Volume 1 - No. 5 - 1907 November
|Table of Contents|
The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.
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International Aeronautical ceedings—Gordon Bennett Race—The Winners Story—The Trip of the America—Flying Machine and Dirigible Competitions at St. Louis—A new Flying Model—Aerology in Germany—October Ascensions —Notes—Notes of a Russian Military Aeronaut on the application of Ballooning to Land and Naval Warfare— Communications—Light Engines—Aeronautic Calendar— Development of an Aeroplane—Chronology of Principal Events—Aeronautic Clubs of the World—Correspondence School of Aeronautics in America— The Mystery of Bird Flight—National Balloon Race at St. Louis.
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Vol. I November, 1907 No 5
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LAST CALL FOR THAT PRIZE!
We have constantly been telling of the necessity for a money prize for gasless machines. We have tried to get some enthusiastic individual to devote Five Thousand Dollars for this purpose hut we have failed. We have tried to secure contributions from various people to make np this sum-and have failed. At last, almost
in desperation, we outlined a plan for ¿00 to give -$¿5 each and take a share in an interest to be acquired in the patent covering the machine which won the prize. With this bait we did manage to secure the promise of ten Aero Club members to join the syndicate (not "skindicate"). Three others also offered their aid.
The possibility of obtaining this prize seems so remote that we express our sincere appreciation of the promised co-operation of our twelve friends following and ask them to consider the matter as if it had never been broached:—Lee S. Burridge, Wilbur Vx. Kimball, Octave Cliamite, Thos. G. Washburn, Alan R. lTawley, William Hawley, George M. Kirkner, Dr. C. T. Adams, C'has. Jerome "Edwards. A. L. West-gard. Henry A. Davis, William Morgan. Ourselves.
NEXT YEAR'S GORDON BENNETT.
There has been a great deal of feeling in the Aero Club over the selection of the representatives of America in the 1!)0< Gordon I>cnnett. It is to be hoped that next year an elimination race will he held, which will go far towards the selection of the best men and will definitely prevent any criticism of the action of the committee on selection. The charge of favoritism could not then he brought and everyone would, perforce, be satisfied.
GORDON BENNETT RACE.
Goerz Photo. general view of the park, pommern on the extreme right.
On October 21, in the golden rays of the setting sun, departed from Forest Park at Saint Louis nine balloons, bound tor—one knew not where. As the monster globes left the ground and drifted slowly away to the West in the gathering dusk, one felt a sense of awe and nnnaturalness. The scene was an inspiring one, with the fading pun lending a beauty indescribable. A hundred thousand watched the receding spheres out of sight and relnclantly returned to their homes and hotels to wait for news.
From the number of places that reported balloons one might have been led to believe that the sky was a sort of balloon-milky way, but we knew better.
The first word of a landing was from Major Kersey. Another long wait before we heard from the English balloon, the second to descend, after making the shortest distance. Then no more reports of landing till the morning of the 23d when they came fast for awhile. By noon we had heard from all except the Isle de France and we were wondering if it would beat the Pommern. At last we heard the news that the Isle of France had at last dropped and we pored over the maps for the last time. The race was over.
Perfect gas was supplied and the inflation went on rapidly, indeed faster than the sand bags could be moved. All the balloons started on schedule time and there was not a hitch. Great credit is due the Commission in charge of arrangements and special credit must be given to Mr. Stevens whose direction of the inflation was admirable. Pike a general he deployed his soldiers and the filling went on like a well-planned attack. French clubs can no longer boast of superiority in the handling of a balloon race.
President Bishop has been authorized by the Board of Directors of the Club to challenge the winning club in behalf of America.
Order of Finish.
are figured to the exact
spot of landing and are official.
Asbury Park, N. J.
Isle de France
Herbertsville, N. J.
Caledonia, Out., Can.
ist. Oscar Erbsloh, Gordon Bennett Cup and $2500, given by Mr. Bennett. 2nd. Alfred Leblanc, $1000, given by business interests of St. Louis. 3rd. Von Abercron, $750, given by business interests of St. Louis. 4th. McCoy, $500, given by business interests of St Louis. 5th. Hawley, $250, given by business interests of St. Louis.
In addition, the contestants finishing first, second and third receive one-half, one-third and one-sixth, respectively, of the entrance fees. All contestants
will receive medals.
chart showing general direction travelled by balloons. numbers refer to order of finish
New Records Established.
Record duration in balloon races by balloon " Isle de France," 44 hours and 5 minutes.
Record distance in the United States, measured in a straight line, beating former record of 870 miles made by John Wise, by about 2 miles.
Record distance, 1193 miles, held by Henry de la Vaulx, Paris to Russia, October 9, 1900.
Record duration, 52 hours, held by Dr. Kurt and Dr. Alfred Wegener,. April 5-7, 1906.
STORY OF WINNER'S TRIP.
By Oscar Erbsloh.
Oscar Krbsloh, a German wholesale merchant, was born in 1S79, at Elberfeld. He served in a cuirassier regiment. He is known in Germany as a successful horse-show exhibitor. His aeronautic experience dates from 1904. In 1905 he qualified as pilot in the Niederrheinischer Yerein fiir Luftschiffahrt, of which society he is now a director. He has made 54 free ascensions, landing in Germany, France, Belgium and Holland. His most noteworthy voyages were one from Dusseldorf to Scrau of 940 miles, one from Paris to Dieuze, lasting 22 hours. He was aid to Von Abercron in the first Gordon Bennett race. In the balloon used at St. Louis he won the Brussels International Competition, September 15th last, against 22 competitors. After a voyage of 30 hours he landed at Bayonne, France, a distance of 630 miles.
AY hen I loft Si. Louis at four o'clock I did not like very much to start lirst because I could not see any other balloon before me to act as pilot. In every other race 1 saw a great deal of the other balloons going up ahead of me for the different currents and the speed of the wind at different altitudes. So ] conferred with my companion. Mr. Clayton, and we decided it would be best for us to go at about five thousand feet elevation, and after going towards the Northwest at the start we turned around very soon and at this height traveled toward the Fast. That was near Alton and we stayed the whole night at this altitude.
It was very hard for us to keep our bearings by the maps because there were no mountains on them but only rivers or railways. We crossed quite a number of rivers and cities and the next day, as we did not know very well where we were, we went down to ask people, thinking we could get a correct answer as many papers had instructed the people to answer immediately to the aeronauts if they asked. But when we shouted down. "What is the name of your town,' or "what is the name ofthe next railway station," they answered, "Where did you come from ?" And when we told them we came from St. Louis they wanted to know, "Where are you going?"' When we asked them the third time we were so far away that we could not understand what they answered. So that it was very hard to tell where Ave were. Sometimes a woman was standing; in the house loor and didn'tknow what to do when we asked her. bill just went inside and shut the door. She may have been afraid of us.
About three o'clock in the afternoon we came to a farmer who gave us the right answer and told ns we were near Port Washington, Ohio. After that we did not lose our bearings because 1 knew it was very important to keep our bearings on account of the ocean, and without knowing the e.xacl place where we came to the ocean we might have thought it a bay or large river or something like that and would have tried to cross it and so gone out over the sea. In the evening, at about seven o'clock, we passed over Pittsburg, and it was very interesting to see this large city, with the lights and fires, railways, street ears and all those things, and it was just the hour for the moon to rise. After that we had a splendid voyage.
OSC S K Eli BSLHII.
During the night we crossed the Alleghnnies and it was a lovely sight for us to look down on the valleys and mountains, following the surface of the earth.
Half an hour before we got to Philadelphia we saw the splendid residence suburbs and came down to 500 feet and asked how far to Philadelphia. They told us 38 miles, and then 2(i miles, and we enjoyed the view very much. When we arrived at Philadelphia there was a thick fog in the valley, with the tops of the chimneys apparently about a foot out of this fog. It was early morning and the smoke began to curl out of the chimney tops. Down in the fog we could see the electric cars running lighted, looking just like submarine boats. Passing over Philadelphia at a speed of about 35 miles an horn- we heard the whistles of the factories, which made so much noise that we could scarcely bear our own words. We were forced to go a little higher as in our direction there was the tower of a church. It was not our intention to ascend but were forced to do so on this account. We had intended to wait until the sun had risen and taken us up himself. x\.s we watched, the sun rose and drove the fog away.
After leaving Philadelphia we tried for the last time to get a more northerly direction, because we still hoped to go over Yew York and get into Massachusetts or Connecticut. But we could not find a current towards the northeast, although we went up to 10,000 feet and found only a little current going east. So that we saw by our maps that we would get to Asbnry Park. We tried when we came slowly down to get as near to the coast as we could, but as we did not see any place just at the sea-shore fit for landing, we had to come down in the street of the city and landed with o\ir car standing in the street and the balloon lying on some bushes about three or four feet high.
When we got out of our car there were about two or three hundred people standing around, and after ten minutes there were about a thousand. It was such a crowd that we could scarcely stand up, and there was no way to attend to our balloon—we were so pressed in by this crowd that we couldn't make a step. I found two police officers and asked them to take the guide rope and make a circle around the balloon to keep the public out. Then we were able to take the net off and carry the balloon out of the bushes to another place and fold it up. I was very sorry when 1 saw a piece of the net gone. I think a man took it as a souvenir. 1 had four flags with me, and a German who came up asked me whether I could not give him my German flag. I gave it to him, and after ] had been asked whether I would sell my other flags, I told the man 1 would not do it. In the meantime they took them away.
Several gentlemen came up and invited me to go down in their automobile to the telegraph office and said that there was a wagon of the express company coming to take the balloon to the station. When T arrived at the telegraph office there were about twenty or thirty there, and the Mayor of the place made a speech and welcomed us to the City of Asbury Park, inviting us for luncheon as guests of the City. It was a very hearty reception. About four o'clock we left for Yew York.
The whole trip was a very fine one and 1 enjoyed it very much. The weather was splendid and the moon very useful to us, as we had twenty-four hours of night altogether. I think it was the finest trip I ever made in my life, and 1 shall never forget it. I hope that I shall again have occasion to come hack and make one more trip to this country. It may be that I will come again in two years. If the Americans come over to Germany next year I don't doubt that they will come to take hack their prize, and so the Germans will have the occasion to come once more to this counti'y where we have found such a warm and hearty welcome and reception, and we hope to give this reception to our American friends in Berlin when they come there for the next vear's contest.
FLYING MACHINE AND DIRIGIBLE COMPETITIONS AT
It is to be regretted that there were no gasless competitions as had been arranged for on Tuesday. October 22, the day after the Gordon Bennett Pace. Mr. Ludlow constructed one of his kites and tried to get it into the air, towed by an automobile, on Wednesday. The space in the enclosure was too short in which to get up speed, besides not being suited for fast running. After several unsuccessful attempts further trials were given up.
J I. II. Wixon. of Chicago, had delivered on the grounds a beautifully con-strueted huge model aeroplane of distinctive type but it was not unpacked. General regret was expressed that Mr. Wixon did not give a demonstration. Many were interested in the machine as it lay in an open crate.
The same day, however. Captain Thomas S. Baldwin gave two fine exhibition flights in the California Arrow. The weather was favorable and the flights were a
captain thomas s. baldwin's california arrow.
pronounced success. Various nianoeuvers were executed and at, all times the ship was under beautiful control. ".lack" Dallas also made a flight in The Strobel but met with trouble. The motor stalled as he was about to land and the wind drove the craft in the nearby service wires. Luckily no great damage was done. Cromwell Dixon, the fourteen year old boy, of Columbus, after a bad start left the Park in his "skycycle" and pedalled over the city, landing across the river at Vienna, a distance of seven or eight miles.
On Wednesday was witnessed the pretty sight of four shining silk dirigibles siding "round. Fach one had a designated position in the enclosure, with a guard of soldiers. The course was laid from a line in the grounds out to and around the Blair Monument and return, three-quarters of a mile. A gusty wind was blowing in the face of the pilots as thev started.
Promptly at two o'clock Captain Baldwin climbed on the frail looking frame of the California Arrow and started. A gust of wind caught him and whirled him around. Quickly the ship was again beaded into the wind but tacking had to be resorted to in order to reach the Monument. Horace B. Wild, who defeated Beachev at Chicago, sailing the Baversdorfer-Yager Comet, also had a good start but got in bad currents almost immediately, and circled around in a vain attempt to make headway. The engine stopped and the wind blew the ship swiftly over the Park to the south where it landed a half-mile away.
In the meantime Jack Dallas in The Strobel started low during a calm and was well on his way to the Monument when Captain Baldwin finished his first trip, in 9 :30. Dallas made the course in good shape but just as he neared the grounds the
Goerz Photo. jack Dallas starting,
driving chain broke and the ship drifted over the finish and info the open fields bevond, the time for the course being 8 :50.
Lincoln Beachey then started easily and travelled in a nearly direct line, out and back, doing it in 1:15. During an intermission the Ludlow kite was brought out and towed by an automobile several times within the enclosure in a useless attempt to get it in the air. The confined space and roughness of the ground both tended to defeat the trials.
The restless crowd was anxious to see the dirigibles race again and Captain Baldwin, thoroughly aroused by bis defeat in the first series, made his second start. The wind was much worse this time and he could not even get to the Monument. After heading again and again into the wind without making much progress forward he gave it up and made his descent.
In another attempt to lower the record set by Beachey in his first flight, Dallas started for the second time but, while lessening his own former time, failed to touch Beachey's. After Baldwin's second trip the Arrow was taken to the tent and the bag removed and transferred to a new and untried frame, with two 2-bladed
propellers and a 20-horsepower engine. After the net was attached it was found that in the haste of building this new frame and installing a heavier motor in the two weeks left before the race after the idea came into mind, that there had been an error in judgment in the placing of the motor to preserve balance and the bag had to be taken off and re-attached to the old frame. G. II. Curtiss had intended to ride in this third trip with the new frame and engine. The transfer was rushed and soon Baldwin was off on his third trip, doing much better this time and lowering Beachey's record by 10 seconds.
Dallas started again and almost immediately after, Beachey; the former on the third trip, Beachey on his second. Over the top of the St. Louis Aero Club house could be seen the two ships, end on, one going, the other coming. When Dallas crossed the line again in (J.10 he stood the winner, but his victory was short lived. Straight as an arrow and with the speed of a bird came Beachey, with a record of 4:40. The landing was prettily made and the enthusiasm of the great crowd that filled the reviewing stands and blocked the wide drives knew no bounds.
Goerz Photo. Lincoln beachey descending.
Cheer after cheer went up when the winner's time was announced. America had never seen such a demonstration of airships before, whether in number or flights.
As the crowds left. Wild could be seen struggling back to his tent. The numerous starts and landings he had made in his game elfort to regain the enclosure had lost him a third of his gas and the bag could be seen happing up and down in waves as the operator tilted it up or down. At last he descended almost in front of his tent, just in time to get an ovation.
Universal sympathy was expressed for the veteran Captain Baldwin who is so well-known in St. Louis, but fate just seemed to he perverse. As the sun neared the horizon the wind became less and less and when Beachey started on his second and last flight there was hardly a breath of air. A nasty pull' seemed to spring
up each time Baldwin started—none of the others had that ill luck to as great a degree.
Of the $2,500 offered in prizes. $1,500 goes to Beachey, $750 to Jack Dallas, and $250 to Captain Baldwin. Cromwell Dixon also received a purse of $375 from the St. Louis Club. Following is the order of finish and time. It is to be noted that the best records were made in the last flights later in the afternoon.
Baldwin ................................................9 m. 30 s.
Wild.................................................Did not finish.
Dallas...................................................8 in. 50 s.
Beachey ................................................ 7 m. 15 s.
Baldwin, second trial............................Did not cover course.
Dallas, second trial .......................................7 m. 23 s.
Baldwin, third trial .......................................7 m. 5 s.
Dallas, third trial.........................................G m. 10 s.
Beachev. second trial ......................................4 m. 40 s.
Points of Interest.
California Arrow.—Envelope 9,000 cu. ft. capacity, length 5G ft., diam. IS ft., silk; Curtiss 4-cyl., air-cooled engine. 15-hp., weight 100 lbs., 1,500 r. p. m.; 2-bladed propeller, canvas, 10 ft. diameter; spruce triangular frame, cable stayed, weight 75 lbs.; no ballast carried; weight of operator 210 lbs.
The Strobel.—Envelope 6,000 cu. ft. capacity, length 52 ft,, diam. 15 ft., silk; own make of engine, 4-cyl., air-cooled, 10-hp., 75 lbs., 1,500 r. p. m.; 2-bladed
cromwell dixon's skycycle.
propeller, canvas; spruce laminated triangular frame, 42 ft. long, steel wire stayed; rudder has horizontal planes.
The Beachey.—Envelope 37 ft. long, silk; motor and frame same as The Strobel; 2-bladed propeller, with blades about a foot square, of wood, screwed on the ends of the arms.
The California Twin Screw.—Envelope same as California Arrow; 4-cylinder
Curtiss air-cooled 20-hp. motor, weight 110 lbs.. 1,350 r. p. m. ; frame weighs 105 lbs.; two 2-bladed propellers, f) ft. diam.. turning in op]>osite directions.
The Comet.—Envelope 10.000 cubic feet capacity, length 55 ft., diameter I8V2 ft., silk; frame spruce, length 40 ft.; engine 7-hp., weight 4-1 lbs., rebuilt Curtiss 2-cylinder opposed, no crank case.
Cromwell Dixon Skycycle.—Envelope 40 ft. long, diameter 17 ft.; the frame consists of two strips bowed like the gunwale of a boat, with a bicycle frame with pedals hung about in the center, chain drive to 2-bladed propeller.
A NEW FLYING MODEL.
George A. Lawrence, of Sayre, Pa., who has been experimenting for a considerable length of time, seems to have succeeded very well thus far with his models. Mr. Lawrence has made the following statement to this magazine:
"With the large model illustrated below I have succeeded in making several very successful flights. On October 1st it made seven small flights, the longest
being a little over 200 feet, at a height of about 15 feet. Another flight was made on October 11 of about 60 feet, during which flight the above photograph was made, and also one of less distance. The object of these low flights was to test the efficiency of the rudder, the test proving entirely satisfactory.
"The 4-cylinder, 2-cycle, 60-h.p., G50 r. p. m. engine for the large machine is one of my own design and construction and will be completed in the early spring. Xearly all the supporting surfaces can be adjusted to any degree of angle while the machine is in flight. The weight will approximate U80 pounds, including myself as operator, supported by about 1,100 square feet of surface. The spread from tip to tip of wings will be 37 feet, 28 feet from front to rear, and 18 feet in height from top of plane to the wheel base. There are three vertical and four horizontal rudders. The machine is also equipped with a 9-h.p. emergency engine, located in the rear, for safety in forward gliding to the earth in case of accident to the big one. The propeller is 3 ft. in diameter and will revolve at 1.500 r. p. m... as J don't want any more than 50 or (¡0 pounds pressure forward."
the lawrence model in flight.
FLASHLIGHT OK CONGRESS From left to right, front row: Kimball, Hammer, Zalim, Hewitt, Chester, Moore, Allen, Post, Jones.
INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.
President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary : Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee : Wm. j. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: augustus PoST..^ Sec'y Committees : ernest La Rue jones.
Summary of Meeting.
Morning Session, October 28.
The meeting was called to order by the Chairman of the General Committee.. Mr. William J. Hammer, at 11 o'clock in the morning, in the Assembly Room of the Automobile Club of America. New York.
Mr. Hammer explained that on account- of the close proximity of the dates of the Gordon Bennett International Aeronautic Pace, the Annual Aero Club Show, and the Congress, the previous removal of the entire aeronautic exhibit from Jamestown Exposition to the Exhibition at Yew York and the improbability of securing" an attendance at Jamestown, it had been decided by the officers of the Congress to hold its sessions in Yew York on the dates scheduled.
The Chairman then introduced the President of the Congress. Professor Willis L. Moore, Chief I'nited States Weather Bureau, who addressed the meeting, reading-portions of his paper, a "General Resume of Aeronautics."
Messrs. J. C. McCoy, Alfred Leblanc. Kene Gasnior, and Major Henry lb Ilersey, were then called upon in turn by the President and cheerfully responded with accounts of their trips in the Gordon Bennett Race at St. Louis.
Admiral C. M. Chester was introduced and read a very interesting paper. "The Airship for the Yaw." a consideration of the aid which an airship would he to the Yaw in time of war.
Afternoon Session, October 28.
General .James Allen, Chief Signal Officer of the United Stales Annv was next introduced by the President. Ceneral Allen told of the present activity of the Signal Corps in aeronautic work and of its plans for the future as now under way.
A committee of three, Messrs. J. C. McCoy, Professor A. Lawrence Rotch, and Carl L. Myers, upon motion duly seconded and unanimously carried, was appointed to draft a resolution expressing the sense of the meeting as regards the urging of the United States Congress for an appropriation for aeronautical work in the Army. The following resolution was subsequently submitted and unanimously approved and a copy ordered transmitted to President Roosevelt: "Jiesolved, by the International Aeronautical Congress assembled together at New York, that the President of the United States he requested to call the attention of Congress to the advisability of providing the departments of the Government charged with these duties, funds sufficient to establish aeronautical plants commensurate with those of other nations.''
At the request of the President, Major George 0. Squier, of the United States Signal Corps at Fort Leavenworth, Kans., supplemented the remarks of General Allen by a general review of the advantages of an aeronautic division in active operations.
A general discussion of the properties of coal and hydrogen gases, the availability and cost of each, their manufacture, et cetera, then followed.
Mr. Carl E. Myers was called upon and read his paper, "Hydrogen Gas Ballooning," a summary of his experience with hydrogen for balloons.
The President next called upon Mr. Wilbur Pi. Kimball, who told of the recent progress abroad with gasless flying machines and of his experiments with a model helicopter.
The possibility of aeroplane flight without motor was discussed by Elias E. Ries, who has been experimenting toward this end.
Herr Paul Meckel, the third representative of the German aero club in the Cordon Bennett Race, then gave his story of the trip, followed by Professor Moore's remarks on the occasion of the Cordon Bennett Race being held in this country this year and its tranference to Germany in 1908.
A telegram was read from Lieut.-Col. William A. Classford, expressing his regret at not being able to be present to read his paper, and the President called upon Mr. Gustavo Whitehead, who told of the active experimenting now in progress in the United States, the possibilities of success in the near future, and his own work and plans.
Doctor A. F. Zahm presented the following papers, in full or by abstract: "Soaring Flight," by Octave Cbanute; "U/se of the Gyroscope in Flying Machines," by Lieut. Robert Henderson. Chief Engineer, U. S. S. Missouri; "Some Model Aeroplane Experiences and Details of a Man-Carrying Aeroplane." by A. Y. Roe, member of the Aero Club of the United Kingdom: "Experiments with Model Flying Machine," by Edward W. Smith, University of Pennsylvania; "The Best Inclinations for the Surfaces and Propeller Shafts of Dynamical Airships." by T. W. K. Clarke, Associate Member Inst. C. E., Surrey, England; "Curvature a Relative Term," by George A. Spratt; "Equilibrium and Control of Aeroplanes," bv L. .1. Lesh ; giving a resume of same, illustrated by diagrams.
At four o'clock the meeting adjourned for the day.
Morning Session, October 29.
On the meeting being called to order by the president, Mr. Bishop, President of the Aero Club of America, was called upon and delivered a few remarks on the Gordon Bennett Race. After which, Captain Chas. De F. Chandler, of the United States Signal Corps, told of his trip with Mr. McCoy in the balloon race, supplemented by a few remarks from General Allen.
IT err Oscar Erbsloh, the winning German contestant in the Gordon Bennett described his long trip, the landing, and told what the Americans might expect when they go to Germany next year to bring back the cup.
A resolution was passed extending to Hen- Erbsloh and his aide, Mr. H. IT. Clayton, the hearty felicitations of the Congress on their success in winning the Cup.
A resolution was passed extending by cable the felicitations of the Congress to Mr. Henry Earman on his successful aeroplane flight of October 2G.
Dr. P. Polis, of the German Meteorological Survey at Aachen, who is in the United States to study American methods in meteorological stations, told of the work being done in Germany and of what he saw in our own bureaus.
Dr. A. E. Zahm, Professor of Mechanics at the Catholic University of America. Washington, gave an abstract of his paper left over from the preceding day. "'Wind-Tunnels for Aerodynamic Experiments, their Construction and Equipment," with graphic illustrations.
The succeeding paper, "First Observations with Sounding Balloons in America. Obtained by the Blue Hill Observatory/' was delivered by Professor A. Lawrence Botch, Director, Blue Hill Observatory. This paper brought out a number of questions and Professor Moore stated the plans of the Weather Bureau for introducing the work begun previously by Professor Botch.
Professor A. J. Henry delivered "The Use of Upper Air in Forecasting.'-* giving a general idea of the methods for obtaining date upon which to base forecasts.
Mr. S. D. Mott then addressed the meeting on his work with helicopters designed for the use of meteorologists in securing upper air data.
Afternoon Session, October 29.
Professor W. J. Humphreys, Director of ML Weather Observatory, lectured after lunch on the "Possibility of Extending Our Knowledge of the Sun and of Atmospheric Absorption.'"
The two papers of Professor A. CI. McAdie, of the Weather Bureau at San Francisco, "Extension of Area of Weather Beports for Aeronauts/' and "Lightning As an Element of Danger in Balloon Work,'' were read in Professor McAdie's absence by Professor Henry, followed by a short discussion of the use of aluminum coating for balloons and its relation to lightning.
Dr. W. B. Blair, of the ML Weather station, was then introduced and gave an interesting talk on "Kite Manipulation and the Becord Flight'' of October 3 ; 23.000 feet.
Mr. E. B. Bronson suggested the holding of another international congress next year and, after general discussion, Messrs. Cortlandt Field Bishop, Augustus Post, William J. Hammer, Professor A. Lawrence Botch. Charles M. Manly, Dr. A. F. Zahm. and Octave Chanute, were appointed to consider the advisability of holding an annual congress in this country and to arrange for affiliation, if deemed advisable, with foreign international congresses.
Dr. Zahm presented, "Principles Involved in the Formation of Wing Surfaces-and the Phenomenon of Soaring," by Dr. J. J. Montgomery. Professor of Physicsr Santa Clara College, and "Obseiwations and 'Bests of Marvelous Soaring Power of Birds in Calm and Storm/' by Israel Lancaster. Before reading the latter paper. Dr. Zahm said: "In the latter eighties Mr. Lancaster described, at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, some remarkable instances of soaring flight which set Professor Langley to thinking about the possibility not only of soaring, but of flying through the air. Professor Langley began his aeronautic work at that time and never after left it oil'."
A resolution of thanks to the Automobile Club of America was then passed, expressing appreciation by the Congress of its kindness in offering the use of its rooms.
Messrs. Cortlandt Field Bishop, Dr. A. F. Zahm. and Mr. Ernest L. B. Jones,
were appointed a Publication Committee to arrange for the printing of all the papers and discussions presented to the Congress, same to be delivered in hound volumes to members of the Congress.
Dr. W. J. Humphreys read, in the absence of the author, the paper of Professor Cleveland Abbe, of the U. S. Weather Bureau, on "Helicopters for Aerial Eesearch/"
A vote of thanks was tendered Dr. Zahm for his efforts in securing the papers and his aid toward making the Congress a success.
A telegram of congratulations was read from Professor David Todd, dated at the summit of the Andes.
After being favored with some aeronautic motion pictures by Mr. P. H. White, the Congress closed.
Papers and Addresses Presented.
Presidential Address.—General Resume of Aeronautics; by Prof. Willis L. Moore, Chief of the United States Weather Bureau, Washington,' D. C.
Addresses of the contestants in the second James Gordon Bennett International Cup Pace.
The Air-ship for the Xavy; bv Admiral C. M. Chester, [Tnite<l States Xavy, Washington, D. C.
Our Army and Aerial Warfare; by Lieut.-Col. William A. Glassford, Chief Signal Officer of the Department of Missouri, Hinted States Army, Fort. Omaha. Xeb.
Use of the Gyroscope in Flying Machines; by Lieut. Robert Henderson, Chief Engineer, LT. S. S. Missouri, Boston, Mass.
Some Model Aeroplane Experiences and Details of a Man-Carrying Aeroplane; by A. V. Poe, member of the Aero Club of the United Kingdom, 47 West Hill, Wandsworth, London, S. W.« England.
Experiments with Model Flying Machine; by Edward W. Smith, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.
The Best Inclinations for the Surfaces and Propeller Shafts of Dynamical Airships; by T. W. Iv. Clarke, Associate Member Inst. C. F., St. Catherine, Maple Road, Surbiton, Surrey, England.
Curvature a Pelative Term; by G. A. Spratt, P. F. D. Xo. 1, Coatesville, Pa.
Equilibrium and Control of Aeroplanes; bv L. J. Lesh, 200 Peel St., Montreal, Can.
Wind-Funnels for Aerodynamic Experiments; their Construction and Equipment; by Dr. A. F. Zahm. Professor of Mechanics, the Catholic University of America, Washington, I). C.
On the First Observations with Sounding Balloons in America Obtained by the Blue Hill Observatory; by Prof. A. Lawrence Poteh, Director, Blue Hill Observatory, Hyde Park, Mass.
The Use of Upper Air Date in Forecasting; by Prof. A. -1. Henry, U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.
The Possibility of Extending Our Knowledge of the Sun and of Atmospheric Absorption; by Prof. W. J. Humphreys, Director of Mount Weather Observatory, Bluemont, ATa.
Extension of Area of Weather Beports for Aeronauts; by Prof. A. G. McAdie, P. S. Weather Bureau, 1500 Merchants Exchange Building, San Francisco, Calif.
Kite Manipulation, and the Pecord Flight; by Dr. W. P. Blair, U. S. Weather Bureau, Bluemont, Va.
Observations and Tests of Marvelous Soaring Power of Birds in Calm and Storm ; by Israel Lancaster, Fairhope, Ala.
Principles Involved in the Formation of Wing Surfaces and the Phenomenon of Soaring; by Dr. .1. J. Montgomery, Professor of Physics, Santa Clara College, Santa Clara, Calif.
Helicopters for Aerial Research; by Prof. Cleveland Abbe, U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.
Hydrogen Gas Ballooning; by Carl E. Myers, Frankfort, IS". Y.
Lightning as an Element of Danger in Balloon Work; by Prof. A. G. McAdie.
Power Required to Drive an Airship; by Prof. C. M. Woodward, Dean of the School of Engineering and Architecture, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo.
Soaring Flight; by Octave C ha mite. Consulting Engineer, Chicago, 111.
The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine and at the earliest date possible bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.
Following will he found the opening address of the President, Professor Willis L. Moore. D. Sc., LL.D., Chief of the U. S. Weather Bureau, a "General Resume of Aeronautics," and those of Mr. .1. C. McCoy and Alfred Lehlanc, contestants in the Gordon Bennett Race, representing America and France.
We meet to interchange ideas on aeronautical subjects at a particularly auspicious time. In calling attention to the more important achievements in the development of methods for the conquest of the air, and in forecasting the future of this important field of human activity, 1 have drawn liberally upon the knowledge and experience of that splendid man and engineer Octave Chanute. Since the last International Aeronautical Congress, that at Milan in 1906, two practical solutions of the problem of aerial navigation have become established. Several dirigible balloons have been produced which are truly and efficiently navigable, and a dynamic flying machine has been evolved which has flown many times, the maximum being 2-1 miles at a stretch. Moreover, there have been great advances in meteorology, so that we are now well on the way to the domain of the air.
There have been previous congresses on aerial navigation, more or less international; at Paris in 1889 and in 1900, at Chicago in 1903, at St. Louis in 190-1, and at Milan in 1906. There was also a conference at Brussels from the 12th to the 15th of September of this year, at which papers were read on the periodical movements of air currents, atmospheric dynamics, the speed of the winds, and the varying temperatures at great altitudes. The previous congresses chiefly discussed the means and methods that might be employed to achieve success; they pointed out the conjectured way; and now that success has come, in a rudimental way at least, it remains to discuss further the evolution to be accomplished and the possible uses of balloons and flying machines. The paramount fact is that in order to be practically efficient the dirigible balloon should attain an inherent or "proper"' speed superior to that of ordinary winds. Scientific observations in France have shown that at Paris, at a height of say 300 feet above the Seine River, the probabilities of encountering a wind of less speed than 32 miles an hour are 708 in 1000. That the chances of wind of less than 28 miles an hour are 815 in 1000, so that the possibilities are that a balloon possessing the latter speed could hold its own on 297 occasions, or days of the year. The probabilities of winds less than 45 miles per hour are 963 in 1000.1 However, the speed of the wind increases rapidly with the height; the registering anenometers on the Eiffel tower having demonstrated
'Andre, " L,es Dirigeables, " Ch. Beranger. Ed. 1902.
the fact that at a height of 1,000 feet the wind is not infrequently twice as fast as it is at the ground.
The dirigible balloon has now attained a measured speed of 28 miles an hour. Its evolution has taken up over 50 years. Giffard ascended with a spindle-shaped balloon and a steam engine in 1852 and attained 0.71 miles an hour. De Lome obtained 6.26 miles per hour with power in 1872. Tissandier increased this to 7.82 miles per hour in 1884 with an electric motor, while the next year Eenard and Krebs attained 14 miles an hour with the same kind of a motor. Then came Count Zeppelin in 1900 who reached 18 miles an hour, and then the sensational flight of Santos Dumont in 1901 around the Eiffel Tower at 19 miles an hour with a gasoline motor, which he was the first to apply to a dirigible balloon. With the hope of improving upon these achievements the wealthy French sugar refiners, Lebaudy Brothers, authorized their engineer, Mr. H. Julliot, in 1900, to build a new dirigible balloon at their expense. This was first navigated in 1902 and attained 24 miles per hour. Improvements were made in 1903, 1904, and 1905, and in 1906 the perfected "Lebaudy"' balloon was given to the French Government for war purposes. The latter at once ordered a duplicate, "La Patrie,*" with which a speed of 28 miles an hour has been obtained during the current year; and it is stated that a whole fleet of similar dirigibles, live to begin with, has been placed under construction.
Meanwhile the Germans have produced several war dirigible balloons; that of Major Parseval, that of Major Gross, which both have been claimed to exhibit 28 or 30 miles an hour and that of Count Zeppelin, whose immense balloon, rebuilt for the third time, is said by the newspapers to have attained 34 miles an hour. The British Government has also been secretly building a war dirigible balloon at Alclershot. It was first tested September 10 and October 5 of this year, and while perhaps not equal in performance to the French or German airships it constitutes a hopeful beginning.
In the United States the Government has done practically nothing toward building dirigible balloons. This has been left to private initiative and as the only returns possible thus far are from public exhibitions, Mr. Stevens, Mr. Baldwin, and Mr. Ivnabenshue have built and flown small and slow airships. They could have shown more speed if they had built larger ships, but this was beyond their means, for the "Patrie''* is said to have cost $60,000. On the other hand Mr. Wellman has built a very large and moderately fast airship in the daring project to reach the North Pole, and it is earnestly hoped that his third attempt next year will be crowned with success.
It is thus seen that dirigible war balloons have been developed to an inherent speed of 28 to 30 miles per hour. This is not likely to he exceeded very soon, for although the possible speed increases with the size, the danger and difficulties of handling such frail structures increase also. It is probable that the Zeppelin airship, 443 feet long and 38^2 feet in diameter, is on the border of impracticability. The present speed, although inferior to that of the flying machine which begins with 38 miles per hour, may prove satisfactory on comparatively still days, but it remains to be ascertained by practice to what height balloons will have to ascend to be reasonably safe from gun tire and what winds will thus be encountered.
The balloon possesses, however, two advantages over the flying machine. First, it can lift a greater proportional or surplus weight with increase of size. If this is not utilized for a more powerful motor, projectiles may he taken up. Mr. Julliot has stated that the "Lebaudy'* can carry some 30 bombs, each loaded with 22 pounds of Melenite and that the unbalancing which results from each bond) when thrown overboard can be overcome in 18 seconds by pumping air into the "ballonet'' and letting out an equal weight of gas. It remains to be proved bow accurate the aim may be. On the other hand, the larger is the flying machine the-
more it will weigh in proportion and the less will be the proportional surplus weight. The second advantage is that in a contest between the two the balloon, by discharging ballast, can rise vertically much faster than the flying machine and that the upper position confers great advantage both for attack and defense, as evidenced by all contests between birds. The chief use in war, however, both of the dirigible balloon and of the flying machine will be in scouting and in directing artillery fire by use of wireless telegraphy. They will carry very little surplus weight and their offensive operations will be limited, although occasional lucky shots may prove decisive in their consequences, such as the destruction of a war ship, of a powder magazine, or of a general staff.
Although the United States has done very little toward developing the dirigible balloon it has produced the first practicable flying machine. Maxim in 1894, Ader in 189?, Kress in 1901, and Langley in 1903 (two of them Americans) had experimented with full-sized man-carrying machines but had not obtained satisfactory results. They undertook too much at once, i. e., to work out simultaneously the form of the machine, its equipoise, its motor and its propeller. They were defeated by the lack of equipoise. Their apparatus proved unstable and more critical, still they had no previous experience or practice in handling it. Lilienthal had stated, as early as 1895, that the first problem to be solved was that of equilibrium and control, and that tins could only be acquired by experiment and practice. His advice was followed by Pilcher and by Channte and subsequently by Wilbur and Orville Wright, of Dayton, Ohio, whose improvements have led to success. After three years of experiments with gliding machines, they added a motor and a propeller of their own design in 1903, and were enabled on the 17th of December to make four flights with their dynamic flying machine, the longest being 852 feet in length against an icy, gusty wind blowing at 20 miles an hour. They greatly improved upon this in 1904 and finally perfected an apparatus which flew, in 1905, 24 miles on a stretch at 38 miles per hour.
"When first these achievements were made known in December, 1905, there was general incredulity'. It did not seem possible that a problem which had baffled mankind for six thousand years should have been solved while the public had no premonitory information of impending success. It was presently discovered that there had been preliminary successes for two years by these two gifted mechanicians, but that the performances had been kept secret for fear that the construction and operation of the machine should be copied by other searchers and that the inventors should lose their reward. Investigation established the truth of their claims, these are now generally conceded, and a swarm of inventors (some thirty or forty in Europe, most of them in Prance), at once engaged in attempts to imitate the feat.
The first in point of date was Mr. Vuia, a French inventor, who experimented his Xo. 1 machine in February, 1906. He was the first to show that an aeroplane flying apparatus could rise upon the air by running upon wheels (four in this case) upon an ordinary road. The machine rose a score of times and flew a few feet, but almost invariably was broken in alighting. Mr. A^uia built his Xo. 2 machine in 1907, and tested it in June and July. He rose to a height of 16 feet and flew some 65 feet, but the stability proved defective and the apparatus fell and was broken. Mr. Aruia was only slightly bruised.
The next to get ready was Air. Santos Dumont, of balloon and Eiffel Tower fame. With his Xo. XIV bis., an aeroplane on wheels and 50-horsepower motor, he made a flight of 200 feet on the 23d of October, 1906, and of 723 feet on the 1st of Xovember, this being to the present time the longest flight on record save those of the Wrights. On both occasions the apparatus was injured in alighting, and then Xo. XA7 was built, which was broken on its first public trial, March 27, 1907. Then the repaired XIA^ bis. was tried April 4, and broken. Then Xo. XA7I was produced, this being a mixed apparatus comprising a spindle-shaped balloon and an areoplane, the whole mounted on wheels. This was tested dune 8. but was
imfortimately wrecked on the first trial. He has now built another apparatus with 100-horsepower.
Meanwhile Mr. Delagrange, a French sculptor, had an aeroplane built with a 50-horsepower motor mounted on three wheels. It was first tested in February, 1907. It was broken and mended several times, and after a number of trials a flight of 200 feet was obtained March 30 and of 104 feet April 8, the apparatus being again broken. Mr. Delagrange then joined Mr. Archdeacon and the two have had built a modified apparatus, which, after some preliminary experiment-: over water, is to be soon tested over land.
Mi'. L. Bleriot, an able French engineer, has had built by Mr. Voisin no less than three types of flying machines on wheels. The first was like a Hargrave kite and gave unsatisfactory results, the next was a monoplane, shaped like the winged seed of the maple. It was tested April 5, 7, 15 and 19, broken and abandoned, and the third essentially a Langley aeroplane, mounted upon three wheels and provided with a motor of 24-horsepower, since superceded by one of 50-horsepower. It was tested on July 7, 11, 15, 25. and 31 and on August 6 and 10, the longest flight being of 409 feet, and breakages generally resulting at each trial. Finally on 17th of September, after making a flight of about 150 yards, it pitched down from a height of nearly 50 feet and was smashed. Mr. Bleriot had his face badly cut and was bleeding profusely when he was rescued from under the debris. His injuries, however, were, happily, not serious.
Thus it is seen that the flights thus far have consisted of little more than grasshopper-like jumps and that almost every trial has resulted in mishaps and breakages. Yet the inventors are undoubtedly learning. They have been plucky; they have mended and altered their machines time and again, and they may after a while acquire the science of the bird. Fortunately no lives have been lost or serious injuries sustained, and so other French inventors are prepairing to try machines which they have completed. Mention may he made of Captain Ferber. who has an aeroplane equipped with a motor of 100-horsepower, Mr. Kapferer, Mr. Farman, Count de la Yaux, Mr. Ksnault Pelterie, Mr. Scnx, Mr. Barlatier, while in England the government has built, in great secrecy, an aeroplane machine which is now ready for testing in a secluded spot in the Highlands, and four or five aviators have built flying machines of their own. Moreover, in France, in Germany, in Austria, in Denmark, and in SAvitzerland there are over a score of other aviators whose names have been published as having Hying machines under construction with which to tempt fate. There is no telling what are their chances of success. The whole of the civilized world, so to speak, is in expectance and it is understood that Wright Brothers are in Europe negotiating with various war departments for a sale of their secrets.
Now that the air is to be navigated the study of meteorology becomes more important than ever before.
Activity in the exploration of the upper air for meteorological purposes has been manifest in various quarters of the globe. In Germany, kite and balloon observations have been made continuously at Linden berg since 1902. In France, under the direction of M. Teisserenc de Bort, the well-known work with sounding balloons at Trappes has been continued. At the beginning of the present year an expedition was sent by the French Meteorological Service to Swedish Lapland, within the Arctic Circle. Although the surface temperatures at this far northern station were much lower than at Trappes, the upper air conditions within the Arctic Circle confirmed, in a remarkable manner, the results obtained at Trappes in France.
In a joint investigation of the upper air conditions in the trade wind region of the Atlantic, in the vicinity of the Azores, Madeira, and Cape Yerde islands, M. Teisserenc de Bort and Prof. A. Lawrence Rotcb. of Blue Hill Observatory, Hyde Park, Mass., established the existence of the traditional counter trades. These investigators have shown that the vertical sequence in the air currents near Ascension,
south of the equator is:—Trade winds from the southeast; diverse winds from the southwest; counter trades from the north. North of the equator, as in the vicinity of the Azores, the winds of the lower strata blow from northeast and east; above 3,000 feet, as a rule, from northwest to northeast.
The United States Weather Bureau at its observatory on Mount Weather, Ya.. began the systematic exploration of the upper air with kites, on June 20 of the present year. Since that time ascents ranging from one to four miles above the station have been made daily, except on Sundays and on holidays. On October 3d, 1907, an altitude of 23,111 feet above sea level, or a little over four miles above the station, was reached, this being, so far as known, the greatest elevation hitherto reached with kites. At the above-named height the temperature was found to be 5.4° F. below zero. The details of this remarkable flight will be communicated to the Congress by Dr. Wm. P. Blair of the Mount Weather staff.
The valuable information secured by the kite observations is telegraphed daily to the Central Office of the Weather Bureau in Washington, and is there used in the forecast service for the Middle Atlantic and Xew England States.
Meteorological stations on Pikes Peak and on Mount Washington, in the United States, and on Ben Xevis, in Scotland, have been abandoned, especially as the data secured at those places were found to be of little or no use in the making of weather forecasts largely because of the disturbing influence of the radiation from the mountain itself: but, now that the kite has been developed to such a high state of efficiency that at Mount Weather but one observation was missed in three months, it will be possible to reopen these stations and get readings of instruments far above the peaks, which will be more useful to the weather forecaster than any surface observations.
In other parts of the world much valuable work has been done and unexpected facts have been brought to light, especially by the flights of unmanned balloons, which have ascended 7 to 9 miles above the earth's surface.
It is evident that the first application in aerial navigation will be the art of war, and it is clear that its main usefulness will be in reconnaissance, for the loads which can be carried will be small. Balloons have now reached nearly their limit of speed and will always be comparatively slow. Flying Machines begin with 38 miles an hour and may attain in future 60 to 75 miles an hour, with a radius of action perhaps 200 or 300 miles. It is now interesting to speculate as to what further uses may grow out of these powers and what the development is likely to be. Commercially very little is to be expected from either balloons or flying machines. Carrying freight is out of the question and even profitable smuggling is doubtful. For passenger traffic the number earned will be so small and the cost so great that no competition is possible with existing modes of transit. Moreover, there will always be danger, but even before this has been minimized aerial navigation may serve in sport. This has already occurred with balloons and will be more pronounced with flying machines. The latter will be useful in explorations of otherwise inaccessible places, such as mountain tops, swamps, or densely wooded regions, and also in rapid surveys of desert or insalubrious stretches, provided that supplies of petrol can be obtained within the radius <5f action : for the petrol motor alone has made aerial navigation possible and is the sine f/wi turn of its success.
Balloons and living machines will undoubtedly be used in carrying dispatches and even mail service may be attempted but deliveries will be irregular. If the wind blows from the right direction the speed may be great, but if it blows the wrong way the trip may be long. Upon the whole, now that success has come, we see that the conquest of the air has more limited practical uses than was imagined when it was not known how that success was to be achieved, but it may develop new uses of its own and prove an important benefit to mankind.
The Voyage of the America, By J. C. McCoy, Pilot.
We cannot say too much in praise of the preparation and the plans which Avere carried out so successfully in St. Louis by the Committee in charge, under the direction of the Business Men's League of St. Louis. Everything went off in the most approved style and epiite equal to any contests that I know of that have been handled abroad. As the appointed hour approached, 4 o'clock, we found that every balloon was prepared, thanks to the able manner in which the inflation of the nine balloons was managed and every balloon left the ground directly on the minute. The gas furnished by the St. Louis people proved to he the very best quality of coal gas for ascensional force; there could not have been better stability than the gas furnished us at this time. I have not had an opportunity to talk with the other pilots, but no doubt they will agree with me with regard to it. We arc also under very great obligation to the weather reports furnished us which I found almost invaluable to us in our work in the air. There were given to us by the Weather Bureau forecasts of weather which might affect the balloons. They were handed to us on the ground just before our departure. 1 do not think a race has ever been held before where such full observations regarding the conditions of the air were known.
So far as our own work was concerned, 1 was accompanied by Captain Chandler. We had a very fortunate start, t located my balloon 300 feet above the ground until darkness came on. This gave me a good opportunity to observe the drift of the wind as affecting those higher in the air. The haze and smoke was very great and the other balloons were obscured. Those which had risen to a considerable height we were able to see because they were well above the smoke of St. Louis. I never saw Major Ilersey's balloon until well up in the air. He was about three or four balloons ahead of mine in arising. We traveled a very little west of north the first part of our trip, but later in the evening the current carried us more to the north toward Lake Michigan. We never got west of the Illinois River. As morning approached, in the early morning, we located ourselves at Grafton, Illinois, traveling in the direction of Lake Michigan, but a change of the wind in the early hours brought us more easterly, and at six o'clock, at 1200 metres above the earth, traveling almost east, which direction Ave Avere able to keep all the day. At that time there was a strong northeasterly current near the ground, but at 1200 metres the current Avas south of east and we made this easterly current Avhich Avas about only (¡00 metres thick. We kept ourselves in this current until four or five o'clock, but coming nearer to the ground Ave lost the current and were unable to locate ourselves in it again, owing to loss of gas. The condition of our balloon at this time, losing some amount of gas, made it difficult for me to obtain a permanent equilibrium except at about 1200 metres. Of course Ave were practically not gaining a foot, simply traveling on the are of a great circle equally distant from St. Louis and very discouraging.
That night about 12 o'clock we crossed the Allegheny River in the vicinity of Wheeling and entered into the coke regions of Pennsyh'ania. The whole earth was lighted up by the coal industries and looked as if Ave were looking clown into the infernal regions. We doubted very much the necessity of making descent in that region. It was very thrilling, that sight. During the night Ave approached the mountains and our altitude was necessarily much greater. We went up some-Avhere in the neighborhood of 3,000 metres. Heavy storm clouds came up below us and the cold became intense. The temperature was below freezing, though I do not remember the exact figures. It made quite an impression on us, though, you may be sure. The balloon would make great sweeps to the earth and drop sometimes as much as a thousand metres. The first thing in the morning, as soon as the daylight appeared and Ave were able to see, the clouds had disappeared and we identified Harper's Ferry and Ave Avere quite rejoiced to think that Ave Avonld be able to make a landing at Washington. The landing from St. Louis to Wash-
inglon had been discussed and we were quite enthusiastic about landing at Wash-inglon, hut second thoughts suggested the wisdom of not coming down at 'Washington but continuing our journey- as far as circumstances would permit. As we were traveling at that time due east we soon saw the waters of Chesapeake Bay and decided to make our descent as near the shore of Chesapeake Bay as would he advisable. At the ground, we found a very strong wind blowing. We thought it was blowing about -10 miles an hour. The situation was critical to us. We had left without an anchor and 1 was somewhat concerned as to how we were to get down. I told Captain Chandler he would hit as hard a bump as he ever had in his life. He said, "(Jo ahead, I can stand as much as you can." We got nearer and nearer and the attacks of our guide rope which we had let down were, perhaps, as vicious as anything could possibly be on earth. It got caught on a rail fence and it made nothing of that rail fence. It simply picked it up clean. Once it got caught in the top of a free and I told the Captain he would have to hold on tight, and it brought that balloon up! you can imagine a motor traveling 30 or 10 miles an hour and coming in contact with an obstruction. Well, it brought our balloon up very quickly, although fortunately we suffered no real injury. Fortunately, also, the to]) of the tree came away with a horrible crash and the guide rope let go. 1 gradually brought the balloon down to where the guide rope was spread out over a great surface of the forest, so I thought 1 would prepare to light at the edge of the forest, dust before reaching the edge I held the valve and the balloon settled down between the trees as softly and gently as ever a balloon could.
THE VOYAGE OF THE ISLE DE FRANCE. By Alfred Leblanc.
In stalling, the wind was towards the west, and we were hoping to make a voyage into Canada, but the wind changed directly towards the northeast, and we then expected to reach the Coast. We did reach the Coast, in New Jersey, but we still hoped to continue, and so land on Long Island, but the wind drove us hack, and we were obliged to land somewhere near the place where the German balloon landed, though at that time we did not know the German balloon was so near, or we might have made some effort to pursue the voyage further. The landing was very easy and the whole voyage resembled very much a trip over the plains of Europe, the most interesting portion of the trip being the crossing of the Alleghanies. which presented some novel features.
NOTES OF A RUSSIAN MILITARY AERONAUT ON THE APPLICATION OF BALLOONING TO LAND AND NAVAL WARFARE.
By Lieut.-Col. F. A. Postnikov.
The first practical application of ballooning to military purposes took place during the French Revolution when the Republican army had the possibility, during the siege of Manheige, to observe the effect of its artillery on the besieged city, thanks to the energy and enterprising spirit of Ooiitel, and was thus enabled to rapidly take possession of this fortress. 'Phis was at the end of the ISth Century. Up to the Franco-Prussian War no more or less serious adaptation of aeronautics to the armed stniggle between nations can be quoted during the entire lengthy period preceding it. During one year only of this war more practical applications of ballooning were made than during the whole intervening time. Paris, cut oil' from the world in general and from France in particular by the iron ring of German troops, took extensive advantage of aerial means of communication which the German army was incapable of breaking. During this siege sixty-four balloons tiew out of Paris taking along from the besieged city its mail and carrier pigeons for the receipt of news from
without. Thus 3,000,000 letters were sent and forwarded to their destination. This war proved to the entire world the importance and necessity of the adaptation of this new fighting means in fortress warfare and we see that in all European countries the creation of balloon sections and the establishment of schools for the preparation of experienced aeronauts, as the school of Moudon in France, that of Berlin in Germany, and of St. Petersburg in Russia. In all more or less important fortresses of Austria, German)', France and Russia were organized fortress balloon companies consisting in the average of two officers and 100 rank and file, and supplied with material in sufficient quantity as to be able, in time of war, to furnish a threefold contingent.
It may be easily understood that balloon parks, projected for action in fortresses, were encumbered by apparata and material of great weight, as these were to be moved over small distances and on excellent fortress roads. But the colonial wars, as that of the French in Tonkin and the British in South Africa, waged in countries with bad roads and far from manufacturing centres, showed the necessity of creating light mobile balloon parks adaptable for field warfare. The foundation of field balloon parks was thus laid. Their usefulness, however, was recognized only by a small number of specialists and was greatly contended by many military authorities.
The Russo-Japanese War, which radically changed the views of military authorities on the methods of waging modern warfare, also showed the necessity of applying field balloon detachments not only to fortress but also to field warfare. With the enormous armies of the present time and with the great range of modern artillery fire, military operations being pursued covertly, cavalry reconnaissance, especially on broken terrain, becomes very difficult and, in some cases, absolutely impossible. The balloon, on the contrary, possessing an enormous horizon and being almost invulnerable to hostile shots, has its field of action continually increasing in reconnaissance and in transmission of orders at the same time to all detachments, operating at enormous distances from each other, by means of preconcerted signalling. Xeitber belligerents at the beginning of the Russo-Japanese War had organized balloon detachments, and therefore none of them could profit by the advantages which could be derived from the existence of trained field balloon detachments, and both sides hurriedly endeavored to improvise from the means on hand detachments of this new arm. The Japanese during the investment of Port Arthur succeeded only towards the end of the siege to create a balloon park, the material of which was far from perfect, evidently on account of the lack of technically competent officers in this branch of the service. The Russians, who had sent to the theater of war one fortress balloon section, soon appreciated the nnwieldiness and inconvenience of fortress material operating on the bad roads of Manchuria. In the beginning of 1905, the Russians organized four balloon companies and introduced in these detachments a completely new process of obtaining hydrogen with the aid of aluminum. This allowed them to have material in field parks several times lighter than that of fortress detachments. Unfortunately for ballooning, the revolutionary movement in Russia and the conclusion of peace with Japan brought about by it. did not allow the test of the practicability of these detachments in serious operations and during a sufficiently lengthy period of time.
During the same war, balloons were for the first, time applied in naval defense. The idea of adapting balloons to naval warfare had existed for some time and experiments were even made in France of balloon ascensions from the deck of men-of-war and flights above the surface of the sea for the purpose of maintaining communication with conveying vessels. Observations, made from balloons on the sea. give the following advantages to the commander of the squadron making them: instead of ordinary radius of observation of twelve miles, the modern balloon gives a radius of sixty miles and the balloon does not divulge the presence of the squadron, as approximately at the distance of 12 miles it is invisible to the hostile observer even in clear, sunny weather, and, moreover, it renders it possible to see objects
under the water, such as mines and submarines, which are absolutely impossible to detect from the deck of a vessel.
The first practical application of balloons in naval warfare was made in Vladivostok after one destroyer and one cruiser of the Vladivostok squadron had been damaged by Japanese mines, of which an enormous quantity was strewn around the port of this city. At the request of Admiral Yessen a balloon detachment was formed under command of the military engineer Postnikov. It was composed, in the beginning, of one officer and twenty sailors and later, in view of excellent results achieved, it was increased to four officers and 120 sailors performing balloon guard service around Vladivostok and sometimes reconnoitering the banks of Japan with the squadron of Admiral Yessen. During the almost daily activity of this detachment numerous valuable observations and experiments were made with regard to the various shapes of balloons, the stability of various balloons with various velocities of the wind, the degree of visibility of submarine mines of various colors, the possible range of observation under various conditions of weather and illumination by the sun, as well as the practicability and successfnlness of various means of obtaining hydrogen. The latter was obtained by means of three processes—the old way by means of acids, the new mode by means of aluminum and also by electrolysis, for which even an electrolytic plant had been constructed which manufactured hydrogen of excellent quality. It was kept in a compressed shape in steel tubes under a pressure of 200 atmospheres. The evident usefulness of balloons in naval warfare induced the Eussian Government to look favorably upon the offer of Count Stroganov, amounting to 1,000,000 roubles, destined for the purchase of a cruiser specially adapted for ballooning. A fast passenger steamer was bought for this purpose in Germany and reconstructed so as to present a floating plant for the obtaining of hydrogen, and a depot and barracks for the balloon detachment. This steamer was, according to the project, to join the squadron of Admiral Bojest-venski in the vicinity of Madagascar, but the reconstruction lasted so long that it had only reached the banks of Spain when news was received that Admiral Bojest-venski had entered the waters of the. Pacific Ocean and it was decided that this balloon cruiser "Puss" should return to the Baltic Sea.
AEROLOGY IN GERMANY. By Dr. Reinhard Sciring.
For about twenty years Germany has been greatly occupied, almost more than any other country, in the study of the physics of the upper atmosphere. Several circumstances have favored the progress of these investigations. The zeal and the ability of experts, first of all Assmann and Person, llergesell. lvoppen,—the aid of the government and last but not least the personal interest of the German emperor in all aeronautical questions, combined to advance scientific ideas and plans with the greatest rapidity. The study of the physics of the free atmosphere has become a special branch of science, and only this branch will he discussed here.*
Three things especially are noteworthy about the German methods for the study of aeronautical physics: First, the successful attempts to observe systematically and exactly the meteorological elements at great heights, in order to gain a meteorology and climatology of the upper atmosphere in addition to that of the surface of the earth; second, the active participation in expeditions, especially in marine ones; and, last, the refined experiments for improving instruments and methods. The results of these endeavors appear in admirable scientific papers.
The founder of modern aeronautical science in Germany is Dr. Assmann and
*For this the name "''Aerology" was proposed at the International Conference held last year.—Editor.
to his energy we owe the first government observatory;, Avliieh was built near Berlin in 1899. Here the meteorological conditions at some distance above the earth by means of kites and balloons were recorded as frequently as possible. As to kite-ascents the work at the Blue Hill Observatory of Professor Botch was nsed as a model; but in order to effect ascents in any kind of weather ranch additional Avork had to be done. The methods and the results appear in the "Ergebnissc" of the Aeronautical Observatory, four large volumes of which have been hitherto published. The observatory, which was removed in 1905 from Berlin to Linden berg, near BeeskoAV, 60 kilometers eastward, has succeeded in making daily ascents with kites or captive balloons for nearly five years without any interruption. In this way valuable material has been gathered so that Ave are now well informed about the conditions of temperature and wind up to at least a height of two miles. A great number of the ascents have even attained a far greater height; and the record in high kite-ascents (20,000 feet) was reached here last year.** The example of the Prussian Government was soon followed by the German "Seewarte" at Hamburg. A small aeronautical station was established there, but as it uses only kites—only very rarely pilot balloons—daily ascents are not feasible. Besides the work at these observatories, special ascents Avith pilot-balloons are likeAvise undertaken at the meteorological institutes in Strassburg and Munich.
For kite-ascents high speed steamers are of great use as they can modify the wind artificially in order to lift kites in light winds or to prevent breaking the Avire in stormy Aveather. But Avhile this method had previously been used on voyages only*** progress is being made in Germany by building "floating observatories." The initial one Avill be inaugurated this year on Lake Constance in Southern Germany Avhere Count Zeppelin also makes trials of his dirigible balloon; and it is intended to erect a similar observatory on the coast of the Baltic Sea, near Danzig.
The technical experience gained in aeronautical and meteorological experiments suggested trying ascents in regions of interest abroad. First of all Ave must mention the cruises of Professor Hergesell, on the yacht of the Prince of Monaco in the Mediterranean above the regions of trade-winds, and also in high northern latitudes. It was a feature on these expeditions that they not only made use of kites but also of pilot-balloons, for at small heights the former frequently met with calms and then could not rise higher, Avhile balloons used in tandem succeeded in gaining elevations of many thousands of feet. Tavo closed balloons tied together Avere sent up, one of Avhich exploded and the other, bearing the instruments, sank slowly until they AArere supported on the ocean by a "floater."**** Last year Prof. Hergesell at 80° N. Lat. sent his balloons up to 25,000 feet. Some astonishing results Avere reached by these expeditions during the summer months. For instance, there Avas found an unexpectedly Avarm temperature at considerable heights above the Arctic Ocean, evidently produced by direct heating by the ever-shining arctic sun. On the other hand Professor Hergesell was able to sIioav that near the Nonvegian shores the heating of the atmosphere by the Gulf Stream only extended upAvard a few hundred feet. Further remarkable progress has been made by the German navy in furnishing her surveying vessels Avith apparatus for aeronautical research. In the beginning of this year H. M. S. "Planet," the first vessel thus equipped, returned from a voyage along the western shores of Africa, then penetrating to about 50° South and returning by the Pacific and Indian Oceans. A second ship, H. M. S. Hove-, has explored the atmosphere this summer between Norway
**A height of 23,000 feet was reached at the Ml. Weather station of the U. S. Weather Bureau in October, 1907.—Editor.
***The first experiments Avore made by Professor Roteh in 1901 from a tugboat in Massachusetts Bay and also on a transatlantic steamer.—Editor.
****Kites and registration balloons Avere also used by the expeditions sent in 1905 and 1906 to the North and South Atlantic bv Messrs. Teisserenc de Bort and Botch.—Editor.
and Iceland. At the same time ascents were made by Professor Hergesell near Spitzbergen as well as by a private expedition, conducted by Captain Hildebrandt between Iceland and the Azores.
Finally we must mention the endeavor to improve instruments for aeronautical research. For manned balloons Assmamfs aspiration-psychrometer lias been prescribed as a normal instrument by the International Aeronautical Committee. Also for kites we have had for some time past exact instruments, for instance those of Marvin, yet the registrations of the apparatus of pilot-balloons were unreliable until lately. But the recent investigations in the compensation of aneroid barometers (Hergesell and Kleinschmidt), in the sluggishness of thermometers (Hergesell. de Quervain, Maurer) and of hygrometers (Kleinschmidt). have shown us exactly the errors of these instruments. We must also mention especially among many others, the following investigations: The methods for pursuing pilot-balloons and thus studying the movements in the upper atmosphere by means of theodolites (de Quervain, von Bassus) ; the methods for finding the position of the balloons by surveying instruments (Marcuse. Wegener) ; and the studies in atmospheric electricity by Prof. Ebert in Munich.
It is a matter of course that with such valuable auxiliaries all questions of the physics of the free atmosphere are being greatly promoted. Wc need only recall the studies to explain the warm layers of the atmosphere at a height of 30,000 to 40,000 feet, discovered by Assmann and Teisserenc de Bort ; the investigation of the circulation between areas of high and low pressure; the formation of strata and waves in the atmosphere; the differences between different latitudes; between land and sea, etc. It is earnestly to be hoped that Germany will continue to take a chief part in the international endeavor to solve all these important questions.
LIGHT ENGINES. By Walter L. Brock.
I have read with interest the article and letter of Mi'. Harry K. Dey and Mr. Roger B. Whitman respectively, and being interested in the production of light motors thought I would add my mite to the discussion.
Light weight and fuel economy seem to be the special requirements to bo met. together with reliability and suitable durability. The relative value of light weight and fuel economy would seem to depend on the particular conditions of use. Thus, for flights of short duration, the motor weight would be the predominating factor, but as the distance is increased the weight of fuel would become a larger factor, and for very long flights would become so important as to permit the addition of considerable weight to the engine, if such addition would cause a greater saving in the weight of fuel carried. For the present the motor weight is the most important factor.
Light weight per horsepower may be obtained by increasing 1 he power output of a given size engine and by decreasing the weight of construction. The power developed by a given size engine depends on the Mean Effective Pressure in the cylinder and the Revolutions per Minute of the engine.
To obtain a high ]\1. E. P. the maximum possible weight of the eharge should be introduced into the cylinder, compressed as highly as pennissable. ignited at the proper point, expanded with little loss of heat to the surrounding walls, and exhausted with a minimum back pressure. As the speed of an engine is increased the weight of the charge decreases, due to the increased resistance of the valves which lower the pressure on the suction stroke and raise it on the exhaust. The result is. that for any particular engine there is a certain speed at which the product of the M. E. P. and R. P. M. is a maximum, thus giving the greatest power output.
Large valves, properly timed, thus constitute an important element in the design. The automatic inlet valve has considerable lag in opening and in closing if the valve be of any size, due to its inertia. A stiff spring helps the closing but increases the resistance to the entrance of the charge. As the automatic inlet valve is not very reliable and since with a suitable arrangement an extra spring is the only additional part required to enable it to be operated mechanically, it would appear to be poor practice. Jn fact, one would be justified in adding considerable weight to the engine for the sake of obtaining the increase in power obtainable through the use of mechanically operated valves.
That increasing the compression increases the power can be shown both theoretically and practically. The increase is most noticeable in high speed engines, as a small clearance enables the functions of the exhaust, and suction strokes to be carried out more thoroughly. The coinbustion of the charge takes place more rapidly when the charge is highly compressed, which is very desirable, the time required for combustion being much longer than is commonly supposed. Ignition should take place at the proper time on each compression stroke. Whether produced spontaneously or by spark makes little difference, providing it is not too early. It is best, however, to avoid it by a good margin, as it is rather irregular in time of occurrence. Whether ignition should be by jump spark with non-vibrator coil, or by make and break is a question which may never be decided. Vibrator coils are not suitable for high speed engines, as the variation in point of ignition is too great, due to the slowness of the vibrator. 400 vibrations per second is the highest any vibrator has been known to work.* If the engine were running at 2,400 r. p. m. there would be a possible variation of 36 in the point of ignition. Light weight magnetos or dynamos will undoubtedly be produced as batteries of any type are either very heavy or have little capacity. High speed engines with a large number of e}dinders require a good deal of current.
When only the expansion stroke is taken into consideration it would seem that the cylinder should be kept as hot as it can stand. The suction and compression strokes are best carried out in a cool cylinder. The hotter the cylinder the less the weight of the charge admitted on the suction stroke due to its being heated and expanded upon entering. A hot cylinder also increases the work of compression and the danger of preignition. Tests show that when running with full load the cylinder should be quite cool, even in water cooled if the maximum power and economy are to be obtained. With high loads the cylinder should be much hotter to obtain good economy. Since cooling effect is obtained at the expense of weight or power a low temperature may not be desirable. The conditions in an airship being very favorable for the air-cooled engine, it will not be easily displaced by a more complex system of cooling.
High speeds enable one to increase the out-put of an engine considerably. How far it may be carried depends upon the design and lubrication of the engine. Since very high speeds are obtained at the expense of a large increase in the amount of lubricating oil used and of fuel economy the speed eventually used may be quite moderate.
Light construction is a matter of design and experiment. The very strong, durable materials produced for the auto enable small factors of safety to be used while by going to the expense of machinering it out much weight ma}r be removed where it is not required but is usually left. Since cast iron is the weakest and least reliable form of iron its use will probably disappear in spite of its excellent wearing and heat resisting qualities, Pistons may be made of cast steel or pressed from a mild steel. The cylinders may be cast steel or machined from tubes or forgings. The present difficulty due to warping will undoubtedly be overcome.
Various types of engines are being developed to reduce weight. The general tendency being to increase the number of cylinders for each crank-pin, thereby re-
*Yibrators have been known to attain 800 per second.—Ed.
ducing the weight of the crank-ease and crank-shaft. "While two cylinders per crank-pin is the usual practice as many as five have been used. The latter represents about the practical limit. Enough cylinders should be used to avoid a fly-wheel (about six) while how many more are used will depend largely on the power of the engine as it does not pay to increase the size of the cylinders above a certain point. This is due to the fact that the allowable piston speed does not increase much as the stroke is increased and a short stroke is not suitable in many ways for large diameters.
in as much as the two-cycle engine in some of its forms offers superior inducements in regard to light weight and fuel economy it is safe to say that this much abused type of engine will become a strong contender for primer honors. The long neglected Bray ton cycle may also be developed.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN AEROPLANE
By L. J. Lesh.
Summing up my experiments for this Summer in a few words, I have accomplished the following results.
About fifty flights have been made, one over water and the rest over land. The towing agent in the flight over water was a fast_motor boat; over land a horse has supplied the pull necessary for support.
The longest flight was made over the river St. Lawrence, the distance from the starting point to where I finally touched the water being six miles. The flights over land have ranged in length from two hundred feet to about half a mile. The greatest height reached during the experiments was nearly seventy-five feet, during a flight over land.
The longest period of suspension in the air was about twenty-four minutes, during the flight over the river. The flights over land averaged a quarter of a mile in length and lasted about sixty seconds. Thus it will be seen that I have covered about eighteen miles during all the flights and that the total time spent in the air has been considerably less than an hour and a half.
I have experimented with two machines the specifications of which are as follows:
Area of supporting surfaces..................240 sq. ft 175 sq. ft
Weight .........".......................... 60 lbs. 50 lbs.
Length of wings, tip to tip................... 22 ft. 16 ft.
Width of main surfaces...................... 6 ft. 6 ft.
Height of machine......................... 4 ft. 4 ft.
Curvature of surfaces....................one in seven..........one in twelve
Material of framework .................... chiefly % inch round spruce rods.
Joints.........................................Steel bolts and steel tubing.
Cloth covering of surfaces.................... Unbleached muslin, unvarnished.
Strange as it may seem, when one takes into consideration the difference in lifting, surface, both of my machines seemed to require about the same speed through the air for support. The length of the preliminary run was about the same and the smaller machine did not seem to have any greater speed at the moment of landing than the larger apparatus.
In experimenting with a towing line J have found that it is not necessary to make the start directly into the wind and that landings'can be made safely with the wind blowing from the side if care is taken to prevent the wings from inclining at too steep an angle of incidence. The framework is very liable to be broken if the surfaces are not tilted forward to horizontal at the moment of landing.
It is quite impossible to quarter into the wind and keep the wings from tilting laterally by the use of a rear vertical rudder alone. Either the operator must shift his center of gravity as the center of pressure moves up the ascending wing, or the disturbance must be overcome bv the use of a certain system of forward rudders. I
have succeeded in quartering into the wind at a height of only about eight feet, with the wings parallel to the ground. Steering and balancing was accomplished in the first machine by shifting my weight and in the second machine by manipulation of the forward and rear rudders.
I have tried to adjust the bridle of my machine so that the resultant pull, or rather resultant of the distributed pull, comes at the point to which .1 hope to attach the propeller. I have chosen to attach the main line to the machine by a bridle because in this way the pull is made to come constantly from the same angle while if the towing rope were attached directly to the machine the latter might quarter into-the wind at one angle and the rope might point off in another direction. Of course in a motor machine the line of effort of the propeller (line produced outward from the crank-shaft) would remain constant and 1 wished to operate under these conditions in my preliminary flights.
The similarity between motor and towing flight becomes more and more apparent as one enters into a careful study of the two. Gliding flight at small angles of descent certainly provides the best possible training for an experimenter who has in mind the development of a mo-torless soaring machine, but the value of this kind of work to a prospective "motor aeroplanist"' looks doubtful. A soaring machine would certainly provide great sport but the difficulties to be met in accomplishing the-feat look insurmountable at present.
Of course it might be possible to soar indefinitely on theside of a hill, but to perform the real thing one would have to rise in towing flight to a height of several hundred feet and then either fly along until an ascending column of air was met or cut loose and glide towards a spot where such a phenomenon was known to exist.
It seems to me that the feat of soaring had better be postponed for a time until more is learned of the trend of wind currents and the management of dynamic machines at great heights.
In conclusion, 1 wish to acknowledge my debt of gratitude to Mr. Octave Chanute, whose kind assistance made this undertaking possible in the first place and whose sound advice has greatly facilitated the carrying out of my plans.
the start " in no. 2.
CHRONOLOGY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS.
Oct. 1. Test is made ot the apparatus for changing the elevation of the Zeppelin dirigible by means of a 220-pound lead weight which is moved forward and backward on a rod. Within a period of twenty minutes the height was changed from 1G5 feet to above 1,000 and back again to 165 feet without loss of gas or ballast. On September 30th a flight lasting J)J4 hours, corrected figures, was made, the distance covered being about 200 miles. The wind was stronger than in any previous test but the ship encountered no difficulty and the speed was estimated at 30 miles an hour.
Oct. 3. The highest altitude ever reached by a kite in the United States is recorded by Professor A. J. Henry at the Mt. Weather Observatory who sent a kite up to 23,000 feet. The temperature at that height was 5 degrees below zero.
Oct. 5. English Dirigible No. 1 sails from Farnborough to London, a distance of 35 miles, manoeuvreing over the city and landing on the outskirts. The flight lasted 2y> hours. Disappointment felt at the inability to return and the conclusion is reached that the ship is practical only in favorable weather. Average speed in this trip, 24 miles going with an 8-mile wind. Envelope holds 54,000 en. ft. of hydrogen.
Oct. 8. Zeppelin manoeuvres over Lake Constance and the nearby mountains, remaining 1'% hours in the air. Count Zeppelin denies the story that he has sold his ship to the German Government but admits they have purchased his shed. This is the last time, it is reported, this model will be taken out.
Oct. 10. The German military balloon makes two very successful ascents, sailing over Berlin and Charlottenburg, staying in the air 21/. hours.
Oct. 10. High wind tears the English Dirigible Xo. 1 loose from its moorings. The lower frames were smashed and the ship is all but a total wreck.
Oct. 10. Henry Deutsch offers his dirigible La Yille de Paris to the war office of France to be used for national defense.
Oct. 11. The German militarv dirigible flies from Tegel six miles to Berlin 1 and returns under cover of night. With the falling of the dew the ship came close to earth and the gathering crowd in the streets was dispersed by a shower of water ballast.
Oct. 12. The Daily Graphic mammoth balloon leaves Crystal Palace. London, in an unsuccessful attempt to break la Yaulx's distance record. The balloon crossed the North Sea to Denmark and travelled over Scandinavia with great speed. The bearings were lost in a fog and a descent made at Brocha. Sweden, at 1 :30 p. m., Sunday, October 13. The distance made. 003 miles covered in 19 hours. The flight, however, is remarkable as it is the longest cross-channel trip yet made. Thinking a large lake was the open sea the aeronauts hastily slid down the guide rope and left the balloon to shift for itself. It was afterward recovered, somewhat damaged. The balloon has a capacity of 107,003 cubic feet and lifts two tons weight. The diameter is 59 feet. This is the largest balloon now in use.
Oct. 15. Henry Farman makes a flight of 935 feet, breaking the Santos-Dumont-World's record of 723 feet, at a speed of 25 miles an hour. The landing was made without a mishap, except to bend one of the wheels slightly. He maintained perfect equilibrium and had complete control of the machine. After a few preliminary runs against a fresh breeze the 50 horse-power motor was started at full speed. After a run of about 300 feet the front rudder was raised to a slight angle and the apparatus immediately rose into the air to a height of about 30 feet, maintaining that height throughout almost the entire distance. In speaking of his flight, ]\lr. Farman said: "By what 1 did to-day 1 am convinced I can fly a mile or more without the slightest difficulty. The machine obeyed the rudder perfectly and throughout the flight I had it in complete control."
Oct. 22. Esnault Pelterie makes a series of flights of from 300 to 500 feet in length, turning to avoid obstacles, rising and descending. The machine resembles a butterfly to the lay observer, with movable curved wings inclined by levers. At the tips of the wings, which have 101 square feet of surface, arc small wheels to prevent damage in case they strike the earth. A seven cylinder motor of 25 horse-power, weighing 90.8 pounds, furnishes the power, starting at the first turn. A 4-bladed propeller is used and the total weight, with operator, is 52S pounds.
Oct. 23. Farman makes half a dozen flights at Issy. A new propeller of larger diameter has been lifted. Almost as soon as the engine was started the machine left the ground and at an altitude of from 0 to 18 feet flew a distance of (520 feet in 15 2-5 seconds. The usual rolling motion of an aeroplane was noticeably absent.
In the second trial it was necessary to change the course to avoid a standing automobile and as the chance of making a long flight was gone the motor was stopped and landing made.
After that flights of only 300 to 500 feet were made.
Oct. 26. Farm an again makes several flights of from 300 to 900 feet. The machine rose easily at the will of the operator and travelled at heights varying between 30 and 40 feet. Xo shock was felt on landing.
Oct. 26. La Patric manoeuvres again over Paris, after an overhauling, carrying five officers and two ladies. During the flight the right propeller was lost and the ship drifted aimlessly around for an hour but the descent was finally accomplished in safety.
Oct. 26. Farman covers 2.5-30 feet, nearly a half mile, in 52 seconds. After running along the ground for about 600 feet, the head of the machine was raised and the flight begun, continuing at an elevation of 3 to 18 feet. In the morning he covered 1,191 feet in 30 seconds. In the afternoon the first flight was of 1,050 feet in 27 seconds, then 1,345 feet in 31 3-5 seconds, so that the record of Santos Dumont was broken three times before on the same day. P»y this flight Farman wins the Archdeacon cup and a money prize offered by the Aviation Club de France for the first flight of 984 feet or more.
Oct. 27. Esnault Pelterie makes several short flights, varying from 150 to 500 feet and turning in a semi-circle. A slight accident befell the wing of the machine in landing and further trials were postponed.
Oct. 31. Parseval dirigible refuses to start for the several hundred engineers assembled. Major Parseval explained the principles of the ship and on attempting to give a demonstration found the sparking apparatus was out of order. The balloon was returned to the workshop.
October 2. Captain Chas. De F. Chandler (Aero Club of America) in the Signal Corps Xo. 10, 2,200 cubic metres, at Washington, D. C. Landing at Laurel, Md., 22 miles from Washington. Highest altitude 4,500 feet. Very little wind.
October 2. A. Leo Stevens (Aero Club of America) and F. H. White in the Psyche, 1,000 cubic metres, Washington, D. C. at 4:10 p. m., landing at Columbia, Md., at 7:20 p. m. Distance, 37 miles. Highest altitude, 6,000 feet.
October 3. Captain Chas. De F. Chandler (Aero Club of America), Captain F. B. Hennessy and Corporal Ward, in The Signal Corps Xo. 10, 2,200 cubic metres, at 12:49 p. m. Landing at Marlev. Md., 3:30 p. m. Distance, 31 miles. Highest altitude, 3,000 feet.
October 15. J. C. McCoy and Capt. Chas. De F. Chandler. (Aero Club of America), balloon Psyche, 1.000 cubic metres. Start in St. Louis at 2 p. m. Landing at Jacksonville, 111., at 5:15 p. m., a distance of 87 miles. Went through thunderstorm half an hour after start.
October 17-18. Captain Chas. De F. Chandler and J. C. McCoy (Aero Club of America) in Signal Corps Xo. 10, 2,200 cubic metres, from St. Louis at 4 :18 p. m., the 17th. Landing at Walton, W. Va., 12:33 p. m. (Central time), the 18th. Distance, 475 miles; elapsed time, 20 hours, 15 minutes. This trip won the Lahm Cup for the first time since its offering, beating the required distance (402) by 73 miles. This was the third time the Cup had been competed for. Former trials: J. C. McCoy and Capt. Chandler on April 30 in the America. 135 miles; duly 4, Carl E. Myers in the Carlotta, 3 miles.
October 17-18. Alan P. ITawley and Augustus Post (Aero Club of America) in the Stevens 21, 1,000 cubic metres, from St. Louis 6:30 p. m., landing at 6:30 a. m. the 18th at Boggstown, lud. Distance, 225 miles. Elapsed time 12 hours. Average speed 21 miles.
October 21. Major Henry B. Hersey and A. T. Atberholt, Alan P. Hawley and Augustus Post., J. 0. McCoy and Capt. C. De F. Chandler (Aero Club of America). See records of Gordon Bennett Pace.
October 26-27. Henry S. Gratz (Aero Club of America), Samuel A. King, pilot, J. E. Eech, Dr. George H. Simmerman. J. L. Mayer, John Longacre, Dr. T. E. Eldridge (Ben Franklin Aeronautical Assn), from Philadelphia in the Ben Franklin, 2,600 cubic metres, at 2 :35 p. m. First landing made at Aura, X. J., at five o'clock, distance 19 miles. Messrs. Gratz and Longacre left the balloon at this point and returned to Philadelphia. The others started again at 1 a. m., the 27th, landing at Dwight, Mass., 225 miles from Philadelphia, at 0:30 a. m. Altitude reached, 15,400 feet.
October 12. Joseph A. Blondin (Aero Club of America) in the Albuquerque, 1,000 cubic metres, from Albuquerque, Xew Mexico, at 11:55 a. m. Banding was made on the mesa west of Corrales, 2:55 p. m., a distance of 16 miles. Considerable interest attaches to trips made in this part of the country on account of the rarity of the air. In speaking of the trip, Mr. Blondin said:
"I should estimate that 1 reached an altitude of fully (¡,000 feet above the ground, or between 11.000 and 12.000 feet above sea level. I figure my altitude chiefly from the fact that I could look down upon the tops of the Sandia mountains and could get a magnificent view of the plains and the farther range east of the Sandias. The highest point of the Sandias is approximately 10,000 feet. I believe. The top of the Sandias is thus 5.000 feet higher than Albuquerque, and I was fully a thousand feet higher than the mountain tops.
"The landing was a trifle rough, as 1 had neither trail rope nor anchor to break the fall. The car struck the ground heavily, rebounded possibly twenty feet in the air, struck again, roled on its side and dragged for a distance of some fifty yards across the mesa. Finally it jammed against a hillock of Spanish needles, which enabled me to get an extra hitch on the valve rope and hold the valve open until all the gas escaped and the bag settled to the ground.
"The effect of the sight of the balloon on the natives was interesting. While up in the air 1 was shot at at least eight times between here and Corralles. but owing to the altitude the bullets fell short. Or at least they did not come close enough to bother me. There was a great uproar as I passed over Alameda, eight miles north of here. The hens set up a great cackling, roosters crowed, dogs barked, people shouted and the noise was incessant as long as the balloon was overhead. The blending of these unusually discordant sounds heard at an altitude of 4.000 to 5.000 feet made them seem to form a most agreeable and musical harmony.
"The view of the Rio Grande Valley, the adjacent plains, the mountains and the country beyond is of a grandeur which it is impossible to describe. It was overwhelmingly magnificent. The whole country lay spread out like a map. the mountains were dwarfed by the altitude, the river shone like a band of silver through the valley and the distant views were awe-inspiring. For at least two hundred miles in every direction the vista extended, and it was a vista such as one does not often see. Perhaps the prettiest prospect adjacent to the city was the view of the Bluehcr gardens in Old Albuquerque, the plats lying spread out in geometrical precision with the colors making them resemble a crazy quilt."'
The gas was very poor and prevented a longer trip.
Dr. Julian P. Thomas has purchased the Pommern. the winning balloon in the Gordon Bennett, from Jlerr Frbsloh.
A man by the name of Wels. in Trautenau. Austria, is said to have accomplished a glide of 950 feet from an elevation of 65 feet.
A. Roy Knabenshue, whose dirigible, tents and paraphenalia were recently destroyed by fire, announces his intention of using a 25 horse-power motor in the new dirigible to be built.
The large dirigible which was being built by the National Airship Co., of San Francisco, broke from its mooring and was blown by the strong wind several miles and destroyed.
On September 30 there came into active life the Aviation Club de France. Messrs. L. Delagrange, Paul Roger, A. Buisson, G. A7oisin, Henry Farman, the Marquis A. de Puybaudet and Comte G. de Fayolle, and others were present. M. L. Delagrange was elected President.
Santos Dumont has, it is reported, abandoned the attempt to make 100 kilometres an hour with his hydroplane, owing to the impossibility of securing a good working motor. In a trial he covered 300 metres at a speed of between 50 and 60 kilometres an hour.
Engineers are at work improving La Patrie. As soon as this is finished a start will be made on the five other airships ordered by the French Government, the République, Démocratie. Liberté, Vérité and Justice.
Money is beginning to flow to the inventors. J. Uherkovich de Uherkocz, 213 Fast 22d Street, Bayonne, X. J., has induced City Recorder Lazarus and others to organize a company to build his orthopter. Here's to success!
Zeppelin is to build another airship, Xo. -1. This is to be still larger than the present ship and equipped with 300 horse-power, undertaken, it is said, at the suggestion of the German government which has appropriated $125,000. It is to carry 18 men. Part of the material now in the Xo. 3 will be used in the new one.
Dr. T. Chalmers Fulton. Pres. of The Ben Franklin Aeronautical Soc. of the F. S., will lecture before the Department of Fhigineering and Technology at the Drexel Institute. Tuesday. Xov. 12th. at t o'clock P/M. Subject: "The Problems of the Future—Aerial Xavigation. the result of Thirty-three Years of Study and Many Trips Aloft."
II. C. Gammeter has shipped the orthopter on exhibition at the Aero Show to the Curtiss plant at Hammondsport, where a building will be erected to house it and further experiments conducted. Great appreciation was expressed of the fine workmanship displayed in the machine, which was the only full-sized gasless machine on exhibition.
Special appropriations are reported to have been made by the Japanese Government for the promotion of aeronautics. Balloon ascents at Tokio are frequent, but the details of the work and the number or quality of the dirigibles planned or in course of construction are closely guarded.
M. Capazza, the Belgian, whose balloon Paul Xocquet used on his ill-fated trip, has invented a combination aeroplane and dirigible capable of carrying five people in addition to 20,000 pounds, and of staying aloft for 15 hours. The machine has several screws and is of an imperfect lenticular shape.
Among the interesting exhibits at the Show were the flying paper models of William Morgan. These ingenious toys have given him the inspiration for a large machine which is now in course of construction at Fort Plain, X. Y.
On October 2 Eugene Godet attempted a flight in Ids dirigible at Jamestown Exposition. The propellers struck a water tower near the Inside Inn and were knocked off. After ascending rapidly and then down into the water of Hampton Poads, he rose again and drifted toward Newport Xews. Landing was made at Hampton, twelve miles from the start, most of the trip being over the water.
On his return to this country the press agent spirit of Frederic Thompson was found on the job. He announced his project to build a balloon park at Fort George and offers $25,000 to the first to fly from Fort George to Coney Island. We hope that this is true, but we heard last summer of a passenger line of dirigibles between these two points which same did not pan out.
On October 1, Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, F. W. Baldwin, of Toronto; G. H. Curtiss, of Hammondsport; J. A. D. McCurdy, and Lieutenant T. E. Self ridge, organized the "Aerial Experiment Association.*' Lieutenant Selfridge is Secretary. Experiments now under way will be conducted by these five acting in cooperation. The headquarters are at Beinn Bhreagh, near Baddeck, Xova Scotia, but for the winter a change may be made to Hammondsport, X. Y.. at the Curtiss shops.
At Fort Omaha the construction of the government balloon house and hydrogen gas house for generating and compressing gas for balloon purposes is progressing. The space is somewhat limited, but plans are under way for increasing same. The balloon shed will be of steel superstructure with corrugated steel sheathing, foundations and floor of cement. The gas building will be of brick and concrete with corrugated iron roof.
Those who visited the Aero Show saw an entirely different type of motor, exhibited by the Aero & Marine Motor Co., 60 Pemberton Square, Boston, of which a detailed description will be given later. The G. H. Curtiss Mfg. Co. of Hammondsport, X. Y., exhibited four airship motors, 1, 2, 4 and 8 cylinders, of their regular type. Another feature of the motor section was the 130 horse-power engine used in Cooper Hewitt's hydroplane.
"There is always the consolation that when Lucie Sain really sees the situation he takes no half-way measures, and so 1 look upon the present agitation and attention to aerial machines of warfare as fortunate in that Congress will be convinced of the necessity for radical action to enable us to 'catch on* and catch up. Uncle Sam has long since emigrated to Missouri and has succumbed to his environment, but like the man that lias been asleep he wakes up with refreshed life and as soon as 'shown* is fhe most active man possible.'*—Colonel Gltistford in the ''Omolm Her."
Aeronautics is, or are, certainly booming in America-according to surface
indications. There is a certain interest taken in the subject by a great many, but a very few are interested to the extent of $3. Still, it may be possible that the American Airship ix Balloon Corporation, capital -$200.01)0, of which Israel Ludlow is Vice-President and Charles J. Strobel is President, will find more than we have. This ambitious concern expects to build dirigibles for the Inited States Government, flying machines, balloons, etc., in addition to cornering the show business for this country.
At a banquet of the Aerial Experiment Association at Halifax, a cup was given
G. H. Curtis in acknowledgment of his making the fastest mile ever traveled by a human being (in 20 2/5 seconds). This performance was accomplished on January 23, 1907, at Ormond Beach, Florida, on a Curtiss motorcycle. Another "favor/'' in the form of a cup, was presented to Captain Thomas S. Baldwin, in honor of his successful flights at Halifax with the California Arrow, and of the fact that he has been an aeronaut for 32 years, having made his first ascension in 1875. Captain Baldwin was the first man to use a parachute in America.
Xow that so much attention is being paid to the problem of navigating the air, it may not be amiss to recall that a strange effort in this direction was made just 400 years last month, ft was in September, 1507, that King James JY sent a special ambassador from Edinburgh to France. An adventurer, John Damian, who had gained the favor of the king, said that he would reach France before the ambassador by simply flying there. He had a pair of huge wings made of eagles' feathers, fastened them to his body, and in the presence of thousands of people he launched himself into the air from the walls of Stirling castle. Instead of rising, though, he fell to the ground and broke his leg. The air navigator's excuse for his failure was that some cock's feathers had been mixed in with the eagle's plumes, and that these influenced the body earthward.
On October 15th the following was received from the Aerial Experiment Association :
"We are nearly ready to put a large machine into the air, and it is possible that within the next week or so. we may fly the machine as a kite, with a sand-bag in it of the weight of a man. If the experiment is successful, we shall place a man in the machine (without a motor) and allow him to glide down to the water from an elevation. J do not think it will take us longer than about a week or ten days to reach this stage. I doubt very much whether we shall be able to make an experiment with a motor-driven machine before the cold season comes in, although we have our motor and propellers completed. We do not think it would be safe to start at once to put a man into the air in a motor-driven machine flown as a kite and towed by a motor-boat. We propose to allow our aviator to have considerable practice in gliding-flight before putting the motor and propellers into the machine.''
The Allgemeine Automobil Zeitung. in its issue of October 25, has this to say of the Wrights: "It is reported that the Brothers Wright have sold their flying machine for 2.000,000 francs to an American-English syndicate and that there are already under way negotiations with the English government for the further sale. We might put a heavy question mark after this information, judging by the news distributed through the press during the last few weeks and remembering that such news maintained that the brothers had sold their flying machine to a French syndicate, in which even it was specified how much money was paid in and how much stock the Wrights had received for their invention. Last week the Wright brothers were in Berlin where they were said to be in negotiations with the German government also for the sale of their machine ( ??).''
The continuation of the Aero Club of St. Louis and the holding of a large aeronautical carnival each October was virtually decided upon at the meeting of the Board of Governors at the St. Louis Club. The members were unanimously in favor of the perpetuation of the organization for annual contests.
The club voted to increase the membership from 400 to 000, due to the large number of applications pending. President Dozier was empowered to appoint a committee of three to recommend a programme and the prizes for the aero contests next October. This committee is to report at a special meeting to be called soon.
The Aeio Club of St. Louis is to be in absolute charge of all aero contests in St. Louis, was the club's decision.
A letter, conveying the oiler of Augustus A. Buseh and Edward A. Faust of a cup to be known as the Buseh Trophy and valued at $1,000 or more, was read. Acceptance was deferred until a later meeting. A letter conveying the thanks of the Club will be written by Secretary Kearney.
The report of the Chief Signal Officer of the Knifed States Army for the year ending dune 30, 1007. contains the following under the head of "Military Aeronautics;" "During the past year investigation and experiments have been made with a view of securing hydrogen in large quantities at low cost. The results were not satisfactory, and it has been decided to establish a plant for producing hydrogen by the electrolysis of water. Orders have already been placed for the necessary electrolytic cells and the electrical machinery. This plant will be established at Fort Omaha. Xeb.. and the Quartermaster Department has already prepared plans for a suitable building to inclose this hydrogen plant, and also a large steel balloon house of a size sufficient to till hydrogen balloons and to carry on experiments with any size and type of dirigible balloons or flying machines which may in the future be presented for trial. Hydrogen for captive and dirigible balloons will be compressed in tubes at high pressure at this Omaha plant and shipped to any point where required for use. this method being considered preferable to using portable generators.
"The Signal Corps has recently purchased a complete military captive balloon, with all appurtenances, with a capacity of 300 cubic metres, and also an ordinary spherical balloon with a capacity of 2200 cubic metres, which was designed to be filled with coal gas and used for preliminary instruction of officers and enlisted men of the Signal Corps in the elementary principles of aeronautics. This balloon on the trial trip made a successful voyage from Washington to Harrisburg, Pa., a distance of 104 miles, in four and one-half hours.
"In addition to the installation of a gas generating plant and balloon house at the Signal Corps post. Fort Omaha. Xeb., it is also intended to provide practical instruction in military aeronautics suited to the needs of the three service schools at Fort Leavenworth, Kan.
"Paragraph 34, General Orders Xo. 145, War Department, August 16, 1906, now requires theoretical and practical instruction in aeronautics at these schools, bid the instruction has thus far been limited to a theoretical study of the subject due to a lack of suitable equipment for this station."
THE MYSTERY OF BIRD FLIGHT.
"In the excellent article on 'The Mystery of Bird Flight.' by Harold Bolce, in Everybody's for August, allusion is made to the fact that the size of the wings decreases in proportion to the increase in size of'the body of the flying creature, and it is called "a most puzzling paradox, perhaps the most mysterious of the enigmas of bird flight.'
"As the solution of the problem of aerial navigation depends largely on an accurate knowledge of the principles governing bird flight, and as the problem is daily becoming of greater popular interest, it may be well to state that the proportion of wing surface to weight follows a very simple and easily understood law.
"The sustaining power of the wings depends not on their area, but on their displacement. If we take two wings of equal width, but one double the length of the other, and move them through the segment of a circle, the larger one will displace four times the air that is displaced by the shorter one. But if we keep the wings of
equal length, but have one double the width of the other, the wider one will displace only twice as much air as the narrower one. The sustaining power, therefore, varies directly with the width of the wing, but varies as the square of the length.
"If we assume that the wings of all birds are of the same proportionate shape, and that all birds are equipped with the same power of flight—both assumptions being correct only in a very general way—we have the following equation for determining their wing area :
"The wing surface in square feet equals the square of the cube root of twice the weight in pounds. If we apply this law to some of the birds as given in the table of wing areas in Mr. Bolce's article, we obtain the following figures:
Weight in pounds '^J*]™* ^--^Sf
Screech-owl.......... o>33 0.776 2.35
Sparrow-hawk...... .336 .69 2.05
Blackheaded gull... .619 .92 1.49
Goshawk............... .641 .84 1.31
Fish-hawk............ 2. So 3.01 1.10S
Turkey-buzzard.... 5.6 5.33 .95
Flamingo ............ 6.34 3.50 .55
Griffin-vulture...... 16.52 11.3S .6S
Condor................ 16.52 9.80 .59
"Mr. Bolce states that "the Australian crane, for instance, weighs over three hundred times more than the sparrow, but in proportion has only one-seventh of the wing area of the smaller bird.' Under this law, with a wing area of only one-seventh proportionately, it should weigh 343 times more.
"Mr. Bolce also states that "the stork weighs eight times more than the pigeon but in proportion has only half as much wing surface." This agrees exactly with this law.
"I do not know whether this law governing wing areas is known to others studying aerial navigation. I found it necessarv to reduce it to a definite formula in mv investigations.
"Applying this law to human flight, if a man should equip himself with artificial wings, and the combined weight of man and wings should be 200 pounds, he would need a wing surface of 54.17 square feet. A flying machine weighing 2.000 pounds would require a wing area of 250 square feet. H. B."
Xov. 15.— International Exposition of Aeronautic Bhotographs. at Paris. Dec. S.—Aeroplane race at Issy les Moulineaux.
CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS IN AMERICA.
Messrs. Albert C. Triaca and B. B. Whitman, of the Xew York School of Automobile Engineers, intend to inaugurate about January 1st. 1003. a school for the instruction of amateurs in aerostation and aviation.
Col. Espitallier has arranged a series of forty lessons, divided into four parts: spherical balloons: dirigibles: aviation, aeroplanes, helicopters, hydroplanes, etc.: and practical application of the principles of aeronautics. The material for these papers has been collected from authorities all over the world. There will be a directing committee composed of those most renowned in aerostation and aviation. Practical lessons in ballooning will be under the charge of Charles Levee, a pilot of the Aero Club of France.
To the Editor.
American Magazine of Aeronautics. Dear Sir:
In your October number 1 have noticed among your list of communications, the letter headed "An Appreciation," and signed by F. A. Postnikov, Lt-Col., Military and Civil Eng., Aeronautic Grad.
It strikes me that he is making a serious mistake in his accusations, in reference to the inventive genius, inasmuch as he is striking at the one that we must look toward for the successful accomplishment of aerial navigation.
His claiming that ninety per cent, of inventors being ignorant maniacs is absurd. I admit that there are some very ignorant ones, and also some maniacs, but I have found that the most ignorant ones are not in the inventive class, but in the class that think that they are going to be "swindled," owing to their "'selfish desire'' to keep the money that they have in their possession.
For the sound and honest people, really interested in the rapid solution of aerial navigation, there is only one way, let the man with the capital take hold, hand in hand, with the man with the brains (do not consider him an ignorant maniac, because he toils in his little shop, in secrecy, to the small hours of the morning, while the man of money is idling his time at the clubs, wasting his money on his own "selfish desire"' for pleasures) and work honestly.
Money is a very hard thing to get by the average mechanic, but brains of inventive qualities arc still harder to obtain. Therefore, the man with the capital should step forward and assist the man who oftimes is bright and intelligent, and one who has matured his plans, and is being made a maniac owing to the lack of funds that are hindered by the "selfish desire'" of the man with the money. What is our greatest obstruction to the success of aerial navigation? It certainly is not the lack of ambition of the inventor, as he is only too anxious to bring his invention before the public, to show what he can do. as all the average mechanic has to glory in is in showing his accomplishments.
What hinders him most ? The lack of money! And the cause of this is the "selfish desire"" of those that have it to keep it in their possession, or for their own pleasures.
Again, why is America so far behind European countries in aerial navigation? Because the American man of money is so full of this "selfish desire"' that he must set ten dollars coming in before he will spend one out. In foreign countries the man with the capital will assist the inventor, therefore they have obtained better results. As to the false ambitions of inventors, those people accomplish little, their achievements do not amount to enough to interest any one, while on the other hand, the "selfish desire" of the money man can be classed with the false ambitious inventor, as he is a greater obstruction toward the perfection of aerial navigation.
Xow, then, let us cut this "selfish desire" and let the man with the money invest with the manual and mental work of the inventor, and run a chance with bright thoughts and see if there shall not be something accomplished. Do not consider that ninety per cent, of the inventors are fools, but vice versa, and do what you can to help the cause along, as the average mechanic has the brains and no money, and
the average money mail has no-well has not the inventive ability, as he does
not see time to waste on mechanics. Therefore, I ask the man of money to place it with the man of brains, and then we shall see success.
I am sure that the American Magazine of Aeronautics shall be of great assistance towards the perfection of the future aerial craft.
D1LL0X HOFFMAN, M. E.
AERONAUTIC SOCIETIES OF THE WORLD.
To those who are unacquainted with the actual status of aeronautics the following list of aeronautical societies or clubs will prove most surprising. There are at tile present time thirty-seven organizations whose energies are applied to the solution of aeronautical problems and it is not at all unlikely that this number will be added to very frequently.
A. INTERNATIONAL SCIENTI-
1. The International Commission for Scientific Aeronautics. Founded in Paris, September. 1896. The members include the directors of meteorological institutes in all countries. The object of the Commission is to investigate the conditions holding in the atmosphere up to the highest limit attainable by kites and balloons. Simultaneous ascents are made with this object from various meteorological stations all over the world on the first Thursday in each month.
2. The Permanent International Aeronautical • Committee. Founded by a resolution of the International Aeronautic Congress at Paris in 1900 in order to carry out the expressed wish of the Congress to advance the progress of aeronautics by scientific advice, and to prepare for the following congress. Offices, in the buildings of the Societe d'Encouragement, 44 rue de Rennes, Paris. The transaction of business is regulated by statutes published in 1901. The congress elected 33 members, who received the right to elect other members and to appoint sub-committees for special subjects.
B. FEDERATION AERONAUT I-QUE INTERNATIONALE.
Founded on the 14th of October, 1905, in Paris. It has formulated special rules and regulations which
are adopted by all amalgamated societies and clubs. The societies and clubs belonging to this Federation are indicated by an asterisk. (*)
C. NATIONAL SOCIETIES. *I. Deutscher Luftschiffer-Verband.
Founded at Augsburg on the 28th of December. 1902, for the purpose of increasing the genera! interest in aeronautical matters, and more especially for:
(a) Supporting a monthly aeronautical journal (Illustrierte Aeronautische M itteilungenV
(b) The publication, of a yearbook.
(c) The Superintendence of the training of aeronauts.
(d) The publication of the qualifications necessary for an aeronaut as laid down by the society.
Address, Care of Hauptmann Hildebrandt, Kirchstrasse 2, Charlottenburg.
The following German societies belong to this National Federation.
1. Berliner Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Founded August 31, 1881, in Berlin. Fublished the Zeitschrift für Luftschiffahrt from 1882 to 1900, when the Illustrierte Aeronautische Mitteilungen was adopted as the official journal of the Verein. The Verein owns several balloons and has arranged numerous ascents, under the patronage of H. R. H. the Kaiser. The society has instituted stations for balloon ascents all over Germany, wherever the balloons can be convenienti}' inflated. Headquarters, Dresdenerstrasse 38, Berlin, S. 14. Number of members 807, including 134 qualified aeronauts.
2. Münchener Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Founded November 21, 18S9. at Munich. Published animal proceedings up to 1901. Contributed to the Zeitschrift für Luftschiffahrt up to 1898, and subsequently to the Illustriete Aeronautischen Mitteilungen. Owns balloon equipment and has arranged numerous ascents since
1889. Membership 383, including 53 qualified aeronauts. Headquarters, Kaufingerstrasse 26, Munich.
3. Oberrheinischer Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Founded July 24, 1896, at Strasbourg. Published the III. Mitteilungen des Oberrheinischen Verein für Luftschiffahrt up to 1898, when this journal was re-organized as the 111. Aeronautische Mitteilungen. Owns balloon equipment and has arranged ascents since 1897. Membership 200, including 25 qualified aeronauts. Headquarters, Munsterplatz 9, Strasbourg, I. E.
4. Augsburger Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Founded in June, 1901, at Augsburg. Owns balloon equipment and has arranged ascents since 1901. Membership 321, including 36 aeronauts. Headquarters. Carolinenstrasse 83, Augsburg.
5. Niederrheinischer Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Founded December 15, 1902, at Barmen. First ascent January, 1903. Owns balloon equipment. Membership, 633, including 15 aeronauts. Headquarters, Königstrasse 35, Barmen.
6. Posener Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Founded December 2, 1903, at Posen. First ascent, December 19, 1903. Membership, 83, including 9 aeronauts. Headquarters, Gartenstrasse 10, Posen.
7. Ostdeutscher Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Founded June 11, 1904, at Graudenz, West Prussia. First ascent July, 1904. Number of members 150, including 10 aeronauts. Headquarters Ostbank für Handel und Gewerbe, Pohlmannstrasse 9, Graudenz.
8. Frankischer Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Founded May 12, 1905, at Würzburg. First ascent February, 1905. Membership 150, including 6 aeronauts. Headquarters, Bergmeisterstrasse II, Würzburg.
9. Mittelrheinischer Verein für Luftschiffahrt. • Founded May 11, 1905, at Coblenz. Membership 83, including 4 aeronauts. Headquarters, Casinostrasse 37, Coblenz.
10. Kölner Klub für Luftschiffahrt.
Kallenburg 1-3. Köln.
11. Physikalischer Verein im Frankfort A. M., Stiftstrasse 32, Frankfort.
12. Motorluftschiff - Studiengesellschaft m. b. H., Spandauerweg, Berlin.
II. SOCIETIES OF OTHER NATIONS.
13. Wiener Flugtechnischer Verein. Founded August 18. 1887, in Vienna, as an offshoot of the Oesterreichischer Ingenieur Verein. Contributed towards the cost of Wilhelm Kress' flying machine. Membership about 90. Headquarters, Esehen-bachgasse 9, Vienna, I.
14. Wiener Aero Club. Founded in August, 1901, at Vienna. The club possesses its own grounds and balloon equipment and has organized ascents since 1901. Publishes a monthly journal, Wiener LuftschifferZeitung. Membership 79, including 9 aeronauts. Headquarters, Annahof 3, Vienna, I.
15. *Aero Club Suisse. Founded March 30, 1901, at Berne. Owns balloon equipment. First ascent July 11, 1902. Membership 140. Headquarters, Hirsehengraben 3, Berne.
16. Aeronautical Society of Great Britain. Founded January 12, 1866, and consequently the oldest aeronautical society. First general meeting June 27, 1S66. Brought out from 1866 to 1892 annual reports and has published quarterly since 1897 the Aeronautical Journal of Great Britain. In 1901 the society founded an aeronautical museum. Membership 120. Headquarters, 53 Victoria St., London, S. W.
17. *Aero Club of the United Kingdom. Founded in January, 1902, in London. Headquarters 166 Pica-dilly, London, W.
18. *Aero Club of America. Founded in November, 1905, in New York.
Number of members, 300. Headquarters, 12 East 42nd St., New York.
19. Aero Club of Philadelphia.
Founded in Philadelphia, 1906. Number of members, 40. Headquarters, Philadelphia, Pa.
20. Aero Club of St. Louis. Pounded in January, 1907. Headquarters, St. Louis, Mo. Membership, 350.
21. Aero Club of Chicago. Founded in May, 1907. Headquarters, 79 Randolph St., Chicago, 111.
22. Svenska Aeronautiska Sallska-pet. Founded at Stockholm, December, 1900. Membership 80. Headquarters, Stockholm.
23. Société Français de Navigation Aérienne. Founded in Paris, August, 1872. Publishes a monthly journal, L'Aeronaute. This society is the oldest aeronautical society in France. Number of members, 103. Headquarters, Hotel des Ingénieurs Civils de France, 19 Rue Blanche, Paris.
24. Aéronautique Club de France.
Founded October, 1897. Has branches in Paris and Lyons. Its objects are the propagation of a knowledge of aeronautical matters and the education of as many aeronauts as possible among the civil population. Membership, 350 in Paris, 150 in Lyons. Its official organ is L'Aéronautique, published quarter^ since 1902. Ladies are admitted as members. Annual distribution of medals and prizes to balloon conductors belonging to the society. Headquarters, 58 Rue J. J. Rousseau, Taris.
25. *Aero Club de France. Founded in Paris, December, 1898. Adopted the monthly journal L'Aerophile as its official organ in 1901. The club is distinguished for its great activity in aeronautical matters. In 1900 it offered the Deutsch prize of 100,000 francs to the first aeronaut to start from the Park, St. Cloud, go around the Eiffel Tower and return to starting point within 30 minutes. The prize was won by Santos-Du-mont October 19, 1902. In 1903 nu-
merous medals were offered in connection with various competitions and balloon sports. Membership 700, including 60 aeronauts. Headquarters, 84 Faubourg St. Honore, Paris. Owns balloon equipment.
26. Académie Aéronautique de France. Founded in 1902. Headquarters, 14 Rue des Goncourts, Paris.
27. Societie des Aeronautes du Siege. Founded in 1902, the membership of the society being confined to persons who escaped from Paris during the siege of 1870-71 by balloon. In 1903 the society had only 31 members.
28. Aero Club du Sud-Est. Founded in Bordeaux in April, 1905. Number of members, 175, including 10 pilots. Owns balloon equipment. A section of the club was formed at Pan in December, 1905, comprising 21 members. Headquarters, Bordeaux.
29. Aero Club du Rhone. Headquarters, 4 Quai Pêcherie, Lyon.
30. Aero Club du Nord. Headquarters, 4 Rue de la Gare, Roubaix.
31. Club Aéronautique de l'Aube.
Headquarters, 23 Place de la Bonneterie, Troye.
32. Automobile Club de Nice (Section Aéronautique). Headquarters,
7 Promenade des Anglais, Nice.
33. *Aero Club de Belgique. Founded in Brussels in February, 1901. Membership 300. Owns balloon equipment and publishes a fortnightly journal, La Conquête de l'Air. Headquarters, 5 Place Royale, Brussels.
34. *Societa Aeronautica Italiana. Under the patronage of the King of Spain. Founded in Rome, March, 1904. The society is divided into three sections: Rome with 136 members, Turin with 29 members and Milan with J7 members. Owns balloon equipment. Headquarters, Via Delia Muratte, 70, Rome; Via Davide Bert-oletti 2, Turin; Via Secco 2, Milan.
(Continued on page 45.)
RARE AERONAUTIC BOOKS FOR SALE
This magazine will publish each month a list of such rare books relating to aeronautics as it is able to secure.
If you desire any of those listed, kindly send check with your order for the amount stated. Should the book ordered be sold previous to the receipt of your order, the money will be promptly returned.
Astra Castra (Hatton Turner). Royal 4to, cloth, gilt top, uncut, London, 1865............$15.00
An Account of the First Aerial Voyage in England (Vincent Lunardi). Portrait of Lunardi by Bartolozzi and plates. Crown 8vo, half calf, uncut, London, 1784. Autograph "V. Lunardi" on fly-leaf......... 15.00
Travels in the Air (James Glai-sher). 8vo., cloth, London, 1871........................ 10.00
Crotchets in the Air (John Poole). 12 mo., cloth, London, 1838 ......................... 5-00
Flying and No Failure. Very rare reprint. Pamphlet. London, 1751.................. 3.00
By Land and Sky (John M. Bacon). Four illustrations. 8vo, cloth, uncut, London, 1901 2.50
A Balloon Ascension at Midnight (G. E. Hall). Plates by Gordon Ross. 8vo, boards, uncut. San Francisco, 1902. Limited edition .................. 2.50
Five Weeks in a Balloon (Wm. Lackland). 12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1869.....•................ 2.50
Wonderful Balloon Ascents (F. Marion). 12 mo., half leather, N. Y., 1871 ........■......... 2.50
My Airships (Santos-Dumont). Illustrated. Crown Svo, cloth, uncut, London, 1904......... 2.50
The Dominion of the Air. The story of aerial navigation. Illustrations from photographs. Crown, Svo, cloth, London, n. d......................... 2.00
My Life and Balloon Experiences. Photograph of author. Crown, Svo, cloth. London, 1887 ......................... 2.00
Travels in Space (G. S. Valentine and F. L. Tomlinson). Introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim, 61 plates. Svo, cloth, London, 1902............... 2.00
Balloon Travels (Robert Merry).
12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1865 . ...$ 2.50
Aerodynamics. Illustrated. 1891. 2.00
Conquest of the Air (John Alexander). 12 mo., cloth, London, 1902 ......................... 2.00
The Motor and its Chief Application, Wings, Propulsion in Air,_ etc. (Com. of Pat., 1849). Svo., paper .................. 1.50
La Machine Animale (J. Marey). Illustrated, Svo, cloth, Paris, 1878, French ................ 1.25
Balloons, Airships and Flying Machines (Gertrude Bacon). 12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1905 .... 1.00
These columns are open to everyone at 3 cents a word.
By young man interested in aeronautics. Has studied electrical engineering and is now in electrical laboratory. N. C.
By young man student of aerial navigation. Desires to work with some advanced experimentor. O.A.D.
Financial assistance to build a flying machine I have invented, based on a principle hitherto ignored by inventors. I can convince anyone interested that it meets all the requirements for a successful machine. I do not expect any money to be invested until I convince the person interested that my invention is worthy support and far superior to any yet public. I invented this machine over a year ago. I would like to hear from people who are in a position and are inclined to promote experiments in aeronautics. Address, J. A. La Bille, North Platte, Neb.
(Continued from page 44.)
Aviation Club de France—President, L. Delagrange; Address, 3 Rue Taitbout, Paris.
AERONAUT LEO STEVENS
CONTRACTOR TO THE U. S. GOVERNMENT AT THE PRESENT TIME
INSTRUCTOR TO ARMY BALLOON CORPS
Box 181, Madison square, new York
Airship—Baldwin's California Arrow—Patented.
I design and manufacture, Free Balloons, Captive Balloons, Airships, and in fact everything in the hydrogen line of aeronautics. Information relative to dates and terms, cheerfully furnished upon request.
CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN
Airship California Arrow
Box 78 Madison Sq. P. O,, New York
1 „ 2, A- and s cylinders
3lA "to 40 H. P. air cooled and
100 H. P. Water Cooled
Highest award L,ewis & Clark Exposition
Adopted by U. S. War Department
Used on all successful airships and by scientific men and aeronautical experimenters generally.
SEND FOR CATALOGUE M.
G. H. CURTISS MANUFACTURING CO., Hammondsport. N. Y.