Aeronautics

Volume 2 - No. 1 - 1908 January

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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American magazine

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CONTENTS FOR JANUARY

The Government Dirigible and Dynamic Flyer..........................................Page 5

EDITORIAL.

The Air Fight over Trieste..................................................................... " 8

WILLIAM BEVIER ASHLEY. Illustrations by Roe Fulkerson.

The Wright Brothers Flying Machine...................................................... " 13

CAPTAIN HILDEBRANDT.

Aeronautics in the U. S. Signal Corps...................................................... 44 16

GEN. JAMES ALLEN, Chief Signal Officer of the U. S. Army.

The Advantages of Aerial Craft in Military Warfare................................ " 17

MAJOR GEO. O. SQUIER.

Our Army and Aerial Warfare............................................................... " 18

LIEUT. COL. WILLIAM A. GLASSFORD.

Some Model Aeroplane Experiences and Details of Man-Carrying Aeroplane

(Illustrated) ................................................................................. " 21

A. V. ROE, Member Aero Club of United Kingdom.

Notes on Mr. Roe's Paper....................................................................... " 24

OCTAVE CHANUTE.

U. S. Army Aeronautics for December...................................................... " 24

My Flights........................................................................................... 44 27

HENRY FARMAN.

The Flight of the Bell Kite................................................................... " 28

LIEUT. T. SELFRIDGE, Sec. Aerial Experiment Association.

Dirigible Balloons with Screw in Front (Illustrated) .................................. " 29

CARL E. MYERS.

The Acceleration of Wind over Mountains ............................................... " 31

S. P. FERGUSSON.

The California Arrow (Illustrations) ....................................................... " 37

CARL DIENSTBACH.

Aero Club of America—Aero Club of New England—New Aero Clubs in America—Aéronautique Club of Chicago—Aero Club of the United Kingdom—Aéronautique Club de France—The Lost "La Patrie"—New Aero Prizes—Points in Buying a Balloon—December Balloon Ascensions—Gordon Bennett, 1908—Chronology of Principal Events—December Incorporations—Speed of American Dirigibles at St. Louis—New Aeronautic Books—Communications—Notes _

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The True Principle

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American magazine of Aeronautics.

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS CO.

Ernest LaRue Jones, Editor and Owner 142 West Sixty-Fifth Street, New York, U. S. A.

Copyrighted, 1908. *

Vol. II January, 1908 No. 1

American Magazine of Akronautics is issued promptly on the teuth of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics. Contributions are solicited.

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ERRATA.

We wish to correct one or two misstatements which crept in the last number. Under the heading "The Need for a Club Park" we stated that there were two manufacturers of balloons in the A. C. A. There are three: Messrs. Baldwin, Stevens and Myers. Among the ''Notes"' we stated that Captain Baldwin "'made nine successful ascents during 1!H)7." For "lDOT" read "November." \Yl ascents were made during the year.

THE GOVERNMENT DIRIGIBLE AND DYNAMIC FLYER.

Referring to the specifications issued for a dirigible balloon and a dynamic flying machine for the use of the Signal Corps, one finds considerable difference in the requirements of the two vehicles. Placed in comparison, the reasonableness of the requirements for the one make the unreasonableness of the requirements for the other the more apparent. We must consider these specifications in the light of the present time, and in that light the above statement is made. Were these specifications issued some time in the future, perhaps years later, we might reverse the charge of unreasonableness, for then the requirements now demanded of the dirigible balloon would be far below the standard at that time, while now the demands for a dynamic machine are of such a nature that the likelihood of the absence of practical bidders is great.

In the case of the dirigible balloon, the only objection we might make is the fact that the bidder is not allowed to furnish the cloth. No doubt the bidder could secure the same grade of silk at as low a price as the Government will secure it, and might make a profit on it. No builder will undertake the construction of such an uncertainty as a dirigible balloon—one larger than has ever been seen in this country—unless there is a chance for profit, of course. And constructors would be more likelv to bid were they allowed to furnish the dirigible complete from start to finish,

in which case, of course, the Government could easily protect itself by passing on the silk before it goes into the making. In all other respects the demands seem to be moderate and well able to be carried out in the United States.

In regard to the dynamic machine, much might be said. In the first place, the Government seems to take it for granted that the whole matter is very simple and is only a question of drawing up a set of plans within a month and starting to work. We do not think the state of the art has progressed quite as far as this. We very much doubt if there is anyone in America who could build a machine of any type and fly five miles with it on first trial—we except the Brothers Wright in these considerations for we doubt if they will care to bid—and to demand a continuous flight of one hour without a stop, why, that is more than we ever heard of the Wrights, or anyone else, doing, in Europe or this country. The Government is not buying a perfected piece of mechanism like an automobile. There is not a known flying machine in the world which could fulfill these specifications at the present moment.

Paragraph "1" is perfectly proper.

Paragraph "2" demands more than we think will he accomplished for many years—a folding pocket edition of a flying machine ! One might ask that it be non-sinkable as well.

Paragraph "4"1 calls for at least 36 miles an hour. The Wright Brothers made a little more than 38 miles average an hour in their flight of 24 1-5 miles.

Paragraph "5" states that the time will be measured over a course of five miles with and against the wind.

Paragraph "13" is certainly incongruous, as no living being can anticipate what kind of brains will be furnished by the Government to be instilled with the propei' instruction to manage the proposed flying machine, and even if two men of reasonable cranial development were presented by the Army as its best specimens of aeronauts, how is it possible to figure on how much it would cost to successfully infuse into their domes of knowledge a satisfactory working understanding of the new flying machine. Perhaps the introduction of the victims to the bidders would have a bearing on the amount of the bid, as to the expense of the instruction.

There may be several inventors of dynamic apparatus in whose promises great confidence might be placed. We assume that the promises being equal, the contract would go to the lowest bidder; and if he failed, a contract would be let to the second lowest bidder, and so on. If each failed to fulfill requirements it might be several years before the plans of each had been given a trial and the Government would then be no nearer having a machine than now. Much valuable time would be lost, with only experience gained by the inventors.

Had an inventor such a machine as required would he not be in a position to ask almost any reasonable sum from-the Government for its use. Would not the Government instead of the inventor he a bidder? We quote from the Xew York Globe:

"One might be inclined to assume from the following announcement. The United States Army is asking bids for a military airship,' that the era of practical human flight had arrived, or at least that the government had seriously taken up the problem of developing this means of travel. A very brief examination of the conditions imposed and the reward offered for successful bidders suffices, however, to prove this assumption a delusion.

"A machine such as is described in the Signal Corps' specifications would record the solution of all the. difficulties in the way of the heavier-than-air airship, and, in fact, finally give mankind almost as complete control of the air as it now has of the land and the water. It would be worth to the world almost any number of millions of dollars, would certainly revolutionize warfare and possibly the transportation of passengers; would open to easy access regions hitherto inaccessible except to the most daring pioneers, and would, in short, he probably the most epoch-making invention in the history of civilization.

"Nothing in any way approaching such a machine has ever been constructed (the Wright brothers' claims still await public confirmation), and the man who has achieved such a success would have, or at least should have, no need of competing in a contest where the successful bidder might be given his trial because his offer was a few hundred or thousand dollars lower than that of some one else. If there is any possibility that such an airship is within measurable distance of perfection any government could well afford to provide its inventor with unlimited resources and promise him a prize, in case of success, running into the millions."

We doubt very much if the Government receives any bids at all possible to be accepted.

As an alternative to this plan, the Government might offer a cash sum as a prize to the inventor who produces a machine coming up to what may reasonably be expected during the year, with the privilege of purchasing at or about the cost of construction, a duplicate. The machine would not be perfect but the inventor would be recompensed for his time and labor and be given encouragement to expend further effort; and the Government would have a machine with which the Signal Corps could practice, providing in the meantime a recruiting station to fill in the ranks decimated by the infernal flyer. Each year, if the prize were won, the conditions could be made more difficult. The Government would thus spread over several years the amount now probably to be demanded by tha constructor and greater opportunity for improvement be given. Every year, perhaps, the Government would obtain for a reasonable sum a machine of more or less value with which to experiment themselves and with which to train their aviators.

The only two conclusions to he reached from this invitation of the Government are either: that the powers inviting bids are totally ignorant of the difficulties involved in the problem of gasless flying machines and are groping in the dark to get information, or at any rate see what comes of a request by Uncle Sam to his inventors, which have in the past served him in such good stead by producing hi time of need the seemingly impossible; or else, fully realizing the present state of the art, which gives no indication that the requirements can be fulfilled, the purpose is merely to spur on inventors to make progress and reach the desired goal at their own expense without assistance from the Government, which actually appears to impose a penalty for the effort since a deposit must be lodged with the bid and bonds furnished for the faithful carrying out of the specifications. The possibility of an over-confident inventor having his bid accepted, and then through unforeseen circumstances fail to fulfill expectations and become caught in the meshes of legal difficulties added to official red tape, is horrible to contemplate, and is more likely to crush a promising inventor than develop his genius.

Perhaps the Signal Corps has been too much influenced by the "hot air"' of theorizers, in which aeronautics unfortunately abounds, who have fathomed the entire problem without ever accomplishing anything; talk is their stock in trade and models or machines are beneath them because beyond their impractical nature.

Why is not the experience with Professor Eangley a good guide? Some $100.000 was expended and while his machine was never given a fair trial, a fac-simile of his machine, the Bleriot, recently flew in Paris and Professor Eangley's labors brought this country to the front rank many years ahead of all other nations, and now after 14 years his efforts and results are still the highest and most reliable reference in the art.

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THE AIR FIGHT OVER TRIESTE. William Bevier Ashley.

ILLUSTRATED BY ROE FULKERSON.

J witnessed that first battle in the air, that aero engagement in the Turkish embrosdio about which so much has been inaccurately written, and believe rhe first and foremost aeronautic magazine in the United States to be the proper medium for giving the facts to the public. Further, a close personal acquaintance with Lieutenant Benson enables me to add some interesting information as to what preceded the tight.

The Franco-Piusso-Italia forces had effected a remarkably clever strategem; they had pinned the allied English and .1 apáñese* armies and their fleet inside Corfu and its harbor. The one defect was, that while the fleet could not leave the harbor to attack the blockaders lest the land forces, held in check by the fleet's hii; guns trained on the hills, should annihilate the numerically inferior allies; yet, neither could the enemy's ships enter ihe harbor and give battle, because they would certainly have suffered swift destruction. The blockaders once disposed of, the fleet's guns would have been landed and planted where they could sweep the three-fold armies off the landscape—but if that feat had been attempted before destroying the blockading fleet, the latter would have closed in at once, sunk the disarmed vessels, and reduced Corfu to a graveyard.

Understanding this situation, it will be clear that the whole absurd conflict depended now upon getting re-inforcements by sea; whichever side could first bring up more ships would hold the trump card. The Franco-Russo-Italia combination had no doubts on that score! They had already summoned1 the Italian fleet from Ostia, having first cut off all communication between Corfu and the world outside.—they thought; but they reckoned without Benson, naturally. At noon of the fourteenth, then, the Italian ships of war would arrive outside Corfu; by that same hour the delayed artillery would be in place commanding the town; and in twenty-four hours after all that the war would be over! Such at any rate, was the confident expectation which Benson discovered and reported to the Conclave of English, American and Japanese Commanders in the besieged city. It certainly was not a cheerful one for them to contemplate.

Our fleet of five first-class battle ships and a half dozen small craft, with four transports carrying more passengers than the law allowed, and the squadron of sixteen aeros. had been lying at Trieste for five days waiting for the word that would unite us for action with the two other parties to the "Sandwich Alliance," as it Avas called. Outside communication had ceased suddenly two days before, so we knew something was doing someAvhere, but where? And for tAvo days we had been on the qnee vee, as Buller put it, cursing our idleness.

Only the United States had detailed an air squadron, for messenger service, and Lieutenant Benson with the Bald Eagle, the pet of the squadron, Avas attached to the Conclave. So he had been caught in Corfu like a bird in a pit, for yon can't get up in the air Avhcn gunners lie in a circle watching for you. It was Ben son's confounded impatience that led him to A'olunteer the spy act, and it Avas his inevitable good luck that got him safely back with his tremendous news. It made the Conclave sit up stilt". There was just one thing to do,—get the word to us. five hundred miles away, by ten o'clock the next morning; later than that there Avould be no chance to beat the Italians to Corfu ; and there was just one way to get that word to us.

All this developed about nine P. M.. September twelfth. The Bald Eagle cut away as soon as the night got thick, hanging Ioav and stealing south hoping to escape the search lights constantly playing betAveen the enemy's fleet and camp; and then to make a sharp turn and head straight for Trieste on the biggest effort

of her life. Those courier aeros had been hurried together with little regard for perfection of detail, but the working parts were all there; and though they were not intended for fighting purposes the squadron had had some drill for united work in an emergency. They carried ere wis of five, and were manipulated with remarkable ease.

When the Bald Eagle had gotten beyond the zone of the search light, Benson veered her sharp to the north, and started to light his pipe.

'TFs all over now, Schwartz,"" he told his engineer, with a gay laugh; "let her rip!" Them he says, he thought his match must have exploded the atmosphere. They were in a blaze of light, and realized in a second that sonic ship lying further up the coast than they had supposed, had picked them out.

•"Ep!" shouled Benson, and the great bird slanted with a jerk that all but pitched every man oil", and climbed into the sky like a reelect. Hut that search

'A ship up the coast had picked them out.''

light hung on, while another began to wigwag against the hill, and in no time there was a splendid display of candle work back and forth.

Benson shrewdly reasoned that his direction when discovered would make his purpose clear, and he knew there was but one way under heaven to frustrate him and that was to catch him. Setting his course by the compass and the north star, he kept the Bald Eagle moving, and tried to pierce the darkness behind them. Going at a fifty mile clip, he soon escaped the search light, but the waving streaks could be seen for a long time, merging at last in one slowlv fading glow. Their light had revealed nothing to Bbnson.

For seven hours they tore through the night, not a man willing to sleep a wink. Then, in the first flushes of dawn, the tired fellows saw. about twenty miles to the south, a ileek of cloud that seemed to come along their track as though caught to them by an invisible wire. "When he saw that. Benson says his first impulse was to push the Bald Eagle ahead with his arms; then he felt fierce rage shake him, and wanted to turn hack and fight; next he determined to order three

men overboard so as to lighten the aero! These wild impulses passed through him like so many electric shocks, but left him cool and confident.

"Crowd her past the last notch," he ordered, "and get your guns ready for business, boys !'' Then he settled down to stuctying that cloud through his glass.

The entire Russian aero squadron was following him, evidently with the intention of shutting off every chance of escape in any direction. The Russian hawks were making faster time than was the Eagle, and when Benson was assured of that disquieting fact he prepared his message to us and placed it in a rubber bag attached to a cork buoy. Then he took his bearings and decided he would reach Trieste in exactly three hours, "splendidly convoyed by twenty Russian aeros of the line/' whistled "Good Bye, Tittle Girl, Good Bye/' to cheer up his men, and gave himself over to the exhilaration of the chase.

It was the sixth day we had kicked our heels in sight of Trieste, and we were feeling frazzled. Just outside the city, on a small hill, our sixteen aeros lay in a circle about the tents of the crews. The men were rattling things and poking about as usual, making everything trim for any sudden call. I took a mild interest in watching them, for we lay well in towards shore, and I wondered what ailed Captain Studley when he suddenly jumped on a crate and leveled his glass off toward the south. My own keen sight could detect nothing of interest in the sky, and I waited to see the captain give it up. But he seemed to have discovered something, for he grew more and more tense, and his glass did not move a hair breadth. Then I dimly heard him shout to his men, who came running about him and stood as if waiting for his next word. Things were getting interesting. Our men began to stop at the sides of their vessels to watch the proceedings. I heard the Admiral direct an orderly to bring up his glass, saw Studley take an involuntary step forward on the crate, and then we were thrilled by the bugle call: "Make ready to ascend !''

"Make ready to ascend!" The Admiral dropped his glass, for it had told him enough, and ordered to quarters. Inaction and indifference were gone in an instant, and every man as he made his way to his station looked like a school boy let out for a holiday. And all the while the aero crews were on the jump, Studley still scanning the distance. Then, presently, we too saw the flyers—a locust leading a swarm—and guessed that our turn had come at last.

But why didn't the Bald Eagle signal? What was the row, anyway? Should the squadron mount and learn up there the solution ? The unmistakable advantage of Benson's pursuers drove us wild for action.

Suddenly the squadron's signal man wig-wagged "Yes." A short pause, then "Yes" again, and across the stillness between us came clearly the sharp bugle call "Let go!'-' and they were off. We had not seen Benson's signals for "help" and "haste,'' but we guessed them, and sent a yell after the ascending eagles.

Already hundreds on land were running back and forth in the wildest excitement seeking vantage grounds from which to witness this unheralded spectacle, for the oncoming aeros could now be seen without effort, the brave eagle nearly surrounded by the eager hawks, the only clear space being beneath her and in front. We realized that up there five men were counting their lives worthless for the glory of the Flag; the first heroes in the new department of war.

The aeros were at an altitude of about two thousand feet; and within five miles of the harbor the Bald Eagle headed downward. The Russians fired at her— and hit; but they dared not follow, for our own brood was now at their level, waiting for them, and there was nothing to do but slow down and make the fight.

But on came the Bald Eagle like a crazy thing. That dastardly shot had done its work, and she refused to obey the rudder. Four hundred yards from the flagship she plunged into the waters to her planes, and stopped, floating on the waves like a gigantic octopus. And it actually seemed as though the ship's yawl was alongside before the crew struggled up through the frame work; and before we

could get our breath the fleet was under way. KnoAving at last the meaning of the Bald Eagle's desperate race, our interest now centered in what the Russians would do to escape our aeros and get a warning back to Corfu of their failure in the chase.

Both squadrons had SAviftly taken position about five hundred yards apart, each covering an enormous area, and giving the appearance from below of great erratic clouds. Studley had arranged his force to attack, the formation consisting of two quarter moons, one higher and in advance of the other and containing six aeros, the lower ten describing a more extended curve. His intention was to separate the Russians, and drive them seaward and down.

The Russians evidently guessed the purpose, and had formed in three similar curves at equal distances apart; one under the other, you understand. Thus the attack would be met squarely, so to speak, resulting in a general mix-up which would give the Russians the advantage in close range firing. So without blare of trumpets or sounding of drums, the first battle lines in mid-air were formed.

•'The crews braced themselves for the supreme moment."

What for long had been the experimental pastime of the coolest and most daring sportsmen, in an instant had become the machinery for the ultimate effort between opposing nations.

Studley's shrill whistle sounded, and the sixteen beautiful aeros advanced; steadily and swiftly they closed on those waiting rows, the crews braced themselves for the supreme moment, the Russians signaled and cloud melted into cloud as the squadron swept in together at close quarters.

Then a hurricane struck that cloud! From below the appearance was as though no human element existed in that wild confusion. Two eagles clinched beak and claw with three hawks, and dropped in horrible mixture and ruin. Tangled in the huge falling bulk, the men struggled at each other over and through the mass of twisted rigging, shouting in rage and hatred, knowing death was inevitable and their share in the fight ended.

Then, like the scattering of a cloud by opposing winds, the squadrons drew apart. Fierce volleys had torn through flesh of man and bird, and eagles and

hawks alike pitched along, their decimated crews striving frantically to bring them about. But the ships themseives seemed to answer the signal whistles, and almost between eyeblinks the separated units had gathered in place for the next effort. And it came without delay. We knew by the arrangement of the eagles this time that Studley wasn't going to try out fancy maneuvers, and by the same token we prayed mercy for the Bussians, for here was coming a trick prepared as a finishing stroke by long and patient practice.

Obviously the planes aie the needful things in these remarkable craft, but thev overreach the bodies so far it is as disastious to an attacking aero to try to rip through its orjponcnt's rigging, as it could possibly be to the foe. for, chances to nothing, the two will never get apart again. The Bnssians were hanging out over the water in extended order, just exactly what Studley needed, and without giving them any chance to close in, he sounded the momentous signal.

There was a vision of giant birds swooping upon their prey—a catching of brealh in the watchers below—and six of the bewildered hawks were each flanked by two eagles who, as they drove alongside, careened heavily, exposing the hawks' planes to an oblique, riddling tire, and swept onward righting as they went.

The unattacked Russians remained motionless, staring over at their utteriy demoralized aeros as, collapsing, they floundered downward like the wounded birds thev were, easting upon their crews, pitched headlong, the shadow of a horrible death. From watching in stunned silence this fearful catastrophy which had not cost the eagles a feather, the Russians lifted hungry eyes toward Studley. now swinging his reunited fieet into line for the expected onslaught.

For a moment more the hawks tarried. The eager signal to avenge did not sound. Instead, there appeared to be a huddling together as in conference, then an extending of their line as if in some new formation to meet the changed conditions, and then—away, away like the wind in wild flight.

But our yells of triumph died against our teeth as the truth flashed home. What were lumbering battle ships against aeros? That was no flight, and we were outdone. But Studley was awake. Our pets were not canaries. Like a flash they were under way; iirst a long range voile}' that scattered a few feathers, winged a 'bird or two, sent a few groaning men whirling through the air; and then to the •chase, faster, faster, till our eyes blurred with the straining, and clearing again, saw no sign of the racing combatants.

As we eased our aching necks and thought again of ourselves, we found we woi e traveling rapidly out to sea. with a twenty-hour run ahead. The aeros could make the distance, flying straight, in ten; whereas the Italians, if they had left Ostia promptly, still required nearly six hours more than we to reach the scene of activities. What desperate measures the allied enemy would resort to if advised of the situation bv one of the escaped hawks, we could not surmise; but we realized that everything might yet be lost if Studley did not overhaul and (destroy the Russian aeros.

Overhauling and destroying to-morrow would have seemed easier. Vet. way '•off to the right and low down, suddenly appeared the two squadrons coming our wav. Surely, Studley had never rounded up that covey?

Sometimes you can see a lagged cloud scurrying across the face of the sky as if in flight from a solid band of gray beyond. Such a sight greeted our astonished eves, for so were the out-maneuvered hawks flying before the steady line of eagles eiose behind. Six remaining aeros were scattered far apart in utter abandonment of each other, straining ahead in futile ctfort to twist around the ends of that long curved blade of death, and escape. But the grim eagles swept relentlessly along, holding well within range the dodging prey.

The spectacle, in spite of its meaning, was magnificent. These aeros appear from below to move without effort; and with what speed! Immense, graceful things, like some enormous bird* of a fantastic imagination they now soared toward

us, as though to be wondered at and admired. They grew larger and took more definite shape, and their speed became more apparent, but still there was the same noiseless, ell'ortless, steady cleaving of the air. Did I sav "despite the meaning'? Perhaps because of the deeper meaning the speetable was superb. For this was the long desired mastery of the air!

One hawk soon made a despairing plunge, then another, and then all as though in panic, and then Studley followed. The death signal was given and a final volley ended the chase.

The rest you have known all along, for the press was full of it; how we ariived off Corfu to the bewilderment of the enemy, eight hours ahead of the Italians, and ended that nasty little war in short order. Hut uracil has been said that could never have been written by one who had witnessed this engagement over Trieste.

It is true that the entire Russian air squadron was destroyed ; not a man escaped death. And five of our own eagles and their brave crews rock in their last sleep in the ciadle of the Adriatic. The-press has made much of this, and many people believe this engagement proves the unfitness of any kind of air ship for war, claiming that a battle between them means inevitable destruction and awful deaths—and without glory. \ will not argue this here more than to point out that only four of our sixteen aeros were lost, and the special messenger Bald Kagle, whose men were saved. And to say that but for the air squadron's part in the conflict, the bloodiest battle of history would have been fought—and over what? The skill, the courage, the glory of this thing cannot be made to shine in type! As to the manner of death involved, before we finally forced our way into Corfu harbor, over the funnels of eleven war ships going down with their imprisoned crews. I saw two headless trunks lying under foot on deck of the flag ship.

THE WRIGHT BROTHERS FLYING MACHINE. By Captain Hildebrandt.

So many insinuations of doubt as regards the actual flights of the Brothers Wright have been expressed by people here, and abroad particularly, that the following statement of an investigation made the latter part of October of this year by a prominent officer of the German Army should go far towards settling the question as to whether the Wrights actually flew.

As to the details of the machine, however, it is unreasonable to expect that anything very definite could be gleaned from the verbal descriptions, made spontaneously without consideration, of local people who saw, from a distance, the machine fly two years ago. Pictures of the Wright glider and drawing's based upon the plans filed in the Patent Office at Washington, which can be procured by anyone interested, have appeared without number: but it is preposterous to assume that any drawings can be made from the enthusiastic information so fre'ely offered by lay persons who cannot distinguish between an "airship" and a dynamic apparatus.—Editor.

| Dayton, Ohio, end of October, f

"Confused by hatred and favor, its portrait swings on the balance of history.'' This can also be said of the Wright Brothers liver! Hvery expert knows that the two have built a flying machine: and it is generally believed that they have made flights with it in the open. But that they have covered long distances at great speed, again returning to the place of ascent, is to this day being contested by most aeronauts. In order to throw a little more light on this subject 1 have made exhaustive investigations right here on the spot with ten witnesses, by reason of which I have come to the conclusion that all the statements relative to this flying machine are absolutely true.

Wilbur and Orville Wright are scholars of the ingenious aeronaut Otto Lilion-

thai, who was mortally wounded during his experimental flights on August 9, 1896, near Berlin. 0. Chanute was their American master, who enjoys the best reputation in the professional world and who, like the aeronaut Herring, made numerous gliding flights according to LilienthaFs example. Gliding flights mean flights with a flying apparatus from an elevated point gradually downwards, like an inclined plane. After the brothers had practiced such flights sufficiently, along the shores of the Atlantic, with an even strong wind, and had acquired great skill, they started to build a motor in the year 1903. This was completed according to their own instructions in their bicycle factory. They were now in a position to fly through the air in all directions under their own power; could not alone glide against the wind on an inclined plane, as theretofore, but could also fly upwards.

The data made public on March 12, 1906, by the inventors on the results obtained with the motor airship created great sensation. According thereto, the best flight of 38,956 meters (24 1-5 miles.—Ed.) should have been accomplished on October 5, 1905, in 38 minutes and 3 seconds. If these statements are real facts, the age of balloonless dirigible airships was thus broken.(?) First of all, the experts maintained an expectant attitude, and then a challenging one. Their actions were thoroughly warranted. First, it was said that the American Government had bought the machine for One Million Dollars; then, suddenly, this statement was denied and it was rumored that the Wright Brothers were endeavoring to dispose of their invention in France. However, the negotiations proved unsuccessful because the constructors demanded that their machine be purchased before inspection for ■One Million Dollars; but, of course, they agreed to exhibit the flyer in a 30-kilometer-long flight after the contract had taken effect. Xo one, however, would agree to such arrangements. Then nothing more was heard from the Wrights until the Aero Club of America declared that, by reason of their investigations, they had come to the conclusion that the statements of the Wright Brothers were true. Being interested in the matter i decided to personally make investigations right on the spot and to throw light on the matter. First of all, 1 put myself in touch with the two competitors of the Wrights, Herring in Xew York and Chanute in Chicago. The former explained to me that he cannot doubt the statements made in view of his investigations with witnesses. The matter is so simplq that he hopes by far to beat the performances by aid of a light motor tested by him, weighing only ] pound per horsepower. Chanute, on the other hand, has personally seen a flight of three-quarters of a mile and frankly admitted that the Wrights had excellently solved the flying machine problem. The machine is said to be extremely simple and the flight had taken place in an astonishingly safe manner. Chanute had come to the conclusion that the Wright Brothers are on the right path and, therefore, he abandoned his experiments of years with a heavy heart because he could not compete with them anv more. At niv wish he gave me a list of some of the witnesses of the flight.

Then, together with Carl Dienstbach, who has lived in Xew York the past fifteen years, I went to Dayton and here visited the father of the brothers, the old American Bishop, Milton Wright. The old man of about seventy years of age verified in simple language that he had witnessed the longest flight. He happened there by chance. Troubled constantly in regard to the fate of his sons who had subjected themselves to such daring flight experiments, he had frequently gone to the trial grounds and thus had been witness of numerous ascensions. He would not go into full particulars in the matter. If 1 had any doubts whatever after my conversation with the two competitors of the Wrights, they would have been dispelled after my visit to the father. 1 believe that there: can be few suspicious people who would doubt the words of this old, honorable priest. But personal feeling should not have any bearing in this important matter. It was, therefore, necessary to look up absolutely neutral people.

We interviewed Mr. C. S. Billman thereafter, secretary of a bank. He ex-

claimed excitedly: "Well, she flics !,J Then he pictured how imposing it looked when the flying machine rose from the ground and flew over the fields about the height of a tree in a slightly undulated manner; how readily she answered her rudder and returned to earth. "Like a duck she squatted on the ground." He, likewise, would not go into particulars regarding the construction of the apparatus. He concluded with the words: "The brothers deserve the best pecuniary success, as they are well educated men who have grown up under hard work/'

Far more communicative was a young druggist, Reuben Schindler, who had witnessed the long flight without being invited. On one day when he had expected a flight would be made, he had followed father Wright at a distance and had thus witnessed an excellent flight. A laborer happened to come into the drug store, who had also been an uninvited onlooker to a flight, who confirmed in an exhaustive manner the statements made by j\Ir. Schindler.

From here we turned our steps to an old tinsmith, Henry Webbert, who had frequently seen the airship in his son's workshop. This humble workman treated us with great reserve; but, nevertheless, gave us most interesting information regarding the flight itself and the landing. The airship descended so gently, "like a turkey descending from a tree." In regard to the speed, however, the old man exaggerated to some extent; 50 miles covered within an hour!

A good many details on the construction of the flyer were given to us by a German hardware dealer, Frank Hamburger, who had been a keen observer and endeavored to make his statements more clear to us by aid of some sketches. The druggist, William Foots, also showed a good understanding for technical matters and gave us a few valuable points; whereas, the engineer Laurence Wright, though confirming the fact that the flights had been made, refused to give any description as to the appearance of the machine.

Finally, we succeeded in talking with two more very important people, C. Y. Ellis, officer of the law, and Torencc Hoffman, president of the largest bank in the city. The interview with these prominent people was of especial importance to us because they gave us reasons why no more ado was made about the great results of the Wright Brothers. After the first successful flights the brothers had invited a great number of citizens to witness a flight. Upon taking the airship out of the shed it was injured and the trials, therefore, were abandoned. The disappointed public from that time on viewed the matter with great suspicion and the Wrights did not invite anyone since then and have kept further practical trials secret. The president of the bank, furthermore, stated that he could not see the practical value of the machine. The fact that the apparatus made its ascent from a rail appeared to him to he a great handicap.

I have formed the following conception of the construction of the aeroplane, based on what I have heard in regard thereto: the flyer proper is a so-called "double-deck" type, consisting of two broad rectangular surfaces arranged one on top of the other. In the front we find a horizontal plane for regulating the height. In the back a vertical plane for steering right and left. The motor is installed in the middle and actuates two large propellers. The planes and motor are mounted on runners on which the fiver glides when landing. Before starting the flights the machine docs not rest on these runners, but on a platform which is mounted on two wheels, arranged one in front of the other. As soon as the propellers are set in motion the platform with the flyer runs along a track about 250 feet in length until the flyer has attained a certain speed. The machine rises in the air, leaving the platform behind. The trials took place on a rectangular meadow surrounded by trees and sheds having a circumference of about 1 mile. This field was circled about 30 times in the longest flight. The flights were made in calm weather as well as during a strong wind.

I believe that no one can seriously dispute the existence of the first-practically tested flying machine any more. It is impossible that so many distinguished people

of the most varied occupation and ages could have agreed to "lie faster than a horse can trot" for the sake of an inventor. Under such long cross-questioning, which was made in accordance with a previously arranged program, they would have contradicted themselves easily. It is furthermore to be understood that by reason of lack of time \ looked up only ten people, nearly every one of which named further witnesses. But why do the Wright Brothers refuse to exhibit their flyer in flight to eventual buyers before closing an agreement? If they really obtain such good results they would not have to shun daylight! 1 believe, that 1 have also found a plausible answer to this question. The flyer is, in fact, so simple that they fear the purchaser will not pay such a large sum as One Million Dollars. Furthermore, 1 am inclined to think that it requires great skill to handle the machine. Not every aeronaut would be in a position to fly away with it at once; on the contrary, great skill is required, which the Wright Brothers acquired by reason of their numerous gliding flights.

I am now of the opinion that after it has been proved that one can also fly with airships not carried by balloons we must seriously turn to the construction of flying apparatus. On the other hand, I am of the firm belief that a sum as high as Four Million Marks will not be required if we entrust German engineers and aeronauts, for example, Begierungsrat Hoffman, of Berlin, with the solution of this problem. Surely we will not have to be behind the American inventors.

Translated from "Lokal Anzeiger," Berlin.

INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.

President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Dr. Alrert Francis Zaiim. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Joxes.

Publication Notice.

The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine and at the earliest date possible bound volumes wall be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.

In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the informal addresses of the Gordon Bennett contestants and others are concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.

The remarks of General James Allen, Chief Signal Officer of the Army and Major George 0. Squier, of the Signal Corps at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, conclude the addresses.

The formal papers and discussions begin in this issue with : ''Our Army and Aerial Warfare," by Lieut.-Col. William A. Glassford, Chief Signal Officer of the Department of Missouri, U. S. Army; "Some Model Aeroplane Experiences and Details of Man-Carrying 'Aeroplane," " by A. V. Boe, member Aero Club of the United Kingdom ; Discussion of Mr. Boe's paper, by Octave Channte.

Aeronautics in the U. S. Signal Corps, by Gen. James Allen.

When it was learned that General James Allen, Chief Signal Officer, could attend the meetings, he was requested to say a word for the U. S. Signal Corps. He responded extempore as follows:

We are building at Omaha a large aerodrome and it is there we hope to do all the work we do in the Middle West, ft is a large building 200 feet long, 100 feet wide and 80 feet high. Our reason for placing it and doing the work there is be-

cause we have a large host there, about 300 Signal Corps men whom we propose to train in this business. We intend starting with some of the smaller machines which we will send out to Omaha and there train our men. We will later, no doubt, also have one erected on the Atlantic Coast and one on the Pacific.

We are more interested in the dirigible balloon than the aeroplane.

We are going to make the hydrogen gas by the electric process. The first we tried was the liquid air process, freezing the ordinary gas. It was promising but not successful. It looks as though it could be done and at almost no cost. It seems that the by-product ought to pay for the gas. Then we tried the gas hydrolith. We have a ton or two on hand with which we can experiment, when we can all get together in some convenient place, I hope, and inflate a balloon so that everybody can see it. That is as far as we have gone now. We arc training our men. Several of you gentlemen have been very kind to the Army. You have been teaching our men for free flights. The armv is in thorough accord with you.

We will have to place an experimental plant at wherever is the best place on the Eastern coast. We want it somewhere near New York and as soon as we can find a good place we will build a gas plant and everybody can bring their machines down there and try them. That is about the status so far as we have it in the Army today.

The Advantages of Aerial Craft in Military Warfare, by Major Geo. O. Squier.

At the conclusion of Gen. Allen's remarks, Major Squier was called on by the Chairman and replied as follows:

I happen to have been serving during the past two years at Fort Leavenworth, which is the headquarters of three of the service schools of the army. The military authorities at these institutions have shown by the official action of their academic boards their deep interest and belief in the future of military aeronautics. It is believed that aerial navigation as a practical result is coming rapidly. Its radical influence on the methods of warfare will compare with the invention of gunpowder or the tactics of Frederick the Great. Now that we can rise above the terrain and gain information of armies and consequently plan accurate movements, nothing could be more valuable.

The practical dirigible balloon is here now. The work of the past 200 years or so is now coming into fruition rapidly. Lach month gives us more confidence. The general principles of war are really very simple, and work themselves out in typical forms in combat.

Military tactics are at present very much the same in all armies. Kaeh nation knows about as much as any other. The question then comes of introducing some new principle and bringing it to such perfection as to be able to gain decisive victories before an opponent has opportunities to profit thereby. Xapoleon grasped sueh an opportunity at a critical time in military history, and for several generations thereafter the armies of the world followed the great Oorsiean. The last great war was conducted strictly in line with the text hooks; accompanied at times with unlimited slaughter. The great object of war is to bring about a decisive result with a minimum destruction of human life. If we could utilize scientific principles to bring about this result without killing anyone, this would be the result to be obtained. We have but three military arms; the infantry, the artillery and the cavalry. The cavalry is designed to scout and develop information lor use in the handling and operation of the army with which it serves.

Aerial navigation furnishes us an additional weapon for obtaining information and for furnishing the means for using the information thus obtained. It will enable the maneuvreing of the armies by stragetie marches and surprises to bring about decisive results with a minimum destruction of life. It will enable us to leave a terrain to which to have been tied for a thousand years and into the air

and move about rapidly. Trained observers can leave a frontier, scout about an enemy's country and return in a single night with information of vital importance. It is surprising how difficult it. is to obtain information of the whereabouts of an enemy's force. On of the great lessons of the Manchurian war was the value of seeiecy as displayed particularly by the .Japanese. With an army involving say, 300,000 men, anything like "team play" requires perfect lines of information and control, to bring about that concerted action which alone can produce decisive results at present. Without such information the combat reduces itself to a number of small detail facts. The principle of the great fight is "team play,'' and aerial navigation will help to bring this about. When Oyama has a battle line of 40 miles in length and lias to operate 300,000 men distributed along that line, you can see how helpless he would he to carry out any concerted action without perfect lines of information and control. If he could use dirigible balloons which are valuable today and could obtain accurate information as to the location of the enemy's forces and issue his orders and have them delivered promptly, you can readily see what that would do, when opposed by an enemy without such service.

The Hague Conference took this matter up. Airships are already regarded by the leaders of military thought as a military weapon. Whether or not it will be permitted to drop high explosives on defenseless people 1 cannot tell. I can see how it is even possible now to tow a lot of high explosives with a dirigible airship and drop the tow, with its destructive load, approximately at such point, as is desired. It would be evident to you, then, that the success of aerial navigation means much to the military student in introducing a new and radical principle in warfare, and offering extended possibilities for bringing about decisive results by strategic movements into untenable positions rather than by loss of human life. The subject with which this Congress is engaged is of the greatest importance and is of interest not only to the military and naval service but to every citizen of this country.

Our Army and Aerial Warfare, by Lieut.-Col. W. A. Glassford.

The captive military balloon used by the United States Army in connection with military operations has a record of several conspicuous accomplishments. Artillery fire was, for the first time in history, directed against a concealed enemy from a United States military balloon. The first use of the military telegraph from a balloon is an achievement of Signal Officers of the United States Army. The lurking place of the Spanish fleet was first confirmed by observations from a balloon of the United States Army. The reopening of artillery lire from El Pozo Hill, suggested by balloon observations during the siege of Santiago de Cuba, also the discovery of the "trail" from the balloon, contributed to our success at San Juan Hill.

These recent instances of the utility of captive military balloons would ordinarily be enough to establish them in favor. Remarkably enough, instead of these instances stimulating the interest of the country, interest has continually waned, just as it did in France from the eighteenth century until after the Prussian invasion in 1870. Xow that France and other countries have developed the balloon to a demonstrated utility it is incumbent upon our army not to remain unprepared to defend itself with or against this new weapon. The balloon as a useful adjunct to operations in war has yet but a scant appreciation from the present officers of our army. This fact arises from their not having had opportunities for experience with the new weapon.

Observations from balloons were made for the Army of the Potomac during the Civil War by civilian aeronauts. Commanders then little realized the practicability of a safe station high in the air with an enormous radius of observation from which to observe an enemy whose location and movements were otherwise concealed. The possibility of artillery fire control from the basket of a balloon where the enemy

below could be seen was scantily understood. The pay of the civilian aeronauts appears to have been reduced for the purpose of driving them from the service. These civilians were not replaced from any branch of the military establishment. This is not so surprising as at first it might seem. No important military work conducted by civilians with an army has ever succeeded.

It is a noteworthy fact that the most conspicuous mention of our balloons during the Civil War was made by observers from foreign armies. It is astonishing that we have to look to these foreign military writers for a just tribute of praise to the important part played by the balloon in the early battles in Virginia.

In the middle S0"s the success of the French in navigating a dirigible balloon called the attention of the world to military aeronautics. In the early 90's investigations into the mechanics of flight earnestly conducted by so learned and serious minded a man as Prof. Langley again drew attention to aerial navigation through the development of his dynamic flying machine.

In October, 1890, Congress extended the scope of work under the Signal Corps of the Army to the duty of collecting and transmitting information. This added function of Signal Corps work naturally included aerial navigation because it was an important means of collecting information, the transmission of which only needed the application of devices already in common signal use. From this time on is found frequent official reference by the War Department to the desirability of developing means of aerial navigation. These references beat upon deaf legislative ears; politicians could not see what science was bringing on.

About this time the writer was sent to Europe to investigate aeronautics there, and a large balloon for our army was constructed in France, using the same material as is used in the English Army. This balloon was sent for exhibition to Chicago, from Chicago for use at Fort Filey, Kansas, and later for practice ascensions to Fort Logan, near Denver, Colorado. Here a large balloon shed was erected, a hydrogen generating and compressing plant installed, and hydrogen gas storage tubes provided. x\t this place other balloons were made and a small military detachment was made familiar with their working. Maneuvers with balloons were made in the presence of Infantry and Cavalry and thus a small part of the Army became conversant with the object and utility of the captive military balloon.

At the commencement of the Spanish War the balloon plant that had been assembled in Colorado was shipped to Fort Hamilton. New York. The object of sending a balloon to a post at the approaches to New York City was for observation so as to give early notice of the approach of a possible Spanish Fleet. This equipment was later sent to Cuba. . Unfortunately, it was only after five days' urging that the Commanding General released his prohibition to its landing and even then permitted only the reserve part of the equipment to be taken ashore. This using of the reserve gas came from a natural lack of knowledge on the part of General Shaffer and of those about him. It limited the operation of the balloon to a single inflation. Nor was this all, it was due only to the insistence of an Engineer Officer that it was used even then and at the battles before Santiago. It was due also to this official, unfamiliar with the place of a balloon in battle, that it was taken to within the zone of the enemy's musketry fire. However. General Shaffer, after the Spanish Fleet had been located in the Santiago harbor, artillery fire had been advantageously directed and roads or trails discovered from the balloon, acknowledged its satisfactory performances.

Since the battle of San Juan the army has scarcely seen a balloon and information about balloons is confined to newspaper mention. The officers who would now command our armies in case of war, not having seen airships in operation, must rely upon their intuitive resourcefulness to guide them in their use. This ignorance, amounting as it does almost to negligence, should be corrected, and the use of balloons demonstrated at the great training schools and maneuvers, where officers could verify what is said to be possible of them and permit them and their work to be seen by the army, as is done abroad.

The elements of military aeronautics should be taught at ail service schools and throughout the army, also practical demonstrations of balloons should be sedulously conducted at maneuvers where the army, the National Guard and the people can be brought to see the real use of this new weapon.

The long range modern field gun, with its smokeless powder, finds its usefulness diminished unless the object aimed at is located with certainty. The increasing difficulty of field artillery fire control and directions can be overcome through the military airship. Officers of the field artillery are rapidly recognizing that some means to locate the concealed target, in the use of their modern long range guns, is an essential. The balloon or flying machine is the most apparent means. The General Staff of our Army is not likely long to permit this military essential to go unprovided.

Aeronautics is not fully appreciated in our army nor in our navy at present because our officers are not generally familiar from actual contact with airships as an auxiliary. An army is like a man, unless it is fully fit, it is unfit. The value of any new auxiliary in warfare depends upon the use made of it, and this use depends for its application upon a commander familiar with its utility. This familiarity must be acquired during peace, for in war it is too late to experiment and to become expert. It may be said to be invariable that war initiates nothing, but develops everything that has had trial prior to the war. The efforts of both the Russians and Japanese to introduce innovations failed for the want of trained men and officers competent in the specialty.

There is an evident great increase of activity in airships just at present, consequently our government must also make a beginning of taking up aeronautics, but judging from previous experience it can be only a show unless Congress provides the means. Whetber the government will follow the same practice as the people in general in f/liis country and wait for final developments abroad before doing anything remains to be seen. This would not be surprising, for it is the system followed in most industrial things. Nearly everything we make use of in this country was perfected abroad before being adopted here, even though originally invented in the United States.

It is, moreover, a common observation that we sometimes adopt those ideas that are just going out of date abroad. The success of the steerable airship has been demonstrated in England, France and Germany, and is admitted as an indispensable military machine. Its greatest objection is its cost. Cost in military essentials is not to be avoided. France has been spending large sums since 1875. It will not now be long before these airs/hips make trips from their capitals to their frontiers faster than railways. We have no airships, nor will there be many unless several times the sum now proposed be given. By the time we get airships it is possible the aeroplane will have succeeded it in other armies. The aeroplane, tirst successful in the United States, seems likely to be first adopted abroad.

Other nations have already extensive military and) naval aeronautical plants which have been built up from year to year. The great sums they are now spending are upon development. We ;have nothing. A considerable plant will be necessary to commence with. Trained military aeronauts must be made. It will take much time to get ourselves to the position to which other nations have arrived in material and personnel. Then only can development commence. The position we might find ourselves in, in case of sudden attack, is alarming.

The aeroplane, or the airship heavier than air, and not lifted by cumbersome buoyant gas, appears certain to become the airship of the century. This is because of the development of ligiht and powerful engines, liquid fuel, new and lighter metals, and, above all, because every science is continually contributing something to the solution of the problem. It cannot fail of early and universal use. Our Langley and Chanute have pointed the way to accomplish the successful aeroplane and the world is following their reasoning. By the time we get as far as the great military powers

11)3road have now reached, the practical unbuoycd airship will have been achieved. There is now a feeling tin at the problem of practical flight will soon be solved. The fact that machines heavier than air have left the ground for varying distances has created the confidence that more is to follow in such accomplishments. The future is certainly full of promise. It is no longer considered visionary to anticipate that the development will be rapid. It is only recently that the War Department, and the Board of Ordinance and Fortification, were bitterly attacked in Congress for spending money on Langley's flying machine, characterizing Prof. Langley as "a professor wandering in 'his dreams," and referring to the officials permitting the expenditure as hypnotized. Langley died soon after, too soon to hear that the device of his invention was made to fly by the French. Fortunately, such attacks would now be repelled for there are too many in Congress who have observed the progress of the world in flying machines.

The Wright aeroplane has succeeded. It has accomplished a flight of 24 miles at a speed of 38 miles an ihour. The Wright machine is usually said to be a secret. That is only partially true. The machine is not likely to be reproduced till the gifted inventors and the experimenting mechanicians who have solved the problem arc suitably rewarded and recognized by our government. There is little doubt but ihat it will only be a short time till the greatest mechanical triumph of modern times will be properly appreciated.

Abroad, many men of unlimited courage, means and mechanical skill are now working to discover what the Wright brothers (have solved. That they will do so soon no aeronaut questions.

The success of the great airships recently developed abroad has awakened the world. With no such ships nor trained aeronauts, it is not difficult to imagine the predicament of this country in case of war. Their importance as a military weapon has impressed every thoughtful mind. Most military men clearly see that the mastering of the air means the mastery for nations. The United States has this mastery within her grasp.

Some Model Aeroplane Experiences and Details of Man-Carrying "Avro- '

plane," by A. V. Roe.

Mr. Roe had four large models of aeroplanes at the Aero Club exhibit in London last April, and won the second prize at the "Daily Mail" contest at Alexandra Palace.

1 was hoping to have been able to give an account to the Congress of my motor-driven avroplane and regret to be unable to do so; but as soon as the racing season is over I shall be permitted to erect a shed by the Brooklands Track and carry out my experiments there, for which place it has been specially designed, as the four pneumatic wheels it is mounted on are only 10U inches in diameter.

But perhaps a few particulars of my model avroplane experiences may be of interest to the Congress. These have been tine means of showing me many little things which would mo4 probably take years to find out if only experimenting with full-sized machines had been resorted to. Lor instance, my model experiments showed me the propeller should be on an average level with the aeroeurves; that is. if there are two superimposed aeroeurves 10 feet wide and 12 inches apart, and one of same size in front at the same level as upper aeroeurve. then the axis of propeller tihonld be placed 3 inches below the upper aeroeurve.

1 was once very much puzzled with the steering of one of my models, as I had repeatedly proved it should go the opposite way to the one it insisted on going; this was owing to the weight not being sufficiently far forward. If the weight is not correctly placed it can be counteracted by the horizontal steering plane; I also came to the conclusion that vertical rudders were quite out id' place on an aeroplane, as these tend to slow up the machine and make it swing round without heeling over.

whereas twisting of the two tips of the horizontal steering plane, provided it lie of sufficient tip-to-tip measurement, answers very readily and efficiently.

Many and various were the types J experimented with, up to as many as ten aerocurves one behind! each other; and I finally came to the conclusion the following three types were hard to beat: (1) A Langiey type, but having the forward planes under control as in my forward steering type; .1 found this a very steady and excellent machine—it can be made to fly in a fairiy straight line owing to the dihedral angle. (2) Forward steering type. The main planes are superposed, having a forward plane nearly as huge as one of main planes, fore to aft over planes being about three-quarters of tip-to-tip, this forward steering plane being under complete contiol w ifih one steeling gear somewhat like that of a motor-

the winning roe model.

ear. Turning the steering wheel in the ordinary way raises one side of forward plane whilst the other is lowered. This action readily steers the machine sideways in an efficient manner, but on rocking the steering column, tilts the whole plane up or down for vertical steering, (3) The rear tail steering type. In the ■case of these two latter types, it is very difficult to send them straight if the planes are not sotjit an angle, but if horizontal, in the case of a full-sized mactbine, they should he all the more readily steered. The largest models varied from S to lO1/? feet tip-to-tip and weighed about one-quarter pound per square foot, giving a speed of about 10 m. p. h. These models were driven by many fine strands of elastic which drove a propeller of 20 inches diameter for smaller type and 22 inches diameter for larger type.

Many flights were obtained varying from 100 feet to 140 feet in length, which gave ample time to gauge the efficiency of the machines, tine action of the steering "mechanism, equilibrium, etc.

In the case of the rear-tail type, when driven mechanically, the tail is divided into two parts with the propeller in between. It was this type which gained the ""Daily Mail'" £75 ($375) prize. Its action is somewhat peculiar, as the rear tail does not help to support the machine but otherwise. The air heats on the upper •side of tail, thus counteracting the forward weight. This gives a kind of automatic balance. Should the machine go too fast and the tail is not lowered accordingly the machine takes an upward course, which reduces the speed. On the speed being reduced, the downward pressure on the tail becomes less until it is less than tine counteracting forward weight. This brings the machine down again and (if not already too near the ground) in so doing increases its speed, thus going up again, •continuing to make these switch-hack like flights until the ground is reached. Although this type did best at the model flying machine trials mentioned above, I have ihad more efficient results with my forward steering models and have aceord-inglv built mv full-sized machine on the forward steering svstem.

DETAILS OF FULL SIZED AYROPLANE.

DIMENSIONS—Two main superimposed planes, upper 36 ft., lower 30 ft, both 5' 4" wide, front plane 24' x 5' A", 8' space between front and rear planes. These aerocurves have hard cutting edges and ribs average ten inches apart, the under surface being perfectly smooth and free from obstructions or any cross members.

AREA AND WEIGHT—Area 4S0 sq. ft, weight 460 lbs, including myself (148 lbs.), being slightly under one lb. per square foot.

WEIGHT PER HORSEPOWER—Driven by G H.P. J. A. P. engine, air cooled, per horsepower, 75 lbs. Prof. Langley proved that one horsepower could carry 208 lbs. through the air at 40 m. p. h., so believe G H.P. should suffice, ■especially in light breezes.

CONSTRUCTION—The central portion, which carries engine, aviator, steering gear, aerocurves, etc., is of long triangular construction, well braced up and mounted on four pneumatic wheels 10^4 inches diameter. Above each wheel are spiral springs so as to take shocks when landing. This central chassis can be steered when running along the ground. Ail parts are so shaped so as to offer the least possible resistance to the air, framework being made from 3^4 x 5/16" Kauri Pine. It is well braced up by air cutting struts so as to withstand more than twice the strain put upon them via en in the air. All surfaces have been considerably overloaded. The actual weight per square foot to insure rigidity when afloat, the machine having to be inverted for this test.

STEERIXG—Front plane is under complete control with the one steering gear; that is, for vertical steering the steering column is rocked, which moves the front plane up and down. For lateral steering the wheel is turned in true usual way, which raises one side of the plane while the other is lowered. This method of steering has proved very effective in my models.

PROPELLER—Made from steel tubing and magnalium (a metal slightly lighter and stronger than aluminum). It has four blades G' 10" diameter and weighs 12 lbs.: and under 7 lbs. with two blades. These blades can be detached .and only two used if desired, angle or pitch can be altered, hut pittia set on them is three feet, which would, without slip, give a speed of 50 m. p. h. at 1.600 r. p. m. This should give a speed well over 30 m. p. h. when in the air and machine should rise at 25 m. p. h. I note the French have been reducing their pitch gradually until they are now tihree feet.

TRANSMISSION—I had a spring drive through two 15" leaf springs and some India rubber, but have given this up and 1 am now driving through a clutch, which is more satisfactory. I use Hoffman's ball and thrust bearings, and have sliding universal joint to reduce loss of power through friction as far as possible.

I hope these notes will be the means of helping others as my wisih is to see the problem progress, and I feel sure as soon as public demonstrations are given, showing now easily an aeroplane can leave the ground, fly round and alight, then interesting and rapid progress should be made.

Seeing that the hydroplane appears to be arousing interest and attracting serious attention, it may be the means of helping the aeroplane movement along; for, after all, the hydroplane is a modified form of aeroplane. However, when the hydroplane is built sufficient^ light and speedy, aeroplanes could be attached. By having the forward hydroplane surface under control, as in my avroplane. it could be steered, when sufficient speed had been gained, out of the water into the air.

But, personally. I prefer at the present stage to experiment over smooth ground like the Brooklands Track, at the same time the hydro-aeroplane way would be very interesting.

Note on Mr. A. V. Roe's Paper, by O. Chanute.

Mr. Eoe is to be earnestly thanked for giving us a description of his full-sized motor aeroplane. He evidently desires comment,

He had been led to underestimate the power required by Langley's broad statement that one horsepower could carry 208 pounds through the air at 40 miles per hour. This refers to the plane alone and does not cover the resistance of the framing, motor, aviator, etc. When Langley flew his large models he only sustained 30 pounds per horsepower, and a motor' of 6 H.P. will prove quite insufficient for Mr. Eoe; particularly if he attempts to rise by running on the ground, as do the French aviators, whose experience also teaches that the wheels and spiral springs generally get broken upon alighting.

Mr. Roe will also find that better results are to be obtained with two blades in the propeller instead of four, as planned.

The strengthening of the wheels and the substitution of a more powerful motor are likely to increase the weight by some 200 pounds, but if all the 480 square feet of area prove effective in lifting, i. e.: if the front plane does a full share, the speed required to leave the ground should be about 30 miles per hour.

ARMY AERONAUTICS FOR DECEMBER.

During the month of December the Aeronautical Division of the Signal Office* has been engaged in preparing and perfecting specifications for a dirigible balloon and also for a heavier-than-air flying machine. The advertisement and specification for dirigible balloons were issued and made public by the Chief Signal Officer on December 16th, and proposals will be opened January 15th. The heavier-than-air specification was made public on December 23d, and proposals will be opened February first. The advertisements invite proposals from all inventors and manufacturers, and the Signal Office is receiving daily a great number of inquiries for copies.

Following are the principal requirements :

Dirigible Balloon.

The general dimensions of the dirigible balloon will be determined by the manufacturer, subject to the following conditions:

1. The gas bag shall be designed for inflation with hydrogen, the material for which will be furnished by the Signal Corps. This material is silk, covered with an aluminum preparation, and requires no varnish. It weighs 5.842 ounces per square yard and has a minimum breaking strength of 621/> pounds per inch width. This malerial for the gas bag will be furnished by the government, and samples may be seen in the office of the Chief Signal Officer of the Army, Washington. Bidders must state in their proposal the number of square yards of the. material they will require. The dimensions and shape of the gas hag will be as desired by the manufacturer, except that the length must not exceed 120 feet.

2. Inside the gas hag there will be either one or two ballonets having a total capacity of at least one-sixth the total volume of the gas bag. Leading to the ballonets there will be tubes of proper size connected to a suitable centrifugal blower for maintaining a constant air pressure in the ballonets. The fabric for the ballonets will be supplied by the government. It weighs 2.857 ounces per square yard, and has a minimum tensile strength of 481/2 pounds per inch width. Bidders must state in their proposal the number of square yards of this fabric they will require.

3. In the lower part of the ballonet and gas bag. or on the ballonet air tubes near the gas bag, there will be an adjustable automatic valve designed to release air from the ballonet to the outside atmosphere. On the under side of the gas bag

there will be a second adjustable automatic valve of suitable size, so designed as to release hydrogen from the interior of the gas bag to the outside atmosphere. This valve will also be arranged so that it may be opened at will by the pilot.

4. In the upper portion of the gas bag there will be provided a ripping strip covering an opening live inches wide by six feet long, with a red rip cord attached in the usual manner and brought down within reach of the pilot through a suitable gas-tight rubber plug inserted in a wooden ring socket.

5. The suspension system and frame must be designed to have a factor of safety of at least three, taking into account wind strains as well as the weight suspended.

0. A type of frame which can be quickly and easily assembled and taken apart will be considered an advantage.

7. The balloon must be designed to carry two persons having a combined weight of 350 pounds, also at least 100 pounds of ballast which may be used to compensate for increased weight of balloon when operating in rain.

8. The dirigible balloon should be designed to have a speed of twenty miles per hour in still air, but bidders must submit quotations in their proposals for cost depending upon the speed attained during the trial flight, according to the following schedule :

20 miles per hour, 1009?. 19 85%. 18 " k< " 10'/,. 17 " " " 559;. 16 " " " 40%.

Less than 16 miles per hour rejected.

21 miles per hour, 115%.

22 " u k< 130^.

23 " " 145%.

24 " " 160%.

9. The speed accomplished during the trial flight will be determined by taking an average of the time over a measured course of between two and five miles, against and with the wind. The time will be taken by a flying start, passing the starting point at full speed at both ends of the course. This test subject to such additional details as the Chief Signal Officer of the Army may prescribe at the time.

10. Provision must he made to carry sufficient fuel for continuous operation of the engine for at least two hours. This will be determined by a trial endurance flight of two hours, during which time the airship will travel continuously at an average speed of at least 70f/( of that which the airship accomplishes during the trial flight for speed, stated in paragraph 9 of this specification. The engine must have suitable cooling arrangements, so that excessive heating will not occur.

11. Three trials will be allowed for speed as provided for in paragraph 9, and three trials for endurance, as provided for in paragraph 10. and both tests must be completed within a period of thirty days from the date of delivery, the expense of the tests to be borne by the manufacturer.

12. The scheme for ascending and descending and maintaining equilibrium must be regulated by shifting weights, movable planes, using two balloiiets. or other approved method. Balancing bv the aeronaut, changing his position will not be accepted.

13. This dirigible balloon will be provided with a rudder of suitable size, a manometer for indicating the pressure within the gas bag, and all other fittings and appurtenances which will be required for successful and continuous fights, according to this specification.

14. Bidders will be required to furnish with their proposal a certi lied check amounting to fifteen per cent, of the price stated for the 20-mile speed. Lpon making the award for this airship these certified checks will be returned to bidders,

and the successful bidder will be required to furnish a bond, according to Army Regulations, of the amount equal to the price stated for 20-mile speed.

15. Bidders must submit with their proposals drawings to scale showing the general dimensions and shape of the dirigible balloon which they propose to build under this specification ; a description of the engine which will be used for the motive power; the material of which the frame will be constructed; sizes of valves, etc. Plans received will not be shown to other bidders.

16. Bidders must furnish evidence that the Government of the United States has the lawful right to use all patented devices or appurtenances which may be part of the dirigible balloon, and that the1 manufacturers of the dirigible balloon are authorized to convey the same to the Government.

17. The price quoted in proposals must be understood to include the instruction of two men in the handling and operation of this airship. Xo extra charge fortius service will be allowed.

Dynamic Flying Machine.

The general dimensions of the flying machine wid he determined by the manufacturer, subject to the following conditions:

1. Bidders must submit with their proposals the following:

(a) .Drawings to scale showing the general dimensions and shape of the flying machine which they propose to build under this specification.

(b) Statement of the speed for which it is designed.

(c) Statement of the total surface area of the supporting planes.

(d) Statement of the total weight.

(e) Description of the engine which will be used for motive power.

(f) The material of which the frame, pianos, and propellers will be constructed. Plans received will not be shown to other bidders.

2. It is desirable that the flying machine should be designed so that it may be quickly and easily assembled and taken apart and packed for transportation in army wagons. It should be capable of being assembled and put in operating condition in about one hour.

3. The flying machine must be designed to carry two persons having a combined weight of about 350 pounds, also sufficient fuel for a flight of 125 miles.

4. The flying machine should be designed to have a speed of at least 40 miles per hour in still air, but bidders must submit, quotations in their proposals for ■cost depending upon the speed attained during the trial flight, according to the following scale:

40 miles per hour, 100%. 39 " " " 90%. 38 " " " SO?*. 37 " " " 70%. 36 " " " 60$

Less than 36 miles per hour, rejected.

41 miles per hour, 110%. -12 " " " 120$.

43 " " " 130%.

44 " " " 140$.

5. The speed accomplished during the trial flight will be determined by taking an average of the time over a measured course of more than five miles, against and with the wind. The time will be taken by a flying start, passing the starting point at full speed at both ends of the course. This test subject to such additional details as the Chief Signal Officer of the Army may prescribe at the time.

6. Before acceptance a trial endurance flight will be required of at least one hour, during which time the flying machine must remain continuously in the air

without landing. It shall return to the starting point and land without any damage mat would prevent it immediately starting upon another flight. During this trial flight of one hour it inn-t he steered in all directions without difficulty and at ail time- under perfect contiol and equilibrium.

?. Three trials will he allowed for speed as provided for in paragraphs 4 and 5. Three trials for enduiance as provided for in paragraph (>, and both tests must be completed within a period of ;>() days fioni the date of delivery. The expense of the tests to be borne by the manufacturer. The place of delivery to the government and trial flights will be at Foit Myer. Virginia.

<s. It should be so designed as to ascend in any country which may be encountered in field service1. The staiting device1 must he simple and transportable. It should also land in a field without lequiring a specially prepared spot and without damaging its structure.

!). It should be provided with s-ome device to permit of a safe descent in ease of an accident to the propelling machinery.

10. It should be sufficiently simple in construction and operation to permit ■an intelligent man to become1 pioiicient in it^ use within a reasonable length of time.

11. Bidders must furnish evidence that the Government of the Dinted States has the lawful right to use ah patented devices or appui tenanee- which may be a part of the flying machine, and that the manufacturers of the flying machine are authorized to convey the same to the government. This refers to the unrestricted right to use the flying machine sold to the government but does not contemplate the exclusive purchase of patent rights for duplicating the flying machine.

12. Bidders will be required to furnish with their proposal a certified check amounting to ten per cent of the price stated for the 10 mile speed. Fpon making the aware) for this Hying machine these} certified checks will be returned to the hiddcis and the successful bidder will he required to furnish a bond, according co Army Regulations, of the amount equal to the' price stated for 40 mile speed.

K5. The price quoted in proposals must be understood to include the instruction of two men in the handling find operation of this Hying machine. No extra •charge for this service will he allowed.

1-1. Bidders must state the time which will be required for delivery after receipt of order.

MY FLIGHTS. By Henry Farman.

Trie machine on which my recent flights were carried out is of the cubic type. That is to say. it is formed of two linen cubes: a large one at the front 12 meters in length, 2 meters in width and 2 meters in height; the other one smaller, at the rear and attached to the first by means of wooden rods. A point-shaped car finishes this machine and holds the motor, the tanks, the driver's seat and the operating apparatus of the motor. The oquilibrator is placed at the front of the •car and the rudder at the back.

To leave the ground is not an easy matter, but to fly is still much more •difficult. The machine is driven by a two-bladed propeller fitted to a o0 II.P. Antoinette motor.

Fverv day during two months. I worked hard on my machine, altering, modifying and studying it in all its details so as to have it well in hand. 1 succeeded in leaving the ground and then managed to make a flight of a distance of 2S5 meters, thus beating Mr. Santos Dumont's record. From that time. I covered larger distances and flew as far as 770 meters, being .">2 seconds in the air; 1 could Fave gone further had not the barriers of the military parade obliged me to come 'down again.

I ;im now training myself to the turning in the air, a difficulty which J believe I will overcome and hope to win the Dentsch-Archdeacon prize by covering a closed kilometer on a flying machine.

My belief is that all the flying machines constructed up to this present day lack in stability. At every experiment they smash in landing which, it should be remarked, mine never did as yet, although 1 have made over 200 flights varying between 100 to 500 meters at a height of (i and 8 meters, once even reaching the height of 15 meters. Besides, my machine is absolntelv horizontal when flying. Of course, one of the most important things is the regulation of the motor, which must be perfect. Then, when flying, I have many parts to survey such as: the rudder at the rear, the eqnilibrator, the advanced ignition, the earburating handle, manometer for petrol pressure, manometer for water pressure and so on, which renders the task much more difficult, but, notwithstanding all this hard starting, 1 am convinced that much will be done before long and my hopes are illimited in this coneem.

THE FLIGHT OF THE BELL KITE. By Lieut. T. Selfridge, Secretary Aerial Experiment Association.

On December 6 the Aerial Experiment Association completed all their preliminary work and were ready to make a man-flight with the large tetrahedral kite called "The Cygnet."

It consisted of 3,393 wing cells, each cell carrying 541.25 square centimeters of silk. The kite was merely an upper section of a large tetrahedron of 52 cells on an edge. There were 12 layers of cells in the kite. The center of the kite was so arranged that a man could be carried on a ladder running from fore to aft. It was provided with three silk floats which presented a horizontal area of 8 square meters. The kite was to be launched from a rocking cradle carried on a catamaran raft which was to be towed bv a tuy-boat.

On the above date the kite was towed out in the middle of Bras d"Or Lake. Upon reaching the desired point the tug was headed into the wind and the kite put up in a 30-mile breeze (the wind proper was 21 miles, the speed of the tug 9) with the writer on board. The kite went up without any trouble and flew steadily for about seven minutes when, the wind dying down, the kite descended to the water. Due to lack of foresight of the men on the tug, and also to the unexpected dropping of the wind, the flying line was not cut soon enough and the kite was badly smashed on touching the water by the additional resistance brought to bear on the structure on account of the pressure of the water on the floats. The aviator was promptly picked up by a motor boat which was there for that purpose.

The following data was obtained: average speed of the wind during flight, 20 miles; angle of instance the kite with the wind, 20°; the pull on the line, 309 pounds; the angle of the flying line with the horizontal. 10°; the total weight carried up. (300 pounds.

The kite was completely demolished but the loss was not as great as would seem as it had served its purpose by affording this opportunity for obtaining the above information.

The headquarters of the association have been transferred to Hammondsport. X. Y., for the winter, at the shops of the 0. ]|. Curtiss Motor Co., where it will continue its work which is, as vet. in the elementarv staire.

DIRIGIBLE BALLOONS WITH SCREW IN FRONT.

By Carl E. Myers.

Question having arisen regarding the early appearance of a propeller placed at the forward end of the airship or dirigible balloon, claimed by some one as a recent inven-

tion, I wish to state that I used such an arrangment on my hand-and-foot propelled Gas Kite, or Aerial Velocipede, to draw the gas vessel up an inclined plane, to fall again by gravity, 1879-8081, when I adapted it to my Skycycle airship for both forward and backward m o v e m e 111 with aeroplane guidance, till

1900, and then applied it to my Electric Aerial Torpedo, at St. Louis, where it made 120 half-hour flights, sometimes pulling, and oftener pushing, the frame or keel of the gas vessel.

Mrs. Myers applied such screw propulsion ^ to the ordinary hydrogen gas balloon car in rS8o. About this time, or before, a 4-bladed propeller was used by Ouinlain to draw the airship of Prof. Richell at Hartford, Conn.

Gas Kite, No. Combined hand and foot power.

Chainless gear, issi.

Skycycle at Saratoga Springs, N. Y.,

fc>t> cjcle winch flew 1'ioni Brooklyn Navy Yard over New York, 1S95.

Santos-Dumont's airship No. 4 was arranged to pull by screw propeller, 1900. The noted airship "La France", built by Renard and Krebs in 1884, used the front propeller. In 1843 Monck Mason designed and built the small round ended model of an airship with screw at one end of a keel and a rudder at the other. Some years later Bell made a first ascension from Vauxhall Garden with a similar airship, with no great success.

I am unable to trace any earlier flight. Certainly no one invented this feature so late as 1900. Its use is of doubtful advantage with any motor vessel

in air or water. I made use of it in my gas kite to pull it forward like a kite drawn by its string. The wraste air was also flung against the under surface of the gas-buoyed kite to aid its buoyancy. This vessel rt was steered solely by tipping it up or down, or to either side through change of the rider's position or weight. The same was true of my later Skycycle, patented 1897, application filed, t88g. Several of these machines were built and many hundred flights made, ranging over 13

States. I20 half-llour sk} - Skycycle which made 120 flights at St. Louis Coliseum, 1900.

cycle flights were also made within the St. Louis coliseum, 1900.

Originally a rudder was used for guidance, but was later abandoned for steering aeroplanes. I have never found the pull of a front screw to equal the push of a rear screw in an airship or boat on water.

4-blade Metal propeller of " Kingfishen," in front, with steering paddle wheels on sides ; rudder in rear.

Electrical Aerial Torpedo, with screw draft and steering aeroplane. '[

Made 120 flights in 1900.

No. 19. Made flights in 1907.

AERONAUTIC CALENDAR.

Dee. S.—Aeroplane race at Issy les Moulineaux.

1911.—International assembly of dirigibles in Italy, under the auspices of the Società Aeronautica Italiana.

THE ACCELERATION OF THE WIND OVER MOUNTAINS.

By S. P. Fergusson.

Referring to the remark? of Professors .Moore and Ifotch upon the paper of M. Gasnier in tlie November Atneriean Magazine of Aeronautics, it may he of interest to some of the readers to know what lias been ascertained regarding the influence of mountains upon the weather in their vicinity.

Proof that the wind is higher on mountains than in the free air at the same height was first published by Mr. II. II. Clayton in the American 31eteorological Journal. July. 1891. Also, at this same time he suggested as an explanation that the air flowing over mountains is accelerated, just as water moving over a dam is more rapid than that of the general current of the river. The above results were derived from observations of the height and velocity of clouds.

Between 1900 and 190-1. meteorological records obtained in the free air by mean.-; of kites or balloons by Mr. Dines in Scotland and by Dr. Assmann in Germany were compared with records made on Ben Nevis and the Broeken. The results obtained were contrary to my own beliefs, and thinking it probable that the difference observed between the mountain and the free air. in part, might be due to the great distances between the kite stations and the mountains (in neither case less than DO kilometers) 1 decided upon a systematic investigation of the problem. Having but my own small means, and the time usually taken for my annual vacations to depend upon, the preparation of an adequate equipment for the work required all my spare time from June. 11)04, until August, 1905, this work including the construction of four kites, a suitable reel for flying the kites, and four meteorographs, all designed and constructed especially for the work. All this was accomplished without assistance of any kind. Mount Washington. X. H., was selected for this study partly because of its height and partly because the summit is occupied during two months of the year. Mr. Frank H. Burt, editor of the newspaper Amua;/ the Cloud*, published on the summit, kindly made all observations and records on the summit, while the kites were flown bv me in the Amnion oosuc valley 1!) kilometers distant and 1.500 meters lower than the summit of Mount Washington.

The first comparison of Mt. Washington and the free air was obtained on August 24. 190."). by means of automatic recording instruments. The temperature was found to be lower, and the wind velocity much higher on the summit than in the free air. the details of the experiments were published in Among the ('loads on September 10. 1905, and in Science. April 21, 1900.

A second expedition to Mount Washington was conducted by me in August and September. 190G. and a third in July. 190?, a part of the cost of the former being paid from a grant allowed me from the Ilodgkins Fund held by the Smithsonian Institution. In all. about sixteen kite flights have been made and important data obtained concerning the influence of the mountain on the weather in its vicinity. During August. 1908. a fourth expedition will attempt to ascertain, by means of kites flown from the summit, the extent to which the mountain influences the wind passing over it, also will study other phenomena peculiar to meteorology of mountains.

Mr. Clayton is of the opinion that the increase of speed of the balloon passing over mountains may not be real, but an effect of perspective. I fully agree with this, for it seems improbable that, unless the balloon passed very near the mountain-top, the acceleration of the wind would extend so high as to be perceived from a balloon.

AERO CLUB OF AMERICA.

The second of the series of monthty dinners and smokers was held by the courtesy of The Autuomobile Club of America in their main hall on Tuesday evening, January 7.

The annual banquet will be held at the St. Regis Hotel on Saturday, March 7, 1908.

AERO CLUB OF NEW ENGLAND—NEW TROPHY.

By Alfred R. Shrigley, Secretary.

As showing the wide-spreading interest in ballooning, it is of interest to note that the Aero Club of New England has received the following offer: ''The proprietors of the Poland Spring and hotels, through the Aero Club of Xew England, hereby beg to offer! to the pilot of any balloon starting 150 miles from Poland Spring, who lands his balloon within two miles of this place, a silver cup valued at not less than $100, provided we are advised before the ascension is made that an attempt will be made to win the cup." Signed, Edward P. Eicker, President.

NEW AERO CLUBS IN AMERICA.

Aero Club of Ohio.

On December 10 the "'Aero Club of Ohio" was formed. Johnson Sherrick was elected president; Marshall C. Barber, vice-president; Isaac Harter. treasurer; Dr. Josiah Hartzell, secretary. The club started with twenty members, among them Frank S. Lahm, father of Lieutenant Lalnn; Walter Wellman and Consul-General Robert P. Skinner.

The first ascent under the new club's auspices was made on December 20 by Frank S. Lahm, Joseph M. Blake and Gordon Mather.

The evening before the president entertained a number of the members at a banquet in bono]- of Messrs. Stevens and Lahm.

The club has purchased from A. Leo Stevens the balloon "Psyche," formerly owned by J. 0. McCoy.

Aero Club in Louisville, Ky.

It is very likely that Louisville will have an aero club in the near future. The idea is being agitated by J. L. dribble and P. S. Hudson, who are "old-time'' aeronauts and dirigible pilots. Already twenty-five, it is said, have signified their intention of joining if the club should be started. Both Mr. Gribble and Mr. Hudson were in St. Louis for the Gordon Bennett where they renewed old acquaintanceship with Captain Baldwin.

The plan for the first event, which has been outlined, is to attempt a transcontinental balloon race from Denver east, in an effort to break the world's long distance record. It is believed that if a balloon could get in front of one of the storms which move eastward across the continent, a new record could be established.

AERONAUTIQUE CLUB OF CHICAGO. By C. H. Perrigo, Secretary.

Soon after the great balloon race at St. Louis a meeting, composed of representative business and professional men, was held at the Auditorium Annex in Chicago and the Aeronantique Club of Chicago was organized.

The following officers were elected: President, C. A. Coey; first vice-president, Chas. E. Gregory: second vice-president. Geo. R. Lawrence; treasurer, II. C. Foster;

secretary, 0. H. Perrigo; attorney, Benj. Levering; aeronautical engineer, Capt. Raymond Anglemire.

The club has ordered a large touring balloon built to be ready early in the spring. Our president. Mr. C. A. Coey, who has a national reputation for daring in auto races, has decided to own a balloon which he thinks wilkbe able to take the Ions: distance prize in any contest he may enter.

It is the intention of the club to hold balloon races from Chicago annually. A prize cup will be offered, also substantial cash prizes. As soon as it was announced that we were going to hold races one' of the leading men of Chicago offered to present the club with a cup costing $1,000 to be raced for. We shall hold the races some time in July or August. The first day's race will be for long distance balloons; the second and third days will be for airships and aeroplanes. Entries are invited from clubs or individual owners of balloons who may wish to compete. Arrangements are being made for the use of one of the large race tracks near the city, to be fitted up for holding the races and a permanent home where the members nnry make ascensions at any time. The headquarters of the club is at 1424 Michigan Avenue.

AERO CLUB.OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. By Harold E. Perrin, Secretary.

The annual dinner of the Aero Club of the Y. K. was held at the Savoy Hotel on Tuesday, the 2(ith of Xovember. The company present included Mr. Patrick Y. Alexander, Mr. Griffith Brewer, Admiral Sir Charles Campbell. Sir Morgan Crofton and Lady Crofton. Sir Hugo de Bathe. Baron Deutsch de la Mem'the. Mr. J. Z. Eerranti, Captain Grubb, R. E., of the AYar Office: the Hon. Assheton llarbord and the Hon. Mrs. Assheton llarbord, General Hart. Prof. A. K. Huntington. Mr. V. Ker-Seymer. Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer, Lord Montagu of Beaulien. Mr. .7. T. C. Moore-Brabazon, Mr. C. E. Pollock, the Hon. C. S. Rolls. Lord Rovston. Brig.-Gen. 1?. M. Ruck. R. E.. Mr. YVinthrop E. Scarritt. Admiral of the Fleet Sir Edward Sevmour, Tv. C. M. G.. Dr. \Y. X. Shaw, the head of the Meteorological office; Mr. E. R.*Simms, Col. Templer and Mrs. Templer. Col. F. C. Trollop. Mr. Roger YV. Wallace, and Prof. YYaynforth.

The toast of "The Aero Club" was proposed by the Chairman Mr. Roger \Y. "Wallace, I\. C. who informed the company present that .Air. Deutsch had promised to come over to England in his airship the "Yille de Paris." a statement which was much applauded. He also announced that End Xorthclitfe had offered another valuable prize for motor-driven aeroplanes to be competed for in England. Lord Montagu of Beaulien then spoke upon tlie future of aerial navigation, and Admiral Sir Charles Campbell proposed the toast of "The Guests." The Admiral alluded to the great value that aerial navigation would be as an aid to naval warfare in future.

Admiral Sir Edward Seymour, I\. C. M. G.. Admiral of the British Fleet, also made a most interesting speech.

Mr. Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe. who had come over from Paris specially for the dinner, replied to the toast of "The Guests"' in a speech which was greatly appreciated. He looked forward, he, said, to paying a visit to England in his airship the "Mile de Paris," a model of which he kindly presented lo the Aero Club of the United Kingdom.

The Hon. C. S. Rolls proposed 'The Health of the Chairman." He congratulated the club upon having as its chairman Mr. R. AY. Wallace, who had done so much pioneer work in connection with autoniobilism and was now keenly interested in aeronautics. Mr. Rolls was very pleased that the club had with them that night Mr. AVinthrop Scarritt, a prominent member of the Aero Club of America, who was one of the leaders of modern sports in America, and is governor and past president of the Automobile Club of America. The club, he said, were very

fortunate in having Mr. Deutsch with them that night, who took such a prominent part in furthering the cause of aeronautics. Mr. Rolls added that we in England owed a great deal to the members of the Aero Club de France for the present state of development and perfection to which the modern balloons and the sport of ballooning had been brought.

THE LOST "LA PATRIE."

On Saturday, November 30, after having sailed from Paris to Verdun, ''La Patrie" was being employed in reconnoitreing from Verdun when the engine became disabled through the mechanic's clothing catching in the gearing. It was thought the repair could be made quickly and the ship was allowed to drift before the wind. Dusk came on, however, before the work was finished and it was decided to make an immediate descent, which took place at Souhesmes.

Work on the engine was commenced the following morning and continued all day, being only completed about quarter of eight at night.

The wind had been increasing in force and by eight o'clock had assumed the proportions of a gale, ft would seem that 180 men would be sufficient to hold an

Goerz Photo

airship, but in an exceedingly heavy gust of wind the ship tore itself loose from the restraining ropes and sailed away to the westward. An officer tried to reach the ripping cord but was unsuccessful in the attempt.

During the night the ship sailed across France towards Saint Lo, across the English Channel and was seen over South Wales at eight o'clock the following morning. After leaving Wales. "Patrie" turned northeast, passing above Lloyd's Signal Station at Torr Head, opposite the coast of Argyllshire, at about four o'clock on Sunday evening. Later in the day the ship touched the ground near Ballysallough, County Down, Ireland. "During the course of its erratic wanderings, it seems that the "Patrie" collided with a hill, and after tearing up the ground for some little distance, finally sailed through a farmyard wall, shedding in its passage a propeller and sundry tins of oil."

Lightened by the loss of these articles, the ship "rose again and ascended into Heaven," and was last seen heading for the North iitlantic, there no doubt to travel about like the Wandering Jew until it finds a grave. An official of the English War Department took possession of the parts on behalf of the French Government.

GORDON BENNETT 1908.

Berlin has been definitely settled upon for the start of the 1908 Gordon Bennett, to be held during October. Dr. Broeckelmann is to be one of the three German defendants of the cup.

It is rumored that the Japanese aeronauts desire to enter but this is impossible as there is no club in Japan of which anyone has knowledge, and if so, it certainly is not a member of the Federation.

The Swedish Club is to enter this year. Imagine an international balloon race from Stockholm !

The Beal Aero Club de Espana has entered three balloons.

NEW AERO PRIZES.

To the different prizes for aviation, instituted by the Aero Club of France and the Commission de Aviation, prizes which are being exposed to such meritorious assaults, is added a gold medal offered by Mr. Albert C. Triaca, member of the A. C. A., and director of the new aeronautic school in Xew York. This medal Avill be given to the constructor of the motor which shall be mounted in the flying machine winning the Deutsch-Archdeacon aviation prize of $10,000.

Xew Aero Club of Xew England trophy. Xotiee elsewhere in this issue.

The aeronautical exposition at Turin in 1908 is to put up two prizes, one of $50,000 for dirigible balloons and one of $20.(100 for "aeroplanes"—we take it for granted thn* is meant to include all gasless types. The king will also create a Royal cup.

The first of December. Lord Xorthcliffe. in the name of the Daily Mail, announced the creation of a prize of $500 to the aeroplane which executes a flight of half a mile in a circle.

POINTS IN BUYING A BALLOON OR AIRSHIP.

Translated.

"Owing to several inferior balloons being sold last season bv inexperienced manufacturers, which were faulty in construction and dangerous, we desire to point out a few essentials: Who is the constructor? Can he give references? fs he an experienced man? Where is his factory? Is he reliable? Has he ever made ascensions? Does he know the breaking strain? For whom has he built balloons? Ask the purchasers.""

DECEMBER BALLOON ASCENSIONS.

Dec 20. Frank S. Lahm, Joseph M. Blake and Gordon Mather (Aero Club of Ohio) in the balloon "Ohio"' from Canton, 0., at 12:55 p.m.. landing near Pulaski. Pa., at 3:10 p.m. Distance. (18 miles. Duration, 2 hours. 15 minutes. Highest altitude. 3000 feet.

Dec. 27. Albert C. Triaca (Aero Club of America) and Ernest Barbotte in the "Aero Club Xo. 4" from St. (loud, Paris, at 1 :3() p.m., landing at 2:15 p.m., near La Fertesous-Jouarre, France. The trip was made by Mr. Triaea in qualifying for pilot's license. On landing he neglected to release the gas, and a. puff of wind carried the balloon away. It was afterward recovered.

Dec. 27. C. A. Coey and George R. Lawrence (Aeronautique Club of Chicago) in the "Zenith" at Chicago. Soon after the start a gust of wind blew the balloon against a tree which cut some of the ropes attaching the basket to the bag and dropped the aeronauts out. Luckily they sustained no injury.

Wintbrop E. Scarritt (Aero Club of America) made a trip from London with the Hon. C. S. Rolls but details are not available. It is reported that Mr. Scarritt jumped from the balloon in landing, 'thus lightened, it reaseended with the Honorable Rolls. Query, did the former Automobile Club president get "cold feet?'' If so. it is the first instance recorded in the life of ^\lr. Scarritt.

CHRONOLOGY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS.

Owing to the bad weather during December and the alterations being made in the Farm an, Bleriot and Santos Dinnont machines, few flights have been made.

Santos Dinnont has now two propellers in front, di'iven in opj)osite directions by a leather belt. In the first trial of the new arrangement, the belt fouled one of the propellers, a wooden frame covered with silk.

Pischoff practiced and succeeded in making several flights of 50 to 100 yards.

The Ferher-Levavasseur "■Antoinette"' has been completed and will be out soon.

Dee. 1. Pderiot made a few trial flights. Only 24 meters was covered in the first flight; in the second 100 meters was made, and in the third. 150 meters at a height of about 10 meters. During flight the apparatus gave a sudden lurch and one-wing came in touch with the ground and was broken—likewise the propeller. Bleriot started at once to lepair the damage.

Dec. (i. Bleiiot succeeded in making two or three very good flights; the first of which was a semi-circular course of about KiO yards, the second a straight flight of about ()()() yards, and the third, another straight flight of 500 yards. A height of about -10 meters was attained which evidently disturbed the equanimity of the aviator and the engine wa< suddenly stopped and landing made. The frame was bent by the fall and a propeller blade and a wheel broken.

Firman's machine while being brought out toppled over, due, apparently, to the recent alterations which resulted in the lightening of the tail, and some considerable damage was done to the framework.

Dec. 18. Bleriot was able to cover about 150 meters but in a succeeding flight the machine broke in two while in the air and the aviator narrowly escaped serious injury. In this flight the machine started into the air at a considerable angle and soon was quite high. The altitude was lowered, however, and at a distance of 100' meters the forward planes of the machine seemed to snap off at the shoulders and turn upward. The machine dropped swiftly to the ground. A correspondent writes: ''All present agreed that the Bleriot apparatus was about the most dangerous type of aeroplane yet brought out. Its movements in the air are too quick and no man can possibly follow all its rapid cuts and thrusts as they are executed and compensate for them with the rudder."

Dec. .20. Farman made a flight of nearly half a kilometer. During the day many trials had been made but of no great length. At dusk the flight of nearly 500' meters was accomplished and gave the spectators to judging the apparatus in its altered form. The rear cell has been reduced in size and a long flight is necessary to determine the stability. It is said that there was a tendency for the machine to sway, though turning movements were executed more easily than with a larger reai' cell. The motor has been fitted with a magneto and carbureter and it will operate a new propeller. A new water cooling-system has been fitted also.

Dec. 21. Farman was able to flv the entire length of the grounds at Tssv. He found that by warming the gasoline in the jacket of the motor that he could get 1050 revolutions out of the engine, or 50 more than the usual speed. He anticipates still further accelerating the speed to 1100 r.p.m.

Dec. 30. Farman completed a circle of a kilometer in length but touched the ground for an instant to avoid hitting the bystanders.

DECEMBER INCORPORATIONS.

The Aerial Navigation Company of America, of Guthrie and Clinton, N. Y.; capital stock $1,000,000. Incorporators, Edward D. Oronin and Fred Ivnowlton, of New York City; II. W. Pentecost of Guthrie.

The Ernst Flying Machine Co. of Dundee Lake, X. .1., has been incorporated with $25,000 capital to manufacture ''flying machines and airships."

THE CALIFORNIA ARROW Carl Dienstbach

On the 19th of October. 1902. Santos Dumont won the Deutsch prize, the first one ever offered for an airship's performance, by a trip from the outskirts of Paris, around the Eiffel Tower and back. Then started that remarkable series of aerial trips which to the lay mind furnished a last and conclusive proof of the practicability of aerial navigation, and, in fact, fairly revolutionized public opinion.

One year later an American aeronaut, with a farsightedness resulting from long years of experience as an aerial performer, first merely an athlete on the high trapeze, tight-rope, etc.. later an aeronaut with hot air and gas balloons, and in parachute jumps (which he was the first one to introduce to this country), realized that to keep up with the times he would needs henceforth have to make a navigable airship, the instrument with which to exhibit his skill. And with the eonfirlen-e given from i erfecting a great

Goerz Photo.

CAl'TAIX THOMAS S. BALDWIN'S CALIFORNIA ARROW AT THE ST. LOUIS CONTESTS.

deal of aerial apparatus, started to build one. In his design he was governed only by a sound practical judgment as to the principal requirements of the case, and the result of his labors was the first thoroughly practical motor air vehicle in America, a type in which, so far. nothing essential has been changed but which has been imitated by many ■on account of its excellent qualities.

While several features of his invention were similar to Santos Duinont's. there were also essential and far-reaching differences. The frame and thle gas bag were more nearly made one piece by enclosing the latter into a special sort of netting, which, owing to its fineness, would produce but little friction or "drag" in the air but increase the staunchness and solidity of the bag, at the same time preventing the balloon from ever becoming loose and flabby below the equator by loss of gas. and saving to a great extent the necessity of an inside air-bag (or balloonet) with blower for keeping the envelope tight (as the netting would in such cases merely flatten the sides and thus decrease the capacity of the gas space t. The netting also allowed him eventually to put the frame nearer to the gas bag than ever attempted before. Again the propeller was placed in front and its two blades were given a slight slant towards the axis, which "would throw the full force of its draft against the two cylinder, five horse-power motor

to keep it cool. The most obvious change, however, was in the method of operating. The man was not put into a basket from which he shifted a guide rope for vertical, and turned a wheel for horizontal steering. Instead, he rode astride the back of the frame, as on horseback and worked his rudder by tiller ropes, as with a bridle, allowing him to steer from almost any position on the frame. It will be seen how nice and free was that position and how favorable to the development of a high skill, for the longitudinal trim, i.e., the position, horizontal or inclined, of the ship's "keel," is thus controlled by the aeronaut himself stepping back and forth on the frame. The rudder was made especially large to insure a quick effect in all sorts of aerial disturbances, eddies, gusts, ascending or descending currents, etc.

Captain Thomas S. Baldwin, for it is of his invention that we are here speaking, also showed an especially keen intuition in selecting a rather blunt shape for the bag of his first airship. In this he was quite ahead of Santos Dumont. The latter made his first ships comparatively long and thin, without realizing at the time, that the un-

DALDWIX'S AIUSI11P SHOWISO TWIX PKOPELLEli.

avoidable pitching would render the theoretical advantages of this shape for speed rather illusionary in practice, not to mention the long heavy frame suspended far below the bag needed under these conditions, and other practical difficulties. Santos Dumont discovered not without a little surprise, that when he had at last adopted a short, egg-shaped bag for his No. 9. his "runabout." he obtained a more hardy; reliable and controllable craft, without a very appreciable falling off in speed. Here, however, he overlooked the advantageous possibility of placing the frame very near to the envelope, which Baldwin, on the contrary, was quick to see. That shortness of the bag has the further advantage of making the shifting of the aeronaut's weight take a more powerful and quick effect on the longitudinal trim, especially with the shape originally adopted by Baldwin—rather symmetrical at both ends. A design and shape resulted, which, within the limits of its fundamental qualities—though, of course, a blunt shape is less favorable to speed than an elongated one—proved so efficient and, especially offered so many chances for the development of the highest skill on the part of the operator, that at the recent races in St. Louis, exclusively contested by ships of this exact type, the German expert, Captain Hildebrandt of the Military Aeronautical Department, became truly enthusiastic about Captain Baldwin's performances, especially after Professor Rotch, the famous director of the Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, had helped him to ascertain how strongly the wind was really blowing, against which the thick set, sturdy little monster was yet able to hold its own.

But to return to the history of the case. That first fully practical American airship was very prettily and aptly named by its inventor, in whom his friends are ready to recognize something of a pdetical vein, the "California Arroio." After a number of very promising trips under his own guidance at the place of its construction, California, the ship was taken to the St. Louis Exposition, which had just offered large prices for airship competitions and given a wonderful publicity to the whole subject of aerial navigation. No serious competitors for the "Arrow'' had turned up from this side of the ocean, and all seemed to go well until the trials were actually going to commence. Then it was found that with the poor quality of gas furnished by the Exposition authorities, made in an imported apparatus for which no experienced operator could be found; and a strengthened, heavier frame; and the addition of a guide rope, that was found indispensable under the local conditions, Mr. Baldwin's own weight was by thirty pounds too heavy for the machine to lift. It was then that a young, light weight man, Roy Knabenshue stepped into the breach with his offer to run the ship, though not being an aeronaut. Captain Baldwin consented, as he knew that the art of operating could comparatively easily be mastered even by a novice if he were properly shown how, while it

THE FIIiST FLIGHT OF THE TWIN SCREW SIII1' AT IIAATMONDSFORT, JUNE 27, 1907.

had been a trying task even for the experienced aeronaut before the novel requirements had been thoroughly learned and understood. Knabensnue proved an apt pupil and the "California Arrow" made such a fine showing, even at that initial stage, that it eventually saved all the Exposition's aeronautical prestige and incidentally reaped the full benefit of the wide publicity given to the announcements of the intended contest. The latter was indeed yet to take place in St. Louis, four years later, and between duplicates of that first "California Arrow."

During the first flights over the Exposition grounds it had already become apparent that a new line of activity had actually been started, and that the airship would find its place "ready made" as the principal attraction at the great public gatherings in the open air. It was only to be regretted that Baldwin was so modest about coming forward with his own person. Instead of making at once such changes as would have made it possible to resume quickly the operation of his ship himself, he seemed long obvious of the fact that the credit would rest, for the great "blind" mass of the public, with the men who actually were "running" the ship. As a reputation readily attracts prospective managers, Knabenshue left his old master, after less than a year, to start building his own ship. The latter became, of course, a close copy of the 11 Arrow" and the only departure the constructor felt able to afford consisted in changing the form of the gas bag, which thereby lost much of its trim appearance.

The original ship had, in the meantime, been taken over by a stock company, which made a futile attempt at exploiting its capacity commercially on a very prematurely large scale. Captain Baldwin then built another one, and to save expense made it again too small for his own use, finding in Lincoln Beachy another lightweight gifted substitute. His eye for detecting ability had deceived him still less in this case, for the new "Arroiv," at the Exposition in Portland, Oregon, 1905, was soon to make 23 flights and return to the place of starting, out of 25. Beachy got the ship under such fine control, that runs through the streets of Portland, as it were, landing on the roofs of skyscrapers and delivering a letter by airship from the Exposition to the City and carrying back the answer, was easy for him. The time of leaving his teacher, however, came for him right after the closing of that Exposition and now Captain Baldwin fully realized the advantage of being his own operator.

A third '-'Ari'ou'' vas Lvilt and pioved a distinct advance. The framing had now been brought into such close proximity to the envelope that gas bag, netting and frame became all one solid whole, thus allowing the ship to literally "stand on its head.''' If one recalls the very serious trouble twice resulting from even a comparatively slight tilting of Santos Dumont's No. 7, the significance and advantage for safety of that fact is readily recognized. An essential improvement could also be noticed in the motor, now with four cylinders in a row and lighter and stronger, owing to increased refinement of design. Being very reliable, it could be fully controlled by the throttle alone, and as an "aerial chauffeur" has, anyway, to watch too many different things at once, that simplicity can be hardly too highly appreciated. Quite as important for truly satisfactory results is, however, the ship's complete '•tuning up." All the ropes must, for instance, have just the right tension, the netting in the finest trim, motor and rudder obey to the slightest touch and so has the hard inflated gas bag to answer at once to any little shifting of the operator's weight on the framing.

Captain Baldwin's latest craft possessed all these qualities to such a marked degree r-s to become the very ship for the amateur's use. Quite recently Mr. Augustus Post, Secretary of the Aero Club of America, made very creditable flights with it, having had no more previous schooling that what he could derive from closely watching the performance and a few concise instructions.

In 190G the Captain had a record of 51 returns to the starting point in 53 flights at different localities. During 1907 Captain Baldwin made 92 flights, returning to the starting point 91 times. In the Fall of 1907 he took part in that splendid airship race, the very first of its kind, which followed the start for the Gordon Bennett long distance cup race for balloons, in Saint Louis. The latter was on Monday, the former scheduled for Wednesday and he improved the occasion on the intervening Tuesday, when a great crowd had assembled to witness promised contests of gasless flying machines, which did not take place for obvious reasons, by giving a little unofficial exhibition of the possibilities of his apparatus.

To watch him duiing that performance was certainly a wonderful sight. He had taken off his coat and the folds of his shirt flapping behind him in the strong draught produced by the ship's speedy motion, resembled the fluttering of a flag in a stiff breeze. On that day the wind was very irregular and the airship was trying to "prance" like a frightened horse, but beautifully restrained by the evidently marvelous skill of the operator. It proved really a fascinating sight to watch this subduing of the wind. A young German, former lieutenant, who saw it for the first time, became, for instance, entirely elated with enthusiasm. To those who have not seen it, it would seem really nearly impossible to give any adequate idea of that suggestion of freedom and strength in the movements of even that bulky looking thing.

Captain Baldwin left the enclosure and sailed over the Aero Club building out into Forest Park. Returning he called out that he would now give a demonstration of the ship's steering capacity and began a series of most convincing turns. The circles he described in the air became closer and closer. No automobile seems equal to such a feat—hardly a bicycle. The blunt shape of the bag is there, of course, of special advantage, just as in warships greater speed is often attained rather by increasing the motive power than by reducing the beam, in order to preserve the good maneavring qualities.

If Captain Baldwin did not win the race the next day, although his negotiating the very stiff breeze (estimated by Captain Hilcfebrandt and Professor Rotch as near to S meters per second—17.8 miles per hour), looked again extremely creditable, there are two facts which could be named as the reason. His competitors—his own pupils' ships while being copies of his own, were, however, smaller, still using the same engine power, by virtue of the light weight of their operators. The "staying" power of Baldwin's ship was consequently greater, and if the race course had been laid out according to his wishes—as a triangle of great length which had to be gone over several times—it seems most likely that he would have won in the long run.

True to his maxim of showing in public only a perfected, thoroughly reliable

machine, Captain Baldwin had refrained from entering his last creation, still in the experimental stage, though repeatedly and successfully tested in the presence of a number of trusty witnesses in Hammondsport, N. Y. (who signed a joint statement of the facts). It is bigger and has two propellers in front, turning in opposite direction, one close behind the other, by means of a hollow shaft. It was found that their efficiency is thus increased while the strain of the torque on the frame is entirely neutralized. This ship will be remodeled for next season on an ingenious plan. Recent advance? in the construction of the giant airships of Europe are for the first time to be embodied in an American craft that will still possess quite as much originality as the first "Arrow" had. The proportion of length to diameter will at last be changed and a, shape of greater ultimate speed possibilities adopted. To make this, however, a real advantage many new devices had to he introduced, intended to eventually eliminate all possibility of "pitching." They principally consist in an adequate stabilitating surface behind the rear rudder and two sets of superposed aeroplanes or horizontal rudders fore and aft. The ship will be large enough to carry two passengers and the engine strong enough to attain a speed of at least 20 miles an hour. There will also be an improvement on the rudder with the intention of increasing its efficiency to the extent of making this elongated ship turn quite as readily as the sturdy craft of 1903. Twin propellers, mounted as described above, and a specially strong light motor will again be a feature.

It should yet be mentioned, that Captain Baldwin has not only worked out the ships, but all details of their inflating and housing as well—and very efficiently too, with all "his previous aeronautical experience. For the new craft a garage or tent, has already been ordered that will stand up without any rope-bracing and be a perfectly rigid structure.

So we may, with good reason, expect great things next season, of that pioneer and "ice-breaker" of the air, the "California Arrow."

SPEED OF AMERICAN DIRIGIBLES AT ST. LOUIS.

In the November number we gave an account of the dirigible contest at St. Louis on October 23. Since that time the course has been measured and the speed of the airships is herewith given. This may be of interest to show just exactly what we really have in America.

operator horsepower time mile

mile ter ho

Min. Sees. Min. Sees.

Baldwin........15 9 30 7 13 8.3

Wild.........7,---Did not finish---Dallas........10 8 50 6 42 8.9

Beachey........10 7 15 5 30 10.8

Baldwin, 2d trial.....15,---Did not finish--Dallas, 2d trial.....10 7 23 5 31 10.6

Baldwin, 3d trial.....15 7 05 5 21 11.1

Dallas, 3d trial.....10 6 10 4 40 12.7

Beachey, 2d trial.....10 4 40 3 33 :6.8

It will be remembered that the strong breeze dwindled to practically nothing when the last flight was made. This must be taken into consideration. Captain Baldwin's bag was necessarily larger than any of the others in order to lift the heavier weight of the pilot.

-The length of the course, both ways, was 6900 feet, 1.306 mile.

AERONAUTIQUE CLUB DE FRANCE.

M. Saunierc, the president of the Aéronautique Club de France, has succeeded in making a chart of the overhead electric wires in France, which will be of great service to aeronauts, especially at night, in enabling them to avoid landing in places where their guide ropes are likely to touch live wires with currents of 1G,000, 20,000 up to 27,000 volts.

NEW AERONAUTIC BOOKS.

DAS LUFTSCHIFF in völkerrechtlicher u. strafrechtlicher Beziehung von Dr. Grünwald, Kriegsgcrichsrat h. d. 1. Garde-Division. An interesting pamphlet of 61 pages. Contents: Einleitung—Luft and Meer—Völkerrechtliche Grundsätze für das Meer und die Seeschiffe—Umfang der Anwendung der für das Meer und die Seeschiffe geltended Grundsätze auf das Luftgebiet und die Luftschiffe—Seeschiffe und Luftschiffe—Strafbare Handlungen der Luftschiffer über der hohen See oder staatenlosen Landstrecken—Strafbare Handlungen der Luftschiffer über Staaten, deren Eigen—und Küstengewässern—Einflusz des Interesses des Grundstaates an der Strafverfolgung auf dessen Zuständigkeit—Grundsätze. Published by Helwingsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Hannover, Germany, ]Drice I Mk.

COMMUNICATIONS.

We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our correspondents.

Langley Formula.

To the Editor:

Your correspondent, R. W. S., in the December issue, has trouble with formulas used by Mr. Langley. His experience brings vividly to mind my own along the same lines.

The formulas are all right, as formulas, but they do not apply to the work in hand. All his aeroplanes were surfaces that lie in one direction, and pressure produced by those surfaces must be normal to the surface and such a thing as a component of such pressure is simply nonsense. He assumes weight to be a vertical component, and the tangent derived horizontal force another, at soaring speed. But neither of these forces can make pressure until by resolution they are all made normal to the plane.

Take his 5° diagram as follows, page 37. [Diagram A.]

Pressure is on "a." How can the two oblique forces get on "a" without resolution? If the two oblique forces are components, then "a" is 504.G grammes, in which case

A

40.6

464

B

AOS 68

they would be conspiring forces and not components.

Using the sine and cosine decimals of 5° for multipliers, the diagram becomes the following. [Diagram B].

There would be 4G5.G76 grammes of force making pressure, and .0G2 grammes pushing the plane on the upward slant; in other words, .062 grainmes would be the soaring force.

I could take no interest in Mr. Langley's "paradox." What he insisted was paradox ] saw as a plain statement of fact, such as is found in his introductory chapter.

I. Lancaster, Fairhope, Ala.

Vérification of Langley Formula.

E O

To the Editor :

Replying to the question of R. W. S. in your December number, on the 36th page, would say: the applied force is along FR and not along the plane ABC. Therefore, FBDE constitutes the parallelogram.of forces, EB and not GB the pressure normal to the plane, and DB or EF the upward component of the air pressure. It therefore follows that Pa2 assumed by R.W.S. is greater than the true Pa.

W. R. KlMBAI,!,.

NOTES.

There seem to be many arguments in favor of a double propeller on dirigibles. Captain Thomas S. Baldwin introduced the idea and made the first flight using a twin propeller at Hammondsport, June 26th, of this year. Following his example, Mr. G. H. Curtiss used the combination when he made his flight on November 27.

"One of the most feted and most Parisian artists, Mlle. Eve Lavallière, has, we are assured, ordered from one balloon builder a dirigible of 2000 cubic meters which she intends to operate herself. It is impossible to be more audacious or more graciously modern.''—La Conquête de l'Air.

On December 15th the floating shed of the Zeppelin III was torn from its anchorage by a severe storm and the rear was driven on shore, causing the pontoons at the front to sink. Part of the balloon covering was torn away but the machinery and framework was left intact.

A. H. Morgan, of Cleveland, and A. Holland Forbes, of New York, have each purchased from A. Leo Stevens a 40,000 cubic feet balloon.

A. Roy Knabenshue has in his shop at Toledo, being varnished, five balloons of various sizes and three airship bags.

It is stated through press channels that a group of German sportsmen have formed an "airship club" and will order a small American dirigible, in addition to several which will be "made in Germany."

The SclnvabeJische Merkur announces that the German government will demand from the Reichstag a budget of 400,000 marks to permit the Graf von Zeppelin to construct as soon as possible a new dirigible, with a number of modifications (No. 4), in order that trials can commence next Spring. If these trials are conclusive the Government, will demand an amount which will add to the budget for 190S, 2,500,000 marks and which is intended for use in purchasing from Graf Zeppelin the proprietorship of his system and to remunerate him for the pecuniary sacrifices he has made during the last ten years.

The misfortune which befell "La Patrie" caused the Queen of Portugal to change her mind about taking a trip in the "Ville de Paris" as arranged.

Referring to the accident to "La Patrie" and the "Nulli Secundus", The Car says: "A curiously similar fate seems to have befallen both the British and French military airships. A few days after making her successful trip to London the British airship was destroyed by a storm, prompt action in cutting the gas envelope open preventing the ship from being carried away. "The 'Patrie,' too, after her record run from Paris to Verdun, was also the victim of a storm, and in this case the wind was too violent and the accident too sudden to permit the envelope being deflated."

On November 29, at the invitation of Baron Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe, the Hon. C. S. Rolls and Mr. Frank H. Butler made a trip in the "Ville de Paris", the occasion being their hundredth ascent, around Sartrouville, Maisons Lafitte and Saint Germain. Automotor Journal says: "Mr. Rolls naturally judged his experience by comparison with ballooning, and was struck more particularly by the slight tremor in the framework, and by the curious sensation produced by rushing through the air, the surrounding atmosphere when in a balloon being always quite still, because the balloon travels with the wind and at the same speed. Mr. Rolls was also very much impressed by the complete control which M. Kapferer had over his vessel, and during the hour and a half during which they were in the air they made all sorts of evolutions, sometimes coming down quite close to the ground, and then immediately ascending several hundred feet into the air, by the mere inclination of the horizontal rudders, and without the use of ballast. Subsequently, the Hon. Mrs. Assheton Harbord and Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, who won the Gordon Bennett balloon race in 190G, also made a short trip."

As the new companion dirigibles to "La Patrie" will not be completed until February the French government has accepted the offer of M. Deutsch to send the "Ville de Paris" to Verdun, thus hastening the actual turning over of the latter ship to the government by M. Deutsch.

It is reported that the Reichstag is not as favorable as it was towards the Zeppelin system, the Parseval system claiming the greater number of supporters, and the Graf von Zeppelin went to Berlin to protect his interests.

The first German woman to obtain a pilot's license is Mme. Emmy la Quiante, the wife of 1st Lt. la Qniante of the Berliner V. f. L. She passed through all the trials with success in the presence of a member of the committee as examining pilot.

M. Pelterie, the inventor of the seven-cylinder R.E.P. motor recently illustrated in our columns, asks us to deny the statement that his machine is heavier than other aeroplane motors. As a matter of fact he states that the R.E.P., which is guaranteed to give 30 h.p. and actually gives 35 h.p., weighs 52 kilogs. complete, whereas a well-known 45 h.p. aeroplane motor weighs 73.5 kilogs. complete. M. Pelterie also affirms that his motor will not overheat, and has Leen run continuously on the bench for over an hour.—The Car.

At 35 h.p., the weight per h.p. is 3.2G lbs.

In the course of a lecture delivered by the German aeronaut, Captain Haertel, in Berlin on Tuesday, entitled "The Modern Airship." some new details concerning German aerial navigation were made known. The lecturer, who is in close touch with German military circles and exceedingly well informed, stated that despite rumors to the contrary, the German Government had decided to establish "airship harbors" at Strasburg and Stuttgart and that Count Zeppelin would proceed in his latest airship from Lake Constance by way of those town to Berlin in the early part of next year. The-difficulties experienced in landing Count Zeppelin's huge structure of 420 feet in length have been obviated by a special system of buffers, placed beneath the cars.

The new German military airship in the course of construction is to be fitted with stronger propellers and will possess far greater speed. Interesting photographs, taken automatically at a height of S4.G24 feet, were shown during the lecture. This altitude-is the highest ever attained. The registering- apparatus attached to the kites revealed the fact that the temperature of the atmosphere increase after a height of 39,3i!0 feet has been reached.—Berliner Tageblatt.

Phil Hinton. the Virginia league catcher, who is in business for the winter at the Williams bowling alleys, says he and Mike Cassidy and a couple of other professional ball players who are spending the winter here, saw a great sight shortly after midnight last night, December 4. lt was a huge airship speeding in a southeasterly direction at a terrific rate of speed, which they variously estimated at from sixty to seventy miles an hour.

The men had left the bowling alley and were going to the old Allenhouse, when, at Ninth and Broad streets they heard the sound of a muffled explosion high in the air. Glancing up, they were startled to see a bright, white, incandescent glare, and noticed a cluster of ruby lights outlying the shape of a gigantic airship, of the cigar-shape build, which, in a couple of minutes, so rapidly was it going, vanished from sight to the southeastward.—Neivs Leader. W. Va.

Muskogee, Okla.. Dec. 19. (Special.) With lights shining on its sides, an airship which looked to be 100 feet long, passed over North Muskogee last night, according to residents in that section. It was going from east to west and remained in view for five minutes.—Ft. Worth Record.

Associated Press. Dec. 17. "Jamaica, L. I. was all worked up late last night by the appearance of a huge balloon over the town. It is said that the balloon carried a lighted lantern, suspended from a rope dangling twenty feet below the huge gas bag. This caused even more surprise than the appearance of the airship." Will someone please advise us the brand of dope used?

A new aeronautical journal has made its appearance in London under the direction of J. H. Ledeboer, B.A., and is published as a supplement to "Knowledge and Illustrated Scientific News." The supplement contains "The Practice of Aviation" by Charles and Gabriel Voisin; "Investigation of the Upper Air by means of Balloons and Kites," by W. Mariott, P.R. Met. Soc; "The Relation of Gliding to Mechanical Plight." by T. O'B. H.; Notes. The main portion of the magazine also contains a short paper on "Practical Aerodynamics and the Theory of Aeroplanes," by Major B. Baden Powell who is also the editor.

Commandant Le Clement de Saint Marco, a Belgian military engineer, has, it is reported, designed an airship which is shortly to be tried out. No details are available.

The English military authorities are preparing maps of the country indicating the "airship harbors," open places in woods, gravel pits and sheltered spots where an airship may quickly land in case of sudden storm while in the air.

Up to the present time hydrogen gas has been made on the ground or furnished by steel cylinders under a compression of 135 atmospheres or 2,025 pounds to the square inch. Six thousand cubic feet of gas including truck cylinders and apparatus weigh about 7,000 pounds.

A new gas producing compound is used known as Hydrolith (Calcium Hydride CaHa). One hundred pounds of this substance will produce l.GOO cubic feet of hydrogen gas when brought in contact with water. This will greatly facilitate ballooning inasmuch as Hydrolith can be carried as part of the load as well as be transported on land as an inert substance, while the compressed gas in steel cylinders has been looked upon as a source of danger by the military authorities.—Cement and Eng. News.

"Balloons and the proper manner of treating them. News that an aeronaut has ridden on the top L?] of our old friend the 'Pommern' from Philadelphia to New York, should enthuse our own red sky-pilot. Max Fleischmann. This one extraordinary performance only proves more sharply how tremendously aeronautics are expanding. Instead of being the humble and somewhat fearful tender of a gas bag, subservient to its whims, the aeronaut is about to make it his servant and instrument. He will not be content to drift along inactive beneath its swelling ribs, but will seat himself on top. if he wills, or clamber and romp over its sides. He may dance hornpipes on it or stand on his head and disport in other acrobatic ways upon its soft and yielding surface. Pillowed on its spongy bosom, he may sleep beneath the stars or bask in the sun rays. When one gets thoroughly familiar with a balloon and has worn off the first awestruck impressions, he will not hesitate to take what liberties he pleases with it. Balloons are not sacred things that one may not use them for punching bags or whatever he wills. A thorough acquaintance with your balloon soon leads you to treat it with much less deference than a stranger or an amateur might. A balloon with which you are on thoroughly good terms ought to afford as much pleasure as a good-natured burro or a baby elephant."—Cincinnati Herald.

Looking toward the warfare of the future, German troops have been engaged in target practice, the marks being balloons. Two free balloons released at sea were fired on as they floated landward at Neufahrwasser. West Prussia. One of them was torn by three shrappel shells and came down. The other floated inland uninjured. A captive balloon, towed within range by a tug, was also brought down.

According to the San Antonio (Tex.) Express. "Mi-. Ludlow declares that it is perfectly possible to take a number of dirigible airships and tow the ordinary spherical balloons, carrying tons of dynamite, over any desired point and there release these explosives by means of electric wires. 'Absolutely no defence is known to this mode of warfare except by a counter attack by other airships,' he says, and in future wars the •destructive forces may be up in the air, instead of on sea or land. Of what use then will be armies and navies?" This may be all right on the lecture platform in Squan-kum but. it will only tend to bear Mr. Ludlow's stock which is now considerably below par.

La Ville de Paris is to make a number of experimental trips in the direction of Rouen, but La République will not be ready for service until May next. M. Lebaudy's Jaune was formerly stationed at Toul, but was later transferred to Chalais Meudon. Recently nothing has been heard of this airship, but now it is stated that it will be ready in a month's time, and after modifications will replace La Patrie at Verdun.

A balloon of the Niederrheinischer V. f. L. escaped in the same way as "Patrie" while being inflated for a race at Muehlberg on December 5.

Count de la Vaulx says he hopes within ten years to undertake to cross the Atlantic in three days in a balloon having a capacity of 6000 cubic feet of gas.—Press dispatch.

He would probably then sell it to the Aero Club of America. The French are a thrifty race.

A letter to the editor of the Scientific American has the following comment to make on the utility of aerial navigation:

"While there is a great deal that we do not know about flying machines, in contemplating the future there are at least two predictions that can be made with a high degree of certainty: first, a flying machine will never be able to carry a given weight of paying load a given distance as cheaply as it can be carried on wheels: second, the speed of a flying machine equipped with the same power will never be equal to that of a vehicle on wheels, either rolling over steel rails or a smooth hard road surface.

"The chief obstacle to high speed is the air resistance. By high speed we mean a velocity exceeding sixty miles an hour. This is true no matter whether it is a locomotive on steel rails or an automobile on the wave-swept course on the Florida beach. Since the weight of the flying machine must be supported by an aeroplane or other device, the area of frontage presented to the air must necessarily be much greater than that of a machine on wheels designed so as to offer the minimum air resistance.

"Again, the efficiency of an air propeller can never be made equal to that of the

driving wheels of a locomotive or an automobile; hence the speed of the flying machine will be less on account of the greater resistance and less effective driving power. I am aware that these latter conclusions may be criticised by designers of flying machines, but I would like to know what explanation can be given to show that they are not correct."

Aviator versus aeronaut. Aviators and aeronauts are naturally not in accord with each other and bets are the results of their divergent views. For instance, the most recent is between Mr. P. Y. Alexander and Griffith Brewer. Mr. Alexander claimed that a flying machine can be built for £200 and Mr. Brewer said he would give £500 for one. There is £500 wagered by Mr. Alexander that he will deliver to Mr. Brewer by November, 1908, a machine at a cost of £500.

The "White Book" which is being distributed in the Parliament at Berlin contains an explanation by the Government why it refuses to adhere to the interdiction made by the Conference at Hague in regard to launching projectiles from military balloons or airships. Germany, says this book, is entirely disposed to ratify without delay all the decisions of the Conference with the exception of the declaration relative to balloons. Tt is to be recalled that the French engineer Juillot has alieady explained that in war time a vote like this taken by the Conference at Hague would certainly not be observed by the belligerents.

POSTSCRIPT.

Farman Wins Prize.

January 13th. Cable dispatches state that Farman has this day won the $10,000 Deutsch-Archdeacou prize for Kilometre-circuit flight.

AERONAUTIC BOOKS FOR SALE.

This magazine will publish each month a list of such rare and contemporaneous books relating to aeronautics as it is able to secure. If you desire any of those listed, kindly send check with your order for the amount stated. Should the book ordered be sold previous to the receipt of your order, the money will be promptly returned.

Astra Castra: Experiments and Adventures in the Atmosphere (Hatton Turner).

Illustrated. Royal 4to, cloth, 1865. Extremely rare........................$15.00

History and Practice of Aeronautics (John Wise). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, Phila.,

1850. Very rare.......................................................... 15.00

Travels in The Air (James Glaisher). Illustrated. 8vo., cloth, London, 1871...... 10.00

Flying and No Failure, or Aerial Transit Accomplished More than a Century Ago.

(Rev. Ralph Morris). Very rare reprint on Private Press of London, 1751. . 3.00

My Airships (Santos Dumont). Illustrated. Crown Svo., cloth.................. 1.40

Travels in Space (Valentine and Tomlinson). Introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim.

61 plates, Svo., cloth, London. 1902........................................ 2.00

Conquest of the Air (John Alexander). 12mo., cloth, London, 1902................ 2.00

The Dominion of the Air (J. M. Bacon). Story of aerial navigation. Illustrated.

Crown, Svo., cloth, London, n. d............................................ 2.50

Resistance of Air and the Question of Flying (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated.

12mo., 42 pp., paper........................................................85

Flight Velocity (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated. 45 pp., 12mo., paper.............85

Flying Machines, Past, Present and Future (A. W. Marshall and H. Greenly). Illustrated ..................................................................60

Paradoxes of Nature and Science (W. Hampson). Illustrated. Two chapters on balloons as airships and bird flight. Svo., cloth, N. Y., 1907................... 1.50

Aerial Navigation (Van Salberda). Translated from the Dutch by Geo. E. Waring,

Jr. Illustrated............................................................60

By Land and Sky (J. M. Bacon). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, London, 1900.......... 2.50

A Balloon Ascension at Midnight (G. E. Hall). Illustrated in color. Limited edition published. Very rare. Svo., paper, San Francisco, 1902................ 2.50

Andree's Balloon Expedition (Lachambre—Machuron). Illustrated. 12ino., cloth,

New York, 1S98........................................................... 1.00

Parakites (G. Woglom). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, New York, 1S96.................75

The Problem of Flight (Herbert Chatley, B. Sc.) A new textbook of aerial engineering both aerostation and aviation. Illustrated. 8vo., cloth, 1908............ 3.50

Pocket Book of Aeronautics (Maj. H. W. L. Moedebeck). A manual of aviation and

aerostation. Illustrated. Cloth, 496 pages, London, 1907.........3.25

Ballooning as a Sport (Maj. B. Baden Powell). Illustrated. London, 1907......... 1.10

Navigating the Air (Members Aero Club of America). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, New

York, 1907................................................................ 1.65

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