Aeronautics

Volume 1 - No. 2 - 1907 August

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



Our Aero Club—Providence Balloon Race—Light Engines—Gordon Bennett International Aeronautic Cup Race—Manageable Balloons—The Scientific American Flying Machine Trophy—Balloon Voyages —Aero Club of America—Aero Club of the United Kingdom—Aero Club de Belgique—Aero Club de France?—Aéronautique Club de France—The Dirigible Balloon—Pittsfield Gas—The New Bleriot Machine—Chronology of Principal Recent Events—News Notes—The Highest Ascent by Man—New Aeronautic Books—Future Events—Aeronautics in the Current Magazines—Aeronautical Patents Issued —Rare Aeronautic Books—B r i t i s h Aeronautical Institute—Henry Farman— Captain Ferber.

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VOL. I.

AUGUST, 1907.

PRICE, TWENTY-FIVE CENTS

No. 2.

Published by

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS CO.

142 West Sixty-Fifth Street

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American magazine of Aeronautics,

published monthly by

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS CO.

Ernest LaRue Jones, Editor and Owner 142 West Sixty-Fifth Street, New York, U. S. A.

Vol. I August 1907 No. 2

American Magazine of Aeronautics is issued promptly on the tenth of each month. It aims to furnish the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics. Contributions are solicited.

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OUR AERO CLUB.

The Aero Club of America was formed by several sportsmen, expcri-m en tors and scientists, for the laudable purpose of advancing the development of the science of aeronautics, for the encouragement and organization of aerial excursions, conferences, expositions, congresses and the conduct of meets, contests and exhibitions of air-ships, balloons and inventions designed to be propelled through the air.

Has it taken any steps to carry out its avowed purpose? We think it has, so far as it has been able under numerous handicaps.

In January, 1906, it held its first exhibition at the 69th Regiment Armory. Considering the limited time in which to secure exhibits, the affair was a pronounced success. A goodly number of exhibits were brought to light and people were awakened to the importance of aeronautics and the actual work that had been previously done by experimentors.

During the Summer of 1906 a few balloon trips were made, thirty-three, in fact, by members of the club from different points. These were enjoyable trips, as most of the members making them were novices, and they did nut consider the inconveniences to which they were put in order to make these nights.

In September renewed interest was manifested in ballooning because of the winning of the Gordon-Bennett International Aeronautic Cup by the Aero Club of America, through its representative. Lieutenant Frank F. Lahm, on the occasion of the first contest for this cup. This success brought to America the handsome trophy for competition this year, among the aero clubs of the world, at St. Louis.

The second exhibition of the Club was held in December at Grand Central Palace, and was even more of a success than the previous one.

This year a number of flights have already been made, and we are now looking forward to the Congress at Jamestown Exposition and the Gordon-Bennett in the Fall.

What the Club most needs is a park, situated so that good gas can be obtained, where members may make flights. This should be not over thirty miles from New York, with many trains each way. A member could then telephone to the grounds in the early morning and have his balloon all ready for him when he arrives in the afternoon. An aeronaut could thus go on any day on which the wind was favorable and would not have to go off a hundred miles and wait for favorable winds, wasting his time on the hotel verandah, as has been the experience in many cases heretofore.

In France, in the case of at least two clubs, all the resources of the society are expended wholly in providing ascensions for its members, the number of which during any given year being governed by the condition of the treasury. Each ascension is in charge of a competent pilot designated by the president from among the members. The only requisite is that a member shall have been of six months' standing and pay to the treasurer a number of days before the ascension 20 francs ($4) as his contribution to the expenses of inflation and return of material after the descent. If a trip of over 50 kilometres is made, the members who have made the ascension are required to pay jointly the expenses of return for the distance exceeding the prescribed 50 kilometres.

It does seem reasonable to suppose that our Government might pay a share of the expenses of each trip made by a member, in return for which the member .would agree to furnish certain information to the Weather Bureau The Government does now send up small balloons for the purpose of making meteorological records and for studying the currents of air. If the same amount of money now expended by the Government in this way were applied to the expenses of members' nights, the Weather Bureau would secure much more complete information at the same cost. More nights woidd be made and more records obtained. There would then be an inducement to members to purchase balloons. The expense now prohibits many. Of course, this arrangement would, perhaps, work a hardship on some members in demanding these complicated records, but such work by the member would be of considerable value to him in future trips. There are many who attribute Lieutenant Lahm's victory to the knowledge and experience of Major Hersey, of the Weather Bureau, who accompanied him. One can hardly imagine but that the experience gained in collecting these records would be of value to those trying for long trips. When the Aero Club instituted its ascents the Weather Bureau asked for copies of the records kept by the aeronauts and same have been furnished to some extent. These records, however, have merely shown the altitude reached and the direction of the winds, which information the Bureau's own stations, of course, furnished.

Land could be secured for little or nothing at many towns in New Jersey and along the Hudson River. The matter of securing the proper gas is the greater question. There is also the matter of expense in erecting suitable buildings for the housing of members' aerostats, the club building, the cost of maintenance, a superintendent and helpers. It might be able to secure the funds by solicitation among the wealthy members of the club, but the better way seems to interest the Government in some such project.

The Balloon Corps of the Army might make this Club Park a sort of station where soldiers could be instructed in ballooning through taking active part in the ascensions of members. Those of the Army studying aeronautics for military purposes could accompany the members and take the necessary records and notes for their own use and for the Weather Bureau on a sharing-of-expense plan.

This magazine would be glad to receive for publication the views of Aero Club members on this subject, with the idea of bringing about the realization of some system whereby ballooning would become more popular as a sport and as a means of acquiring scientific knowledge.

IMPORTANT NOTICE.

We have received numerous letters of inquiry from people who subscribed last year to the "Aeronautical News," of which the editor, Carl Dienstbach, issued but one number. We wish to state that this publication is in no way connected with the above-mentioned journal, and we have not assumed its contracts. Had there been any possibility of our not continuing to publish the American Magazine of Aeronautics we would have promised our subscribers in the initial number to refund all subscriptions paid in case of discontinuance of publication.

PROVIDENCE BALLOON RACE.

We regret to announce the abandonment of the proposed balloon race at Providence. R. 1., on July 31.

The City of Providence invited, through its committee, aero club members and others, to participate in a distance contest, proposing to pay all expenses of the entrants, furnish several handsome cups as prizes, and to entertain the aeronauts during their stay. After five entries had been received and all arrangements practically completed the city found that it could not fulfill its promise and was compelled to request the withdrawal of entries. This contest would have been the first of such importance ever held in this country.

A LETTER TO AERONAUTS.

The American Magazine of Aeronautics is very desirous of obtaining accurate and complete records of all balloon and airship flights made in America during each month.

We would appreciate it very much if you would send us such records at the end of every month and we would be very glad to supply you with the blank forms for the purpose upon request.

May we not expect to hear from you?

LIGHT ENGINES By Harry E. Dey.

Perhaps in the future, when the art of flying becomes an every-day event, the need of a light engine will disappear; but at present we have got to get every part down to the limit of lightness, even to training down the operator to a living skeleton. It is best, however, not to be too economical with the wing structure—a break there spells death. With the engine, however, an accident would generally be followed by no more serious consequence than would be the case with an automobile under similar circumstances, unless the landing enforced thereby should be in water, or some other undesirable location.

I do not wish to be understood by the above as favoring weak construction in the engine, but it is unnecessary to calculate the proper strength and then multiply it by ten for good measure.

In designing a light motor our first object should be to avoid all unnecessary parts, and the most important of these will naturally be the water and water cooling system, with its pump, radiator, pipes, jacket, etc.

The high speed of the flying machine is very favorable for air cooling; the practically steady load, however, is not. Perhaps the strong cool draft due to the former will balance the constant full load which the automobile air cooled motor does not h,ave to meet.

For cooling purposes, it is desirable to have as large an amount of cooling surface as possible. My method of accomplishing this has been to use steel tubing for the cylinders, of very heavy guage, and rotate them before a gang of milling cutters so as to cut deep grooves around the tube, the cutters being about one-sixteenth inch thick, and spaces about one-thirty second inch apart; thus providing flanges one-thirty second inch thick and spaced one-sixteenth inch apart, of any desired depth. One-half inch for the latter is ample. The remaining thickness of the cylinder Avail need not be over one-sixteenth inch for cylinders up to six inches bore. The heads may be similarly treated, provided they are not made of too complicated a design; if made of the common side valve construction they may be rotated about two centers, the main center and the valve center.

The side valve construction, however, is not desirable as it gives too large an absorbing surface for the heat, the object in designing being to have the minimum surface possible on the interior, and the maximum attainable on the outside. For this same reason a long stroke is desirable, for even with the longest stroke that is practical the explosion takes place in a very flat compartment, which necessarily gives a very large amount of surface relative to the cubical contents. Of course this flatness lengthens out until the dimensions are reversed as the piston travels along, but this latter condition is only reached after the charge has lost a very large amount of its heat, due to the expansion and work accomplished.

It is common practice in air cooled designing to use a very low compression compared with water cooled practice. The compression spare is made large in proportion to the stroke and mechanical inlet valves are used so as to obtain atmospheric pressure, as near as possible, at the end of the suction stroke. I do not .approve of this method, however. I believe that the better plan is to provide a very small compression space and then throttle the incoming charge by means of a strong spring governing the automatic inlet valve. This restricts the charge to the desired amount to give the proper

compression in the small compression space. This compression may be carried considerably higher thjan in the other type, for it is reached so much later in the stroke that it does not have time to heat and pre-ignite, and, also, the pressure drops so quickly after the piston begins to travel downwards that the heating is not nearly so severe; especially on the exhaust valves, as the pressure has nearly reached zero by the time they 'are opened, and low pressure means low heat.

The economy of this system is undeniable, as it obtains a much greater expansion from the explosion, accomplishing what the compound engine was designed to do, but without all the complications, and port and friction losses of the latter. Besides the ladded economy due to using higher compression.

The tight crank case should hardly be necessary for our work. "Up above the world so high" we should not be bothered with the dust, and an open crank gives not only lighter construction, but also greatly assists in cooling, as it allows the cool fresh air to get up inside the cylinder and around the piston. In this case, of course, direct lubrication has to be provided, as the splash system is out of the question. The crank shaft cylinders and cam shaft supports may be of skeleton construction, while the crank shaft should be of a very liberal diameter, bored out hollow and mounted upon ball bearings. The cam shaft should "also be mounted in a similar manner. These shafts should be made of chrome nickel steel.

The cylinders may preferably be made of nickel steel of about thirty per cent, alloy, which is rust proof, and also has the reputation of being a good anti-friction metal. It certainly stands heat well, as is proven by its wide use for valves, thirty-five per cent, composition being usually used for that purpose.

Many engineers at the present time are designing their engines for this purpose with staggered cylinders set in V form, relative to one another. This has an advantage for air cooling, where the engine is set fore and aft, as it allows the air to circulate around the cylinders better, the position being a very bad one for those that are set directly behind one another. The V form also has the advantage of shortening the length of the engine, and consequently saving slightly in weight. I should prefer, however, a typical six cylinder engine design, as it is better balanced, and more symmetrical in every way, and if there is anything I do dislike, it is an unsymmetrical piece of mechanism. The disadvantage in cooling may be overcome by setting the engine crosswise, and gearing to a transverse shaft by means of bevel gears located at the center of the crankshaft; or, the engine may be placed in the usual transverse manner and a scoop arranged on one side to catch the air from the front and cause it to strike the cylinders roadside on. This would probably be the better of the two methods.

The lightest of all methods, however, is the revolving cylinder type, the cylinders act as a flywheel, and their cooling properties are ideal. This type of engine has been used to same extent on automobiles, one company have had it upon the market for several years. It appears to me, however, somewhat on the order of freaks, although I must confess that I cannot put up a very strong argument against it.

With a six cylinder engine the propellers will probably take the place of a flywheel, thus lightening the engine to that extent.

The connecting rods should be made of rolled material, chrome-nickel or vanadium steel, being blanked out from heavy sheet metal, the central portion being given an I beam section by milling out a wide shallow groove on each side. The lower end should be designed to retain a ball bearing, while the

upper end should be adapted to retain a bronze bearing for the wrist pin. Both ends may be fitted up in a thoroughly mechanical manner, although at first sight it might not appear so.

The piston and rings should be made of cast iron, as it is the most satisfactory metal for this purpose. This, as well as the connecting rod, should be made up to the limit of lightness, for, to a large extent, the speed of the engine is limited by the weight of these parts, and "speed is power." As the motion is reciprocating and has to be reversed twice during every revolution, this gives a very hard blow each time upon the crank pin and wrist pin bearings. This is another argument in favor of the long stroke engine, as the blows are proportionately less frequent, but are also lighter as there is a longer travel during which the change of motion is made.

One thousand feet per minute is considered a conservative piston speed in automobile practice. This probably should not be exceeded in aerial work, for the latter is so much more severe, full load and highest speed being kept on continuously. This factor should be kept fully in mind when designing an engine for this purpose, and the engine should consequently be rated more conservatively.

The valves should be located in the top of the heads. Each cylinder having one large mechanically operated one for the exhaust, and two, or more, small automatic ones for the intake. The two small automatic valves are quicker operating and can be more conveniently located than a single large one. With the latter, the head has to be made of considerable larger diameter than the cylinder especially to accommodate it, unless they are placed at an angle.

I should preferably use the jump spark system of ignition with a single coil and distributor, the coil wound for a single cell of storage battery. A cell good for several hours use need not exceed one pound in weight.

Exhaust pipes and muffler may be dispensed with as luxuries for the future generation to adopt.

The carbureter may be made up of sheet metal construction so as to be very light.

GORDON-BENNETT INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTIC CUP RACE,

Owing to difficulty in securing the necessary amount of gas on Saturday, October 19th, the race has been postponed until the following Monday at 3:30 o'clock.

It is not unlikely that the Spanish entry will also be shut out of the race by the action of the Federation, leaving but three foreign clubs to compete: Aero Club of France, Deutscher Luftschiffer-Verband and Aero Club of the United Kingdom. M. Mix and M. Chas. Levee will be the companions of pilots Le Blanc and Gasnier respectively, composing the French team. Mr. Griffith Brewer will be the only representative of the English Club. If the Spanish entry is not admitted there will be but nine balloons in the race.

Just after the Gordon-Bennett race the St. Louis Club will hold a series of contests for dirigibles, and "gasless" machines if same can be secured. They plan at present to offer $5,000 in all, divided as follows: $2,500 to the dirigible or gasless machine covering a six-mile course in the best manner in 30 minutes; $1,250 to the dirigible which makes the best showing; $1,250 to the gasless machine giving the best account of itself. Should none of the competitors win first prize of $2,500, it will be divided equally between the dirigibles and gasless machines, each class receiving $1,250.

MANAGEABLE BALLOONS.

Until the year 1903 the use of manageable balloons was confined to scientific men and for the purpose of sport, but since then they have been found useful for strategical purposes.

The famous French engineer, H. Juilliot, having made several ascents in the balloon "Lebaudy" (constructed by himself) has also proved that they will render valuable assistance in times of war.

In consequence of the success of these experiments the French Government has purchased a similar balloon from the firm Lebaudy Bros, in 1906, to which they have assigned the name "Patric." The firm of Lebaudy Bros, had ere this presented the balloon "Lebaudy" to the Government.

The "Patrie" is somewhat larger and quicker than the "Lebaudy," and particular care has been taken by the builders to bring it up to date with all the latest improvements that their experience has taught them.

The trial trips of the "Patrie" which took place in November, 1906, have fully established the fact that this can be considered the proper type of manageable balloon.

But to return to the "Lebaudy," which has been completely renovated since it made the descent on the 20th of November, 1903, which caused it a little

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damage; this balloon has a volume of 2,950 cubic meters, the diameter at the Maitre-couple being 10.30 meters and its length is 57.75 meters.

The fabric of these balloons consisted at first of two layers of cotton, one of which was painted yellow (yellow being the only color which will withstand the sun's rays) with a sheet of rubber in between. Now, however, another sheet of rubber has been used, same being placed on the inner side of the layer of cotton in order to make it stronger and to protect the fabric from the inroads which impure hydrogen gas makes. This impure gas caused much damage to the fabric which was first used. Since this time, however, the manufacturers have been successful in obtaining pure hydrogen gas in their factory at Moisson.

Great stress should be laid upon the fact that in the four years (1902-1905) no less than 75 ascents were made in the "Lebaudy" without an accident to a single person.

In the ascents made in 1905, one officer at least always accompanied the aeronaut, as also at different times did several Generals and the Minister of War.

In addition to this these balloons have the following advantages:

Their easy management, their ability to withstand all climatic influences, their great carrying capacity, the safety with which ascents can be made, as also the returns to earth, and their usefulness in allowing photographs to be taken from great distances, and for the throwing of explosives.

All these have built up for these balloons an unbroken link of experimental successes and improvements which offer good proof that they can travel a distance of 100 miles around, provided that the natural surroundings offer sufficient protection to render the balloon invisible to the enemy, and that a good watch is kept.

Perhaps it would be advisable in the future to provide special places for these balloons in camp.

The ascents made at Toul (France) have proved that these balloons will play a great part in sieges, viz.: they will be very valuable in making recon-noissances, because they will be able to discover the position of an approaching army, to watch its camp, to obtain photographs of its fortifications and to

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keep the besieged in touch with the outer world. Whether the dropping of explosives from these balloons into the enemy's camp will be successful in effect remains an open question for the present.

On the other hand they are placed at a disadvantage because of their being exposed to the sight of the enemy and to their tendency to break down, but their freedom of motion in a 113- direction would enable them to escape this former danger.

It has not yet been determined to what height these balloons can rise so that the enemy could elevate their guns to a proper angle.

The matter of fact is that the safety of the balloons in reality depends upon the tactics employed by the aeronaut.

But in any case the trials of the "Lebaudy'' as mentioned above fully prove that the balloons can be rendered most valuable in assisting in times of war and it appears to us that in the not very distant future it will be able to establish fleets of these airships, of which "Patrie" ma}' possibly be a foundation.

The Continental Caoutchouc and Gutta Fercha Co. of Hanover, Germany, has the representation for the United States.

THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN FLYING MACHINE TROPHY.

A special committee of the Aero Club of America, appointed for the purpose, has formulated the following provisional rules governing the competition for flying machines of the heavier-than-air type, which will be inaugurated at the Jamestown Exposition on September 14 next.

It is the intention of the Scientific American, in offering this trophy, to have it always open to competition by inventors the world over. Should the trophy be won by the representative of a foreign aeronautical club, this club, if a member of the Federation Aeronautique Internationale, may become the custodian of the trophy; but the future competitions, even if held abroad, shall be carried out under the same rules and conditions used by the Aero Club of America in the competitions held here.

Xext month's issue will contain a photograph of this beautiful trophy, which is now in course of manufacture.

Rules Governing the Competition.

1. This competition will be held annually, and the conditions of the trials will be progressive in character, so as to keep abreast of the state of the art. The first contest will be held at the Jamestown Exposition on September 14, 1907, and all entries for this contest must be made in writing and sent to the secretary of the Aero Club of America, 12 East 42d Street, New York-City, prior to September 1, 1907. The rules governing future contests will be formulated by the contest committee of the Aero Club of America in accordance with the results obtained and the lessons learned in this first contest.

2. All heavier-than-air machines of any type whatever (aeroplanes, helicopters, orthopters, etc.), shall be entitled to compete for the trophy; but all machines carrying a balloon or gas-containing envelope for purposes of support are excluded from the competition.

3. The machine which accomplishes the required flight in the shortest time and with the best display of stability and ease of control, shall be declared the winner. If several machines perform equally well, the committee shall have the right to demand further flights in order to determine which is the best. If no machine makes the required flight on the date set for the contest, the one that subsequently first accomplishes such flight shall be declared the winner, and shall not be entitled to make a further flight until the next year, under the changed conditions of the contest.

4. The flights shall be made in calm air, if possible. If a wind of over 20 miles an hour is blowing, no trial need be made. Aeroplanes may start by running along on wheels on the ground under their own power, but no special track or launching device will be permitted. A smooth, level roadway, or a reasonably smooth, turfed field will be provided from which to make the start. Machines need not fly more than a few feet above the ground, or higher than is necessary to avoid obstacles. They should be capable of being steered both horizontally and vertically, and of alighting without being damaged. If there is a wind blowing, the flights shall be made in such direction as best suits each operator. The start should preferably be made against the wind.

5. The committee shall make arrangements to accurately time and measure all flights, as well as the distance traversed and time taken in starting and stopping. Accurate observations of the speed of the wind and other weather conditions at the time of the flight shall also be made and recorded by the committee. Complete specifications of the competing machines, giving weieht. supporting surface, details of motors and propellers, etc.. together with a description of any performance that the machine has made, shall be

forwarded to the contest committee with the entry or when application is made for a trial.

6. Anyone desirous of making a flight at any subsequent time can arrange for such a test by communicating with the contest committee of the Aero Club of America, at least fourteen days in advance, and asking this committee to appoint a suitable time and place for the trial. If the committee believe the machine to be impractical, it can require the inventor either to prove the incorrectness of such belief by an informal demonstration with the machine itself, or by demonstration in some other satisfactory way which will show that the machine is operative.

7. The first flight shall be for a distance of one kilometer (3,280 feet) in a straight line.

8. After every competition, the name of the winner will be inscribed upon the trophy. If it is won 'three times in different years by any competitor, the trophy will then become his personal property.

BALLOON VOYAGES. By M. Montgolfier.

It is said, with great mistake, that trips in free balloons are dangerous and very expensive. This is not so. It is proven that since the materials of which free spherical balloons 'are made have been perfected, there is now no more danger. Since the great aeronautical display of 1900—since aeronautics have ceased to be the field of acrobats and showmen alone and has become a sport and a scientific mode of investigation, there has not been recorded in France one single accident in free balloons. That is because ascensions to-day are made by enlightened people who have learned technical aeronautics.

The Aeronautique Club de France has greatly helped in this work of popularizing ballooning by its publications, ascensions, fetes, competitions and lectures. This Club has a library, with a reading room, a park for aerostation and one for aviation. By means of small assessments the members have the privilege, in turns, without any expense, of making balloon flights, and, further, they have all the facilities to make as many ascensions as they wish, with the minimum of expense. Every member receives the official journal, La Revue de 1'Aviation. Ladies are allowed to become members of this Club, forming the Ladies' Committee, and have the same privileges as all other members.

Numerous are those who have already experienced the charm and enthusiasm of an excursion in the air and all are unanimous in their declarations of the apparent immobility of the car—there exist no trace of uneasiness. Vertigo is impossible even to sickly people, one does not feel a breath of air, not a movement, nor the sensation of going up or down, not even the one of travelling. The voyager is entirely taken up in admiration, and with the ideal beauty of the landscape. Concerning the uncertainty of landing, of which the profanes speak—it is a fable, for one can land when and where he wishes, and more gently even than in an elevator. In modern ballooning the "dragging" does not exist any more. (On account of the use of the rip-cord.—Ed.) The work of this Club can not be too much encouraged. It is subsidized by the City of Paris and is placed under the patronage of the Minister of Public Instruction. It has not only democraticized aerial excursions in placing them within the reach of all, but has done much in technical researches of the highest interest and value. It has a school where are prepared men for entrance in the First Ingenieur Battallion Balloon Corps, at Versailles. This preparatory school sends out each year a great number of men, well instructed and esteemed by their superiors.

AERO CLUB OF AMERICA.

To Members:

Will yon not kindly send the Club accurate records of all ascensions made in order that our file may be complete? The number of our delegates to the International Congress is directly dependent upon the number of trips made. As a matter of Club interest every one is urgently requested to promptly report their voyages, and as detailed as possible. Blanks will be supplied to. those who have not already received same. AUGUSTUS POST,

Secretary.

New Members:

Frederic W. Lord, President Lord Electric Co., 213 W. 40th St., New York. Dr. J. Wesley Bovee, Physici'an, 815 Conn. Ave., Washington, D. C. Lee S. Bnrridge, President Sun Typewriter Co., 317 Broadway, New York. William Gettinger, Publisher, 51 Nassau Street, New York.

Messrs. Cortlandt Field Bishop and Frank S. Lahm have been appointed delegates to the Conference of the International Aeronautic Federation, Brussels, September 12.

THE AERO CLUB OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. By Harold E. Perrin, Secretary.

The Race for the Hedges Butler Challenge Cup took place at Ranelagh on Saturday, June 29th, 1907. The following balloons competed:

Name of Balloon. Competitor.

Aero Club IV.................-V. Ker-Seymer.

City of London.................F. H. Butler.

Venus ......ϖ..................J- Is- C. Moore-Brabazon.

Britannia ......................Hon. C S. Rolls.

Nebula ϖ.......................Hon. Mrs. Assheton Harbord.

Kokoro ........................Prof. A. K. Huntington.

Lotus .........................G. Brewer.

Sapellite ..................Viscount Royston.

Pegasus.....................ϖ Col. J. E. Capper, C.B., R.E.

Enchantress ...................E. Bucknall.

The start was made in a heavy thunder storm, and most of the competitors were driven down by the very heavy rain. Col. J. E. Capper, C.B., R.E., accompanied by Major Crookshank. made the longest journey. Having got clear of the thunder norm, he continued his journey down to Bramber near Worthing, where he was obliged to make his descent, as the wind was carrying him directly over the sea. All the other competitors made their descent quite close to the starting place. Col. Capper therefore holds the Hedges Butler Challenge Cup for th:s year. The rules for this Challenge Cup stipulate that in the event of any member winning the Cup on three consecu-ti\ e occasions it will become his absolute property.

Mr. Cortland F. Bishop, president of the Aero Club of America, and Mr. Alan R. Plawley, one of the team representing the Aero Club of America in the forthcoming Gordon Bennett Aeronautical Race, have been elected members of the Aero Club of the United Kingdom.

Mr. Hawley, who has been making several ascents both in Paris and in England, competed for the Hedges Butler Challenge Cup in conjunction with Viscount Royston. Owing to the bad weather, they were only able to make a short trip, but succeeded in winning the second prize, being a cup offered for the second longest journey by the Ranelagh Club.

AERO CLUB DE BELGIQUE.

An International Balloon Contest for distance will be organized by the Aero Club de Belgique on the occasion of the reunion, at Brussels, of the F. A. I. and the Commission Permanente Internationale d'Aéronautique, on Sunday, September 15. It will be held in the Park du Cinquantenaire. Several prizes, the majority of which are important, will be given the winners in this inter-club race.

AERO CLUB OF FRANCE.

Georges Besancon, Secretary.

The first half year of 1907 has been marked by numerous ascensions, which show the growing interest of our society for the encouragement in aerial navigation and the allied sciences.

In the splendid park of the Aero Club among the hills of Saint Cloud from the 1st of January to the 30th of June there were no less than 191 departures of balloons, consuming 172,480 cubic metre of gas and lifting 511 passengers, of whom 54 were ladies.

These ascensions were distinguished by the aerial voyages of : Prince Albert of Belgium; Mr. Louis Barthou, Minister of Public Works; General Picquart, Minister of War; and three ascensions of officers of the engineering corps that are called to drive the future war balloons.

The annual club book of the Aero Club of France for 1907, which is to-day mailed to all members, is now a large and thick book of over 200 pages. An extract of this book is mailed to all persons asking for it. Said extract gives all inquiries and answers many questions concerning the advantages given to the members and can be had free of charge by writing to the office of the Aero Club, 84 Faubourg Saint Honore, Paris.

Aviation at Touquet.

These last days, with a good north-west wind, MM. Leon Delagrange, Charles Voisin, Henry Farman and Colliex made quite a few trials in soaring over the dunes of Touquet.

Starting from different heights, varying from 10 to 15 meters, with a motorless aeroplane, Chanute model of about 18 square metre of surface, the experimenters realized some flights of 40 meters.

The experiments in soaring shall be continued on the same shore, which is good and practicable for this kind of work.

AERONAUTIQUE CLUB DE FRANCE.

By Monsieur J. Saunière, President.

At the last meeting of the Board of Governors it was decided to give free of charge to members who desire it, 500 cubic metres of gas to be used in ascensions. Four balloon ascensions have been arranged for the week of July 21-28 at the Rueil gas works, the pilots to be designated for each trip, without any expense to the members.

THE DIRIGIBLE BALLOON. By Israel Ludlow.

To make a successful flight in a dirigible airship is one of the most difficult problems presented to the aeronaut. In the first place there are many points to be noted in the building of an airship.

The choice of a suitable motor is the first essential. Unless the motor is of minimum weight and maximum power the gas envelope will be unable to lift it off the ground. Not only is the smallness of weight to be taken in account, but it must be of the greatest effective power, safe driving and length of working time.

The choice of a suitable propeller is hardly of less importance and can only be made after thorough tests, in connection with the particular motor. Propellers of large driving power do not always create the most breeze when revolved.

Then the framework offering little resistance and having the smallest possible compass must be constructed and the motor and propeller rigidly attached; and after that is done the framework itself must be scientifically and carefully hung to the balloon so that when the engine is working and the propellers revolving the oscillations, due to the vibration of the motor and the velocity with which the airship moves, are as small as possible.

The weight of the aeronaut must be considered, and the air resistance his bod}r offers in traveling are not unimportant points.

The gas envelope must have the smallest practical cross section. Since the shape of the envelope must be the thing that is to be figured on under all circumstances, the diameter can be determined only after each individual item is figured up, and the mathematical result obtained, which is the basis of the construction work. The shape of the envelope must offer the least head and side resistance, while possessing at the same time the greatest volume and the greatest longitudinal stability, incompatible elements that must be carefully harmonized. Everything must be made light to the breaking point, and under these circumstances it is not surprising that accidents continually happen, due to the changing wind, to striking obstructions in ascending and descending, and to the irregular action of the motor, or from the loss of gas, due to condensation, and sometimes from the carelessness of the aeronaut.

Having knowledge of these different sources of accidents the public should view the effort of the aeronaut with consideration. If they are interested in the matter scientifically they should observe the five points of construction and see where the aeronaut has put the centre of gravity of his ship; and its relative position to the centre of resistance; or how he has put the point of application of the driving propeller, and what method he uses to prevent any turning movement between the driving force and resistance, of how the distribution of the lifting forces is used in connection with the distribution of weight along the framework; of the system by which the aeronaut raises and lowers his airship by moving his own weight forward and backward; and the movements to one side and how the equilibrium is preserved. The entire safety of the aeronaut depends upon his careful calculation of all these points, and the angle or tilt that can be made with safety.

Changing the direction of flight causes a bending and strain; traveling through the air forward, a horizontal strain, and pitching of the airship an unequal strain. Results must be obtained by the use of a rudder; otherwise he is at the mercy of the wind. .

A practical system of aeronautical navigation has not yet been put into practice, due to these difficulties, of which only a general idea is here given; improvement is rapidly made and each flight shows the possibility of building a more perfect airship.

The flights of Eugene Godet with his cylindrical gas bag with conical ends are interesting because they are among the initial efforts of man to perfect the practical airship, which is destined to bring such important changes in science, sport and war. It is only within the last few years that powerful and light motors capable of driving the huge gas bags through the air have been available.

These light engines, weighing only two to five pounds per horse power, have come into existence because hundreds of thousands of dollars have been spent on them by automobile^ manufacturers and aerial scientific work ha: profited immensely accordingly.

The aim of aeronauts generally is to make airships capable of accomplishing long voyages and at great speed. A balloon may use different air currents in various strata of the atmosphere, but an airship with a good motor can go with or against the wind in any desired direction.

godet's dirigible at jamestown exposition.

Eugene Godet has suspended a triangular bamboo frame directly from the envelope by means of strong cordage; he lias made his gas bag long and in proportion to the width as 6 is to i. The rudder is placed in the rear and the propeller in front.

One of the huge iron-clad warships now anchored in Hampton Roads is an engine of destruction that had it been brought into existence fifty years ago could have conquered the world. There is no doubt that the next fifty years will see the development of the aerial warship, which will make the iron-clad of today as far out of date as the wooden hulls of our fathers. A duty rests upon those charged with official responsibility to investigate more fully the possibilities of aeronautics.

Great Execution Possible.

The Hague Conference in 1900 adopted a resolution to be in force for five years declaring that missiles should not be thrown from balloons, owing to

the liability of injuring non-combatants. This regulation has expired and there is little likelihood of its ever being renewed, since there have been great improvements and almost perfection attained in the construction of dirigible airships by the War Departments of France and Germany, who were the foremost advocates of the Hague resolution.

A question of overwhelming importance is: Shall the Government of the United States be a laggard in the development of this branch of the military service?

In land and naval warfare a balloon or airship may be used to discover the strength and advance of the enemy, even from great distances, or when their attack is from submarine boats, for be it known that in looking down into the water from a balloon objects in its depths become visible. Aerial devices may be employed for signalling between distant points, and to improve the advantage wireless telegraphy gives. Harbors and other navigable wateis may be explored and superior effectiveness may be given to artillery and naval fire.

The cost of a modern warship is about six or seven millions, but a warship is but paper if attacked from above. Forts have no protection if missiles are shot with accuracy from an aerial station. It would be very easy to send up a captive balloon from the aeronautic concourse of the Jamestown Exposition to the height of one mile, where it would be safely out of the range of Fort Monroe and all the guns of the warships anchored in Hampton Roads. Yet from this point of vantage dirigible balloons, like that of Eugene Godet, carrying high explosives instead of an aeronaut and guided by much the same method as marine torpedoes are, could be launched unerringly against the warships and the neighboring forts and cause the destruction of property to the extent of hundreds of millions of dollars.

POOR GAS AT PITTSFIELD.

The ascensions made this year from Pittsfield have been most unsatisfactory on account of the very poor quality of gas supplied. In no case has it been possible to carry more than one or two bags of ballast. In some cases no ballast was carried and no instruments. Furthermore, the gas company says it cannot supply gas after 10 o'clock in the morning. The last instance is the ascension of William F. Whitehouse and A. L. Stevens on August 1. Arrangements have been made by Mr. Stevens with E. C. Peebles, Superintendent of the gas works at North Adams, to make his ascensions in the future from that place.

A WORD OF ENCOURAGEMENT.

A subscriber writes: "The 'American Magazine of Aeronautics' is especially welcome at this time when so much interest is manifested in aeronautics, both as a science and a sport. The magazine ought to be read by every aeronaut and everybody interested in the advancement of the science. America has long been in need of just such a magazine —a paper giving all the current events in this field of science.

'A few years ago a periodical on aeronautics made its appearance in Ohio but it lasted through only one volume. * * * A vacancy has long been existing in our list of scientific periodicals but this vacancy has been filled by the 'American Magazine of Aeronautics.'"

THE NEW BLERIOT MACHINE.

From "L'Automcbile."

Bleriot made some very interesting trials with his former machine but it did not render all the satisfaction the inventor anticipated, especially in regards to the stability. Fie was not discouraged by such trifles and with perseverance, the only means to success, constructed a new machine entirely different from the former cue.

The new soaring machine is of the Langley type. It is composed of a rectangular frame, pointed at the rear, and at each end are fixed 2 planes forming between them an cbtuse angle.

In the front of the frame is placed a 24 HP. Antoinette motor with the propeller. The pilot has within easy reach a very ingenious handle allowing him to operate separately or simultaneously the two rudders placed at the extreme ends

godet's dirigible at jamestown exposition.

of the 2 front wings. The pilot is seated inside of the frame, at the rear of the machine, in rather narrow quarters, only the upper part of his body being visible.

This soaring machine is placed on 3 wheels. The surface of the wings is 17 square metres; the weight is 250 kilos.

In the early morning of July 13th, Bleriot proceeded to experiment with his new machine at Bagatelle. At about half past seven his first experiments had not proven very successful and with the propeller advancing at the rate of one metre, 1 metre 10 centimeters and 1 metre 40 centimetres per revolution, he did not succeed in raising the machine from the ground.

Bleriot then gave up the experiments under the impression that the front of his machine was too heavy. This excellent engineer will no doubt be obliged to enlarge the surface of his front wings but he anticipates attaining interesting results with the new soaring machine now in construction, a machine equipped with a 50 h.p. motor.

CHRONOLOGY OF RECENT EVENTS.

June 29. Ten balloons start from Ranelagh for the Hedges Butler Cup. Hon. C. S. Rolls' balloon "Britannia", in ascending, struck the "Nebula", disabling it for the contest. Mr. Alan R. Hawley was a passenger in Viscount Royston's "Sapellite". The longest distance was accomplished by Col. Capper in his balloon "Pegasus," landing at Bramber, near Shoreham. A thunderstorm occurred at the time of the start and the aeronauts had varied exciting experiences.

July 3. The French Government dirigible, "La Patrie" makes a sensational and most successful trip over Paris.

July 5. M'. Vuia makes a trial of his new aeroplane. The machine rose to a height of five meters when it inclined and fell. The propeller and some tubing were broken.

July 6. Major von Grossi's dirigible, it is reported, makes some highly successful trials at night, maintaining a speed of 30 miles an hour.

July 6. Twelve balloons race from Paris under auspices of the Aero Club of France. Messrs. Leblanc and Gasnier, the French representatives in this year's Gordon-Bennett Race, secured Third and Fourth Prizes respectively. Mr. Alan R. Hawley was a passenger in Levee's balloon and secured fifth place, landing in Bavaria, near Saarbruck, a distance of 368 kilometres. The longest distance was made by M. Bachelard, 601 kilometres.

July 7. Beachcy makes a very successful flight from Luna Park, Washington, in his dirigible, alighting on the Alunsey Building, after circling it. After a stop of an hour, lie resumed his journey, sailed around the Washington Monument, and back to the start.

July 7. Thirteen balloons race from Liege under the auspices of the "Liege-Attractions" and organized by the Aero Club de Beigique.

July 14. On the occasion of the French national holiday, ''La Patrie" sails over the marching troops in the review at Longchamps.

July 17. The Bleriot aeroplane flies a distance of So yards. The machine was slightly damaged in alighting.

July 22. Premier Clemcnccau and General Picquart, the Minister of War, makes an ascension in the Lebaudy dirigible, "La Patrie" from Meudon to Paris and return by way of Issy and Lcs Moulineaux. The Minister has asked the War Department for $1,000,000, it is said, to be devoted to the building of a corps of twenty military airships and attached to the various fortresses, the first five being delivered by March, 1908.

July 26. The Bleriot aeroplane makes a successful flight at lssy. A distance of 125 yards was accomplished in a straight line at an altitude of about 15 feet, followed by a long curve of 165 yards.

July 29. A German military airship makes a flight of an hour's duration over Berlin, and disappearing in the direction of Tegcl against a 12-mile breeze.

NOTES.

Mr. Otto Luyties, of Baltimore, who has been experimenting for a considerable length of time with a machine of the helicopter type, both individually and in collaboration with Prof. Wood of Johns-Hopkins, has nearly completed a full sized machine calculated to lift one person in addition to the operator.

In an interview with Mr. Luyties he said: "Some little laboratory work was done, but the most of the work has been with the large machine. The ratio of supporting power to horse-power has been found not to be directly proportional to the diameter, or other known function; and for this reason it is impossible to accurately compute the dimensions of a successful large machine from laboratory experiments. For this reason I have done more of my work on the large machine. Machines having high horse-power have the advantage that the weight of the operator is relatively small. Many experi-mentors have taken great pains to make their, say, 10 horse-power engine weigh four pounds or less to the horse-power. Now, an operator weighing 150 pounds would burden such an engine with 15 pounds to the horse-power, whereas, in a large machine, of, let us say, 100 horse-power, the operator would burden the motor with only iJ/2 pounds to the horse-power. Therefore, in large machines extremely light construction of the engine is not so essential. As a matter of fact, though, large engines can be made to weigh less per horse-power than small ones.

"All the above features favor experiments on a large scale, in addition to the fact that machine work of moderate quality is relatively more accurate. The principal purpose of my experiments is to obtain data on a large scale for the future construction of helicopters. I intend to continue work along this line if the results of my experiments warrant it."

As a reminder of their pleasant balloon voyage together on July 12, Colonel Max C. Fleischmann has presented Mr. A. L. Stevens with a handsome silver flask.

The attitude of the International Aeronautic Federation in shutting out the Italian and, possibly, the Spanish entries in the Gordon-Bennett race for this year is certainly not in accordance with the generally accepted code of sporting ethics. Where there is a misunderstanding or delay in entering races, owing to unfortunate information, it is usually considered only just to make exceptions and admit the applicants. Such action is sportsmanlike, but the action of the I. A. F. is anything but that. Of course, the reason given is that the applicants did not comply with the letter of the rules. The result of this action is that it gives the French four more chances of winning the cup.

The phenomenon of St. Elmo's fire was witnessed by Alan R. Hawley, Frank R. Cordley and Chas. Levee on their trip from St. Cloud on the 20th of June. At the height of about 1100 metres the light appeared at various points on the netting and rigging, lasting about fifteen minutes.

The U. S. War Department has another new balloon, of 95,000 cubic feet capacity, awaiting test at Fort Omaha. A very complete hydrogen plant has been erected and it is expected to produce this gas at a cost as low as that of coal gas. The plant also includes an aerodrome and shops. Special attention will be given to aerial photography, using telephoto lenses.

There are now two balloons called "St. Louis," and the incident has caused considerable question in France, where Mr. Hawley's "St. Louis" has just made its trial trip. The other "St. Louis" is owned by Mr. Russell E. Gardner, a member of the Aero Club of St. Louis. Mr. Gardner's balloon was named some time before Mr. Hawley's.

It is reported that Japan has ordered ten military balloons of a German concern.

Wilbur Wright made his first balloon ascent of record at Paris on July 17 in company with Alan R. Hawley.

Count de la Vaulx is building a large dirigible for military purposes, the envelope to contain 3,000 cubic metres of gas. The main object will be perfect dirigibility. The airship can be easily taken apart and packed in four cases and transported from place to place, while the Lebaudy must operate from a fixed base. The speed estimate to be possible of attainment is 25 miles an hour in calm air.

Joseph A. Blondin, of Albuquerque, N. M., has ordered from A. L. Stevens, the balloon manufacturer, a 30,000 cubic foot captive balloon, with outfit.

Samuel G. King, a Philadelphia aeronaut, has practically completed the "Ben Franklin," a balloon of 92,000 cubic feet. The initial ascent is to be made shortly. This will make Mr. King's 451st ascent.

We have received some very interesting toy flying machines from Mr. William Morgan of Fort Plain, N. Y. They are of paper, aeroplane type, with two propellers in front. They fly very well.

The French team in the Gordon-Bennett sails for America on September 28th, on the "Provence."

Gail Robinson, sailing one of Knabenshue's airships, dropped from an altitude of several thousand feet on July 13 at Springfield, Ohio. In order to facilitate his returning to the starting point he allowed the ship to ascend to a considerable height, where he was struck by counter currents of air. The propeller was forced against the end of the envelope, ripping it open. Robinson climbed out and seized the sides of the tear with his hands, the weight upending the ship and parachuting to the ground. The engine was smashed.

The Wellman expedition may be delayed somewhat by reason of the damage done to the balloon shed at Spitzbergen by the recent heavy storm. The airship was uninjured and the start may be made the first part of August.

The aeronautic exhibit at Jamestown Exposition is attracting considerable attention. Two more airships have been placed on exhibition, another balloon, a hydrogen plant and the famous Herring glider.

The trials of the machine now building by the Vacu-Aerial N. & M. Co., of Milwaukee, have been delayed in order to strengthen certain parts and to obtain a suitable propeller. The machine is practically finished, however, and a trial flight is expected in the near future. The company is most enthusiastic over the prospects.

A. C. Benades and three assistants were seriously injured on July 20 by an explosion of hydrogen while handling a dirigible.

England now owns the largest free balloon, "The Mammoth," of 106,000 cubic feet capacity. A trial ascent showed that its size was distinctly an advantage. Other large balloons: in 1S89 a 107,000 cubic foot balloon made a free flight, carrying twenty people; "La Patrie," the French dirigible, contains 108,000 cubic feet; the Leipsig balloon of 110,000 capacity remained in the air with eight passengers for over twenty-four hours in 1897; Andree's balloon was of 160.000 cubic feet; the "Geant," whose ill-fated trip in 1863 will be recalled, held 215,000 cubic feet; Walter Wellman's new dirigible has a capacity of 265,000 cubic feet; the London captive balloon of 1869 held 424.000 cubic feet; the airship of Graf von Zeppelin has a capacity of 360,000 cubic feet; Godard's "Montgoliier," which made a couple of ascents in 1864, contained 500,000 cubic feet. The largest balloon ever built—a captive—was one at Paris in 1878 which had a capacity of 875,000 cubic feet.

Signor Usuelli, the well-known Italian aeronaut, has added another over-the-Alps trip to his record, rising to a height of 6.800 metres at one point. The landing was made near Bolzana in the Tirol. The Queen Margherita of Italy has this year offered a prize for a balloon trip over the Alps, provided the aeronaut makes the passage between Chamonix and Tarvispass. Flights over these mountains are rather dangerous and necessitate rising to at least 5,000 metres. LTsuelli and Crespi have heretofore held the records and will make especially strong attempts this year to win the Queen Margherita Cup.

Mr. A. B. Lambert of St. Louis has returned from Europe and is telling his friends of his balloon trips while abroad.

The Parseval dirigible has been found by the German Government to be better adapted for its purpose than the Lebaudy, which thejr attempted to purchase some time ago. Major von Parseval has been permitted to resign from the army in order to take up more actively aeronautic study.

Mr. Charles J. Glidden, founder of the Glidden Tour, has become actively interested in ballooning and will shortly go abroad.

A. Roy Knabenshue has completed a new dirigible, the largest in this country. The envelope measures 105 feet in length by 17 feet in diameter. The frame is 45 feet in length. A 16 horse-power 54-pound motor drives two propellers placed one on each side amidships. The net is done away with, the weight of the frame and motor being supported by hempen rigging attached direct to the envelope in the manner known as "side suspension."

Frederic Longwell, of Michigan City, Ind., is planning to build a combination dirigible balloon and aeroplane. The gas bag will lift 570 pounds of the 700 total. The planes below the bag are expected to force the machine into the air.

A special camera is being designed by the Goerz Optical Co. for use in balloons and airships. It will be of the "Reflex" type, self-contained, tele-photo lens, the making of an exposure automatically bringing into place the new film, with other novel features.

Count de la Vaulx is expressing himself in the public prints to the effect that "the aeroplane is useless except as a toy or for sport.''

It is reported that Santos-Dumont has bet M. Archdeacon $10,000 to $1,000 that within 8 months he would make a motor boat travel ico kilometres an hour; and in six months an aeroplane to fly 500 metres. "This wager arose as the result of an even bet of $10,000 by Archdeacon with Charron that May, 1907, would see a motor boat do 75 kilometres. Charron says Archdeacon would have won if business had not prevented devoting the necessary time to the construction of a boat."

Cromwell Dixon, the fourteen year old boy who, a short time ago, constructed a small dirigible balloon, propelled by his own energy, made a flight with it a few days ago which turned out to be rather exciting for the aeronaut. At the height of 2000 feet he discovered that he was still rising rapidly through shortage of ballast. He crawled along the framework to the valve and let out enough gas to start him downward. Starting his pedaling again he descended slowly, making a good landing.

G. H. Curtiss, the mrtor manufacturer, has been in Nova Sc. tia at Dr. Bell's experimental station placing a 40 horse-power 8-cylindcr motor in a Bell tetrahe-dral kite.

Captain T. T. Lovelace is building a dirigible, the frame of which will be 45 feet in length, built of Shelby steel tubing 22 guage, 11/16 in. diameter, with kiln dried spruce forced inside. The 2-bladed propeller will be 10 feet in diameter, placed forward. A combination vertical and horizontal plane rudder will be balanced at some distance from the forward point. The envelope will be of Japanese silk, 15 feet in diameter by 90 feet long, side suspension, with a capacity of about 9000 cubic feet. A 2-cylinder 16 horse-power Peugeot motor from the Prospect Motor Mfg. Co. will supply the power.

THE HIGHEST ASCENT BY MAN.

To the Editor of the American Magazine of Aeronautics :—

I desire to correct an error which, through no fault of mine, appeared in Chapter IX, "The Balloon in Science and Sport," contributed by me to the Aero Club book, "Navigating the Air". On page 123, in speaking of the Berlin Aeronautical Society it is said : "About ninety ascensions have been made by its members, inclndii g an ascent by Professors Berson and Siiring to the height of 34,000 feet; an ascent by Glasher, in zvhich lie claims to Iiave risen to 37,000 feet, the greatest altitude ever reached by man ; and a voyage of 53 hours, which is the longest time a balloon has remained in the air, by the Wegener Brothers." The words now italicized were not in the proof which I returned to the editors and were evidenth' inserted by them, because they thought that the off-quoted "record" of Glaisher (not "Glasher") had been forgotton. As a matter of fact, the insertion of these words is absurd, since Glaisher's ascent was made in 1862, 19 years before the Berlin Society was founded and of which he never was a member. Of more importance, however, is the fact that it does injustice to my colleagues, Professors Berson and Siiring, who undoubtedly reached, in 1901, the record-height stated, whereas that attributed to Glaisher is now believed by authorities everywhere to be far too high. An account of Glaisher's memorable ascent, with the reasons for doubting his claim to have reached 37,000 feet, will be found in Chapter III of my book, "Sounding the Ocean of Air", in the Romance of Science Series, London, 1900.

On page 11S of my article in the Aero Club book there, is a mistake in spelling the name of the late Professor Hazen, who has probably made the highest ascent in this country, although he rose to less than half the height attained in Germauv.

A. LAWRENCE ROTC1I.

NEW AERONAUTIC BOOKS.

DAS ZEITALTER DER MOTORLUFTSCHIFFAHRT. The writer of "Berlin-Bagdad," Rudolf Martin, treats of the advancement in aerial navigation by means of the dirigible balloon and its effect on the great powers as regards its use in war. Although the imagination of the author is somewhat stretched, the book is very interesting and will furnish food for considerable thought.

The subjects discussed are as follows: At The Threshold of The New Era, The First Presentiment of The Revolution, The Significance of The Revolution, The Abundance of Aerial Apparatus, Any Point Attainable, By The Shortest Way, With The Greatest Speed, With The Least Cost, With The Greatest Safety, The Ease of The Journey, Heavy Loads not Adaptable to Aerial Traffic, In Time of War, War on Land, War on Sea, War in Air, Transportation of Troops Through Air, Political Reaction, Greater Countries and Greater Commercial Unions, England an Island No More, Japan and America, France and Germany, The Advancement of Civilization. The book is published by Theod. Thomas, Leipzig, Germany.

THE PARADOX OF THE DIRIGIBLE BALLOON. W. Hampson, M.A., in "Paradoxes of Nature and Science," argues very effectively the hopelessness of aerial transportation by means of self-propelled gas bags. He says: "Swimming in a fluid-like air and swimming on a fluid-like water differ from traveling on the ground not only in the manner and means of support, but also in the fact that the fluid itself which supports the traveler may be and often is in rapid motion itself. When this is the case the contrivance for traveling is at the mercy of the supporting fluid, unless it can travel through the fluid as fast as the fluid itself is likely to travel. And to have real independence of movement it must be able to do a good deal more. It must be able to move through the fluid much faster than it is ever likely to find the fluid moving."

Even allowing to balloons the immemorial privilege of sailing ships, to "lie by" in times of hurricane, they must be swifter than strong winds, and even storms. To have to wait for days and even weeks, as they do now, till the wind has dropped to something like a calm before venturing out, is hardly to have accomplished 'the conquest of the air.' As well might a mouse boast of its conquest of the cat on the ground that, having waited till she was asleep, it had then crept out of its hole."

The comparison is somewhat harsh but the paradox of the practical dirigible balloon contains the following contradictory requirements: To be independent, or even safe, in a fluid as swift as the winds, it must be as swift as an express train. To resist the air pressure at such a speed it must be very strong, and therefore heavy. To float by its own lightness, it must be very large for its weight, and therefore weak. To move swiftly with so large a bulk it must have powerful and therefore heavy, motive apparatus. It must be, in four words, heavy and light, weak and strong.

The author describes the wing motion of birds, with diagrams, the action of the boomerang, and treats of aviation generally.

The book is published by E. P. Dutton & Co., 31 West 23d St., New York.

FUTURE EVENTS.

Aug. 18. Balloon Race at Bordeaux.

Sep. 12. Annual Conference of International Aeronautic Federation, Brussels.

Sep. 15. International Race at Brussels.

Sep. 29. Grand Prix at the Tuileries, Paris.

Oct. 21. Gordon-Bennett International Race at St. Louis.

Oct. 28-29. Aeronautical Congress at Jamestown Exposition.

Nov. 15. International Exposition of Aeronautic Photographs at Paris.

AERONAUTICS IN THE CURRENT MAGAZINES.

The Scrap Book, July number, contains a ten-page article by C. F. Carter, "The Flying Machine is Here; the principles upon which navigation of the air depends have been discovered and their successful application assured." The writer allows his imagination freedom in the first half of the story.

The second half is practically a resume of what has thus far been done upon which prophesies for the future may be based.

McChire's for July; Walter Welhnan gives a very complete description of the dirigible "America," in which he is now about to start for the Pole. Though the article is a technical one yet the ordinary reader cannot fail but be deeply interested in his plans and appreciate the unbounded faith of Mr. Welhnan in his attempt.

Appleton's, in the August number, has succeeded in inducing M'Cready Sykes, the New York lawyer, who was so greatly appreciated at the Aero Club Banquet, to write most humorously some considerations of aerial law. The automobile of Judge Reardon, an American jurist sojourning in France, is caught by the anchor of M. Rambaud's aeroplane and jerked ungracefully through the air at high speed. Various complications swiftly follow. The story is exquisitely told and reveals the marks of a master hand.

AERONAUTICAL PATENTS ISSUED SINCE JANUARY 1.

Air ship, G. W. Byron ..................................... 839,548

Airship, J. Meden ........................................... 840.078

Airship, H. H. Johnson .................................... 840,339

Aerial navigation brake, G. G. Schroeder .................... 841,581

Aerial transportation system, G. G. Schroeder ................ 841,582

Balloons, car of navigable, P. H. Unsinger .................. 8^2.505

Flying machine, W. Morgan ................................ 843,476

Aerial navigation, H. M. Bellows ............................ 844.771

Airship, J. A. Elston ...................................... 845 o39

Aeroplane or craft for aerial navigation, A. & TI. Dufaux...... 846,830

Airship, J. M. Miller ........................................ 847.965

Air Ship, G. G. Schwabek .................................. 81.8,055

Airship. J. E. Taylor ...................................... 849,029

Flying apparatus, A. Brandl ................................ 849,971

Flying machine, A. P. Bliven .............................. 850,616

Airship, J. Shukwech ....................................... 850,800

Airship, T. S. Baldwin .................................... 851,4S1

Flying machine, M. Nial .................................. 851,895

Flying Machine. B. Connolly ................................ 852,221

Air ship, H. Faehrmann .................................... 853,542

Air ship, G. Bold ........................................... 853,760

Air ship, E. Baumann ...................................... 854,555

Air ship, advertising or other. J. C. Burnell .................. 854,461

Aerial vessels, sustaining device for, I. Gruber................ 855.94^

Flying machine, R. Lewitz ................................... 856,073

Kite or Flying Machine, Connection Device for the frames of Aerial Vehicles and other Structures, Dr. Alexander Graham

Bell and FI. P. McNeill .................................. 856,838

Flying Machine. F. E. Felts.............................. 857.166

Kite, H. Lurz ............................................. 859.395

Air ship, L. Haines.......................................... 859,765

Flying machine, W. H. Cook ................................ 860.447

Air ship, C. L. Buckwalter .................................. S6i,oi7

RARE AERONAUTIC BOOKS FOR SALE

This magazine will publish each month a list of such rare books relating to aeronautics as it is able to secure.

If you desire any of those listed, kindly send check with your order for the amount stated. Should the book ordered be sold previous to the receipt of your order, the money will be promptly returned.

Astra Castra (Hatton Turner). Royal 4to, cloth, gilt top, uncut, London, 1865............$15.00

An Account of the First Aerial Voyage in England (Vincent Lunardi). Portrait of Lunardi by Bartolozzi and plates. Crown 8vo, half calf, uncut, London, 1784. Autograph "V.

Lunardi" on fly-leaf......... 15.00

Travels in the Air (James Glai-

sher). Svo., cloth, Phila., 1871. 7.50 Crotchets in the Air (John Poole). 12 mo., cloth, London,

1838 ...........'.............. 500

By Land and Sky (John M. Bacon). Four illustrations. Svo, cloth, uncut, London, 1901 2.50 A Balloon Ascension at Midnight (G. E. Hall). Plates by Gordon Ross. Svo, boards, uncut. San Francisco, 1902. Limited edition .................. 2.50

Proceedings of the International Conference on Aerial Navigation, Chicago, August 1-4, 1893. Plates, Svo, cloth, New

York, 1894 ................. 2.50

Five Weeks in a Balloon (Wm. Lackland). 12 mo., cloth. X.

Y., 1S69.....ϖ................ 2.50

Wonderful Balloon Ascents (F. Marion). 12 mo., half leather,

X. Y., 1S71 ........ϖ......... 2.50

My Airships (Santos-Dumont). Illustrated. Crown Svo, cloth,

uncut, London, 1904......... 2.50

The Dominion of the Air. The story of aerial navigation. Illustrations from photographs. Crown, Svo, cloth. London.

11. d......................... 2.00

My Life and Balloon Experiences. Photograph of author. Crown, Svo, cloth. London,

18S7 ......................... 2.00

Travels in Space (G. S. Valentine and F. L. Tomlinson). Introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim, 61 plates. Svo, cloth, London, 1902............... 2.00

Balloon Travels (Robert Merry).

12 mo., cloth, X. Y., 1865 ....$ 2.50

Experiments in Aerodynamics (S. P. Langley). Illustrated, 4to, cloth, Washington, 1891.. 2.00

Conquest of the Air (John Alexander). 12 mo., cloth, London, 1902 ......................... 2.00

The Motor and its Chief Application, Wings, Propulsion in Air, etc. (Com. of Pat., 1849). Svo., paper .................. 1.50

La Machine Animale (J. Marey). Illustrated, Svo, cloth, Paris, 1878, French ................ 1.25

Balloons, Airships and Flying Machines (Gertrude Bacon). 12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1905 .... 1.00

BRITISH AERONAUTICAL INSTITUTE.

An institute has been formed by the Aero Club of the United Kingdom having the following principal objects:

To encourage the study of aeronautics in all its branches; to arrange lectures and demonstrations on all matters connected with aviation; to enable members to compete for prizes arranged for by the Aero Club; to examine and report on proposals for practical aviation; to form a library. The annual dues are 10/6.

FROM AUTOMOBILE TO FLYING MACHINE.

Henry Farman, a prominent English automobile driver, is having an aeroplane built similar to that of M. Delagrange. A 20 H. P. motor supplies the power to a propeller placed forward. The weight of the machine is estimated at 550 pounds, with 323 square feet of lifting surface.

CAPTAIN FERBER BUILDING A NEW MACHINE.

Captain Ferber has recently sold his 40 H. P. aeroplane and, in the middle of May, started work upon a new one, measuring 12 by 12 metres, to be equipped with a 50 H. P. Antoinette motor. The machine is expected to be completed by the first of August.

AIRSHIP

^ ^ BALDWIN'S ^

« "CALIFORNIA ARROW" ^

Patented.

The "CALIFORNIA ARROW" was the first airship, the one from which all the present airships have been copied, and has made more successful flights than all the others put together.

I GUARANTEE ALL MY EXHIBITIONS.

Last season, out of 53 starts I returned to the exact starting point 51 times.

ONLY FLYING

at the ST. LOUIS EXPOSITION operated by Roy Knabenshue

~v

ONLY FLYING

at the PORTLAND EXPOSITION operated

by Lincoln Beachy

NOTE.

I have ballooned around the world twice, giving ascensions in almost every country you can think of, including North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, China, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, etc.

I design and manufacture, Eree Balloons, Captive Balloons, Airships, and in fact everything in the hydrogen line of aeronautics. Information relative to dates and terms, cheerfully furnished upon request.

Send for my new book "UP IN THE AIR."

Captain Thomas S. Baldwin, Airship "CALIFORNIA ARROW"

Box 78 Madison Square P. O. New York City.

FOR SALE—Complete Captive Balloou Outfit.

5903

HYDROGEN-TIGHT BALLOONS BUOYANT HIRSHIPS

All sizes from smallest models of lightest weight to largest captive or long voyage vessels with or without motors.

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Best varnish made.

Patent hydrogen gas generator systems, complete, all sizes.

Estimates made.

Practical professional advice given.

Largest, most reliable manufactory in America.

Operated 28 years.

140 gas balloons for U. S. Government.

Instructions given. All sorts of experiments conducted.

Only American Institute of Aeronautics.

Any kind of gas balloon ascents, captive or free, or airship flights made at any time or place.

carl e. myers,

BALLOON FARM, FRANKFORT, N. Y.

aeronautical engineer and constructor

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

BALLOONS

contractor to u. s. government

Box 181, Madison Square, new York

The Scientific American

and Scientific American Supplement

ALL the latest aeronautical information is published in the Scientific American and Scientific American Supplement. Correspondents in the leading cities of the world furnish the latest details of aeronautical progress in their localities. In this manner the art is covered exhaustively. So far as possible every article is illustrated with actual photographs of the machine described.

Nothing of aeronautical importance escapes the Scientific American or Scientific American Supplement.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

UNITED STATES AND MEXICO Scientific American (weekly) one year - $3.00

Scientific American Supplement (weekly) one year 5.00

Scientific American and Supplement ... 7.00

TO CANADA Scientific American ______ $3.75

Scientific American Supplement - 5.50

Scientific American and Supplement to one address - 8.25

TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES

Scientific American ------ $4.50

Scientific American Supplement - 6.00

Scientific American and Supplement - 9.50

MUNN & CO., Publishers

Scientific American Office

361 BROADWAY, - NEW YORK

POCKET BOOK OF AERONAUTICS

By Major Hermann W. L. Moedebeck

(English Edition)

Cloth, 496 pages, $3.25

"Major Moedebeck is already too well-known to stand in need of any introduction ; for many years past he has been one of the leading spirits in German Aeronautical circles. It was in no slight degree due to his efforts that several of the German Aero Clubs, and in particular the Aero Club of the upper Rhine, were founded ; for years he edited the journal of the Berlin Club, previously to founding the Illustrierte Aeronautische Mitteilungen, at Strassburg. The present book serves as an introduction to the study of the history of Aeronautics ; and as such we have rarely met with a more lucid and clearly stated résumé of one of the most fascinating pages in the world's history. The future of aerial locomotion, again, is touched upon in the final chapters of this really valuable and eminently sane book ; not the least of the merits of which consists of the splendid series of illustrations and photographs, for the greater part taken by the author himself."—Ballooning and Aeronautics.

Order through AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS, 142 West 65th Street, New York.

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FOREIGN AERONAUTICAL JOURNALS.

L'AERONAUTIQUE Official Publication of the Aéronautique Club de France Subscription, Quarterly 58 Rue J. J. Rousseau,

3 francs. Pans.

VOSDOUCHOPLAVATEL Subscription, ("The Aeronaut") Ertelew 18,

15 francs. St. Petersburg.

BOLLETTINO DEL,LA SOC1ETA AERONAUTICA ITALIANA Subscription, Monthly 70 Via della Muratte,

18 francs. Rome.

AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL Official Organ of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain

Quarterly 27 Chancery Lane, __ London, W. C.

THE CAR ILLUSTRATED A weekly Journal of Travel By Laud, Sea and Air

Subscription, 1/16/10 168 Picadilly, London, W.

BALLOONING AND AERONAUTICS Subscription, Monthly 45 Grafton St., _18 shillings.__Tottenham Ct. Rd , London, W.

LA CONQUETE DE L'AIR Official Organ of the Aero Club de Belgique Subscription, Bi-monthly 214 Rue Royale,

4.50 francs. Brussels.

L'AERONAUTE Official Organ of Societe Francais de Navigation Aerienne Subscription, 8 francs. Monthly 19 Rue Blanche, Paris.

BALLOONING AS A SPORT

by Major B. Baden Powell.

ϖI With chapters on recent history, personal experiences, and a guide to the

practice of Ballooning.

C[ Illustrated by photographs.

Published by

W. BLACKWOOD &. SON, EDINBURGH and LONDON. agents for America, AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS

Price Postpaid, $1.75

Airships, Balloons, Aeroplanes, Aerial Screws and Flapping Wing Devices

CAREFULLY CONSTRUCTED AFTER DESIGNS OF INVENTORS.

ϖJ I manufacture dirigible balloons on scientific and practical lines with the latest improvements, and guarantee them to fly.

ϖI French and American Aeronautical Experts Employed. ^ Every facility for thorough tests.

CHARLES J. STROBEL, Aeronautical Concourse

JAMESTOWN EXPOSITION, VIRGINIA

FOREIGN AERONAUTICAL JOURNALS.

L'AEROPHILE

TECHNICAL REVIEW OF AERIAL LOCOMOTION.

Founded in 1893. Published the 15th of each month. 1 number - 1 Franc Published with the collaboration of the principal savants, in France and abroad.

Director - Founder : Georges Besancon. Complete Collection of l'Adrophile, 14 vols., 1893-1906, for sale at 10 francs

per volume.

Subscription. U. S. 84 Faubourg St.

12 francs. Official Bulletin of the Aero Club oi France. Honore, Paris.

ILLUSTRIERTE AERONAUTISCHE MITTEILUNGEN German illustrated Aeronautical Record. Monthly.

OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE GERMAN AERONAUTICAL UNION

and of

THE SOCIETY OF AVIATION OF VIENNA. Contains Articles in German, English and French.

Founded 1897 by H. W. L. Moedebeck. Edited by Dr. H. Elias, Berlin S. W. 47, Katzbachstrasse, 15. Subscription, U. S. S3.40 Send orders to

G. E. STECKERT & Co., 129 W. 20th St., New York, or to B. Westermann & Co., 11 E. 17th St., New York, or direct to the Publisher, Karl j. Trübner, Strassburg (Els.), Germany.

WIENER LUFTSCHIFFER-ZEITUNG. Von Victor Silberer.

Die "Wiener Luftschlffer=Zeitung" erscheint jeden Monat und bringt ausser gediegenen fachwissenschaftlichen Aufsätzen alles Wissenswerte aus dem Gebiete der Luftschiffahrt und Flugtechnik. Sie berichtet über die Versammlungen der Aëro-Klubs und der flugtechnischen Vereine, über Vorträge, über Erfindungen und Experimente, über interessante Luftfahrten, über neue Bücher und Projekte, kurz, sie hält die Fachwelt vollständig auf dem laufenden.

Bezugspreis ganzjährig 12 Kronen. Wien, I., St. Annahof.

L'AEROSTATION.—Tri-monthly review of the Académie Aéronautique de France—Société d'Encouragement à la Navigation Aérienne.

Subscription Founder : Louis PlLLET.

2.50 francs per annum. Director: Victor Louet.

This interesting publication contains a complete report of the meetings of

the society, notices of balloons, aerial voyages, aviation, &c.

Address : M. VICTOR LOUET, 14 rue des Goncourt, Paris.

L'AERO-REVUE.

flonthly illustrated Journal of aerial navigation.

Subscription Published by PAéro-Club du Rhône et du Sud-Est.

9 francs. Director - Founder : Antonin Boulade.

Organ of general aeronautics, research and study of aerostation and aviation. Publishes the official communications of the a. C. D. R. Rédaction : 4, Rue St. Gervais, Monplaisir, Lyon. Administration : Aéro-Club du Rhône, 4, Quai Pêcherie, Lyon.

LA REVUE DE L'AVIATION.

Subscription Monthly Director - Founder : Paul Roger.

U. S. 8 francs. Paris — 104, Rue de Richelieu, 104 — Paris.

BULLETIN OF THE AERO CLUB SUISSE.

Subscription, Bi-monthly Imprimerie Haller,

6 francs. Berne.

DR. A. FARNER, Editor.

is especially adapted for the use of balloonists on account of its light weight, small size and the superiority of the lens.

Can be focused at the level of the eye, it takes pictures AS WE SEE THEM which no other camera will do when focusing at the height of the chest.

For time and instantaneous exposures. The official camera of this magazine

write for our catalogue

G P. GOERZ AMERICAN OPTICAL CO.

52 E. Union Square, New York. 1514 Heyworth Bldg., Chicago, III.

BERLIN LONDON PARIS VIENNA

NAVIGATING THE AIR

by the scientific and active members of the aero club of america

An interesting record of the personal experiences of the twenty-four men most distinguished to-day in the art and science of flying.

THAT THE PROBLEM OP AERIAL NAVIGATION HAS AT LAST BEEN SOLVED

is announced by such authorities as Dr. Alexander Graham Bell; and this book gives for the first time an authentic summary of the present state of Aeronautics.

inn nnwpc 3* ^es of photographs showing im- «. ¿5 .

OUU pdgCb, portant developments in this neiu science. J>«-0o POSI paid

AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS

142 WEST 65TH STREET


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