, Westminster, S. W.
I have to bring to your notice the London Balloon Company of the Territorial Forces, and to invite you to state whether or not you are desirous of enlisting therein. The enclosed shows the leading conditions of service—which are very simliar to those of the late Volunteer force—also the objects of the Company.
Any further information you desire I shall be happy to afford on hearing from you.
I should mention that the Company will proceed to Aldershot this summer for training with the Army Ballooning School. To go with the Company you should be enrolled forthwith so as to obtain the necessary equipment and training in time.
If you cannot enlist in the Company (kindly hand on this communication to any young man interested in the subject and in any case please furnish me with the names and addresses of any acquaintances of yours who you think might be prepared to join. Yours faithfully,
H. E. HOLTORP.
LONDON BALLOON COMPANY. Territorial Forces.
Term of enlistment: 4 years. Age limits: 17 to 35 years. Height: drivers 5 ft. 3 ins. to 5 ft. 6 ins.; sappers, 5 ft. 4 ins. and upwards. Chest measurement: about 33 ins. minimum. Other physical requirements: sound heart and lungs, good eyesight (without glasses) and freedom from rupture. Drills per annum; about an evening once a fortnight. Uniform and equipment: free; no subscriptions. Annual training in Camp; not less than 8 days nor more than 15 days (Sundays included); special pay, rations and grants allowed. Leading objects: to qualify in all branches of military ballooning and kite work; to carry out original research and experimentation in aeronautical work bearing especially on military requirements; special attention to practical work will be paid and to that end field exercises will be carried out as, often as practicable.
Aerial Experiment Association.
The Aerial Experiment Association, under whose auspices the "June Bug'' aeroplane, which won the Scientific American Trophy, has decided to build another aeroplane, its fourth. Instead of removing to Beinn Bhreagh, near, Baddeck, Nova Scotia, Dr. A. Graham Bell's summer home, three of the members of the Association—F. W. Baldwin, Lieut. T. Selfridge and G. H. Curtiss—will remain at Hammondsport, N. Y. Dr. Bell is in Nova Scotia.
" 'Disclosure' of Wright Brothers' Secret."
It is not apparent just what the "secret" is that has been the occasion for so "much ado about nothing." The flights of the Brothers Wright have not been altogether secret for they have been witnessed by several hundred persons.
In regard to the article of Carl Dienstbach, in which was given an imaginary drawing of the Wright Brothers' aeroplane, the article had nothing more than was contained in the patents of 1903. Then the claim is made that Mr. Dienstbach's article and drawing is "verified" by the awarding of French patents on January 27, 1908, "about ten days after publication" of said article, as if the Patent Office of France were in the habit of informing this author, of patents about to be granted.
As a matter of fact the article had nothing from the French patents.
In the July 15th issue of Illustrierte Aeronautische Mitteilungen^ Herr Dienstbach states that the "precious and surreptitiously taken photographs" of the Wright Brothers' aeroplane in flight in North Carolina in May of this year "show that the conclusions of the author (Herr Dienstbach) in regard to the construction of the machine and the drawing which he based on it and the description * * * correspond to reality."
The photographs above referred to, which were published in the New York Herald and Collier's Weekly, are so indistinct that details of the machine are absolutely lost, even when enlarged upon the screen.
It may be of interest, to note, in connection with the forthcoming Government trials, that the September number of Century Magazine will publish photographs of the first flight at Kitty Hawk, December 17, 1903, and of some of the flights of 1904 and 1905. Four flights were made on December 17th, 1903, the longest being 852 feet, against a 20-mile wind.
Our Biggest Balloons.
Many claims have been recently made for the "biggest balloon" and numbers have expressed doubt. We have written letters to various gas companies asking them the number of measured cubic feet supplied to these balloons and following is the result:
The United Gas Improvement Co., Philadelphia, state that the Ben Franklin takes 92,000 cubic feet of gas.
The Quincy Gas Co., Quincy, Ills., state that the Coey balloon, Chicago, built by G. L. Bumbaugh, measured 58J/2 feet in diameter and that same was filled on the basis of its cubical contents without a meter measurement. The company states: "The cubical contents of a sphere of this diameter is not 110,000 cubic feet and lacks some 3,000 cubic feet or so, but the parties filling this balloon did not desire it filled so rapidly. We started at 10 o'clock and in place of having it filled by 2 o'clock Ave had to shut off the gas and' did not complete filling it until about 4:30 p. m.
"During this period there was quite an odor of gas around the balloon, so we charged them for their estimate of 110,000 cubic feet. We also checked our sendout at every half hour the day previous to the filling of the balloon and also the day we filled the balloon, and in this way kept a very good check on the output. According to this measurement we furnished them 106,000 cubic feet up to 3:30 p. m."
No meter has been used in filling Mr. Forbes' balloon, Conqueror, so that the gas company has not an accurate figure. "Our estimate from the scales on the holder and the capacity of the pumps measured 79,000 feet when the Conqueror was first inflated." With a rating of 2,200 cubic meters, the equivalent would be 77,690 cubic feet.
Dr. Thomas' Pommern is rated at 2,200 cubic meters under F. A. I. rules, and the capacity in feet would thus be 77,690.
Insurance on Airships and Flying Machines.
Applications having been made for insurance by Wilbur R. Kimball on his helicopter and by Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin on two dirigible balloons, it is interesting to note the replies of the insurance companies.
No consideration was given the flying machine at all and the only two companies who treated the matter seriously by correspondence in regard to it stated that 'they could not. induce any company to assume liability covering risks of this character.
Bowring & Co., representing English insurance companies, replied as follows:
"We duly received your favor of the 1st inst. re fire risk on airships. We regret to say that we have not been able to induce any of our underwriters to quote us a rate for this business. We think that there ought to be some rate, but we have not been able to obtain one from the market."
The Federal Insurance Co., New York, wrote:
"Referring to our conversation in regard to issuing a floater policy on balloons, we have not sufficient data at this time to assume liability covering risks of this character."
Balloon Makes High Altitude.
The balloon "Walhalla" a few days ago, on board M. Omer Decugis as pilot and two doctors, reached the considerable height of 5,350 meters. A number of physiological observations were taken and a temperature registered of 12 degrees below zero. The ascension lasted 5 hours 15 minutes. Oxygen began to be used at 4,050 meters.
War Airships—Nothing to Fear.
The London Daily Mail gives an interesting view of the availability of aerial craft for military use at this present stage:
"In the highest military circles in Great Britain it is accepted that so far airships are a failure.
"The military authorities have had experts employed in watching the flights of the various airships and aeroplanes, and the impression is that for a long time to come there is nothing to be feared from them.
"The Government has not stinted the necessary funds for experiments at Alder-shot and elsewhere, but the Royal Engineers, on whom has devolved the task of finding at least a dirigible balloon, are contenting themselves with cautious experiments. From time to time reports are received of the performances of various airships and aeroplanes on the Continent, and in every case details of mechanism and construction have been available. The Army Council is therefore thoroughly aware of all that is taking place both on the Continent and in America in aerostatics.
"Consultations have been held at the War Office with expert artillerists as to how airship attacks can be best met, and the plan of campaign in which the principal feature will be the use of high-angle fire with high-explosive shells has been evolved.
"The military authorities point to the fact that nowhere has any machine designed for flight in the air proved effective. Our own airship, Dirigible No. 1, broke down under stress of weather. Count Zeppelin's airship, when it was put to a serious test, involving no less a sum than £100,000, promptly broke down. Mr. Farman's aeroplane was to have been tried in this country, but no place was found suitable for his experiments because of the presence of trees, telegraph wires, and so on. All this points to a lack of practical working in the various designs of which so much has been made in the Continental Press. When it is possible to cross the Channel, say, with a party of excursionists, the land at any fixed point the War Office may be prepared to regard recent experiments seriously."
Neighbor Fitz of Peconic gives us a tried and true Long Island receipt for making waterproof, long-wearing, translucent material from cotton cloth, and we gladly give
tUereceipt to those who are looking for cold frame covers or protectors. —._—
ivfeffone pound of paraffine and pour into one gallon of gasoline and while the mixture is still hot dip the cloth to be treated, seeing that every section of the surface is immersed and covered with the hot mixture. When removed the gasoline immediately evaporates and leaves the wax firmly embedded in the cloth fiber. Practice proves this process ideal. A very important precaution to observe is to have the gasoline at a distance from the fire on which the paraffine is melted, preferably in the open air. Further, the cloth, until it has been thoroughly aired and the gasoline evaporated, should not be brought jigar a flame of any kind.—Long Island Agronomist.
HOW IT FEELS TO BE IN A BALLOON.
(Continued from page 18.)
DRAGGED ALONG IN BASKET.
The basket struck the ground, tumbled on its side, dragged us a rod or two and stopped. We at once gained our feet. Just in front lay the dying monster, with its life, the gas, ebbing away. I admired the great balloon as I thought how grandly it carried us to the region of clouds and softly landed up in this beautiful field of clover. How well it had done its work!
Soon the people came from every direction—men, women, boys, girls, and little children, all panting for breath as they sped over the hills. They were all willing to lend a helping hand to take care of the dead monster that so suddenly swooped down from the clear sky and lay helpless on the green sod. The little spice of danger that attended our landing only added interest to the trip.
Col. J. B. L. Templar, of the British Government Balloon Factory, at Farnborough, is in New York and will probably view the trials at Washington.
In the August, 1907, number we published a list of patents issued during the first six months of the year. Following is a list of patents since July 1, 1907
This list has been specially compiled for "Aeronautics" by Munn & Co., 361 Broadway, New York, publishers of the "Scientific American:"
July, 1907—No. 859,765, Haines, July g^No. 860,447, Cook, July 16; No. 861,017, Buckwalter, July 23; No. 861,133, Nahen, July 23; No. 861,740, La Penotiere, July 30; No. 859,274, Wilson, July 9.
August, 1907—No. 864,672, McCormick, Aug. 27.
September, 1907—No. 865,415, Mielcarek, Sept. 10; No. 866,665, Kornbrodt, Sept. 24; No. 866,672, O'Brate, Sept. 24; No. 866,673, O'Brate, Sept. 24; No. 867,083, Russell, Sept. 24.
October, 1907—No. 867,525, O'Brate, Oct. 1; No. 868,039, Uherkocz, Oct. 15; No. 868,223, Schiavone, Oct. 15; No. 868,488, Roshon, Oct. 15; No. 869,019, Pursell, Oct. 22.
November, 1907—No. 870,430, Herve, Nov. 5; No. 870,448, Mathews, Nov. 5; No. 870,936, Connolly, Nov. 12; No. 871,164, Ellsworth, Nov. 19; No. 871,710, Lane, Nov. 19; No. 871,926, Gathmann, Nov. 26.
December, 1907—No. 872,539, Von Parseval, Dec. 3; No. 872,778, Ashley, Dec. 3; No. 873,542, Halleday, Dec. 10; No. 874,263, Unzner, Dec. 17; No. 875,484, Anderson, Dec. 31.
January, 1908—No. 875,787, Day, Jan. 7; No. 876,125, Wondra, Jan. 7; No. 877,307, Dunn, Jan. 21; No. 877,529, Tkatzschenko, Jan. 28.
February, 1908—No. 879,779, Leeds, Feb. 18; No. 879,848, Benedict, Feb. 25; No. 880,070, Gerstner, Feb. 25.
March. 1908—No. 881,184, Halle, Mar. 10; No. 881,327, Montgomery, Mar. 10; No. 881,836, Warner, Mar. 10; No. 881,837, Whitehead, Mar. 10; No. 882,139, Drake, Mar. 17; No. 882,435, Whalen, Mar. 17; No. 882,457, Ernst, Mar. 17; No. 883,090. Cragun, Mar. 24; No. 883.565, Pars, Mar. 31.
April, 1908—No. 884.432. Vaniman, April 14; No. 886.122, Guthrie, April 28; No. 886,159, Sellers, April 28.
May, 1908—No. 887,443, Thayer, May 12; No. 887,931, Fiesse, May 19; No. 888.267, Landrik, May 19; No. 888.301. Bold, May 19 No. 888,618, Judson, May 26; No. 889,062, Sweeney, May 26.
June, 1908—No. 889,502. Beatty, June 2; No. 889,693, Lake, June 2; No. 890,215, Chance, June 9; No. 890,483, Von Wiszcewsky, June 9.
August—Trials of Government flying machines: A. M. Herring's beginning about the 13th, and the Wright Brothers' about the 28th. Point to point balloon race of North Adams Aero Club on the 14th. Flying-machine contests at Spa under auspices of Aero Club de Belgique on the 9th, 16th, and 23d, for $11.100 in prizes.
September—Grand Prix Balloon Race of Aero Club of France. Aeroplane contests at Vichy. Military tournament and Aeronautical Demonstration at St. Joseph, Mo., Sept. 21-26.
October—Grand Prix Balloon Race, Aero Club of France, on the 4th. Distance contests and contests for objective point at Berlin on the 10th under auspices Deutscher LuftschifferrVerband. Gordon Bennett Balloon Race, Berlin, on the nth. International aeroplane contests at Venice for $5.000 in prizes.
1909—During October, at Milan, Congress Federation Aéronautique International.
July 3—C. H. Perrigo's second attempt to sail his new balloon, "I Will," at the grounds of the Aero Club, Sixty-seventh street and South Park avenue, yesterday afternoon, resulted in another collapse of the big bag when it was half inflated.
The muslin covering proved too weak to hold the gas. A gash over six feet long was torn in the lower portion of the bag.
Many of the leading aeronauts of the country, who were assembled on the grounds to watch the "maiden" flight of the Perrigo balloon, declared the bag was too frail and advised him not to make a flight in it. They said his balloon would collapse in midair and dash him to the ground with little chance of escape from death.—Chicago Tribune. JULY ASCENSIONS.
(Continued from page 21.)
July 28. L. B. and Mrs. Haddock left Cincinnati in Norman G. Kenan's balloon Cincinnati at 4:55 p. m., landing a mile east of Gleves at 6:10.
July 29. Lincoln and Hill Beachey and Ernest Gill left Baltimore, Md., in Howard W. Gill's new balloon shortly after 1 o'clock, landing at 5 o'clock about four miles from Hagerstown.
Fourteen other ascensions were made during the month—see Balloon Racing for July, this issue.
Forty-seven balloon ascents have been made the first half of 1908 by members of American aeronautical organizations. This means considerably over a million and a half cubic feet of coal gas. Twenty-five of the ascents have been made from North Adams.
N. H. Arnold, of the North Adams Aero Club, has now made fifteen balloon ascensions. These have all been made this year. Air. Arnold is now a pilot.
There will be a military tournament at St. Joseph in September, at which most of the regular army in the vicinity will participate. Those in charge of this affair are anxious to have the aeronautical department of the Signal Corps represented, and advertise that as a feature, but as yet no instructions or information have been received from the Signal Chief Officer of the Army. It is very probable that if the Signal Corps does anything at all the Chief Signal Officer will send the new dirigible balloon made by Captain Baldwin, provided it is accepted by the Signal Corps. In that case probably Lieut. Lahm, or one of the other Signal Corps officers of Washington, who will be instructed in handling it, will go with the dirigible.
Howard W. Gill, of Baltimore, has purchased a 26,000-cubic-foot balloon from Charles J. Strobel, Toledo.
"Your magazine has proved a source of pleasure to me, and I have gleaned a considerable amount of valuable information from it. Long may it live!"
GEO. A. LAWRENCE.
(Advance orders solicited, money to be remitted upon notification 6y as that the volume has been publish t)
PIERCE, R. M. Dictionary of Aeronautics. About 200 pages. Paper, 75 cents; post= paid. 80 cents. Cloth, 95 cents; postpaid, $1.00. Limp calf, $1.95; postpaid, $2.00.
(List and prices subject to change Without notis)
GLAISHER, J. Travels in the Air. Clolh. London 1871 $15.00.
MORRIS, R. Flying and No Failure ! or, Aerial Transit Accomplished more than a Century Ago. Being a minute descriptive account of "a most surprising engine," invented, constructed, and used with the greatest success, by Jacob, the son of Mr. John Daniel, of Royslon, the latter of whom, who survived his son, died in 1711, aged 97. Reprinted verbatim from that excessively-rare little work, 'Narrative of the Life and astonishing Adventures of John Daniel, a smith, at Royston, in Hertfordshire, by the Rev. Ralph Morris."— London, 17^1. With an Appendix. Tothani: Printed by Charles Clark (an amateur) at his Private Press 1848. 14 p. $25 00.
WISE, J. A system of Aeronautics. 1st ed. 310 p. Cloth. Philadelphia 1850. $12.00.
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A fairly large number of members of the Aero Club of America were present last month at the contest by the June Bug for the Scientific American trophy, told in the July issue. There were: Alan R. Hawley, acting president; Augustus Post, secretary; Lieut. Selfridge, J. W. Baldwin, Captain T. S. Baldwin, S. Y. Beach, S. D. Mott, Chas. M. Manly, Carl Dienstbach, J. C. Lake, G. H. Curtiss, Geo. H. Guy, A. M. Herring, Thaddeus Gray, E. L. Jones.
O. K. Chance, of 395 Syndicate Arcade, Minneapolis, Minn., has issued a twelve-page prospectus. $10 shares are being ^old at $8. The pamphlet sets_ forth fully the ideas of the inventor, with drawings and specifications of the machine. A saucer-shaped gas bag to be filled with illuminating or hydrogen gas lifts the apparatus and a 40-horse engine will furnish the propelling power. A propeller above the gas bag raises and lowers the apparatus, and three propellers in front pull the machine along, guided by a vertical rudder in the rear.
At the instance of the Aero Club of France the express companies of France have promised to facilitate the return of balloons after landing as much as possible.
The triplane aeroplanes being built by Voisin Brothers for Mm. Goupy, Ferber and Chevalier Florie are nearly finished. Being the first machines of the type, they will be of interest to aviators. The long body measures gYz meters, mounted on a 3-wheeIed chassis. The wheels are steerable. In front of the operator and on a level with him is a light 8-cylindcr motor. This motor takes up almost the entire distance between the lower and the second planes. A 2 bladed propeller is placed in front of all. This propeller has a diameter of 2.3 meters and the pitch is 1.4 meters. Between the motor and the operator is the steering and operating mechanisms. The three superposed planes measure 7.5 meters spread, 1.6 meters front to back and spaced vertically apart .95 meter. In the rear are 2 planes of 4 meters spread by 1.6 meter, and spaced apart 1.6 meter. Behind these two planes is affixed a vertical rudder. The surface of this apparatus is 43 sq. meters. The weight with one man will be 500 kilos, and the speed expected 15 meters per second.
Alfred N. Chandler's balloon Initial, which collapsed at Point Breeze on July 10th, will be repaired.
The Initial was bought in Paris two years ago from the French builder Mallet. But eight ascensions had been made with it. When it was laid out for the inflation a number of holes were patched. The capacity of the bag, 35,000 cubic feet, had nearly been reached when the bag split open.
Great Britain will remain an Island until further notice.
J. W. Roshon, of Harrisburg, whose multiple surface machine has been described in this journal, is now experimenting with a glider and motor-driven 2-surface machine, suspended under a cable 700 feet long, extending from the top of a hill down into a valley. Mr. Roshon finds it offers an excellent means of experimentation. By means of a ball-bearing traveler the machine will make the trip of 600 feet in 20 seconds. In one trial the machine was raised by the force of the wind above the cable, without the motor being used. The results of his experiments will be given later.
The inaugural trip of the "Banshee," which is the new balloon built for Mr. John Dunville, of England, to take part in the Gordon Bennett Race from Berlin next October, took place on July 15th, starting from Short's Balloon Works, Battersea, at 4 o'clock in the afternoon. This is a balloon of close on 80,000 cubic feet capacity, which was constructed by Short Bros., and it is remarkably light, for it carried on this occasion eight persons with no less than twenty-one 40-lb. bags of ballast, the occupants of the balloon being its owner, Mr. John Dunville, one of the British team in the Gordon Bennett Race; Mr. C. F. Pollock, who will accompany him in the race; Mrs. Dunville; the Hon. Mrs. Assheton Harbord; the Hon. C. S. Rolls; Mr. V. Ker-Seymer; Mr. Philip Gardner, and Mr. Eustace Short, the builder of the balloon. There being a due west wind, it was impossible to make a long trip, as the balloon passed over London and proceeded towards the mouth of the Thames. A descent was, there-fort, made in 1 hour 50 minutes, near East Horndon, in Essex, north of the mouth of the river Thames, an average speed of 17 miles an hour being maintained.
Lincoln Beachey has enlarged the gear and propellers on his dirigible, with which he has been making very successful flights in Baltimore. By the change he gains in speed.
"I am very glad to know that there is at last an able, fearless publication devoted exclusively to the subject of aerial navigation." J. H. O'DONNELL.
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