Volume 1 - No. 4 - October July
|Table of Contents|
The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.
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—Gordon Bennett Interna tional Race—Flying Machine and Airship Competitions at St. Louis—Aero Club of America —Jamestown Aeronautical Congress — French Preparatory School for Military Aeronauts—The Antoinette Aeroplane—The Gammeter Orthopter—International Aeronautic Conference at Brussels — Considerations of the Helicopter — Farman Aeroplane—De La Vaulx Aeroplane —British Military Airship—Malecot Airship—Japan and America — Chronology — Aeronautics in the Current Magazines — The New Parseval — History of Airships — Aeronautical Motors — Notes— Correspondence — Santos Dumont — Scientific American Cup.
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Official Gordon Bennett Race Program
THE OFFICIAL program of the Gordon Bennett Aeronautic Cup contest, St. Louis, Mo., October 21, 1907, will be in keeping with the magnitude of the event. It will be an interesting, superbly printed and illustrated 64-page souvenir, containing pictures of the contestants, their aerostats and of the airships and aeroplanes to be used in subsidiary events, as well as complete records of the aeronauts and an account of former aeronautic achievements.
A copy of the official program will be sent to any address in the United States or Canada on receipt of the price, 25 cents. In quantities of 500 or over it will be sold at a reduction.
As a circulation of 100,000 is estimated and the rates are low, the program is a splendid proposition for advertisers. Send at once for rates and reserve space promptly.
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—ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI--representing the aero ciyub of america
In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.
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The Company's 1907 Royal Tourist Demonstrating Car equipped with Newmastic filled tires, completed a trip from New York to Chicago and return in 16 days. It then followed the Ghdden Tour. 1 he Newmastic tires are in perfect shape after 10,000 miles. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: ::
See Our Exhibit at the Automobile Show of the Automobile Club of America, Grand Central Palace, New York, October 24 to 31.
fn answerins advertisements please mention this magazine.
CORTXANDT FIEIvD BISHOP President of Aero Club of America.
American magazine of Aeronautics.
published monthly by
AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS CO.
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Vol. I October, 1907 No. 4
American Magazine of Aeronautics is issued promptly on the tenth of each month. It aims to furnish the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aerouautics. Contributions are solicited.
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THAT PRIZE—ONCE MORE I
It is possible that the Aero Club may merit some of the frequent criticisms that it is not doing what it might for the advancement of the science to -which it is pledged.
Of course, as can easily be reasoned by any sensible person, the Club cannot be expected to avail itself of the countless opportunities to finance the construction of machines guaranteed by their inventors to fly on half a trial. This would surely necessitate the assistance of Mr. Bishop's "Croesus/"'
Rut it can offer cash prizes for flights, by gasless machines, of ever increasing-distances. The inventor would then have something concrete to aim at and it would make producers of the many whose energies are now latent for lack of a stimulus.
We trust there is no need of repeating the various conditions now confronting the inventor of aerial apparatus. We believe these have been quite fully set forth in previous issues.
We suggest herewith a most feasible plan of securing such a prize, or prizes,—■ a plan that will appeal to the business man and the capitalist in the light of an actually good investment.
Let us contribute—200 of us—$25.00 each, making a sum of $5000. This will do nicely as a basis for the future. Offer this to the inventor, in America, who will first fly a given distance, say, 1000 feet, on condition that in case he wins the prize, the two hundred contributors to this sum will share a one-fourth interest in the invention. This gives the capitalist something to show for his investment, the inventor has a cash return for his labors, and we are ail in shape to form a working corporation. The outlay of each member of this syndicate is ridiculously small but the aggregate is fairly large. The inventor gives but a fourth interest and has a business basis upon which to work. If one member wishes to subscribe for more than one share, that is his privilege.
There are several machines now building or built in this country which give promise of results. There may be some of which we do not know. Of course, it is understood that tins is not open to the Wright Brothers.
We want to appeal to our readers and ask their suggestions. Xow is the time— not to-morrow. We have mentioned this idea to several of our friends who arc glad to aid. To make a definite start, we add their names.
American Magazine of Aeronautics.
Lee S. Burridge.
Wilbur R. Kimball.
Thos. 0. Washburn.
A. L. Weslgard.
Alan K. Ilawlev.
(Jeorge .M. Kirkner.
Dr. C. T. Adams.
('has. Jerome Edwards.
GORDON BENNETT RACE.
On October 21, at Saint Louis, tor the second time since its offering, some of the best balloonists in the world will compete for the Cordon Bennett International Aeronautic Cup.
This now most famous of all ballooning trophies was given, in 1906, by Mr. James Cordon Bennett, the proprietor of the Xcw York Herald, whose gift to the automobile world has done so much to stimulate the sport of automobile racing". LTp to September :"><>. 100(i. there had not been an actual "international"' balloon race.
Many had been so called but it remained for Mr. Bennett to give to balloon racing a truly international aspect.
This cup, of the value of $2..500. and $2..100 in cash in addition, was placed in the custody, for the time being, of the Aero Club of Franc*1 and was contested for the first time at Paris, September 30, 190G. Again this year 31 r. Bennett generously provides $2,-100 in cash to the winner, besides the cup. Supplementary cash prizes to the extent of $2,500 are oifered by the Aero Club of St. Louis to those contestants finishing second, third, fourth and
CORDON BENNETT INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTIC CUP. fit til.
Last Year's Race.
There are few who do not know the story of Lieutenant Frank Y. Lahm's victory with Major Henry B. 'Mersey over fifteen of the most skillful pilots in Europe: how, starting twelfth from the park at St. Cloud, they crossed the English Channel by night, not knowing whelher the wind would change and blow them out to sea ; on over the English towns and villages almost to Scotland, landing finally at Fyling Dales, a distance of a little over four hundred miles.
7, 1S77, entered After two years' 1903, as instructor
lieut. frank p. lahm.
Lieutenant Lahm was born at Mansfield, Ohio, November West Point in June, 1897, and became a lieutenant of cavalry campaign in the Philippines the young officer was detailed, in
of French again at West Point. He joined
the Aero Club of America 1ml before he had
an opportunity to make an ascension under
its auspices was sent to the French cavalry
school at Sauinur. France, as foreign attache.
There, under the tutelage of his father, a
veteran aeronaut, he made many ascents and
qualified as a pilot of the Aero Club of
When the Cordon Bennett race was announced, the Aero Club of America immediately began to look for its champions. The short space of time prevented anyone from going from here and Lieutenant Lahm and Santos Dumont were named by cable to represent the Aero Club of America.
At the last moment before the start, Charles Levee, who was to acompany the Lieutenant, was forced to withdraw and it looked as though he would have to go alone. But Major Ilersey, of the Well man expedition and at one time attached to the P. S. Weather Bureau, offered his services as aide just in the nick of time. That they were accepted with the greatest of pleasure you can be assured.
It was five o'clock when the start was made in the "United States/' a balloon belonging to Mr. Frank S. Lahm, Lieutenant Lahm's father. At eight o'clock it began to grow dark and lights twinkled in the little French villages near the coast. The cross-channel trip cannot be told better than by the Lieutenant himself and we quote his description from ''Navigating the Air:"
''At seventeen minutes past 11 p. m. we slipped quietly out over the English Channel, the end of the guide-rope just off the water, and began the second and most interesting part of our trip. Our direction on reaching the Channel would have taken us out to the southwestern extremity of England, but again the wind veered and we were traveling west of north.
"To describe the beauty of the Channel crossing would require the pen of a master. With a full moon shining overhead, an almost cloudless sky, the balmy air, and, except for the gentle breaking of the waves beneath us. not a sound to disturb the perfect calm, nothing could be more charming, nothing more delightful. With occasional reference to the compass and North Star, we knew our direction was good, so had no uneasiness on that score. Sitting on the bottom of the car on the ballast bags, occasionally looking over to see if the guide-rope was clear of the water, if not, throwing out a scoopful of sand to send us up a few feet, we quietly ate our long-postponed dinner of sandwiches, chicken, eggs, fruit, coffee and other good things which we had laid in before starting. Once a little sailing vessel slipped under us and disappeared in the night. This was the only sign of life we saw in the Channel. The revolving light on the coast at Havre was on our right at the start, but we soon left it behind.
"At 2.30 a. m. a revolving light appeared ahead of us, and we knew we were approaching the English shore. On coming closer we were able to recognize that this light was on a light-ship. An hour later we were over the terra firma of old England. Soon afterward the lights of a large city appeared on our left. We knew this must be Chichester, in the county of Sussex.
"Then the friendly moon deserted us, and heavy mists covered up the lowlands, so that we lost sight of the earth, catching only an occasional glimpse of the black tops
of the trees under the end of the guide-rope. The first color of dawn showed itself in the east before five o'clock, but due to the mist and fog, it was past six before we were able to distinguish clearly the ground beneath us. We were forcibly impressed with the fact that the English farmer is not an early riser, for the loud and continued shouts of my companion did not bring forth a response until past seven. Then we learned that we had crossed the counties of Sussex and Hampshire in the fog, and were then over Berkshire.
"All morning we journeyed up over England, past Warwick Castle, past Stratford-on-Avon. Then the warm sun came out, heating and expanding the gas in the balloon and carrying us higher and higher in the air.
"At two o'clock in the afternoon we had reached an altitude of 10,000 feet. As we rose higher, our direction changed to east of north. From the direction of clouds at a lower level than ourselves, and of the smoke at the ground, we knew that the lower currents of air would take us farther to the west, so we started down in the hope of being able to change our direction sufficiently to take us into Scotland. A few minutes more brought us to the brown and barren moors, and then the coast of the North Sea loomed up straight ahead of us. It was necessary to hasten the descent, so I opened the valve and allowed a good supply of gas to escape. Down we came until the guide-rope was trailing on the moors. We knew it was just a question of minutes until we should be at sea; but as the wind had changed slightly, we hoped to continue long enough to reach a more settled district, and possibly a railroad station. A few minutes more and we had reached the edge of the moors; then a little railroad appeared to the right, running along the coast. Another minute and a small station was in sight. A farm-house ahead looked inviting, so we decided to land. But T had overestimated the gripping power of my anchor, for on striking the ground it tore up a little sod, then let go, and the wind carried us on. A stone wall served only to twist the shank of the anchor.
"Finally, due to the loss of gas, the car struck the ground in a field a half mile past the house, jumped up just high enough to clear a stone wall, came down again, turned on its side, dragged a few yards after the tugging balloon, then stopped. On striking the second time, I pulled the "rip cord" which tears a large strip out of the top of the balloon. The gas rushed out, and our good steed which had carried us so many miles lost his strength and lay stretched out on the meadow, a flat and empty bag."
Thus was won for America this magnificent cup. The other representative, Santos Dnmont, fell by the wayside after having covered some eighty-seven miles.
This Year's Race.
Unfortunately, Lieutenant Lahra, America's first choice, will be unable to compete at St. Louis and it is expected that Major Henry B. Ilersey, his alternate, will take his place. It is also regrettable that there will be but nine balloons in the coming contest. Spain had entered two balloons, as well as Italy, but on account of their not technically complying with the rules regarding the entries the Federation saw fit to bar them from this contest. Of course, the small number of competitors adds greatly to the chances of each but our own contestants have been most anxious that the number of starters should be as large as possible and have expressed their regrets that the love of sport did not weigh somewhat in judging the irregular entries. Switzerland, also, desired to compete but was late in making up her mind. It might be suggested that the date for the closing of entries be advanced from February in each year to a month or two later.
The contestants this year are as follows:
America—Aero Club of America. Major Henry B. Hersev in the "United States/' 2,100 cubic metres capacity; Alan 1?. Hawley in the "St. Louis,'' 2,200 cubic metres; J. C. McCoy in the "America."of 2,200 cubic metres. Augustus Post
will accompany Mr. Hawley and with Mr. McCoy will go Captain Chas. De F. Chandler.
England—Aero Club of the United Kingdom. Griffith Brewer and the Hon. Lieutenant Claud Brabazon in the balloon "Lotus II," of 2,150 cubic metres. This is the same balloon as was used by Santos Dumont in last year's race, having been revamished and repaired.
Germany—Deutscher Luftsehiifer-Yerband. Oscar Krbsloh in the "Pommern," 2,200 cubic metres; Captain Hugo von Abercron and Hans Hiedeinann in the "Diisseldorf," of 2,250 cubic metres; Paul Meckel in the "Tsehudi," of 1,300 cubic metres.
France—Aero Club of France. Alfred Leblanc and 31. Mix; Kene Gasnier and Chas. Levee. The names of the balloons are not yet known.
The balloons "United States." "Pommern,'' "Lotus II" and the "Diisseldorf" were participating balloons last year. Major Hersey was companion to Lieutenant Lahin, Griffith Brewer was companion to Frank IT. Butler and Erbsloh was companion to Abercron in last year's race.
The only American made balloon in the race is that, of J. C. McCoy, manufactured by A. Leo
Ste^ens. alan r. hawley.
All honor to Mr. Bennett, the Aero Club of America, and the competitors L
maj. henry b. hersey.
j. c. mccoy.
A special Contest Committee has been appointed to judge the contest as follows:
Cortlandt Field Bishop, Samuel Fl. Valentine,
Maurice Mallet, L. I). Dozier,
Augustus Post, Frank S. Lahm,
Chas. Jerome Edwards, Chas. J. Glidden.
Captain Hildebrandt will supervise the inflation of the German balloons, Maurice Mallet the French and A. Leo Stevens the American.
The start will take place in Forest Park, where special pipes have been laid, viewing stands erected and everything possible done to make the affair pass off smoothly.
Most of those who go to St. Louis will take the "Southwestern Limited''' of the New York Central, leaving at 2 :00 p. m., Thursday, October 17, arriving at St. Louis the following day at 5 :00 o'clock p. m. This train is equipped with Pullman observation cars, buffet-library, smoking car, dining car, barber shop, stenographer and maid.
The field instruments for the use of the Contestants have been loaned to the Aero Club of America bv M. Jules Eichard.
At the same time, the Lahm Cup, offered by the Aero Club of America, is available for competition, to be awarded to the competitor of affiliated clubs who in America exceeds Lieutenant Lahnfs record of 402 miles.
The Aero Club of St. Louis will hold on the following day, October 22, contests between dirigible motor balloons and between "gasless" flying machines, $5,000 in cash being offered in prizes. Full details and rules have been published in this magazine in previous numbers. The Scientific American trophy is available for competition.
FLYING MACHINE AND AIRSHIP COMPETITIONS AT ST. LOUIS.
For the first time in history, so far as we know, there is expected to be actual "races" between gasless flying machines at St. Louis. At least two have actually entered machines: Mr. H. C. Gammeter, of Cleveland, with an orthopter, and S. Y. Beach, of the Scientific American, with an aeroplane. Mr. Beach is trying his best to finish the machine in time and it is the hope of everyone that it will be possible for him to be present.
Messrs. Baldwin, Strobel and Cromwell Dixon, the fourteen-year-old boy who recently constructed and successfully Hew a small airship, have announced their intention of competing for the dirigible prizes.
These competitions will occur on Tuesday, October 22, the day after the start of the Gordon Bennett, under the auspices and control of the Aero Club of St. Louis. $2000 cash goes to the winner and $500 to the contestant winning second place in each of the two types of contests. A three-quarter mile course is provided for the airships and a flight of one hundred feet must be made by the heavier-than-air machines in order to be eiigible to the prizes.
AERO CLUB OF AMERICA. New Members.
F. F. Fletcher. Newport, IL 1.
G. II. Curtiss. Hammondstport, N. Y.
Hon. James M. Beck. 47 E. (54th St., New York.
11. O. Gammeter, Cleveland, O.
Albert C Triaca, 14G W. 5(5th St.. New York.
Sept. 5.—Colonel and Mrs. Fleiselnnann and A. Leo Stevens in the Stevens 21, 1000 cubic metres, at Xorth Adams. The balloon moved slowiy up the vallev over Stamford, Vt. At Hartwellville it disappeared in the clouds. The landing was at Meriden, X. II., 127 miles. Time in the air, -l1/^ hours.
Sept. 15.—Charles J. Glidden and 31. Leon Barthou, of the French 3linistry of Public Works, in the Aero Club Xo. 2, 1550 cubic metres, at St. Cloud, 11:1(> a. m. Descent between Yevre-le-Chatel and 3"evre-la-Allle, near Pithiviers, at 3 :4(> p. m. Highest altitude, 92GG feet. Distance 52 miles. This was 3fr. Glidden\s first "run" in the air.
Sept. 21.—Captain Charles De F. Chandler and J. C. McCoy in the Army Xo. 10 at Washington, D. C. Descent at Harmon, 9 miles from Baltimore. Time in the air 2}C hours. Altitude reached, 4000 feet.
Sept. 30.—Captain Chandler and J. C. McCoy in the Army Xo. 10, at Washington, D. C. Landing at Princess Anne. 3Id. Crossed over Chesapeake Bay during flight. Distance 20.5 miles.
3fembership cards for 1007 are being issued to members in good standing.
3Iembers are urged to take upon themselves individually to aid in every way possible to make the visit of our foreign colleagues a pleasant and enjoyable one and are requested to come to the Club as often as possible. The club is open every evening. Monday and Friday nights are special "Club Xights" and there is always a goodly number present. Those intending to visit St. Louis at the time of the race should send in their names at once in order that proper arrangements can be made.
THIRD ANNUAL EXHIBITION.
The Aero Club of America will again this year join hands with the Automobile Club of America and hold its Third Annual Exhibition of aeronautic apparatus at Grand Central Palace. Xcw York, October 24-31.
On account of the aeronautic exhibit at Jamestown it was thought that it might be difficult to arrange a successful exhibition, but the Club has met with agreeable surprises and it is not unlikely that this one will surpass the two previous. In addition, it has been possible to obtain all the exhibits from Jamestown.
Among the exhibits will be found the following: Balloons—Nirvana of Dr. Julian P. Thomas. Initial of Alfred X. Chandler, America of J. C. McCoy. Psyche of J. C. McCoy. St. Louis of Alan ]>. Hawley. The America and Si. Louis are competing balloons in the International Race. It is also expected to have on exhibition the balloons of the foreign contestants in this race. Dirigible Balloons— Santos Dumont Xo. 9, Smithsonian Institution; the California Arrow, Captain Thos. S. Baldwin; one from Charles J. Strobe!; New York. Dr. Thomas; two from Capt. T. T. Lovelace; Xo. 23 of Carl Iv Myers. Acronanlic Molar*—Aero & Marine Motor Co., G. II. Curtiss Mfg. Co., Prospect Motor Co.. the famous Antoinette motor from Adams Mfg. Co. Full Sized Flying Machines—Orthopier of IL C. Gammeter. Aeroplane of S. 3'. Beach, W. M. KeiPs gliding machine. Models—Airship, C. Bnsclmer; kite balloon and regulation balloon. August Piedinger; airship, Peter Tkatchenko; aeroplane. A. Y. Wilson; glider. Louis 11. Hall; living machine, Carl Harhnan ; flying paper models, William Morgan: S-wing aeroplane, William
A. Eddy; flying model helicopter, W. P. Kimball. Fairies—Continental Caoutchouc Co. Kites—Henry Bodemyer, C. S. Ward well, Silas J. Conyne. Miscellaneous—Bearings, Wm. J. Brewer, C.E.; propellers, Carl Hartman; drawings and photographs of proposed machines; photographs of various balloons and airships, aerial photographs, etc.; model electric advertising balloon, Lord Electric Co.; balloon wireless outfit; an educational exhibit of the American Magazine of Aeronautics; balloon cameras, lenses., etc., C. P. Goerz, American Optical Co. Exhibits are constantly coming in and the list will be considerably longer by October 24. Moving pictures of Ihe International Pace will lie shown daily during the Show on the same floor.
The Aero Club has been favored this year in obtaining the third floor of the Palace instead of being placed near the roof as last year, thus avoiding the crush and annoyances connected with the viewing of the exhibits in 1906.
JAMESTOWN AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.
On October 28-29 there will assemble in the Aeronautic Building at the Jamestown Exposition a notable gathering, for the purpose of presenting papers on the work of the past aeronautical year. It is regrettable that the unfortunate management of this Exposition should have prevented the elaborate plans from being carried out in their entirety. The lack of exhibits has been one result. Of balloon ascensions there have been but two, and a half dozen dirigible flights. To obtain a special building for this particular branch of science, however, was considerable of a thing and we have not been too much discouraged.
The committee has been favored thus far with the following papers:
"The Best Inclinations for the Surfaces and Propeller Shafts of Dynamical Apparatus,'- by T. W. K. Clarke, Assoc. M. Inst. C. K.
"Principles Involved in the Formation of Wing Surfaces and the Phenomenon of Soaring," by J. J. Montgomery, Ph.D.
"The Navigation of the Air," by Israel Lancaster.
"Experiments With Model Flying Machine," by Edward W. Smith.
Promised and to be received are the following papers:
"A Device for Extending the Area of Weather Reports," and "Lightning in its Relation to Aeronautics," by Professor Alexander 0. McAdie, TT. S. Weather Bureau, at San Francisco.
"The Use of the Gvroscope in Flving Machines," by Lieut. Robert Henderson, Chief Engineer of the U. S. S. "Missouri."
"On the First Observations with Sounding Balloons in America Obtained by the Blue Hill Observatory in 1904-7 at St. Louis," by Professor A. Lawrence Botch, Director of Blue Hill Observatory.
"Kite Experiments and Observations at Mt. Weather," by Dr. W. J. Humphreys, Director.
A paper by Mr. S. P. Fergusson, of Blue Hill Observatory.
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN CUP COMPETITION.
It was hoped to have a contest for this cup at Jamestown on September 14th and there were a number there to witness the trials. Owing to the incompleteness of the machines it was not possible to have the tests. There is now no date set but it can be competed for at any time upon due notice under the rules.
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THE PREPARATORY SCHOOL FOR MILITARY AERONAUTS.
FOUNDED BY L'AERONAUTIQUE CLUB DE FRANCE.
By M. J. Sauniére, President.
It was in the year 1794 that the Committee of Public Welfare thought to utilize captive balloons, upon the suggestion of M. Guyton de Morrean, to observe the movements of the enemy upon a battlefield.
The first trial was made by M. Coutelle with the first company of military balloonist* during the siege of Maubeuge, since when it was tried by Charleroi at the
battle of Fleurus, of illustrious m e m o r y , when he transported h i s inflated balloon, and in the year following assisted at the siege of Mayence. ín 1815 Carnot reconnoitred at Anvers.
Notwithstanding the indisputable services rendered by captive balloons in these various instances, it was necessary for the events of 1870, where the aerial post rendered well-known services, in order that, in 1874, the study of milita r y ballooning should be taken up seriously.
It was then that the founding of the establishment of Chal-ais-Meudon, under the instructions of the regretted Colonel líen-ard, was accomplished and the complete creation of the system still in use.
Today, for the requirements of instruction, four companies of balloonists, distributed for four years in the different garrisons of the regiments of the
french captive balloon. . °
engineers, are combined under the orders of Commander Avon, in the same battalion stationed at Versailles, where there is a park complete with shed and apparatus for the making of hydrogen.
At Chalais-Meudon is found the Laboratory of research for experimenting in
connection with military ballooning and the central headquarters for supplies in this connection.
The course of instruction is very complex, because, outside of ballooning, mechanics, and the inn king of the gas, it comprehends necessarily the school of the soldier and the main ideas of the work of the sapper, mines, fortifications and practical bridge making in the engineering corps. Pushing aside the difficulties which are presented under these conditions, the instruction of such a balloon corps, it seemed to the founder of the Aeronantique Club de France that a special preparation for young men desiring to enter service in this branch of the army could be easily organized. There was then created the Preparatory School for Military Balloonist s, now seven years old.
The assistance which this institution has been to the Army could not be better stated than in the words of the first commander of the balloon battalion, Lieut. Col. Ilirsehauer: "The preparatory school of the Aeronantique Club is the nursery of the under officers of my battalion."
Instruction is given the young men in evening classes. The pupils are recruited from all professions and belong to all classes of society and they may follow the course without interfering with regular occupation. The professors, members of the Aeronautic pie Club, have given for the most part, their services to the engineers in the bailoon department and are old pupils of the school, possessing all the qualities necessary to ably conduct the patriotic work which is entrusted to them and of which they acquit themselves with the greatest disinterestedness and most complete devotion.
The matters taught are relative to the construction and varnishing of the balloons, their handling, management, the manufacture and the properties of the gas. and the use of the instruments for making observations. The practice comprehends the process of filling the balloon with gas. sewing and rope making necessary in the construction and repairing of balloons.
Moreover all the pupils are compelled to practice gunnery and at long distance, (in 1!>0G more than 15,000 cartridges were fired).
This program completely realized permits not only the preparing of future military balloon experts but also of developing a taste for aeronautics and creating young incii who could become on their return to service, capable aeronauts, having had real balloon practice.
The patriotic work of the Aeronantique Club is then of double value compared with a work essentially commonplace?
Hut all the young men who follow the course during the year which preceded their departure to their regiment have not profited equally by the lessons received and a selection is made by means of examinations which they are made to undergo by a commission of officers appointed by the Minister of "War and the pupils who have the best notes are put into a company of aeronautical engineers for a two years' service.
The importance of the school grows daily but not too rapidly, as aerostation seems sure to play in future wars a pa ft of considerable .importance by the presence of a new element of offense and defense, the dirigible balloon.
In the near future a French aerial fleet will be a reality, thanks to the balloons of Engineer Gnillot. and one may be sure that the pupils of the Preparatory School of Military Aeronauts founded by the Aeronantique Club of France will form the best corps of its forces.
THE ANTOINETTE AEROPLANE.
At the Lein shipyards in Perreux there is under construction a new aeroplane called the 'Antoinette,1' the design of (.'apt. Ferher and M. Levavasseur, the maker of the motor known by that name. It is unique by reason of the fact that no wires are used to obtain rigidity.
It is shaped like a long fish, with a triangular section backbone of aluminum.
Placed above at the head is a central plane at the lateral extremities of which are two smaller planes, the same triangular system of construction being employed. These two smaller planes are movable for the purposes of elevation and depression. A rudder at the tail guides the machine to the right or left. The entire apparatus, with a 100
the antoinette aeroplane.
h.p. 100 kilog. Antoinette motor will weigh, with the operator. Captain Ferber himself, not more than 500 kg. (1.100 lbs.). The propeller is 7.87 feet in diameter. It is expected to be finished within a few weeks.
The picture shown is that of the model which, it is stated, has ilown very successfully.
THE GAMMETER ORTHOPTER. By H. C. Gammeter.
For several years past I have made a very careful study of the principles of aerial navigation and have kept in close touch with the experiments of such men as Langley, Maxim, Manly and others, besides devoting most of the past Winter in Florida studying bird flight. In this field alone much might be written but as space is limited I will say that my conclusions were, that as Nature exemplifies the highest type of perfection, I deemed it advisable to copy it as near as practicable for a beginning and thereafter modify it to suit conditions.
The wonderful lifting power of movable wings impressed nie very favorably and appealed very strongly, especially as a means of arising, hovering and alighting. In my first experiment I shall depend entirely upon the wings, both for lifting and propulsion, as of course you will observe that the wings have rigid anterior and flexible posterior edges which latter act as propellers both in the up and down strokes.
The form of the wings is a close copy of Xaturc except the outer three-fifths
Photos by Moore & Brackett, Cleveland, O.
which are valvular, greatly reducing resistance on the up stroke, and, owing to the angle they take when open assist in propelling.
The feature in which my efforts have been exceedingly successful is the transmission which is not only exceedingly light and strong but very simple and reduces friction to a minimum. This consists of a light 20 inch gear of manganese bronze (preferably steel) containing a ball race cut into its face, leaving teeth upon both sides. This in turn revolves within a rigid split ring held in the frame of the machine and contains a corresponding groove for the balls. This ring at the bottom contains the bearing for a pinion from the clutch which latter is of an internal cone type and controlled by means of a lever adjacent to the steering wheel.
The connecting rods to wings connect to gear from opposite sides and clear the horizontal supports of ring. The wings are hinged at two points to the tubular frame 30 inches apart, from which two diagonals meet the braces from bamboo members and converge at a point in line with connecting rods. Thus it will be seen that the thrust of one wing is virtually in line with that of the other, permit-
ting a strong, light and ideal construction. This has been a stumbling block to many who believed in the superiority of flapping wings.
Only one rudder will at first be used, balanced and horizontal, and controlled by means of a cable to steering wheel, which latter also contains throttle lever and spark advance as in an automobile. The body of the machine is of steel tubing 1G to 22 gauge, while the wings are of bamboo covered with Japanese silk.
Although the last mentioned, yet foremost all through my experiments is the matter of stability. This important subject, without the complete mastery of which aerial navigation can never succeed, has been the great difficulty in all attempts thus far made and when success was finally achieved by Langley it was only after many discouraging failures which, of course, could not be made in a man-carrying machine. My first object was to obtain stability by means of a low center of gravity; means for shifting the weight of operator; and by keeping the area of planes as small as possible to eliminate the danger from wind gusts. More important perhaps than either of these is placing a horizontal flywheel in the ceuter of the plane (this is to be enclosed). It is remarkable the amount of resistance this wheel at 1500 r.p.m. affords against a sudden change in any direction. ' After a careful study of the true gyroscope I abandoned it as being entirely too complex.
Provision is also made for a propeller but merely to test its efficiency, as I do not think I shall use it unless it is deemed desirable to do so after being thoroughly launched in the air, in which event the wings may be held stationary and propeller used.
Dimensions: width 30 feet, tip to tip; length 12 feet, including rudder; area of body, including rudder, 48 square feet; area of wings, 154 square feet; total area 202 square feet. "Weight: 290 pounds including flywheel and fuel; 440 pounds complete with operator. Engine: 7 h.p. Curtiss; weight 50 pounds, 70 pounds with clutch; speed 1200 r.p.m.; speed of wings 75 per minute.
Tests. Owing to illness I had to defer outside tests but shall probably take them up again next week. Tests made inside of building showed very encouraging results. At 75 beats per minute the machine was lifted clear of the floor when the clutch was thrown in but failed to do so thereafter owing to confined area and lost inertia of air. When suspended, the machine showed approximate forward pull of 24 pounds. Transmission worked perfectly but bamboo is not as strong as it should be, owing to being softened in steaming and bending. This necessitated piano wire stays above.
THE INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTIC CONFERENCE AT
The International Aeronautic Federation, organized on October 14, 1905, in Paris, to formulate laws to govern balloon races, trials of dirigibles and flying machines, met this year in Brussels, September 12. To this conference the American delegates were Messrs. Cortlandt Field Bishop and Frank S. Lalnn.
Little business was transacted and the affair took the aspect of a social gathering. On the 14th the delegates went to Antwerp where they were shown over the Military Balloon Establishment. In the evening they were entertained at a banquet given by the Belgian Aero Club.
Sunday afternoon occurred the start of the international race which was won by Oscar Erbsloh, one of Germany's representatives in the Gordon Bennett at St. Louis. The distance made by him was G03 miles.
The next congress of the T. A. F. will be bold in England.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS OF THE HELICOPTER.
By M. Paul Cornu.
In the March number of La Rcznte dc I'Aviation there appeared an interesting paper on the subject of the aeroplane by XL Armengaud. In this article he criticised the helicopter type of machine and the April number of the same esteemed journal contained an answer to the remarks by M. Paul Cornu.
It will be remembered that in- 1906 M. Cornu conducted some experiments in which a small model was arranged to run along, and be checked in its rise, a telescopic rod which allowed it to rise about 6.5 feet. The machine elevated itself in the air most satisfactorily and maintained a steady course. It was driven by a 2 hp. motor which actually developed 1.5 hp. and the weight of the machine was nearly 31 lbs.
By request we reprint below M. Cornu's reply.
"We note a few objections relative to tbe helicopters to which we think we can answer, having constructed a number of devices with motors which have given very encouraging results, since they have lifted and operated under their own power, these experiments having been publicly noted and recorded in the Bevue de 1"Aviation. We are completing at this moment the construction of a model of this kind with a 24-h.p. Antoinette motor.
"M. Armengaud doubts that one can obtain as good results with the helicopter since there have not been worked out efficient propellers. This is the experience with all helicopters and is causing further experiments. Nevertheless, the plan must not be condemned for that, for the best propeller can certainly be found.
"In the course of this article the writer (Armengaud) demonstrates the superiority of the aeroplane over the helicopter through this example: the 50-h.p. motor of M. Santos acting upon the propeller gives a lifting force of 145 kilograms (319.65 lbs.) only, while the same motor driving an aeroplane sustains 300 kilograms (661.38 lbs.).
"According to this argument, the aeroplane forms a multiplier and this explains the difference; but if this multiplier were applied to the same propeller, that is to say, by giving a suitable pitch and proper dimensions, we can feel assured in depending not on a theory, but on a personal experiment, that the same motor of 50 h.p.. would have lifted not 300 but 400 kilograms. Objection will be made that the aeroplane gives at the same time forward motion in addition to sustaining power, but with our helicopters we obtain equal propulsion without the loss of any new force. In the aeroplane the sustaining force is a consequence of the propulsion, while in the helicopter it is the propulsion which is the consequence of the sustaining force, and in addition we have natural stability which is so deficient in the aeroplane.
"If the aeroplane were actually superior to the helicopter nothing will prove that the latter will not catch up for the time lost, the former being merely ahead at the present time.
"In the automobile art it was the steam carriage which won all the first races, but this did not prevent them from being badly beaten by the gasolene engine. Perhaps it may be the same in aerial navigation. Between the aeroplane and the helicopter we believe all the more in the success of the latter, in that it is exempt from the difficulties of starting and landing, and has far more natural equilibrium.
"Progress is too often delayed by prejudices and false theories. A'ery often it has been said by even experienced investigators in the art. *In the present state of air navigation the helicopter is impossible.' but the 'actual state of the science" the investigators nearly always (as well said by M. Archdeacon) modify it every day, and what appears a dream today can actually be the reality of tomorrow; besides, a number of encouraging features have been written us by a number of mechanics who, like ourselves, see in the helicopter the true mechanieal solution of the problem, of aerial navigation. An important communication has been made on this subject to' the Academy of Scienees at Athens by the Naval Lieutenant Tsouchlas and Artillery Lieutenant Hakavas who both conclude in favor of the helicopter."
This lias now been completed by Messrs. Yoisin. The total surface is 559 square feet, measuring 32.8 feet in length by 33.456 feet in width. A 50-h. p.
motor drives a propeller 0.89 feet in diameter by 3.G1 feet pitch. Total weight is 1100 pounds. You will note the curved planes and the large 2-plane horizontal rudder in front (right of photograph).
DE LA VAULX AEROPLANE.
In view of la Vaulx's statements that the gasless machine is impracticable, many will watch with more than ordinary interest the results of his experiments with this type of machine.
A main framework of rectangular section, 22 feet long, has been erected in the general form of a torpedo. Extending outwards on both sides and up is a rectangular plane, from the lateral extiemities of which extend two other planes, the spread over all measuring 49 feet and provides 437 square feet of supporting surface. Nearly one half of the length of the main framework projects out beyond the front edge of the plane surface. Stretching out behind are two rods carrying the horizontal rudder. Above the horizontal plane is the vertical rudder. The single engine drives two 6-foot propellers located on longitudinal spindles above the middle plane. There are three masts,two at the junction of the central plane and the side wings, and one forming the axis of the vertical rudder. The surfaces are stayed by steel wires converging at the tops of the masts. The total weight of 880 pounds distributed as follows—body of machine 220 pounds, the aeronaut 220, the engine 154, fuel and water 110, parts and accessories 176 pounds.
THE BRITISH MILITARY AIRSHIP.
France and Germany may now have a worthy rival in the aeronautic accomplishments of the first dirigible to he designed for war purposes by the English Government. While the first flight revealed numerous slips in judgment, still none that cannot be remedied.
The first trial was made on September 10, with Colonel Capper, Mr. Cody, an American of kite fame, and Captain King as passengers. The ship rose to the end of the rope, 150 feet several times and was pulled down each time in order to ascertain the force of the wind. Then it was allowed to rise to the height of about 400 feet and maneouvre over a distance of half a mile. After fifteen minutes work the belt driving the fan broke and a descent was made. In the afternoon a second trial took place in the presence of Colonel Templar, a couple of the wings having been removed. In trying to maneouvre too close to the ground the ship lurched and
bent the framework somewhat. At five o'clock a third trial was made against the increasing wind and proved quite satisfactory.
Exact figures have been difficult to obtain and the length of the envelope is given as anywhere from 80 to 110 feet. The characteristics of the airship are as follows; blunt sausage-shaped GO,000 cubic foot bag of goldbeater's skin, having a diameter of 30 feet, encircled by four broad white silken bands which, with the net, support the triple framework; the space between the car and the envelope, 30 feet; a canvas covered, canoe shaped metal frame forms the 30-foot ear, in the front of which is placed an 8 cylinder "Y" motor driving by belts over wire spoked pulley wheels the two 10-foot 2-bladed propellers supported by a tubular girder extending crossways through the car; the motor is high up above the forward part so that the wire spoked ilywheel is about in the center of the ear. The torpedo shaped gasolene tanks are placed above on an intermediate framework; automatic device for regulating pressure in envelopes; the large hinged wings on either side act as horizontal rudders and a large star shaped vertical rudder is placed in the rear.
The second week in September a new French combination attempted its initial flight at Meaux. Below the 108-foot, diameter 24 foot, gas bag is a longitudinal plane, 66 feet long having 1938 square feet of surface. The bag is held in shape by means of balloonettes inflated with a fan. A Buchet motor drives a single propeller 10.49 feet in diameter. Beneath the openwork girder which supports this
_ large plane is the
cage for the engine and below this the basket for the passengers. The basket is s 1 u n g to the framework by a rope and is apparently intended as a balance weight, for when starting it is shifted to the rear to tilt the nose up and vice versa. The framework is attached to the bag by the side suspension system.
During the week ending September 14 it was brought out for trial but as the ship rose the cable carrying the basket fouled and some little
damage was clone.
THE NEW VUIA AEROPLANE.
The new Vuia machine had its first try-out on dune 3 for the purpose of testing its motor. It is practically the old one remodelled, lightened and provided with a new S-cylinder 24-b. p. Antoinette motor.
The machine is constructed of steel tubing and slung on axles, the one in front being fitted with steering knuckles and the rear axle dead. The axles are trussed and the frame underslung on heavy coiled helical springs. As in the former machine, the propeller is in front and the two rudders at the back. The driver is seated under the motor in the center of the framework and steer? with a wheel. The motor is water cooled with automatic intake and exhaust valves. The cooling is by the thermo-siphon system and ignition by high tension jump spark, the accumulator being carried underneath the seat. The propeller is direct driven and the shaft is on ball hearings. Splash lubrication is used.
The spread of the carrying surface is 7.9 metres (25.9 ft.) and the length 7 metres (23 ft,). The shape of the surface is the same as in the former machine. The height of the parabolic curve of this surface has been cut down from a 24th to a 30th of the width of the surface. The curve is maintained in the length as well as in the width. The center of gravity is very low. maintaining the general good stability in former trials. To aid in this and to give greater safety the length of the sustaining surface lessens towards the extremities. The center of pressure has been found to he two-fifths of the distance from the front of the machine. The axis of the screw does not pass through the center of gravity.
The sustaining surface is in two parts that can be closed. Eleven steel tubes spread the canvas wings and are stayed with light piano wire attached at the top to a central arc and at the bottom to the frame of the machine. The two vertical axes are maintained rigid by steel guy wires. The wires are fitted with turnbuckles. The surface of the vertical rudder has been doubled and the horizontal rudder placed further from the center of the machine. Between the rudders and the sustaining surface is a horizontal surface of 2 square meters for automatic longitudinal stability. The horizontal rudder is only used to correct longitudinal instability produced by the increase or decrease of speed as the result of the displacement of the center of pressure.
The comparative smallness of the supporting surfaec has the advantage that it will resist greater winds and in case of stoppage of the engine the speed reduces
the new vuia aeroplane.
less rapidly. ''Lilienthal with a plane of 14 square meters (150.7 sq. ft.) and a weight of 95 kilos (19S.4 lbs.) maintained himself in perfect equilibrium in winds which varied from G to 10 meters (19.GS to 32.80 ft.) per second. If Lilienthal carried with his plane nearly 7 kilos (15.4 lbs.) per square meter at a speed of 8 meters (2G.24 ft.) per second, one can make a motor aeroplane carry 14 to 1G kilos per square meter (]0.7G sq. ft.) at a speed of 12 meters (3D.36 ft.) per second."
JAPAN AND AMERICA. By Rudolph Martin.
Author of "Berlin—Bagdad."
Through the progress of the motor airship the power of Great Britain is decreased. The power of Japan however increases as the motor airship progresses. On the neighboring continent to Great Britain there live powerful nations of great wealth and of the highest intelligence in the problem of aerial navigation. On the Eastern Asiatic Continent neighboring Japan there arc no large nations of equal wealth and industry who realize the importance of aerial navigation. The Russians would no more use the airship in battle than they at one time would use the battleship. Xo more would the Chinese be likely within the next decade to land armies on the territory of Japan by means of airships. The great expanse of China and Siberia would be easy to the Japanese plan of conquest. Also the most remote cor-
ners of the Chinese Empire could easily be reached by Japan's fleets of airships. Not only in war but also in peace the fleets of England, Germany and France have forced a more advantageous handling of their merchandise as well as the merchandise of other nations. If the fleets of airships of Japan navigated all over China every Chinaman would be bound to respect the power of Japan. The trade with China of the Americans, English and Germans would be in danger of decreasing. The sea power of the far away nations would be far behind the power Japan would have in the air, being so close by. The Japanese would no more need the approval of England through a conference. Japan appreciates to the fullest extent the superiority of her position. The strength of the Japanese fleet cannot be lessened by the hostile fleets of airships of neighboring powers. The strength of Japan does not depend, like the strength of England, on her sea forces. Japan is the only island which can put forth quickly a strong standing army. While the need of a large standing army is felt more by Great Britain as the certainty of the motor airship becomes felt, so the Japanese experience more joy at their large standing army. The motor airship shows them the possibility of putting their army any place in Siberia or China by the shortest possible route and with the greatest speed. The future mobilisation of Japan will be far more rapid than it was in 1904. With their land. sea. and air powers, the Japanese are also in position to lay claim to the Philippines and to place their flag over them. Only through co-operation with Germany, England and France will it be possible for the United States to insure their continued ownership in the Philippines.
Ep to the present time there has always existed the possibility that Japan or an European power could blockade the ports of the United States or even land troops. As soon as the United States are in possession of a powerful fleet of airships, the war fleets of the foreign nations would be at a great disadvantage. The airships could clearly have within view a distance of from 200 to 400 miles out to sea. Only, the airships could not go too far from the shore or too far from their supply of gasoline. It is positive that the United States will increase their power on the American continent as the motor airship develops. Up to the present time they have kept out of the conflicts in South and Central America so as to avoid becoming mixed up in an international war. In the future the United States will not only be superior at sea but also on the land. The wealthy, industrious, and sporting United States can in the future carry on a war in the interior of South America solely from the air. The maintaining of a large fleet of airships by the United States is the same as the maintaining of a large standing army. The compulsion of all to serve in a large standing army is not according to the American ideas. As the United States are not neighbors to a powerful nation having a large standing army and appreciating the benefits of airships they have no occasion, like England, to fear a hostile army. The superiority of the American fleet will not, so long as it keeps to the coasts of South and North America become endangered by hostile fleets of air ships. Without extraordinary effort and without urging, the United States will adopt motor airships as a power.
Only with much toil and perhaps not without a struggle Japan will develop the motor airship which offers her such an opportunity. The motor in the air threatens particularly Germany, whose people, however, are far advanced in the knowledge of aerial navigation. But the motor in the air offers Germany, also, a possibility of overcoming the danger, namely, by leading all other nations in the problem of aerial navigation. This offers Germany the greatest opportunity in the historv of the World.—From "Das ZcitaUcr dor Motorhiftschiffahrt/'
CHRONOLOGY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS.
Sept. 2. Walter Wellman starts for the Pole in the airship "America." The balloon was towed three miles by the steamer "Express" and then let loose over the Polar Sea. The speed attained estimated about twelve miles an hour. A snow-
storm was encountered, the compass failed to work and after three and one quarter hours, covering fifteen miles, it was decided to land. On account of the lateness of the season the attempt has been postponed another year (?).
Sept. 7. Bleriot makes three trials this week at Issy with little success, despite the new 50-h. p. motor.
Sept. !). Ludlow's kite makes an unsuccessful flight over Hampton Boads, Ya., towed by U. S. Torpedo Boat "Gwin."
Sept. 10. The British military airship makes its appearance at Farnborough. Although a slight mishap to the driving belt cut short the initial flight the ship achieved somewhat of success. In all, three separate tests were made and the various evolutions were, considering conditions, satisfactorily performed.
Sept. 12. The Yille de Paris, the rival of the Patrie in speed, security and manageability, maneouvres over Paris. The former can carry more weight than Patrie and makes a speed of 25 miles an hour.
Sept. IT The Parseval dirigible carries up the Minister of War and other officers at Tegel. About twelve trips made in one day. Ascents have been made almost daily of late.
Sept. 15. International Balloon Bace at Brussels -won by Oscar Erbsloh, one of the German contestants in the Gordon Bennett race at St. Louis. Distance traveled (¡03 miles. Twenty-two balloons started.
Sept. IT. Bleriot makes a flight of about 587 feet, when the motor suddenly stopped. The machine was dashed to the ground and badly damaged, M. Bleriot being injured about the head. In the start the motor ran along the ground for 90 feet, rose to a height of 40 feet and proceeded at an estimated speed of 40 miles.
Sept. 21. Louis Malecot makes first actual trip in dirigible balloon-aeroplane.
Henry Deutseh, owner of Yille de Paris journeys in it to a shooting party at his Gaillon estate, alights easily, and joins his friends. The '"chauffeur" takes it back to the "garage."
Sept. 23. Malecot makes another ascent but a high wind damaged the ship to such an extent that no further trials can be made with it this year.
Sept. 24. Zeppelin makes a flight lasting four hours and seventeen minutes over Lake Constance and five different states. With both motors in operation it outdistanced the numerous steamers on the lake. The speed estimate was thirty-eight miles an hour. With the Count there were nine men.
Sept. 26—2S. Count Zeppelin continues experimental flights, witnessed by Prof. Hergesell and Major von Kepler. The Government has appropriated $40,000 to aid in these experiments, and it is reported that the Government has taken the outfit. On the 28th the propeller broke. Aeronauts rescued by boats and ship towed to shed by steamer.
Sept. 27. U. S. Government announces its intention of building a dirigible.
Sept. 29. Xineteen balloons start in the Grand Prix race of the French club.
Heavy fog and rain; won by M. De Lobel; landing made in the Xorth Sea; Aeronauts rescued by steamer; after floating an hour and ten minutes.
Sept. 30. Zeppelin makes a flight of seven hours. During that time a landing was made to take on board a representative of the Ministry of war.
New English dirigible makes second and a successful flight. Travelled sixteen miles and attained a speed of twelve miles an hour against the wind. Time in air, free, fifty-seven minutes.
AERONAUTICS IN THE CURRENT MAGAZINES.
Cosmopolitan for October. '"The Problem of Air Flight," by Waldemar Kaempffert. This interestingly written article is a resume of the accomplishments in aerial locomotion to date, both in aerostation and aviation. Xot counting one or two rather important omissions the article is a most instructive one to the general public.
American Magazine for October. Our genial club man, E. B. Bronson, has written an exciting account of the now famous trip of the Donaldson balloon of '74. Of the participants in this memorable excursion Mr. Bronson is the sole survivor. He relates some stirring incidents and one will greatly enjoy reading of his "aerial bivouac."
McClure's for October. Cleveland Motfett tells the story of last year's Gordon Bennett and the memorable trip of Lieutenant Lahm and Major Hersey, a tale which bears re-telling very well.
Becreation for October. Alan B. Hawley has written the "Observations of an Amateur Aeronaut," in which he tells of the joys of trips in the clouds, the cost of ballooning, etc. Mr. Hawley is evidently trying to do missionary work and we wish him good success.
The Strand for October contains an article by Captain Homer "\Y. Hedge, the founder and first president of the Aero Club of America. In this he mentions the best-known airship and balloon flights which have been made since the starting of the Club, touches lightly upon recent events and speaks of the coming race.
Outing for October contains the story of last year's Gordon Bennett written by Lieutenant Lahm himself.
THE NEW PARSEVAL.
The recent successful flights of the new German dirigible balloon has caused excitable Teutonic enthusiasts to start writing all sorts of stories of the possibilities of the annihilation by The Fatherland of the other European nations. In spite of all these prophesies one can with difficulty believe that a motor driven gas bag will ever be a feature of the wars of the future.
The peculiarity of this balloon is its propeller. Instead of solid blades, there are four strips of fabric with weights at the end, held rigid, when in motion, by
THE I906 PARSEVAL.
centrifugal force. At rest they hang down. This is not exactly an innovation, although it is new in practice. A Mr. Hollander, of New York, has had this plan embodied in a propeller for several years. In his device the blades are coiled up inside a cylinder when at rest, the centrifugal force gradually pulling them out through slits against the pull of a spring. ,
Major Parseval states that more powerful motors are necessary to drive against a fairly strong wind. In this new model the extremities have been made more pointed.
THE HISTORY OF AIRSHIPS.
The. first attempt at a dirigible balloon was in 1784 when the Duke of (Jhartres had built an egg-shaped envelope, propelled bv oars. Some little result was obtained. In 1834, 1S4S, 1S70, 1879 and 1SS2 other crude attempts were made, mostlv without result.
In 1852 Henry Gif-fard devised an airship of a spindle shape and this form has been quite closely followed ever since. A steam engine drove a screw propeller. After this came many designs on paper only.
" In 187.2 Paul Haen-lein's dirigible with a gas engine definitely proved its navigability. An electrically driven airship was produced in 1883 as a result of the recommendation, in 1881. of Albert and Gaston Tissandier.
From 1SS4 to 1885 Benard and Krebs experimented with "La France/' using a 9-h.p. electric motor with screw propeller and obtained verv good results.
Dr. Woelfert. in 1S96, built a cigar-shaped dirigible and used a benzine engine. This was unsatis-faetorv and in the operation of an improvement to the engine the ship caught fire and was destroyed. Aluminum screw propeller.
Between 1895 and 1897 David Schwartz constructed a rigid aluminum airship, with a 12-h.p. benzine motor operating a, screw propeller. A flight was accomplished and a safe landing made but the ship
STEVENS AT BRIGHTON BliAClI.
was not able to proceed against the wind. After being deflated the pressure of the wind together with the vandalism of the spectators wrecked the ship. From this time on screw propellers continued in use.
Up to this time the laws relating to air resistance were not sufficiently understood, the motive power under estimated and the action of the screw propeller little known.
In 1898 Santos Dumont made his first flight and in 1902 succeeded in sailing around the Eiffel Tower and back to the start at St. Cloud in 30 minutes, winning the Deutsch prize of $20,000. Up to 1905 Santos Dumont had built fourteen different airships and this number has since grown to sixteen.
At the same period the Graf F. von Zeppelin made some phenomenal flights over Lake Constance in 1900, in the Spring of which year was announced the offer of M. Deutsch of 100,000 francs to the first dirigible to rise from the park at St. Cloud and describe a closed arc in such a way that the axis of the Eiffel Tower should be within the interior of the circuit and return in half an hour. That Zeppelin had no small ideas is evidenced by his ship, 42i) feet long. It had the form of a prism of 24 surfaces, carried two cars, each containing a 1G h.p. benzine motor.' In constructing this ship he had little to go by as previous ships had all been comparatively small. In 1905 his ship was rebuilt and equipped with two 80 h.p. motors.
In 1902 Augusto Severo made an ascent with a 98-foot ship, equipped with two Buchet motors, one of 12 h.p. and the other of 24 h.p. Fourteen minutes after ascending the balloon exploded.
Baron Bradsky-Laboun, in 1902, made some experiments with a 71-foot airship but came to grief.
In 1902 appeared, also, the famous English dirigible of Stanley Spencer, who navigated his airship from the Crystal Palace, London, to Harrow. In September of the same year he attempted to sail from the Crystal Palace around the tower of St. Paul's Cathedral and back to Sydenham. He sailed over and partly around St. Paul's, but did not find it possible to get back to Sydenham. After describing a semi-circle about the cathedral he sailed away to his establishment at Highbury where he executed several maneouvres to the astonishment of his workmen. From there on to Alexandra Palace where he made more evolutions, finally descending at New Barnet, a distance of 17 miles from Crystal Palace. He was an hour and a half in the air.
In France at the same time appeared the Lebaudy ship. From October 25, 1902, to November 21, 1903, it made thirty-three ascents. An accident on landing destroyed the envelope and in 1904 a new one was built. From 1904 to 1905 thirty ascents were made with this, but this one likewise was torn to pieces on landing. In 1905 appeared the third Lebaudy ship, "La Patrie," whose accomplishments are known to all the world. In 1906 this was sold to the French Government. With this ship have been made the greatest successes in airship history, although Germany now claims to have its equal in the "Parseval/" and the new English airship has shown up well in the first trials. Then there is Deutseh's "Yille de Paris" which has this Fall been making good flights.
In America many small dirigibles have been built, A. Leo Stevens designing the first, and all have been successful to a remarkable extent, when the general low power is taken into consideration. It is to be regretted that no one has undertaken the building of a high-powered ship, though Captain Thomas S. Baldwin has this year introduced a higher powered motor and twin propellers. The results have been most favorable. The pioneers have been A. Leo Stevens, Capt. Baldwin and Carl E. Myers.
To Santos Dumont actually belongs the credit for introducing the dirigible
into active use. Although his ships have been made in France, one can hardly say that to France belongs the honors. All the credit is due France for the later Lebaudy. but it will be hard upward climb for her if she expects to retain her apparent present lead.
(n. E. Automobile Journal) la villk de paris
It is intended to publish in each number a description of the various light motors now on the market which are adapted for use in dirigible balloons and heavier-than-air machines.
We have been repeatedly asked for a description of this motor and below we have attempted to give the principal points.
Constructed on the "T" principle, the cylinders being at an angle of 90° with each other and 45° from the vertical. The number of the evlinders can be varied from 8 to 24.
Each crank in the crankshaft carries two connecting rods. In this wav the number of bearings in the cylinder is the same as in the ordinary type of engine with half the number of cylinders. Jn other words, the number of bearings on the crankshaft is reduced one half by this construction.
The engine is reversible by the simple operation of rotating a small wheel on the end of the cam shaft. Thus it may be reversed easier than a steam engine. This reversal is effected by changing the relation of the cams with the position of the piston in the stroke, similarly to the Stephenson link motion in the Steam Engine. One of the 2 to 1 cam shaft pinions is made loose on its shaft which it drives by means of a small clutch mechanism, the position of which can lie varied through 90°. This mechanism consists of a loose pin fitted into a corresponding hold in the cam shaft spur wheel. This pin can be pulled outwards by means of a knob and rotated through 90° when it falls into another corresponding hole. The ignition timing is not upset by this operation, as the ignition plate is driven directly off a spur wheel meshing with the 2 to 1 wheel in the cam shaft.
The ignition is by special high tension coil with a single trembler. Begularity of timing is thereby effected, and there are no troubles due to lack of synchronization.
The contact maker has internal contacts, and is extremely robust.
The carburation is on the principle of introducing liquid petrol directly into the cylinder through an automatic inlet valve. Each cylinder is fitted with its own carbureter or petrol injector and are all connected to a common petrol supply circuit, fed by a small petrol pressure pump driven from the main shaft of the
engine. The amount of pressure on the whole petrol system can be varied at will by means of an eccentric on the pump. In this way each carbureter receives its pre-determined and all the same quota of petrol, thereby producing the extreme regularity of running for which this engine is noted. The air necessary for the carburation is taken in through the bell mouth on the top of each cylinder. By this system all large air inlet pipes with sharp coiners and bends, and carbureters liable to disarrangement are eliminated. Each cylinder receives its exact quantity of fuel at the time when it is required and without any reference to the action of any other cylinder. There are. consequently, no back pressures in pipes and no starving of one cylinder by the suction of another, and the weight of all parts is reduced to a minimum.
Another fundamental principle which has been folloAvcd in this engine is the reduction of piston speed in feet per minute to a minimum. The cylinders are all short stroke, thereby permitting high rotative speeds.
The oiling is by one forced feed oil pump, which is integral with the petrol jnunp, and the speed of which varies with the speed of the engine. There are only two pipes leading away from this pump, and these lubricate all the bearings of the engine and other parts requiring lubrication. The inlet valves are automatic. The exhaust valves are mechanically operated all off one cam shaft.
Cylinders.—High tensile east aluminum-alloy beads securely bolted to cast iron cylinder with a brass water jacket spun on.' These cast heads are a special feature of the engine, reducing its weight considerably and forming a combustion chamber of wonderful heat conductivity, the specific conductivity of aluminum
being about the same as that of silver; the cooling water is able to take away the heat units generated by the explosions much more rapidly than in the case of a cast-iron combustion chamber. The cylinder is cast iron turned all over, thereby ensuring equal expansion. Crank case, aluminum casting. Connecting rods, cam shaft, valves, valve seatings, all special high tensile alloy steel. Pistons, cast iron each with 3 rings and concave top. Absence of vibratiou owing to the large number of impulses per revolution.
G. H. Curtiss has been with Doctor Bell at his laboratory at Beinn Bhreagh the greater part of September.
It is said the A'ilie de Paris, the privately owned dirigible of Henry Deutsche, has cost him $400,000.
The brothers Wright went to Berlin on September 16th and were "sympathetically received/' it is said.
La Patrie is out of commission temporarily in order to lengthen and strengthen the frame.
Walter Wellman seems to be convinced that he can reach the Tole with his airship "America." On arriving at Tronhjem he stated, "our confidence in our ultimate success, given an average Summer, is unchanged."
A professional aeronaut descended in a parachute at Warsaw, landing near the Warsaw barracks. He was promptly arrested as a suspicious character. Let us hope this doesn't happen to our foreign competitors in the St. Louis race.
A. Leo Stevens has charge of the instruction of the IT. S. Army Balloon Corps, which has recently been augmented, and is now in Washington engaged in the active schooling of the men.
On August 31st Dr. Alexander Graham Bell entertained his friends at Beinn Bhreagh on the occasion of the completion of an outlook tower, "the first iron structure built of tetrahedral cells/'
It is certainly gratifying to know that America wiil have one balloon of home manufacture in the Gordon Bennett. A. Leo Stevens is working hard on a new "America" for J. C. McCoy. _
The Yille de Paris is again in the air, after being in the hospital as a result of its buckling some months ago. fts first flight after repairs was most satisfactory. The length is 203 feet, greatest diameter 34 feet. A 7 0-h. p. Argus motor drives a Benard propeller.
E. A. Gathmann, of Bethlehem, Pa., has been experimenting for a long time and has devised a new propeller which, he states, gives an actual lifting efficiency of 85 lbs. per h. p., a 6-h. p. gasoline motor giving a measured thrust on the scale of 510 lbs. A "heliconef" will be built to employ this form of propeller.
The balloon which Messrs. Brewer and Brabazon will use in the Gordon P>en-nett is "The Two Americas" used by Santos-Dumont in last year's Gordon Bennett as one of our representatives, when it was fitted with a motor and propellers for regulating the altitude. It has been revarnished and rechristened the "Lotus IT."
The balloon detachment of the Signal Corps, consisting of ten men, is stationed at Washington Barracks, D. C. and is receiving practical instruction in the preparation and filling of balloons, repairing, etc., under the direction of A. Leo Stevens. Two ascensions were made during September by Captain Chas. De Forrest Chandler and J. C. McCoy.
The Lebaudy people have cancelled their contracts to build dirigibles for other countries than Trance, as a result, evident^, of having made some sort of agreement with the French Government. A well-known German rubber concern had a selling arrangement with them for the sale of their airships in Germany and America but this has now been cancelled.
Cortlandt Field Bishop sails for America October 2 on the Princessin Cecilie; Frank S. Lahm and the French team, September 28 on La Provence; Griffith Brewer and Lieut, the Hon. Claud Brabazon, October 5, on the Lusitania.
In stating the distance traveled by the new Ben Franklin Association balloon ■on its first trip in the September number we were misinformed as to the distance traveled. The landing was made at New Egypt, N. J., a distance of 37 miles from the start—not 1G0 miles.
The long distance record with England as a starting point was held by Charles Green, Bobert Holland and Monck Mason from November, 1836, until November, 1906, when A. Leslie Bucknall and Percival Spencer traveled from London to Nevy, Lake of Geneva, 402.5 miles. The former party landed at Weilburg, in Nassau, Germany, a distance of 372.5 miles.
A good suggestion for the balloonist in the vicinity of open water was made in Foren' Aft some time ago. In place of the usual cone-shaped bag attached to a ring the writer suggests a square, cone-shaped funnel as shown in the sketch, as it will fold up more completely.
Motor Print, a magazine supposedly devoted to automobilism, has for a long time gone considerably out of its way to viciously attack the doings and anticipations of the Aero Club of America, and some of its members individually. There is no reason that we know of why Motor Print should see fit to do this but as most of the statements and characterizations are obviously untrue no great harm will accrue to any except Motor Print. It is published in Philadelphia!
A fifty-five-foot dirigible has been completed by George Yager, Charles and Otto Bayersdorfer, of Omaha, Neb. The frame is the same length as the envelope. The capacity is 8000 cubic feet, with a lifting capacity of 480 pounds. The propeller is hung on a ball and socket joint and does the steering as well as pulling, no rudder—so called—being used. The 7-h. p. gasoline engine weighs 50 pounds and the frame 47 pounds. Its first four flights have been successful.
The floating balloon shed of the Graf. F. von Zeppelin on Lake Constance, was finished the middle of September. This was damaged by storm some time ago. Further trials are being made with the present ship. It is reported that another ship, considerably larger than the present model, is soon to be under way. Several new designs will be tried out, the principal improvement being in the steering apparatus. It is also intended to install a wireless apparatus and a searchlight.
Experiments at Tssy during September with a helicopter devised by Messrs.
Breguet and Bichter. Apparatus consists of four propellers in a nearly horizontal plane driven by 40-h. p. engine and as the framework was incomplete an armchair was used for purposes of trial. Although weighing about half a ton it is stated that the machine lifted itself and the aeronaut into the air—"four men being required to hold it down.
We are informed by a letter from W. S. Haskell, of West Berkeley, Cab, that a "National Airship Company," of San Francisco, has in course of construction a dirigible. He says: "The ship is nearly completed. I was at the yards this afternoon (Sept. G) and found a large cigar-shaped canvas more than six hundred feet in length being filled with air for the purpose—one of the workmen said—of doing some work on the inside. The inventor himself was only visible by his voice which sounded from the hollow depths warning me that it was his busy day and that he had no time to talk. He is very zealous in his undertaking and seems confident of success. There were something like eight men at work on the visible side of the ship and probably as many more on the inside of the canvas. It looked as though they would be able to make a trial trip within a week or two, but, of course, there is much work to perform on so large a structure. The silk is strong and well corded and cross-stitched so that there is no danger of ripping. The bag was held down by weights while the motor pumped air into it."
It is to be regretted that there are so many fantastic ideas for the solving of aerial locomotion, ideas which are preposterous at the very outset and obvious to even the veriest novice. Those responsible seem never to tire of exploiting them— on paper. No business man with money is going to invest in the building of a machine until some preliminary work has been done to bear out in some degree the statements of the inventor. One man, for instance, has been seven years trying to sell an idea for a bird-wing machine, giving his whole time and living upon his children. No model has ever been made and he refuses to make one. He says the drawing proves everything. Such stubbornness would be ludicrous were it not for the fact that the man has wasted so much valuable time and energy which should have been directed along proper lines. They "are not all dead yet."
A new long-distance record to be attempted. J. L. Tannar, A. E. Gaudron and Charles C. Turner, a representative of the London Daily Graphic, are planning to break the world's long-distance balloon record. Mr. Tannars giant balloon will be employed and most minute arrangements are being perfected.
A sea anchor will hang below the car and on each side are air-tight cylindrical floats to keep the ear afloat if landing is made in the water. A few feet above the car is a platform supporting a canvas enclosed apartment which is reached by a rope ladder. The neck of the balloon can thus be reached from the platform and the food and drink will be kept there. Projecting from the side of the car is a writing tablet and a small electric lamp is suspended from a nearby rope. On the outside of one corner of the car is a "ballast thrower." A lever on a level with the top of the basket simplifies the discharging of ballast and saves considerable labor. An electric bell will ring the instant the drag rope touches the ground. The barometer even will give audible signals of ascent or descent from certain predetermined levels. Carrier pigeons will be carried and released at intervals.
Berlin, Sept. 14.—Walter Wellman has sent the following cablegram to the Lol'al Anzeiger from Tromsoe:
"After the steamer Express cast off the cable, the balloon America did excellently, but an increasing wind soon gave us a hard struggle, and the storm drove us toward some high, jagged mountains near the coast, where the airship would have been destroyed if she struck.
"There then ensued a hard fight between the storm and the motor. The latter triumphed, and we slowly rounded the north end of Foul Island in the teeth of the wind. Our confidence in the America had so increased in the meanwhile that I gave the order to start for the north pole.
"The wind, however, increased to twelve miles an hour, and the snow fell so thickly that we could not see a quarter of a mile. Just then the compass failed to act owing to defective construction. We were completely lost in a snow storm above the Polar Sea and threatened with destruction. After a brief deliberation we decided to try and get back to the Express to rectify our compass and start again.
"It was impossible, however, to keep in one direction, and we were again carried into dangerous proximity to the mountains. Vaniman, the engineer, then started the motor at top speed, and the America moved a second time against the wind, which probably was blowing fifteen miles an hour.
"She circled three times in the teeth of the wind. We saw the Express for a moment, but immediately lost her again. We would have returned to the Express if we could have seen where to steer, but under the circumstances the only thing possible was to try to land. With this idea we stopped the motor and let the America drift over the glacier.
"At the end of Foul Bay we used a trailer filled with provisions and a brake rope. Both acted well and dragged over an ice wall 100 feet high without damaging the provisions.
"After crossing the glacier we opened the valve, and landed on the upper glacier, half a mile inshore. The landing was effected so successfully that material weighing nine tons descended three hundred feet and touched the ice with no shock or damage whatever excepting several bent tubes and broken wires. The numerous delicate instruments were not injured: The self-registering barographs, meterographs, and manometers continued running after the landing. The mantle of the balloon can easily be repaired.
"The America was in the air for three hours and fifteen minutes, and covered about fifteen miles with her own machinery. She made three loops against the wind, proving her power and capability of being steered. The ascent was successful in every respect. The America is from every standpoint the strongest airship and the most durable for a long journey that ever has been built. She held the gas splendidly.
"Later in the same day the Express found us, and fetched the steamer Frith-joff with men and sledges from the camp. The crew of the America lived for three days comfortably in the gondola while the work of rescuing the balloon was in progress. They could have lived there for nine months had it been necessary. The entire airship, including even a part of the gasoline, was returned to the camp in three days.
"The balloon and the entire outfit have been made ready for the Winter, and three men have been left on guard.
"After this successful attempt we were all convinced that the America, in normal summer weather, can make her way to the pole. We all regard this plan as rational, practicable, and feasible. The thing can be done, and what can be done shall be done."
To the Editor,
American Magazine of Aeronautics. Dear Sir:
In reply to Mr. Boger B. Whitman's criticism of my article on light engines, will say, that, like Mr. Whitman, my experience in gasoline engine design has'been limited thus far to automobile work, in which I have had about a dozen years' ■experience as a designer with several prominent companies. I have had, however, some views upon the subject of designing that I consider a little in advance of present practice, and this small compression space plan is one of them. An engineer that would design a steam engine to take steam the full length of stroke, except for some special purpose, perhaps, would he laughed at; and yet, that engine would give much more power than one with a cut-olf. Why should a gasoline engine designer, then, do with his engine just, what he would laugh at the steam man for doing? For when he squeezes in all the mixture that he possibly can, and consequently has to exhaust with sixty pounds or more pressure, he is certainly doing the same thing.
Automatic valves are a nuisance when applied to the ordinary engine, but when supplied with a strong spring and given a flat seat, using a small compression space engine, they are perfectly reliable. What little stick there is then is so small in comparison with the strength of the spring that it is negligible. The suction, of course, being very much stronger with the small space mentioned, as the vacuum is then more perfect.
A higher compression may be used with this plan, as the above normal pressure is reached so late in the stroke that the piston is ready to pass over the center, so that by the time the explosion takes place the piston is over the center; and I believe that it is generally conceded that the quicker the inftamation can be made to take place the more satisfactory the explosion, that is, as applied to gasoline, some even going so far as to ignite in two or more places at once.
The small four cylinder engine that I exhibited at the Aero Club Show last year has a compression space of only fifteen per cent, of the total space, and I have had excellent residts from it at ninety pounds compression. At a higher pressure it will run along at a good gait with the ignition current cut off. There is no hammering, however, due to premature firing. Before building this engine I had an article in the Horseless Age expressing my views upon this subject, which was later criticised by a correspondent who predicted all kinds of dire results if the spring ever weakened, or broke. It would certainly wreck the engine. I stuck to my theory, however, tried the engine out with all kind of springs, from the very weakest up to fourteen pounds, the latter was the strongest that the one and a quarter inch valve would suck down, the result is that I would take a step farther and adopt a twelve and a half per cent, compression space for my next engine.
On account of being able to use a higher compression the cylinders will not have to be made very much larger than in present methods, while the rest of the engine would be just the same, as these parts are designed for horse-power, and not according to size of cylinders.
As to the springs of an automatic inlet valve getting excessively hot, there is no need of this occurring, as they are placed right in the path of the excessively cold incoming charge, and, contrary to Mr. Whitman's statement, they can be placed outside if desired, the stem passing through the casing.
f do not claim that the long stroke will lighten an engine. In my early days I approved of the short stroke. That was some years ago. In the engine in view in mv article. I was not sacrificing every thing for lightness.
The Banhard company have been using steel for the cylinders of their racing
cars for several years past. I have not heard of them giving them up yet. My own personal experience in that line has given very satisfactory results.
1 cannot agree with Mr. Whitman in his statement that the function of a carbureter is not to mix the charge. If that were the case, one form of nozzle would be just as good as any other, while we all know that a wide range of results is obtained from different types of nozzles; also that wire gauze inserted in the piping will often greatly improve the action, due to the stirring up effect received therebv.
HAREY E. DEY/
To the Editor,
American Magazine of Aeronautics. Dear Sir:
. Several weeks ago I received the first number of the American Magazine of Aeronautics. I was very much pleased to know that the United States have at last an Aeronautical Journal. This country has a tremendous number of inventors; the special journal describing different discoveries and inventions of other countries or of other inventors prevents loss of their precious time and mental forces of great ability in investigating and discovering of the things which were investigated and discovered a hundred years ago.
The Aeronautical Journal, besides its great use as a recorder of all events, successes, failures of past time and so on, provides a wide field for discussion of various topics of the broad problem—the creation of the aerial craft and application in practical life for transportation of passengers with safety and necessary speed. This great purpose can be reached by the combined efforts of several faculties of the brains, such as great scientific knowledge, technical experience, extreme courage, perseverance, perfect physical development, sound judgment, good business and organizing abilities. In short—you cannot find now these qualities in a single individual, although you can meet lots of men thinking or claiming they are such men and that they soon will show to the whole world the decision of the problem. Ninety per cent, of them are either ignorant maniacs, believing that only shortage in money hinders them, or swindlers, looking upon air-navigation as a way to get money for their selfish sakes.
For the sound and honest people really interested in rapid solution of the problem there are two ways now: First, to wait until Nature presents to us such a wonderful individual as prescribed above; second, to combine our faculties and forces altogether to work honestly, helping each other and protecting the product, of the work of honest inventors from theft by fraudulent or dishonest people.
What can hinder us from success in the second case? First, the false, exaggerated ambition of inventors; second, the selfish desire "to make money" by invention "in secret." The false ambition, as I noticed in my large persona! acquaintance with a great many of inventors, belongs mostly to very average men, and they are exceedingly jealous of the success of others. Their envy makes them always want to lower and to dishonor the men of real ability and knowledge. The-best medicine for them is sound judgment and open discussions about their "inventions." The selfish secretness is not very dangerous, it shows only that one is inclined to appropriate the work of others, whose articles he reads or the results of their experiments he applies, and does not wish to repay for the things he has gotten. They are not so hopeless as the first class and can be put on the right way by punishment of the public opinion of their fellow specialists.
Ending this letter I would like to remind my fellow aeronauts of the opportunities to be derived from the existence of the American Magazine of Aeronautics: (1) The acquaintance of all Americans interested in Aeronautics; (2)»
the possibility of being in touch with all progress made by aeronauts of the whole world in practice and theory; (3) the creation of professional morality, which will give good assistance to the promotion of aeri-navigation by helping honest inventors and persecuting the swindlers; (4) the best intermediary between the inventor, workman and purchaser. And thus, everyone who is interested in aeronautics ought to help Mr. Jones in his hard work as an editor and publisher of such a special journal.
Yours verv truly,
(Signed) ' F. A. POSTNIKOV, Lt.-Col., Military and Civil Egr.,
The Longest Balloon Voyage.
To the Editor of the American Journal of Aeronautics:
It is stated in your first number, page 30, that John Wise traveled, in 1859, from St. Louis to Henderson, New York, a distance of 1150 miles, in about 19 hours, and this statement is frequently quoted as an American record for distance, which practically equals the world's record of 1193 miles, made by Count de La Vaulx, in 1900.
In view of the international race for the longest distance, soon to start from St. Louis, it seems desirable to explain that although Professor Wise may have traveled the distance stated, the length of a balloon voyage is always reckoned as the shortest distance between the starting and landing points, and for Wise's voyage
I find this to be about 870 miles. This distance has been exceeded several times in Europe, and the time which Wise remained in the air has been more than doubled. During the international balloon races from Berlin, in October, 1906, some of the balloons kept afloat about 24 hours, but owing to the fact that they moved in a circuitous course, none of them landed more than 250 miles from Berlin, and this was taken as the record for the distance traveled. The distance traveled by Lieut. Lahm in the Gordon-Bennett race, which he won last year, is officially stated to be 647 kilometres from Paris, which is 402 miles, and not "about 410 miles," as he states on page 42 of his article in the Aero-Club book, "Navigating the Air."
Finalty, it may be interesting to mention that one of the early balloons, carrying only self-recording instruments, drifted 700 miles over Europe. This balloon, which was made of silk or other fabric, lost its gas slowly and so kept afloat nearly
II hours, but even the small rubber balloons, which are now used for meteorological purposes and which hurst on reaching their extreme altitudes, may go a long distance. For example, one of these "sounding balloons/' which was despatched November 25, 1904, by the Blue Hill Observatory from St. Louis, fell 280 miles away, the journey lasting only 167 minutes, and the balloon during that time rising to a height of seven miles.
A. LAWBEXCE BOTCH.
Blue Hill Observatorv, September 28. 1907.
SANTOS DUMONT NO. 16.
Several modifications have been made. Substitution has been made of a three-blacle propeller for the old two-blade. The old aluminum framework rested on one bicycle wheel. It has since been enlarged to take an axle with two wheels and this will assist in maintaining balance in the preliminary runs. It is necessary to attain a speed of from 37 to 50 miles an hour.
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RARE AERONAUTIC BOOKS FOR SALE
This magazine will publish each month a list of such rare books relating to aeronautics as it is able to secure.
If you desire any of those listed, kindly send check with your order for the amount stated. Should the book ordered be sold previous to the receipt of your order, the money will be promptly returned.
Astra Castra (Hatton Turner). Royal 4to, cloth, gilt top, uncut, London, 1865............$15.00
An Account of the First Aerial Voyage in England (Vincent Lunardi). Portrait of Lunardi by Bartolozzi and plates. Crown Svo, half calf, uncut, London, 1784. Autograph "V.
Lunardi" on fly-leaf......... IS-OO
Travels in the Air (James Glai-sher). Svo., cloth, London, 1871........................ io.on
Crotchets in the Air (John Poole). 12 mo., cloth, London, 1838 ......................... Soo
By- Land and Sky (John M. Bacon). Four illustrations. Svo, cloth, uncut, London, 1901 2.50
A Balloon Ascension at Midnight (G. E. Hall). Plates by Gordon Ross. Svo, boards, uncut. San Francisco, 1902. Limited edition .................. 2.50
Five Weeks in a Balloon (Win. Lackland). 12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1869...................... 2.50
Wonderful Balloon Ascents (F.
Marion). 12 mo., half leather,
N. Y., 1S71 ................. 2.50
My Airships (Santos-Dumont). Illustrated. Crown Svo, cloth, uncut, London, 1904......... 2.50
The Dominion of the Air. The
story of aerial navigation. Illustrations from photographs. Crown, Svo, cloth, London, n. d......................... 2.00
My Life and Balloon Experiences. Photograph of author. Crown, Svo, cloth. London, 1887 ......................... 2.00
Travels in Space (G. S. Valentine and F. L. Tomlinson). Introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim, 61 plates. 8vo, cloth, London, 1902............... 2.00
Balloon Travels (Robert Merry).
12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1865 ....$ 2.50
Aerodynamics. Illustrated. 1S91. 2.00
Conquest of the Air (John Alexander). 12 mo., cloth, London,
1902 ......................... 2.00
The Motor and its Chief Application, Wings, Propulsion in Air, etc. (Com. of Pat., 1849).
Svo., paper .................. 1.50
La Machine Animale (J. Marey). Illustrated, Svo, cloth, Paris,
1878, French ................ 1.25
Balloons, Airships and Flying Machines (Gertrude Bacon).
12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1905 .... 1.00
These columns are open to everyone at t. cents a word.
By young man interested in aeronautics. Has studied electrical engineering and is now in electrical laboratory. N. C.
By young man student of aerial navigation. Desires ,to work with some advanced experimentor. O.A.D.
For aeronautic exhibition of Aero Club of America, Grand Central Palace, New York, October 24-31. Transportation paid on exhibits both ways. Address Aero Club, 12 East 42d St.
Goerz-Ansehutz balloon camera with or without telephoto lens. Used by prominent aeronauts abroad and offered as prizes at International Aeronautic Photographic Competition. G.
Please send us lists of any rare and contemporaneous aeronautic books, pamphlets and prints which you have for sale. American Magazine of Aeronautics.
Airship—Baldwin's California Arrow—Patented.
I design and manufacture, Free Balloons, Captive Balloons, Airships, and in fact everything in the hydrogen line of aeronautics. Information relative to dates and terms, cheerfully furnished upon request.
CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN
Airship California Arrow
Box 78 Madison Sq. P. O., New Yoik
Will SSliow :it Aero <Jlnl> Exliil>ition
(iriind Centrivl r»:tl«,o«j, New Yorli. October *M-:«1.
THE AERO AND MARINE MOTOR
60 PEMBERTON SQUARE BOSTON
Manufacturers of air and water-cooled aeronautical motors—Motors for marine purposes—Pumping outfits—Stationary engines.
FACTORY: COR. ELM AND CENTRAL STREETS
FALL RIVER, MASS. EXHIBITING AT AERO CLUB OF AMERICA SHOW.
BALLOONING AS A SPORT
By Major b. Baden Powell.
<J With chapters on recent history, personal experiences, and a guide to the practice of Ballooning.
<I Illustrated by photographs.
W. BLACKWOOD &. SON, EDINBURGH AND LONDON. agents for America, AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS
Price Postpaid, $1.10
American Airship and Balloon Corporation
Incorporated under the laws ol the State ol New York
Capital Stock, $50,000
Manufacturer of Airships, Balloons, Engines and all kinds of Aeronautical Material. Airship and Balloon Flights, made ; Captive Balloons for Sale and Hire.
AMERICAN AIRSHIP AND BALLOON CORPORATION
Aeronautical Concourse, Jamestown Exposition
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FITTED WITH A
Goerz Telephoto Lens
is especially adapted for the use of balloonists on account of its light weight, small size and the superiority of the lens.
Can be focused at the level of the eye, it takes pictures AS WE SEE THEM
which no other camera will do when focusing at the height of the chest.
For time and instantaneous exposures. The official camera of this magazine
WRITE FOR OUR CATALOGUE
G P. GOERZ AMERICAN OPTICAL CO.
52 E. Union Square, New York. 1514 Heyworth BIdg., Chicago, HI.
BERLIN LONDON LPARIS VIENNA
See oiii' Exliil>it zìi tlie Aero 01itl> Slio^w
NAVIGATING THE AIR
BY THE SCIENTIFIC AND ACTIVE MEMBERS OF THE AERO CLUB OF AMERICA
An interesting record of the personal experiences of the twenty-four men most distinguished to-day in the art and science of flying.
TH\T THE PROBLEM OF AERIAL NAVIGATION HAS AT LAST BEEN SOLVED
is announced by such authorities as Dr. Alexander Graham Bell; and this book gives for the first time an authentic summary of the present state of Aeronautics.
WO na<rp<! J" of photographs showing iut- ?, ~ , . .
OUU pdges, portant developments in tins new science. pOal PalU
AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS
142 WEST 65TH STREET
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