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JANUARY MID_-MONTH EDITION
IV. No. 1
JANUARY 15, 1914
■■ ■I ■■
Properly of E. W. ROSJ3CHON
Some Competitive Trophies Won in 1913— With
CURTISS 0-X MOTORS
THE MACKAY TROPHY, won by Lieutenants
J. E. Carberry and Fred Seydel, U. S. Army;
flying 58 miles in 46 minutes. TIMES AERIAL DERBY, won by William S.
Luckey, flying around Manhattan; 60 miles in
TIMES AERIAL DERBY, second, Charles F. Niles.
AERO and HYDRO 1,000-mile Cruise Trophy, won by J. B. R. Verplanck and Beckwith Havens; Chicago to Detroit.
MICHIGAN AERO CLUB ],000-mile Speed Trophy, won by Verplanck and Havens; Chicago to Detroit.
Except by Their Products, the Curtiss Companies were not Directly Represented in Any of These Events
Ask for Our Catalogs
THE CURTISS MOTOR CO., 21 Lake St., Hammondsport, N. Y.
' I 'HE German National Award ■*■ for the longest distance covered in 24 hours was won by an Aviatik Biplane—Bosch-equipt, of course.
The distance—1291 Miles
1. Aviatik Biplane Bosch Magneto
2. Gotha Monoplane Bosch Magneto
3. Gotha-Hansa Monoplane
4. Albatros Biplane Bosch Magneto
5. Albatros Monoplane Bosch Magneto
6. Aviatik Biplane Bosch Magneto
Where efficiency, reliability and simplicity are desired, there you will always find Bosch Products.
Be Satisfied Specify Bosch
201 West 46th Street : New York
I am asked to say something about the ying motorcycle, meaning, in this case, a lotorcycle fitted with wings, but without ir propeller, and intended to make "hops." 'o do this it is obviously necessary to attain
speed during the preliminary run greater lan that required for flying; and then to se up the momentum, due to this excess Deed, in overcoming resistance during the lide. The glide can be made by first scending and then gliding down; or, by a early horizontal flight, using an increasing ngle of attack as the speed diminishes. In ly experience these two methods give
>out the same trajectory.
During the run the wings will be held at
small angle, preferably the angle of least Drizontal resistance; and the type of wing ;sired would be one having a very small Drizontal resistance at this angle, and a msiderable lift combined with good effi-ency at its flying angle. (I shall not con-
sider wing dimensions or profile in this article.) In order to rise it will be necessary either to change the angle of the wings with the machine, or to operate the elevator. As the weight of the rider and engine are between the wheels, it will require considerable force in an elevator to raise the front wheel unless some special provision is made for this.
The wheel can, however, be fitted with extensible fork or spring fork or other device to aid in raising front of machine (I have used a spring balanced rear wheel on my aeroplane for a similar purpose for several years).
One serious difficulty suggests itself, viz.: that of landing. If the machine lands sideways or in an inclined position, there will be likelihood of a smash. I shall not at this time consider the question of dimensions, weight, etc., because I have no data at hand.
THE WRIGHT AUTOMATIC STABILIZER
Orville Wright, who has for some months 'en doing active experimenting and test-g with the automatic device, which has ֥n patented in various countries (see ctober AERONAUTICS for full abstract
the system), has been awarded the Col-tr trophy for 1913 in consideration of the greatest achievement in aviation" for the ;ar, the practical demonstration of auto-atic stability, despite the fact that the use
the device in 190S-9, when others were arcely flying, was a much greater achieve-ent than that of to-day's date. On De-֭ber 31, 1913, Mr. Wright flew before a lecial awards committee. He used only e rudder lever, and at one time made ven successive turns of the same diameter -about one thousand feet. In this man-:uvre, although a puffy wind was blowing, e machine preserved practically the same ink throughout, and proof that this bank as the correct one was shown by the con-ant altitude of about seventy-five feet, hich was preserved throughout the seven ccessive turns, the machine neither skid-ng nor side slipping.
The apparatus has been greatly simpli-■d over the form described so fully in the ctober number, and any oscillating tenden-es are overcome. The purpose of the esent experiments are to determine the st form of the apparatus, and since many instruction changes are continually being ade, a detailed description of the device this moment would have no value. The Wright device consists essentially of 'P elements, of course—the one preserves ej lateral stability of the machine, the other eserves the longitudinal, that is, its diving
or rearing. The lateral stability mechanism is functioned by 1 pendulum. The pendulum preserves its position, and when the machine, due to lateral oscillations, changes its positions with respect to the pendulum, the latter at once operates a mechanism which brings the machine back to a level. The pendulum motion being entirely lateral no accelerations of the machine can start it swinging. The longitudinal stabilizer is functioned by an air vane on the basis that the only correct base line for operation in longitudinal stability is the relation of the aeroplane to the air that is passing through it and is entirely independent of gravity, of the earth's axis or of any other attraction which would involve the use of pendulums, gyroscopes, etc. The reason for this is that very often in flying there are apt to he large bodies of air that have considerable up trend and down trend, and unless a machine preserves its angle of incidence for proper balance in these up trends and down trends irrespective of its relation to the horizontal, it is apt to be upset.
The apparatus banks the machine on turns the proper amount, it prevents "over-controlling." it prevents "stalling," it operates automatically to balance the machine fore and aft and laterally—all that the pilot has to do is to steer and land. The device always operates to the exact extent proper and is a better operator than the man himself. It takes balancing entirely out of the hands of the navigator, though the latter is at all times free to take control himself.
Once a course is set. using the automatic device, and the desired elevation attained,
TECHNICAL TALKS: The Flying Motorcycle
By M. B. SELLERS
the pilot can spend his time conversing, taking notes, pictures or eating and drinking. On a long glide, the usual lever is set for the desired angle and the device again takes care of head-on gusts as well as lateral stability. The same statement can be made for climbing—and the device recently invented, called an Incidence Indicator, described in the August issue, tells the pilot the safe angle of incidence at which to set his machine for the climb.
Mr. Wright stated to AERONAUTICS that inside of ten years—this period was
CURTISS 200-H.P. MOTOR. A new model still of Curtiss motors is in course of production at Hammondsport. This will be rated at 200 h.p., cylinders 5 in.
by 7 in. The chart of expected power issued by the company shows 200 h.p. at 1,600, although at 3,000 r.p.m. the power may run up to 260 h.p. The cylinders are larger bore and stroke than those of any other aeronautical engine. The maximum power is high on account of the high volumetric efficiency effected by two inlet and two exhaust valves, all 2*4 in. diameter with 15/32 in. lift. This new motor is known as Model V.
mentioned in the query—people would think no more of entering an aeroplane than stepping in an automobile.
As shown by the September, 1909, number of AERONAUTICS, the automatil stabilizing device is not new with the Wright company. It was even used in actl ual nights in 1908 and 1909 by Orville and Wilbur Wright.
During the exhibition flights with the device on Dec. 31, 1913. the wind was 15-20 m.p.h., according to the local weather bm reau.
THE CAR FOR THE AVIATION FIELD.
A little car to travel between railroal stations and the aviation field, to run to towrn with, to cart';arotmd parts and repafl work, to tow disablejdyplanes off the iielfl and for general utility purposes, ought to find favor with aviators and others whfl have much walking to do in connection witl the aeronautical trade. Charlie Merz, i\m
Stutz race driver, is the designer of tlii; very thing, and our old friend, "Talk witl Parsons," 54th street and Broadwa}', Nev York, sells it, or will to anyone mentioning this magazine. Parsons will even send ; circular if you want it. It would be jus fine for Sloane to deliver propellers witl Paragon might jack up one wheel and rui the band saw with it. "Cap'' Baldwin sureh needs it to save that long walk from Oak wood Heights. And it only costs $45! Fifty miles an hour and 50 miles to tlj gallon of gas.
C. C. Witmer is at Miami, Fla., from which i oiri he plans regular trips to Soldiers Key, Cape Fiend and later to Palm Peach in his Curtiss flying boat. I
OXYGEN RESPIRATION AT HIGH ALTITUDES.
The French seem very prejudiced in favor i oxygen and often start using it at only 0.000 feet. In the Gordon-Bennett Race, Jpson and Preston carried a small tube of ■xygen for emergency purposes, but did not se it. The breathing apparatus consisted sim-֬y of a small gas tight bag connected with lie oxygen tank, and provided with a mouth n'ece through which the oxygen could be readied.
Based on valuable works on the hygiene of ir-navigation by Prof. Dr. von Schroetter, iii d the eminent aeronauts, Dr. Fleming, 'Vigand and others, the Draegerwerk has con-|trncted special breathing apparatus for this er "ice.
There are two different types—one for high lltitudes in balloons and the other for aero uid hydro-aeroplanes. The Draeger, for blended high altitude flying, has an oxygen ;tore of 2,000 litres in large twin steel cylin-:lers. In this apparatus is embodied all the experience gained by long years of successful practice in the construction of oxygen inhala-:ion apparatus. Special care was also here :aken in adapting the mask for mouth and nose breathing. The inhalation is started by ripening the valve on the oxygen cylinder. A 'finimeter" allows of the control of the pressure contained in the steel cylinders, and the oxygen consumed per minute can be ascertained from a small manometer. A regulating screw on the reducing valve permits of an adjustment of the oxygen supply, from 1 to 10 litres per minute. The oxygen passes in the first place into an economizer bag, and is from thence inhaled through a flexible aluminum pipe, which does not hinder the free movement ,of the user. The additional requirements of outside atmosphere is obtained through a small hple in the mask, so that the breathing air is as a rule saturated with 40 per cent, of oxygen, quite sufficient for alveolaric tension. The exhaled air and oxygen surplus escape to the
outside. The working capacity of the apparatus is dependent on the oxygen consumption. If the emergency type provided with 180 litres of oxygen consumes on an average 5 litres per minute, the oxygen store will be sufficient for 36 minutes' breathing. Based on the same average consumption of oxygen, the type to be used for intended high altitude flying supplies one man with air for three to four hours—if twin cylinders are taken up; the same time for two fliers. Special care should be taken that breathing appliances used for aeronautics should be fitted with a reducing valve protected against burning out. as otherwise explosions attended by serious consequences may occur. This apparatus may be obtained from Draeger Oxygen Appliance Co., Pittsburg.
"SKY TRAVEL MADE SAFE."
"An aeroplane that positively won't tip over and which will go faster with a 50 H. P. engine than any other aeroplane with 100 H. P., and which will carry passengers is the invention of John R. Humphrey, of 423 Willard Avenue, Richmond Hill. N. Y.," at least we are so informed by Mr. Humphrey himself in the reading notice he has kindly mailed us.
"Mr. Humphrey has waited until all the improvements and devices he has invented have been amply protected by law before making his discovery known to the world. He has been working on the improvements for sky-traveling for the past three years, and has experimented and tested his machine until he has proven its success beyond the peradventure of a doubt." We have Mr. Humphrey's own words for this.
"With this aeroplane the aeronaut [sic.J can fix his steering apparatus rigidly fast and travel over the machine to the engine when anything is out of order and leisurely make the needed repairs or new arrangements of the parts." Running water and conveniences seem to have been omitted.
"One of the most interesting features of this new flying machine is the automatic balancing device. It is so simple that it's a marvel that it was never discovered and applied before. With this device a tyro can sail aloft in this machine and be certain that no matter how adverse the elements or treacherous the air currents the machine will sail serenely along."
"Another interesting thing about the apparatus is the peculiarity of the shape of the new airship [sic. again]. Mr. Humphrey has applied the name of 'Arrow-aeroplane.' It offers less air resistance than any other sky ship thus far devised and skims through the air practically on the same principle that Nature has embodied in swift birds. It is long and rakish in appearance and answers more readily to the impulse of the machine's power than any aeroplane thus far seen. Technically speaking it is a monoplane." That "long and rakish" is awfully in vogue among reporters.
"Mr. Humphrey has invented many devices, one of his most noted ones being a power-
potato digger, which took the first prize at the State Fair in Minneapolis in 1897, and which is being used widely in the West. One curious thing about the inventor is that he writes verse and has written many volumes. This proves that a man can be a poet and still be practical. His aeroplane promises to be his greatest achievement." If it fulfills the above promises it will dig up more money than ever did a potato digger potatoes.
WHAT IS A RECIPROCATING MOTOR?
November 24, 1913. Editor AERONAUTICS,
122 East 25th Street, City. Dear Sir:
At the last meeting of The Aeronautical Society (Thursday, November 20th), Mr. Emile Berliner gave a talk on the revolving cylinder motor, and in the course of his lecture brought out the point very strongly that his motor was not a reciprocating piston motor. This, I wish to state, is a wrong impression and one which can be easily disproved. The reciprocation is there whether the cylinders revolve or not.
Let us take for example the five cylinder motor as used for demonstration by Mr. Berliner.
Let us consider cylinder No. 1. Here we have the piston in the position ia. In order to have a true rotary motion it should be in the position ib, that is, parallel to the axis of the cylinder, and we see that it is just a distance equal to the length of the crank behind its true position for non-rotary reciprocating motion, if we consider the rotation as clockwise.
In cylinder No. 2 the two positions are not so far apart and for a cylinder at a position exactly above in a line with the centers of the crank-pin and the crank-shaft they coincide. As we pass on around the cycle to position of cylinder No. 3 the difference again begins t:> increase, but is now ahead of its "non-reciprocating" position. For a cylinder in the horizontal position on this side the piston will be just as far in advance of its true position as it was behind on the opposite side. Again at the bottom we find a position of coincidence
and from there to the top it again falls behind. Thus we see that in one revolution the piston has reciprocated a distance equal to twice the length of the crank or exactly equl to the stroke of the motor, which is the sairB as the reciprocation of the ordinary |fixeB cylinder motor.
The fact that the angles between the connecB ing rods vary, being less on the side away ixom the crank, shows that the pistons get clostB together and farther apart alternately durinH the revolution, shows this very clearly.
Angular "Pos'i+'ion of Crank ,„r
Another erroneous idea is that which onH might be led to believe from the statement by Mr. Berliner that there is a loss of power in accelerating the reciprocating parts, and in slowing down and reversing the direction of motion of these parts. If we plot a cur\B showing the relation between the work or energy of the piston of any reciprocating piston motor and the angular position of the cranH we obtain a curve of the type shown in Fig. 2. During the first part of the stroke energy is put into the piston in the form of momentunH the velocity increasing up to the point that till connecting rod is tangent to the crank-circl<B From there on, the piston must slow down anl in so doing acts as a flywheel, giving up its energy to keep the crank in motion, to coirB press the fresh charge or to eject the burrB gases as the case may be. The only loss is the friction loss, which is common to all typ« of engines, reciprocating or otherwise.
Hoping that this letter may be printed in your next issue, while the subject is still fresB in the minds of those who heard the lecturl as I think the matter one of great importanciB I remain,
Ralph S. Barnaby. I
257 Hamilton Avenue,
New Brighton, Staten Island.
' I guess I'm one of the earliest settlers, all right!" -ScsiiierjX
TO MAKE A YAW METER.
Is the little piece of string used by Wright aviators to detect side-slipping, which string caused so much unsatisfied curiosity when Orville Wright was making the first flights at Washington, now to be displaced by an instrument, which does exactly the same thing? The Wright bit of "rag" is not possible on monoplanes but the instrument may be.
A "yaw-meter" is an instrument that measures, if the air is at rest, the angle that the direction of movement of an aeroplane makes with its keel, and at once indicates a "sideslip." If one considers an aeroplane at rest and the air blowing against it, it measures how nearly the direction of the wind is "head-on." "If an eddy in the moving air meets the aeroplane, the direction of the wind will change and this will be indicated. A wind-vane carried by an airship or aeroplane would also show how nearly the movement was head-on in the same way as the yaw-meter. But the wind vane would be difficult to read when
placed in a position free from eddies in the air caused by the aircraft itself. With the yaw-meter the dial and hand can be placed in a convenient place for observation," states Horace Darwin in the first "Wilbur Wright Memorial Lecture" before the British Aeronautical Society, a talk on scientific instruments.
"Two Pitot tubes are made like the letter Y (see figure) with the openings at the tops of the two arms. If the wind blows symmetrically to the two tubes the pressure will be equal in both. But if the direction of the wind changes it will meet the opening at the end of one tube more nearly in the direction in which the tube is pointing, and the pressure will be increased. The opposite will take place in the other Pitot tube and the pressure in it will be diminished.
"The pressure from these two Pitot tubes is taken by two pipes to the indicating apparatus which can be at any convenient distance laway. Each tube is connected to a circular Ibox the top of which is an airtight flexible ■diaphragm which can move outwards. A rod lis connected to each diaphragm, and these Irods are pushed outwards by the air pressure.
"The hand indicating the angle of "yaw," [that is the angle at which the air meets the JY Pitot tube, is pivoted about the point 0,
and is continued to P. At this point it is connected to the two rods from the diaphragms by a freely moving joint. If one rod pushes with a greater force than the other the hand is moved over to one side, and it will come to rest when OP is in the direction of the resultant of the forces with which the two rods are pushed outwards, and when it is in equilibrium the hand will show on the scale the angle of yaw. If the speed of the aeroplane increases the hand will not move because the air pressure and consequently the pushing forces in the two rods will both be increased in the same ratio.
"The same instrument can be connected to a wind-vane which moves the Y Pitot tubes so as to face the wind. The tubes are arranged to show if the wind has an upward or downward tendency and the angle between the direction of the wind and a horizontal plane is measured."
PERRIN LIFE PRESERVER.
A novel collapsible life preserver has been marketed by a Frenchman named Perrin. A couple of bags hang deflated over one's breast. These may be quickly inflated, on the occasion of a descent or fall into water, by means of a small tube of compressed air, for which a pocket is arranged in one of the floats.
The outfit consists of a well-made and comfortably shaped airbag of rubberized fabric; it slips on and fastens in front, more or less in the fashion of a vest, and in its deflated condition is not in the way. Inflation is
achieved with the help of a tube some four or five inches long, containing air, highly compressed. This cylinder is placed in a receptacle made for it in one corner of the belt, and the pressure of a thumb upon an external lever suffices to puncture the cylinder's cap and allow its contents to expand into the airtight bag. Thus the belt or "brace" may be worn without inconvenience, deflated, and may be inflated immediately when the unde-sired emergency occurs.
OFFICIAL REPORT ON ELLINGTON-KELLY ACCIDENT.
The following is the summary of the official report in the case of the accident to Lieuts. Ellington and Kelly. About 7 o'clock on the morning of November 24, Lieut. Ellington, Chief Instructor on the Wright machines, made a flight in aeroplane No. 14, and found that the engine and machine were in excellent condition. On landing, both he and Lieut. Kelly inspected the machine and left the ground. When a mile from the hangars, the machine was seen to descend at a normal gliding angle, beginning at about 2no feet from the ground; the glide continued until about 75 feet from the ground, when the angle of glide suddenly steepened into a headlong plunge, and at the moment of striking the ground the machine was nearly vertical. The machine was practically a new one, having been only a total of 34 minutes in the air before the flight in which the accident occurred.
The students at San Diego made 289 flights, with a total of 43 hours and 34 minutes, during the month of November.
The Ostend Aerial Navigation Co., Cincinnati, O.; manufacturing and dealing in airships; $15,000. The incorporators are Charles E. Droste, W. H. Droste, Laura Kelcher, Joseph Ostend, Dave Ostend and Agron Strashem.
The Grinnell (Iowa) Aeroplane Co. has come into existence, with the following business men as incorporators: D. S. Morrison, president; F. H. Gifford, vice-president; W. C. Robinson, secretary; E. B. Brande, treasurer; H. W. Spaulding, B. J. Ricker and Jesse L. Fellows.
Connecticut Aeroplane Company, of New Haven, $500,000 paid in. Officers: President and treasurer, Everard Thompson: vice president, E. A. Mullikin; secretary, Samuel C. Morehouse, all of New Haven.
NEW COURSE AT MASSACHUSETTS TECHNOLOGY IN AERODYNAMICS.
Before the Alumni Council of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology at its last meeting, Lieut. Jerome C. Hunsaker, U. S. N., outlined some of the needs of education in aerodynamics, with suggestions as to the courses that are to be offered in the study at the institute. President Maclaurin's recent report to the corporation announced the establishment of the courses, making Tech. the first educational institution in the country to begin the work of making adequate provision for developing the science of aeronautics. Lieut. Hunsaker, who lcceived his M.S. from Tech. in 1912, has been detailed by the Secretary of the Navy for duty at the institute, and having spent the summer abroad, presents now an outline of the plans. Incidental to this exposition were a brief history of the development of aerodynamics and a sketch of what is being done in Europe educationally, experimentally and in aeronautics.
Lieut. Hunsaker dwelt on the fact that the real advances in the making of machines must depend on the man technically trained. It lies with the technical schools therefore to be ready to prepare men for the specialty of aerodynamic work. It is only a question of time when aerial navigation will present its problems to the engineer, and the engineers must be ready.
The speaker was careful to indicate that at the present time the principal demand for engineers of the special kind is from governments. He sees no great present demand for such men in work not fostered by such authorities, and sees no immediate future either for commercial use or for sport. But
it is the fact that the governments of Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia, Austria, Italy, Greece, etc., are all actively at work with the flying machine; hel believes it to be the results of the solution of tactical problems and that all these powers are not united inl making a mistake. For that reason, therefore, the! United States must adopt similar methods. It is not] impossible that the demand for skilled specialists mayj be sudden, and it is exceedingly desirable that a body] of men be already educated in the special lines thatl will be needed in the development of air-craft. Mr! Hunsaker believes it would be unfair to students^ t J make of them nothing but engineers of aerodynamic?J for it may be some time before such specialists are! in demand, but at the same time he realizes thatl with the engineering training already established atj Technology, it is practicable and not difficult to inJ stitute courses which will replace certain present op-j tions by other ones which bear directly on this! specialty.
"Such a course," he said, "would presume good! preparation and could be given in one year's time.1 There should be instruction in advanced mathematics,! rigid dynamics, fluid dynamics, experimental aerody-l namics, explosion motors, meteorology, propeller, aeroj plane and dirigible design, patent law, physics ofl gases, chemistry of hydrogen and general mathel matics of flight." A wind tunnel of the type used! in England will be necessary, and is to be installed! without waiting for Technology to get to its newl home.
'*" An aerodynamic laboratory will be desirable and! necessary both for research and industrial testing! The designs made by a student can be tested by himl self in the wind tunnel and proved good or bad! Further than this, if a systematic series of models! should be designed and tested, some contribution tol knowledge must inevitably follow. Motor testinj should also be provided for the engines of air craft! in a way especially fitted for their peculiarities.
For the present, it is proposed to give courses in general aeronautics and aeroplane design to the of-l fleers of the United States navy who are under in-l struction in the department of Naval Architecture,! and to the senior class in mechanical engineering asl an option. By next year it is hoped there will bel sufficient interest to warrant a complete graduatel course in aeronautical engineering. A small special! laboratory will be equipped in the near future.
HALL-SCOTT GET 141-H.P. FROM NEW MOTOR.
The Hall-Scott Company reports that the latest test of one of their new 100 h. p. 8 cyl. motors, 134 and 141 b. h. p. were obtained at 1,500 r. p m. The test was run during a period of three days, and at no time, the company states, was less than 131 b. h. p. obtained at 1,500 r. p. m. The factory reports a rush J of orders and fine prospects.
NEW HAMILTON "AEROBOAT."
A surprise^ is promised in the new Hamilton aero-boat, which is now nearing completion. It is of the motor-in-the-hull type, and has many new features that should make it very popular the coming season. One of the features will be the standardized construction system in building. The makers intend to build them in groups, and all alike, instead of each and every machine a new model with several experiments attached. By this system cost of production will be greatly reduced, without in any way interfering with the quality. Should a customer require a spare part, it will be ready to install without a lot of fitting. _ The Hamilton people are also establishing a chain of agencies that will be at the service of the owner of the Hamilton product. In fact, thev are modeling their organization along the lines of modern auto-, mobile practice.
Aeronautics Issues Semi-Monthly
BEGINNING with the first of 1914, AERONAUTICS will be issued twice a month, on the 15th and 30th. The first January Number will appear January 1.1th ; the second January Number will be mailed January 30th. Advertisements will appear every issue or every other issue as desired by advertisers. The price of single issues will be 15 cents.
THINGS are moving more swiftly these days. The "slump" in aeronautics in this country is over. Whatever of industry there is is now solid and growth from now on will be real. "There will be more done in the next 18 months than has been done to date in aeronautics."
THE aeronautical manufacturers are most enthusiastic over the announcement that AERONAUTICS is to be a semi-monthly, the first in this country. "If any magazine gives value received it is AERONAUTICS." "We think the time is about ripe for such a step and no doubt will make AERONAUTICS more popular than ever." "It will increase the field of AERONAUTICS' usefulness to a great extent." With such whole-hearted support from the trade, and with the generous endorsement of the readers, which AERONAUTICS has always enjoyed, the future holds no limitations.
WILL my good friends, the readers, show their so often expressed appreciation of the magazine in an active way? Will you, friends, see that your town library subscribes ? If you know of someone who may be interested in the magazine, will you send me his name for a sample copy? Will you induce your clubs' secretaries to subscribe to AERONAUTICS? If there is an educational institution in your town, will you say a word? Wherever you can find an opportunity, will you boost for aeronautics and the magazine?
Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors
Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs
EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY
64th St. & West End Ave., New York City
Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators cf all types
BOLAND AEROPLANE AND MOTOR COMPANY
THE BOLAND MOTOR
8cyl. "V'type 60 H. P. 240 pounds.
MAXIMUM POWER. MINIMUM WEIGHT.
THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE
equipped with the Boland Control (two movements) and BOLAND MOTOR.
THE BOLAND CONTROL is the embodiment of utmost safety and simplicity in a new system of control which is basic in principle. Write for particulars.
Factory: Ft. Center St., Newark, N. J.
Office: 1821 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.
Manufactures the best and most reliable aeroplanes in America
which are the standard in design and construction.
for sportsmen — both monoplane and biplane types. Boats that are entirely satisfying.
GNOME ANZANI RENAULT
at lower prices
Sloane Aeroplane Co.
1733 Broadway - New York City
If the Hamilton aeroboat is anywhere near what the builders claim, the price of $2,150 should make them very popular. Their years of experience have taught them that economy in construction and a reasonable selling price are required to interest the majority of prospects. They will market both two and three-seat aeroboats, the first lot of which are now under construction. One of their machines, which was sold through advertising in AERONAUTICS to H. \V. Kenzie in New Zealand, was flown by a sixteen-year-old boy for fifteen minutes the first time in the air.
FOWLER'S INSPECTION FLIGHTS.
Robert G. Fowler deserves no little credit for the good flights he has been making during his contract to inspect the power wires of the Great Western Power Co. Two notable flights were of 175 and 200 miles respectively. It took 2 hours and 17 minutes to make 70 miles during the first flight mentioned, on account of the high wind. The other course necessitated flying with his passenger over Mt. Diablo, at an altitude of 5,000 feet.
Mr. E. L. Jones, Editor AERONAUTICS.
Dear Sir: Will you be good enough to give space to this inadequate expression of my thanks to those two staunch and steady, tried and trusty friends who permitted me to use their names and gave their time in the important and patriotic campaign started for a certain purpose, of which many readers of this magazine are aware. These gentlemen, Mr. C. J. Hall, of the Union Savings Bank and Trust Co., and Mr. W. W. Gibbs, vice-president of the German-American Savings Bank, Los Angeles, gave their services for the national campaign as if they knew what our European friends do in such campaigns. Service is the great thing in this world. It is to be hoped that the rest of us will do our part during the coming months. Sincerely yours,
C. W. SIRCH.
NAVAL AERONAUTICS—AIR CRAFT WILL TAKE THEIR PLACE IN THE FLEET.
The Secretary of the Navy has decided that the science of aerial navigation has reached that point where air craft must form a large part of our naval force for offensive and defensive operations. Nearly all countries having a navy are giving attention to this subject. This country has not fully recognized the value of aeronautics in preparing for war, but it is believed that we should take our proper place.
This is the policy that has been adopted. Captain W. I. Chambers, U. S. N., retired, in charge of aviation in the navy, is recognized as one of the leading men in this science in the world. Lieut. John H. Towers, U. S. N., an aviator of recognized ability, has had charge of the aviation camp at Annapolis, under Captain Chambers. He has contributed largely to the development of naval aviation by practical work in experimentation and in training personnel for flying. Several other officers and a detachment of men are working with Lieut. Towers. The navy has other qualified aviators and some students of aviation to assist in further development.
Captain Chambers will continue his excellent work at the Navy Department. Captain Mark L. Bristol has been assigned to the study and development of the art of aerial warfare for the navy.
It has been decided by a board of naval officers that Pensacola is the best location in this country for a naval aeronautical center. The Secretary has approved the findings of this board, and selected the naval station at Pensacola, Fla., for a naval aeronautical station. The aviation camp at Annapolis will be transferred there, and a flying school, in charge of Lieut. Towers, will be permanently established. The battleship Mississippi has been detached from the reserve fleet and assigned as aeronautical station ship at Pensacola. She will sail in a few days. Lieut. Commander II. C. Mustin, a qualified aviator, student of aviation and an officer of much mechanical ability, has been assigned to special aeronautical duty on board the Mississippi. He is to take up the problem of the work of air craft at sea with the fleet.
This new impetus to aeronautics in our navy is only the beginning of a program that has been mapped
out. The flying school at rensacola, working with the Mississippi, will produce trained personnel and evolvB a complete system of training. A scheme for systl matically carrying out experiments and tests and bringing outside experts into close touch with our work will be developed. The designers of air cral in the United States, and of the world if possible will be invited and induced by substantial financil assistance to provide for our navy the best type of air craft obtainable. The question of airships has already been considered. The purchase of airsbirl for experiment and the training of personnel will be taken up soon. The manufacture of air craft in thl country will be encouraged.
When the Navy Department goes to Congress for financial assistance, it will not be based upon theoriel but upon actual experience and practical results.
BEACHEY'S LOOP RECORD.
During the month more than 100,000 people ha\l paid to see Beachey fly. From Oakland and LcB Angeles, he starts for a tour of the world via Aul traha, stopping at Honolulu.
From Dec. 13th to Jan. 1st Beachey flew in fi\l cities, looping the loop some thirty-eight times and flying upside down twenty-seven times.
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS.
Imports of 'Planes and Parts.
For 10 months ending October 1............. 19,62!
Exports of Domestic 'Planes and Parts.
For 10 months ending October 16............ 64,175
Exports of Foreign 'Planes and Parts.
October ...................................$ 900
For 10 months ending October 2............. 11.23J
In Warehouse. October 31—Three ..........................$7,62!
NO SPEED FREAKS IN 1914 RACE. I
The regulations governing the 1914 race for the III ternational Cup, which will be held in France ovM a 200-kilometre course, provide that competing machines will have to compete in preliminary tests oveB a straight line out and back of about two kilometre! at a mean speed of not more than 70 kilometres (43I miles) an hour. In this test the machine must carrl sufficient petrol and oil to cover the whole of til course of 200 kilometres. Three attempts will be allowed each competitor. _ After this qualifying test has been passed, no modification may be made to til machine. Repairs will only De allowed with the pel mission and under the control of the stewards.
SETS NEW ALTITUDE RECORD.
Saint Raphael, France, Dec. 27.—The world's alt! tude record for aeroplanes was broken to-day by Georges Legagneux, who ascended to a height of 20,295 feet in his monoplane. The duration of til flight was 1 hour and 35 minutes.
FIVE NEW ZEPPELINS.
Five new Zeppelins are to be ready by April; tvM for the Germany army, two for the navy, and til fifth is for passenger service on Lake Constance.
AUTO MOTOR RUNS 14 DAYS.
Of the accessories fitted to the Moline-Knigll sleeve-valve engine, which on January 2d complete! the 336-hour test, none shows up more prominent! than the Bosch magneto and the Bosch plugs. The! important attributes of the engine were subjected to a difficult trial, having passed through the 336-houl test, the preliminary runs, the horsepower test and the 5-hour economy test without being touched or adjusted in any manner whatsoever, and neither til magneto nor the plugs missed an explosion durin! the entire time.
One gains an idea of what the ignition system pel formed during the 336-hour test when it is know! that over 44,352,000 sparks were produced by the magneto and 11,088,000 sparks passed across til
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This craft is the development of years of careful experiment and combines in its novel form the best practice in hydro-aeroplane and flying boat work. The dangerous features of the flying boat—lack of safety in flying, shipping of water and foundering in a rough sea, addition of weight, due to water soaking, the presence of the motor unprotected over the heads of the passengers, and the drag and unseaworthiness of the long fuselage hull, have been eliminated. The structural details of the new machine are worked out to combine simplicity, strength and reliability.
The craft is perfectly adapted to the use of sporlsmen as a machine for safe and comfortable travel over water at high speed.
THE WRIGHT COMPANY Dayton, Ohio
New York Office 11 PINE STREET
Published Semi-Monthly by Aeronautics Press
122 E. 25th St.. New York Cable : AERONAUTIC. New York
'Phones | ^Madison Sq.
A. V. JONES, Pres't ERNEST L. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y
ERNEST L. JONES, Editor M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor
HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor
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JANUARY 15, 1914 Vol. XIV, No. 1
Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the PostofTiee, New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879.
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electrodes of each of the four plugs. It took just 88,704,000 separate movements of the magneto contact breaker to produce these sparks.
This is an unprecedented performance. The motor ran without any stop whatever for 336 hours, with wide-open throttle and set spark, at an average speed of 1,117 revolutions per minute, giving an average hrake horsepower of 38.3. The lowest horsepower reading for any fifteen-minute interval during the entire 336 hours was 36.4.
At the end of the 336 hours, without stopping the motor, the speed was increased and the motor developed an average of 53 brake horsepower for a period of one hour, while averaging 1,670 revolutions per minute.
Prior to and following the endurance run, a series of short tests were made, with wide-open throttle and spark set for maximum power, to determine the power, friction and fuel consumption of the motor at various speeds. The same carbureter setting employed during the endurance run was used in these runs. The maximum hrake power shown in these tests was 53.6, at 1,682 revolutions per minute.
The motor was dismantled before and after the test to permit careful inspection. At the end of the test the parts of the motor were, without exception, in excellent condition. There was no perceptible wear on the bearings, sleeves or other parts.
ST. PETERSBURG-TAMPA AIRBOAT LINE.
The St. Petersburg-Tampa (Fla.) Airboat Line announces its 1914 schedule. Boats leave St. Petersburg daily at 10 a. 111. and 2 p. in., returning from Tampa at 11 a. in. and 3 p. 111. The popular captain, Tony Jannus, remains on the bridge this year as usual. A change has been made in rates, however-—-quite a reduction, in fact, from previous schedules: $5 per trip, round trip $10. Passengers are allowed 200 lbs. gross, including hand baggage. Excess is charged at $5 per 100 lbs., minimum charge 25 cents. Express rates for packages, mail matter, etc., $5 per 100 lbs., minimum charge 25 cents. Fat men over 200 lbs. pay for excess baggage.
Captain Jannus began this season's daily trips from St. Petersburg across the water to Tampa on January 1, Mayor Pfeil, of the former city, bidding the privilege of the first flight up to $400, while N. A. Mitchell paid $175 for the second. The over-water trip takes from 19 to 23 minutes.
The new vessel is the product of the Benoist air ship building plant at St. Louis and follows standard commercial packet lines. Little attention has been given to luxuries; in fact, there are 110 staterooms at all on this boat.
Tony Jannus made himself known to New Yorkers in the race around Manhattan on Columbus Day last when he piloted to its dock the good ship Benoist in a 43 mile wind. With progress in these air cruiser packets, we will doubtless soon come to vessels more or less analogous to the old luxurious steamers of 1913, which oldest inhabitants will remember with fond recollections.
Entering the above in my diary after an interesting discourse with Mr. Foss, the engine builder, to bed, albeit 1 would much rather stay up awhile and see the new mail boats with their great lights make a patchwork of the upper air.
AERO MAIL BILL MAY BE KILLED.
The bill to provide for experimental carrying of mails in certain parts of the United States where it now takes many days for the delivery of pouches is meeting with strenuous opposition on the part of hard headed Congressmen. The greater need is for aeroplanes and dirigibles for the Army and Navy and efforts should be concentrated towards proper appropriations in this respect rather than for mails.
BEACHEY FLIES INSIDE BUILDING.
Lincoln Beachey again demonstrated his own superior technique and at the same time evidenced the great accuracy with which he handles his Curtiss biplane, when he flew around inside Machinery Hall at the Panama Exposition grounds in San Francisco last week. He started his flight with his "loop" machine (see AERONAUTICS for November, 1913) outside the building, then swooped through the doorway and around the great building. Machinery Hall is some 900 ft. long and the arches are 75 ft. wide. In flight Ceachey is said to have had no difficulty, but in landing it is reported he ran into a big net, set at one end of the hall for his protection, and slightly damaged bis machine. He was quite uninjured and the machine so slightly that it was ready for the exhibitions he gave next day. Beachey is- booked to start round the world next week.
CURTISS 'PLANES WITH AUTOMATIC STABILIZER.
Two Curtiss aeroplanes equipped with automatic stabilizers are entered in the $77,200 prize contest to be conducted in France, beginning in February, by the Aero Club of France for L'Union pour la Securite en Aeroplanes (see p. 152, August issue). One of the machines is now in Paris, while the other is being prepared here for final tests and will be shipped soon.
Mr. Curtiss, working with the United States Army aviation corps, and the U. S. Navy aviation corps, and the Sperry gyroscope company, has devoted much time to the problem since 1912. Tests made during the past season were so satisfactory that the device was entered for the competition inaugurated by the Union Pour La Securite en Aeroplans several months ago. More recently a second Curtiss machine, to be equipped with another device which has passed the severest tests, was entered and will be shipped in time for the elimination trials. Little publicity has been given the trials here.
MACKAY TROPHY WON AT RECORD BREAKING SPEED.
Flying 58 miles in 46 minutes, locating and accurately describing an advancing "enemy," and finishing the flight with a glide of S miles to within 25 ft. of a prearranged landing mark, won the Mackay Trophy for Lieutenant Joseph C. Carberry, Sixth Infantry. The flight was made in the latest Curtis military tractor delivered to the U. S. Army aviation corps at San Diego, equipped with a Curtiss 90-100 h.p motor, on December 30th.
Lieutenant Fred Seydel, C. A. C, accompanied Lieutenant Carberry on the record breaking flight as official observer.
Flying at an altitude of 3,500 feet the aviators searched the country for the expected enemy and when well over Point Loma discovered the troops which had left Fort Rosecrans at 7 a. m. Indicating the number of troops, their marching speed and direction on the map, they swung about and flew back to Encinitas.
Orville Wright says flying now is fool-proof. This is gratifying—because it is the only thing that is.— N. V. Eve. Sun.
Ilaldeman von Figyelmessy is doing some good work-on |Staten Island with the Curtiss engine tractor of (). E. Williams. Fig.-etc. doesn't at all mind turning over in the air a couple of times with a loose engine bed and getting thrown out. Never heard that it was part of the Hammondsport course to fall three stories on one's head to get a degree. Perhaps Ilaldeman von F. was only doing post-graduate work.
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NAVY RECEIVES MORE FLYING BOATS.
Three more Curtiss flying boats and an O. W. L. have been delivered to the U. S. Navy. The C-3 was tried Dec. 7 at Hammondsport and showed 60 m.p.h., minimum 45 m.p.h., with Lieut. B. L. Smith and Ensign Chevalier in the machine. She readily car-tied three people and 25 gallons of gas, total weight 500 lbs. Left the water inside of 1,500 ft., climbed 1,500 ft. in 13 minutes and made an endurance run of an hour. This machine was packed for transport with the marines to Culebra for winter maneouvres.
The C-4 and the C-5 were tested at Annapolis on Dec. 24. The maximum speed of each was, respectively, 64.157 and 59.052 m.p.h. The minimum speeds were, respectively, 45.033 and 49.672 m.p.h., the apparent shortcoming in C-5 being due to lack of time to adjust motor. C-5 left the water in 1,100 ft. and climbed at the rate of 143 ft. per minute. The oil consumption was 5 pts. per hour and the fuel consumption y'.% gals, per hour. C-4 left the water in a run of 1,000 ft. and climbed at the rate of 150 ft. per minute to 1,500 ft. Oil and gas consumption, respectively, 4 pts. and 8 gals, per hour.
The O. VV. L. Cover land and water) machine, the E-i, is a modified Curtiss hydroaeroplane, fitted with v heels, running in rectangular slots in the pontoon. These wheels can be drawn up out of the way and fixed stationary by a lever. This machine has also gone to Culebra. The first tests of this experimental type, hastily constructed, were highly satisfactory, showing a speed range of 44 to 65 m.p.h., with surprising maneouvering qualities in the air and splendid adaptability for work on both land and water.
FI.1EGERKITRZ. Leitfaden fiir Militar-und Zivil-flieger, von Josef Flassig, k. u. k. Leutnant und Feld-pilot der oesterreichischen Luftschifferabteilung. i6mo, cloth, 164 illustrations and tables, charts and drawings, published at K. 7.20 by K, v. Waldheim, Jos. Eberle & Co., Andreasgasse 17, Wien VII, Austria.
Contents include: IMF PIIYS1KALISCHEN UNO METEOKOLOCrSCTIF.N EICENSCI1AFTEN DER F.UST—Physikalisclie Eigenschaften, Der Luftdruck, Die Lufttctnperatur, Der Wind, Die Luftfeuchtigkcit. DER LITFTWI DEKSTAND—Senkrechter Luftstofs, Schiefer Lnftstots, Stirnwiderstand auf Stabe, Ande-rung des Lu ft widerstandes durch die Form des Kor-pers, Widerstande von Streben und Seilen, Wirkung der stromenden Luft auf gewolbte Flachen, Versuche von Lilienthal. der Cottinger Anstalt und der Versuche von Eiffel, Der Luftwinderstand bei Drachen-fleigern, Die Bereehnung von Propellern. DIE FLUGMASCIIINE—Der Rumpf, Die Steuerung, Die Die Kolbcn, Die Kolbenringc, Das Motorgehause, Vcrwindung. DER P.ENZINMOTOR—Die Zylinder, Yorang bei der Zundung. Zundvorrichtungen, Die Wichtigsten Vergastertypen, Die Arbeitsweise des Penzinmotors. Tnstandhaltung des Motors und Repara-turdesselbcn, Visiticrungstabelle, Storungen am Motor, Die Typen der Aeromotoren, Bremstande. BENZIN UND OL—Die chemisehc Untersuchung der Brenn-stoffe. Die chemisch-physikalische Untersuchung der Schmiermittcl. MATERIALKUNDE—Das Holz, Eisen & Stahl, Zink, Kupfer, Blei, Zinn, Nickel, Aluminium, Legierungen, Zugfcstigkeit der Metalle und deren Legierungen, Zugfcstigkeit von Drahten, Das Loten, Das Schweifsen, Das llarten. FESTIGKEITSLEHRE —Zulassige Spannungen, Festigkeit gerader Stabe, Zusammengcsetztre Festigkeit, Belastungsfalle beim Flugzeugbau. DIE SCIIULE DES FLIEGENS— Dienstordnnng und Direcktiven fur den Pilotenkurs, Die Ilaftpflicht fur die Flieger, Die Ausbildung im Flieeen. FLUGTECI1NISCIIE PHOTOGRAPH IE ANIIANG—Organisatorische Bestimmungen fur die Luftschifferabteilung, M eldeformular, Die Sportkom-missare fur Flugmachinen, Die Prufungskommissare, Die neuen Bestimmungen, Die Federation Aeronau-tique Internationale, Lizenz.
COURT GIVES WRIGHT DECISION New York, Jan. 14.— Yesterday the U. S. Circuit Court handed down an opinion in favor of the plaintiff in the Wright-Curtiss suit. Full abstract of decision in next issue.
FLYING AT PANAMA-PACIFIC.
The flying at the Exposition grounds has been truly wonderful. Every Sunday there are at least six hydros, and sometimes ten, giving beautiful demonstrations of the modern water craft, its efficiency, speed and reliability. "Beachey's stunt is wonderful. At first I did not think much of it from hearing others talk ahout it, but, believe me, when 1 say it, is worth walking miles to see."
At the Paris Exhibition, December 25th, there were 65 pieces of apparatus on which ignition systems were fitted. Of these 65, 56, or 86<%, used the Bosch magneto. The balance was divided among three other makes of ignition systems.
In the national award for the best distance covered in 24 hours, Bosch-equipped aeroplanes made a clean sweep, winning all prizes from 1 to 6, inclusive.
Prize 1 was won by Stoefner—Aviatik monoplane, Mercedes engine, Bosch magneto. Stoefner covered 2,079 kilometers, about 1,291 miles, which is a world's record. His prize was 100,000 marks, or $25,000.
The second prize, Schlegel—Gotha monoplane, Mercedes engine, Bosch magneto. Distance, 1,497 kilometers. Prize, 60,000 marks.
Third prize, Caspar—Gotha Hansa monoplane, Mercedes engine, Bosch magneto. 1,381 kilometers.
Fourth prize, Thelen—Albatros biplane, Mercedes engine, Bosch magneto. 1,373 kilometers.
Fifth prize, Kastner—Albatros monoplane, Mercedes engine, Bosch magneto. 1,228 kilometers.
Sixth prize, Geyer—Aviatik biplane, Mercedes engine, Bosch magneto. 1,173 kilometers.
SACRIFICE—A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Ilall-Scott 60 II. P. motor, all in Ai condition, for $1,350 cash, subject to demonstration to bona-fide purchaser. Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the season. Opportunity knocks but once at every man's door. Address "Sacrifice," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.
AVIATOR WANTED—Can use a good aviator who can fly exhibitions, make repairs, build, etc., a first-class all-around man. Fair salary year round. Address, with references, Aviator, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.
On Board S. S. Coamo,
Nov. 28, 1913.
Editor of AERONAUTICS, New York City.
My Dear Sir,—Read with regret that Mr. Brown is retiring from aviation. Perhaps Mr. Stevens can use him as an assistant on the bee farm he became interested in at Rio Pcdras, Porto Rico. He told me personally when I met him on the island that he would supply much honey to the world by his millions of bees. I wish both of those gentlemen luck, and hope they will not get stuck as my friend Mr. Beachey did with his sugar. Perhaps Mr. Stevens' idea is to have the bees carry the honey from the sugar cane that Beachey left behind. Leave it to him.
With my best wishes to you, I beg to remain,
Cordially, (Signed) Antonio Morales.
SECURED or FEE RETURNED VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY
Send sketch or model for FREE search of Patent Office record. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes ottered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are F.xperts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of Patents in Airships, 10 cents each.
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Tom Gunn, the greatest Chinese Pilot, making one of his spectacular flights at Honolulu, H. I., using 60 h.p. HALL-SCOTT power plant.
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FOR NEXT ISSUE
FOR FLYING BOATS USE
JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE
Use our Waterproof Liquid Glne, or No. 7 Black, While, or Yellow Soft Quality (tine for waterproofing the canvas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a eoat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.
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< BENOIST «g
The Benoist School of Aviation will open on January 1st, at St. Petersburg, Florida. The school will be under the personal supervision of Tom W. Benoist and Tony Jannus. We will also conduct the first regular schedule passenger-carrying air line in the world, St. Petersburg to Tampa, Fla. Students who want to join the school and prospective agents who want their territory for the exclusive sale of our flying boats will do well to address
The Xcw Benoist Fttiinv Boat in Action
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Endurance Flying Record to Date, 4 hrs., 23 min.
July 26th, 1913
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