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THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL NAVIGATION
The Government Flyer—Value of the Motorless Glider—Hammondsport Aero Experiment Station—Liquid Hydrogen and Hydrogen Containing Compounds in Long Distance Balloon Flights—Williams Helicopter—Curvature a Relative Term—School of Aeronautics—Dihedral angle in Kites and Aeroplanes—Calendar—Helicopter Bertin—New Clubs— Aero Clubs of America and New England—Ascensions -Army Aeronautics—Paris Flying—1 he Farman "Flying Fish"—Aeronautic Records—Gordon Bennett—High Explosives as Power for Flying Machines—News Review—Notes— Communications.
PRICE, TWENTY-FIVE CENTS
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Cleveland, O. Jan. 16,'08.
0. C: Foster, Esq.,
Mgr. Cleveland Branch,
Warner Instrument Co.,
Dear Sir:-- Last year yon furnished me with an instrument which I used on the "Mudlark" in ray tour from New York to Florida, and it gave us such good satisfaction that I would like to have one of your clock and light instruments for a model "K" Olds in which I will make a similar run this coming week from New York to New Orleans by way of Syracuse, Buffalo, Cleveland, Louisville and Birmingham.
Trusting that you will give this order your personal attention, and that I may receive the instrument in time, as other speed indicator companies have offered to furnish me free_ of charge an instrument for this occasion. HoweverT I would"" rather buy a Warner tnan accent theif~~offers as the Auto-Xeter has always given me complete satisfaction^
I remain, yours very truly
Warner Instrument Co.
_ _118^_ Wheeler Ave., Beloit, Wis.
vering- advertisements please mention this magazine.
published monthly by
AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS CO.
Ernest LaRue Jones, Editor and Owner 142 West Sixty-Fifth Street, New York, U. S. A.
Vol. II March, 1908 No. 3
Aeronautics is issued on the tenth of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics. Contributions are solicited.
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THE GOVERNMENT DYNAMIC FLYER.
We are either playing fast and loose with false hopes or history is being made too rapidly for recording. When our Government issued specifications for a dynamic flying machine we were astonished. To demand that the machine carry two people with gasoline for a hundred and twenty-five miles, that it maintain an average speed of at least 36 miles an hour for the whole sixty minutes, that it be simple in construction and operation, and return to the starting point at the conclusion of the flight in such shape as to be able to immediately fly again, seemed beyond all reason. We knew that aerial locomotion had been proven practicable, we knew that it had even been most successfully accomplished on man}- occasions, but we believed the art still in its infancy.
When we heard that three had actually contracted, under penalty of forfeiture to the extent of forty-six thousand dollars, to fulfill at present the seemingly impossible conditions we were completely astounded. One fails to realize the proposition. The magnitude of what is too close we are never able to measure. The results of what is really an event we are unable to predict. We had boats and it does not seem so great to have made them self-propelled. We had beast-drawn vehicles and they were made to move of themselves. Rut to conceive the wonderfulness of locomotion in air—!
When steam was applied to means already at hand five continents were made into one and the earth shrunk under its rule. The aims of lands and forms of commerce, human occupations and communication, the manner of war and the structure of the social body were changed. The conquest of the earth was achieved by man. Everything was changed, overthrown, enlarged and created anew. What was not altered?
Now we have invented a new means! To consider the future is to become lost 111 a m/aze of possibilities. To predict is futile.
When the specifications were made public, few of those practical men whose achievements have made their opinions weight}', were optimistic enough to imagine that the requirements could be met by any one. The acceptance of the bids proves
three men either foolhardy or the rest of us way behind the times. With all our hearts we hope the latter may, in this instance, be found the case. A failure on the trial-day would be a terrible blow to aeronautical progress in America, and we would say, better had we gone more slowly.
We have to face the fact to-day that, owing to the public exhibitions of flights with motor-aeroplanes in France, the Frenchmen are in a fair way to get years ahead of us in aviation, as they did in the development of the automobile.
However well we may have accomplished the task of catching up in automobile design and construction, we should be far from content with having such a task'saddled upon us in the case of the motor-aeroplane.
The only thing we lack here is a widespread interest in the subject. We must wake up and have some enthusiasm, and above all a spirit of emulation.
Some of the more ambitious aviators are inclined to think that motor-aeroplanes are the only machines with which they can win high honors, and I greatly fear that this mistaken idea is to cost many of them their lives.
Lilienthal, the dauntless engineer, gave this instrument to the world fifteen years ago, yet the number of men who have appreciated it to the extent of actively aiding in its development is ridiculously small.
The importance of the motorless glider is twofold.
First, the skill which may be acquired by its use prepares men to encounter the dangers of motor flight with the least possible risk.
Secondly, its comparatively low cost will enable many experimenters to enter the field who would otherwise be debarred by lack of funds.
In regard to the first subject, may I quote here a paragraph which I wrote twelve years ago:
"One thing is certain; if the problem of flight had been fully solved by someone unknown to us, and if that person were to present us with a perfect flying apparatus, that instrument would be of no more immediate use to us than the latest safety bicycle would be to the King of Dahomey, or a pair of skates to a man who had never seen ice. Bicycling, skating, walking, swimming and flying are all movements which must be learned by practice, if at all."
Children often use floats in learning the motions of swimming. We know not what the future may bring forth, but it now seems to us that men will always begin with motorless gliders in learning to fly. If this be so, the great thing to be done is to lessen the loss of human life by making the glider as safe as possible. If it cannot be made absolutely automatic in the preservation of its equilibrium, it can certainly be made much more so than it is at present.
Lest I seem to overestimate the value of the motorless glider, let me say here that I do not lose sight of the fact that, when the thrust of a screw is applied to a gliding machine, there is a force to be reckoned with, which to the mere operator of a motorless glider is a new one. What I wish to emphasize is the fact that any machine of the Wright or Farman type is liable at times to become strictly analogous to the motorless glider. I mean when from any cause the motor stops during flight. Then the Wright or Farman type of machine becomes, for the time being, a motorless glider, and is exactly on a par with a gliding machine in which the motor is represented by ballast of suitable shape, position, size, and weight.
THE VALUE OF THE MOTORLESS GLIDER.
By James Means.
THE DUFOUR GLIDER.
To be of practical use for military or any other purposes, a motor-driven aeroplane machine must be under good control when it has no cuergj' but the potential energy of altitude. A machine which is seriousl}' endangered by the stoppage of its motor will never be useful unless its defects can be remedied.
Hence, the subject of investigation and experiment divides itself. There will be two classes of experimenters: those who attempt at large, and oftentimes at wasteful expense, to vise motors and do the whole thing; and those who, at moderate expense, attempt only a part, and who make a specialty of perfecting the motorless glider.
Experimenters who undertake the latter will fit themselves to operate motor machines later on.
The Wright Brothers were enabled to achieve motor flight because they fully realized that the mastery of the motorless glider must precede complete success with a motor aeroplane.
Lilienthal, who—probably through over-confidence—came to an untimely end in 1896, made, as is well known, thousands of successful glides. His glider was later thoroughly tested by Chanute, who found it to be "cranky and uncertain in its action and requiring great practice."
Lilienthal, by long practice, acquired remarkable skill in balancing, and thus was enabled to render a service to the world, which has placed his name upon the roll of the immortals.
Chanute, as is also well known, took up the work and, applying his engineering knowledge with untiring energy, evolved a type of glider of such improved stability that he was able to write: "We found that a week's practice sufficed for a young, active man to become reasonably expert in manoeuvres, and hundreds of glides were made with the several machines experimented with in 1S96 under variable conditions of wind, without the slightest personal accident.
Everyone who intends to learn concerning the design, construction tion of motorless gliders should read the writings of Lilienthal, Chanute Wright.
Two of the most instructive articles ever printed are those by the latter which will be found in The Journal of the Western Society of Engineers, published in Chicago. The titles and dates are as follows: "Some Aeronautical Experiments," December 1901; "Experiments and Observations in Soaring Flight," August 1903.
Mr. Wright says: "The bird has learned the art of equilibrium, and learned it so thoroughly that its skill is not apparent to our sight. We only learn to appreciate it when we try to imitate it. Now, there are two ways of learning how to ride a fractious horse; one is to get on him and learn by actual practice how each motion and trick may be best met: the other is to sit on a fence and watch the beast awhile, and then retire to the house and at leisure figure out the best way of overcoming his kicks and jumps.
"The latter system is the safest, but the [(inner, on the whole, turns out the larger proportion of good riders. Tt is very much the same in learning to ride a Hying machine. If you are looking for perfect safety, you will do well to sit on a fence and watch the birds, but if you really wish to learn, you must mount a machine and become acquainted with its tricks by actual trial."
Could any one give sounder advice than the above?
In my opinion gliding machines should be made so that they will not be injured by being immersed in water for a short time. Gliding should by beginners, be attempted only over water. The ideal method of launching is from a captive balloon anchored over a sheet of water.
The beginner may glide from small heights at first and gradually increase the
GLIDER No. 2 OF L. J. LESH.
and opera-and Wilbur
height of starting point as he gains the knowledge which comes from experience and as he loses the confidence which comes from ignorance.
Note:—Those who are constructing gliding or other aeroplane machines may be interested to know of a labor-saving device invented and patented by Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, Patent No. 856,838, June 11, 1907. "Connection device for the frames of aerial vehicles."
THE HAMMONDSPORT AERO EXPERIMENT STATION.
The amount of apparatus constructed in the course of a year is rather astonishing. Those who are not actually interested in the art have no conception of the magnitude of the work being done, and, strange as it may seem, those whose greatest interests are in the work do not seem to realize the extent to which experiments are being conducted.
They hear almost daily of new machines started or completed, but the constant announcement of these events have made devotees of the new art so matter-of-fact that they do not stop to count up. We see such great advances made every day in science and commerce that we become accustomed to events which, a half century ago, would have startled the world. In aeronautics, the same. When Santos Dumont over half a score of years ago circled Eiffel Tower with a steerable balloon the world almost stood still, statements were made that aerial navigation was an accomplished fact and wild prophecies were put out for the future. Now that we have, for all purposes of demonstration, actually solved the centuries-old problem with a machine hundreds of times heavier than the air it displaces, we accept it with hardly a remark. It seems to be in the nature of things that, with the growing coldness of modern life, we see no reason for a display of emotion.
While America first showed the practicability of dynamic flight, demonstrated the assertion by making a motor driven model fly, and then produced a well-nigh perfect man-carrying motor machine, it remained for France to make the flying machine a thing of commerce. The building and sale of flying machines has grown to such an extent in France that at least one concern, Messrs. Voisin Brothers, has a complete factory exclusively devoted to the manufacture of material aeronautic, models, aeroplanes, airship frames, propellers, etc. During 1907 a dozen or more full-sized machines were produced and sold. They now announce that they will contract to build an aeroplane guaranteed to fly a kilometre in a circuit for 'something like $6,000, complete with motor. It is interesting to note in passing that their guaranteed machine is the Herring-Chanute-Wright type.
In America we have an experiment station which bids fair to rival that of the Brothers Voisin. Half a dozen years ago Glenn 14. Curtiss started to build motorcycles. He designed his own engine and produced one of very light weight. Good gray matter and expert workmanship produced a machine and motor which beat the world. No other motor was there which approached the Curtiss in its adaptability for use in aerial apparatus. Inventors went to Curtiss for their motors. Curtiss saw the
trend of events* and went to work stud}' brought greater success for
H. CURTISS IN THE "WIND-WAGON."
xiiown foreign motors cannot
still further lighten and improve his motor. This motorcycles and almost invariably races in which "The Curtiss" was entered were won under the name Curtiss. Not content with merely beating other motor cycles. Curtiss decided to lower the world's speed record—and he did. The fastest mile had been held by a steam driven automobile, 28 1/5 seconds. With an 8-cylinder, 40-horsepower "The Curtiss" lie lowered the record to 26 2/5 seconds at Ormond Beach. Florida, the fastest mile ever travelled by humanity. One hundred and thirty-live miles an hour! A motor that would do that was thought to be good enough to put in a flying machine, and it was used for that purpose.
Inventors of aeronautic apparatus needed a workshop fitted with up-to-date machinery. They could not install individual plants, and they wrote to Curtiss at Hammondsport to know if they could do their experimenting there. Curtiss said yes, and they came, each year a few more. The motor business kept growing and new buildings were added. The inventors had to have buildings for their work—result, more additions. Captain Baldwin went to Hammondsport to build his California Arrows and needed a "hangar." One was erected in a level held on the shore of Lake Keuka and called "The Aerodrome." Meanwhile Curtiss kept selling light motors to the airships of the country, to the Government for its Signal Service, and to the experimenters at hiammondsport and all over the United States. A Curtiss motor drove the first successful airship in America, and a Curtiss motor was the first to drive a helicoptere into the air. During 1907 over three hundred and fifty motors were built, of which fifty were for aerial experiment work—rather a surprising number for one concern. Light motors that mote constitute a problem that few have solved, run more than fifteen minutes at a stretch. Of what use would such a motor be to a man who has to keep his machine in the air an hour or more? Curtiss had foresight enough to see the impracticability of such extreme lightness, and. if we take the word of the Wright Brothers, of what value is a "to-the-limit" weight? Curtiss motors and Curtiss workmanship brought the services of this genius into demand, and he was invited to join the Aerial Experiment Association of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell at his summer
laboratory, Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia. With the coming of the Association were transferred to Hammondsport, adding dozen interests already located there.
Jolly good fellowship reigns at Hammondsport between the various experimenters, one discusses his plans with the other, gives his advice, etc. A visitor to the works sees frameworks of aeroplanes, kite cells, propellers, gears and shafting, parts of dismantled apparatus cast aside or of new machines awaiting completion and trial, hung from the ceilings of the many buildings, stowed under work benches and. in the corners, concrete expressions of ideas. In one building, along with cycles by the hundred, is a helicoptere almost complete; in a dark corner is a "wind wagon" used for testing propellers and motors; in a corner of another building stands a motor iceboat with aerial propellers; in still another building is a curious looking ornithoptere. while a few doors further on is a dirigible balloon in process of construction; down on the shore of Lake Keuka, in the "hangar," Dr. Bell's Association has established a promising looking plant, a glider and a few tetrahedral kites in close proximity, and a motor aeroplane almost completed occupying the greater part of the space; up tinder the rafters is another ornithoptere dormant for the Winter.
From the knolls south of the Lake the glides are mad
A CURTISS LIGHT
of Winter the headquarters ;till another to the half
These kind Is are a joy
forever to the glider, for no matter which way the wind blows, one can always head into it.
The Government's first airship contract, for which has been given Captain T. S.
fifteen horse power ice cycle
Baldwin, will be built at Hammondsport and equipped with a specially-designed, water-cooled, 4-cylinder Curtiss, 30-horsepower engine.
g. h. curtiss starting on a lono glide
Great things are being done at Hammondsport. The genius of one man has made possible all these things. Hammondsport, the aeronautic center of the country!
i - ■»1
g. ii, cdrtiss and the motor cycle that holds the world's speed record.
SAILING IN AN AIRSHIP. By Walter Scott Haskell.
The moon is bright, the stars are out.
The air is soft and calm; Come ride in my new airship, dear,
I'm sure it. is no harm. We'll skim the trees and cross the lees,
And pass the village spire; We'll then go down into the town
And seek the village squire.
Oh, sailing in an airship is.
The cream of all delights; And taking willing prisoners,
A lover's natural rights. Sailing in an airship,
Sailing to the moon; Breaking sparkers, getting wrecked,
Is quite a lover's boon.
I hear you say "Some other day,"
That papa would object; Thai mama always was afraid
By airship you'd be wrecked. And then you smile at me and say
With lips of ruby hue: "I cannot go, of course I can't—
1 wish I could, don't you?"
We stepped aboard the waiting ship,
Just for a little fly; The sparker in the motor broke,
And up we went so high, We had to pull the safety valve,
To let ourselves below; 'Twas at the village, and the squire,
He married us you know!
40 h. p. cortiss motor, weighing i50 lbs.
ON THE USE OF LIQUID HYDROGEN AND HYDROGEN-CO NTAINING-COMPOUNDS IN LONG DISTANCE BALLOON FLIGHTS—In Three Parts.
By Darwin Lyon.
Of late years, though there has been an increase in the interest shown in every branch of aeronautics, the interest of both the public and the inventor has been given more and more to the gasless machine, to the exclusion of the balloon. Interest in the latter, however, was greatly revived by the St. Louis race, and in this country is being maintained by the projected long distance trips of Glidden and Forbes, the numerous schemes for crossing the Atlantic by balloon, and the various aero-club flights. It is solely with long distance balloon flights that this article is concerned.
That the gas supply ma}' be replenished while a balloon is in the air I have no doubt, but I have never heard or read of its being tried. However, it is not so much for this reason that this article is written, as that I may have called to my attention any objections or difficulties that may exist and of which I am ignorant.
From data furnished me by the Aero Club of America 1 find that lack of sufficient lifting power is the main cause of earl}- descents. I include exhaustion of ballast with lack of sufficient lifting power, for the reason that the former is nearly always indirectly due to the latter. In the St. Louis race the only balloon to descend for either of these reasons was the "United States," piloted by Major Hersey. And, strange to say, the "United States" instead of being the second to descend would probably have been the last, had it been able to carry a supply of liquid hydrogen, for it took the most northerly course of the nine balloons and could have travelled several hundred miles further than the others before striking the Atlantic. The "United States" landed near Lake Ontario, and, with the exception of the "Lotus 11," was the first to come to earth. Major Hersey was the only competitor who was able to locate and hold the northeasterly course which the aeronauts expected to follow. But, as before said, both gas and ballast gave out, and he was forced to descend.
A balloon loses its gas in three ways, and through three channels—through the pores, through the valve, and through the neck. The first is unavoidable until we improve upon our present system of varnishing; the second at present is also unavoidable, for when the pilot wishes to descend, say, to a different air current, he must needs open the valve and allow gas to escape. The other way in which gas is lost is also unavoidable, for upon reaching a high altitude the gas expands to such a degree that the balloon would certainly burst unless an escape were allowed through the neck or the valve.
Experience has proven that using the best balloon at present obtainable, flight cannot be prolonged beyond 48 hours' duration.* It is obvious that the only way left by which the stay in the air can be lengthened is to in some way compensate for the loss of gas by directly replenishing it.
Why carry such a miserable article as sand for ballast? Can we not carry chemicals which when properly treated will give off hydrogen gas, leaving a residue which we could then use as ballast?
This brings us to the question, from what substances and how can hydrogen be prepared. The various ways of preparing hydrogen are enumerated below. Looking over these ways, it will be seen how few are at all practical for our present purpose: <i) Decomposition of water by_sodium; (2) electrolysis of acidulated water; (3) action of dilute sulphuric acid on zinc; (4) dissolving magnesium in dilute sulphuric acid; (5) passing steam through a tube containing red hot iron turnings; (6) action of zinc upon aqueous solutions of the salts of ammonia; (7) heating of sodium in gaseous hydrochloric acid; (S) heating of zinc with a solution of potassic hydrate; (9) heating of formates or oxalates with an excess of a caustic alkali; (to) action of intense heat upon steam; (11) destructive distillation of certain organic substances; (12) addition of water to such hydrogen containing compounds as Hydrone, llydrolith. etc.
Nearly all the above methods admit of many modifications. Thus, for instance, potassium may be substituted for sodium in No. t. and iron for zinc in No. 3. On looking over the list it will be seen that nearly all are impracticable in the basket of a balloon. Thus though at high temperatures calcium hydroxide can easily be decomposed by pulverized zinc with the evolution of large quantities of hydrogen, the ap^ paratus required is far too cumbersome.
With others, the amount of hydrogen given off is relatively small. With still others, the objection is that the evolution of gas is extremely slow. Even with the best possible combination of chemicals and these in their purest form, and disregarding the necessary apparatus, eight of the twelve methods would require the carrying of over 400
*The present official record is 44 hours, 5 minutes, though the longest time a flight has actually lasted is 52 hours (Drs, Wegener).—Ed.
pounds of chemicals for the production of each 3,000 cubic feet of hydrogen gas. Xo. 12 is the only method worthy of our consideration.
By examining the chemical formulae of all the compounds coining under this head, I find only three that yield a relatively large amount of hydrogen. Of these, the best is calcium hydride, the others being inferior for various reasons. Calcium hydride, or "Hydrolith'' as it is more popularly known, does not occur free in nature. It has been known theoretically for many years, but its manufacture in quantities is of recent date and is at present almost confined to France. Upon contact with water it evolves hydrogen gas in large quantities, but not with so explosive a violence as does hydrone, which, however, in other respects, it resembles. Hydrone is a lead sodium alloy and in the shape usually found on the market furnishes almost immediately upon contact with water 2.26 cubic feet of hydrogen per pound. The amount of gas yielded by hydrone can be increased by raising the percentage of sodium, but with a risk of inflammability Hydrone can be bought in ten-pound tins at 60 cents per pound. Calcium hydride if chemically pure will yield over 18 cubic feet of hydrogen to the pound. The commercial product, however, rarely yields more than 16 cubic feet to the pound. One sample tested yielded only 14.5 cubic feet to the pound. Theoretically, for each 7 parts by weight of calcium hydride we would need 6 parts of water, but in practice 1 have found that often nearly an equal weight of water is needed. The irregularity depends upon the nature of the impurities present, that is, the degree of solubility of the impurities. Thus, to obtain 16 cubic feet of hydrogen would necessitate the carrying at least 2 pounds of material and to obtain 3,000 cubic feet of gas we would need nearly 375 pounds of material (water and calcium hydride). The above does not include the weight of the necessary apparatus, but this would be inconsiderable, for I find that an ordinary acetylene generator answers the purpose. With a few modifications this would be admirable. However, it is obvious from the above, to say nothing of the expense (Hydrolith costs about $1 a pound), none but the large balloons could carry ■enough calcium hydride and water to produce over 5,000 cubic feet of hydrogen. As an example, using the excellent gas now furnished at North Adams, the "Stevens 21," of 35,000 cubic feet capacity, carried besides the two aeronauts 560 pounds of ballast. Supposing this amount of ballast could be turned into calcium hydride, we could obtain therefrom 4,480 cubic feet of hydrogen gas. The solid residue remaining after all the hydrogen had been given off from 560 pounds of material would be 531.2 pounds to be nsed as ballast.
How now can we manage to carry aloft with us a larger supply of hydrogen? There is but one way left, and this is to carry hydrogen not in combination with other substances, but as free hydrogen.
Hydrogen compressed in steel cylinders is out of the question because of the great weight of the containers; so we have left but the one alternative—liquid hydrogen. If there exist any great objections to its use I have been unable to discover them. Probably the most serious objections are the expense and the difficulty of carrying so large a quantity of an extremely volatile liquid.
(To be continued.)
* The ordinary tanks containing compressed oxygen as used in the hospitals hold on the average 100 gallons of gas at 200 pounds pressure. Though made as light as safety will allow, they weigh 30 pounds each.
Next month the author will take up the manufacture, nature and properties of liquid hydrogen and the construction of the various receptacles used for holding it.—Ed.
THE WILLIAMS HELICOPTER.
Mr. J. Newton Williams, of Derby, Conn., member of the Aero Club of America, who has devoted some years to the study of aeronautics, particularly mechanical flight, and has developed some models that have given very interesting practical results, both in ascensional power and dirigibility, has lately constructed at the H. C. Cook factory. Ansonia, a helicopter of man-carrying size. Connecting it by belts and flexible shafts to the factory power for the purpose of testing the thrust of propellers at different revolution speeds, he has made numerous trials, getting a maximum direct vertical lift of over 500 pounds.
Mr. Williams has now taken the machine to Hammondsport, N. Y., to install an 8-cylinder, 40-horsepower, air-cooled Curtiss motor weighing 150 pounds. On the first test with the motor in place the complete helicopter was lifted, together with some added weight.
The machine was then dismantled to make some changes for the purpose of increasing the power of the motor and reducing the weight of the whole structure. Further trials will be made within a few days.
INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.
President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zaiim. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.
The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine, and at the earliest date possible, bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.
In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the informal addresses of the Gordon Bennett contestants and others were concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.
Owing to an unfortunate mishap, we are obliged to omit the sixth paper for this issue and present the seventh paper, "Curvature a Relative Term," by G. A. Spratt; with discussion by Octave Chanute.
Curvature A Relative Term
By G. A. Spratt
The following is a description of laboratory experiments with a few deductions. The writer believes the experiments are sufficiently conclusive to-establish a fact that should be clearly recognized by all designers of flying constructions ; a fact through which one of the equilibrium-disturbing actions of the wind may be clearly understood. It is presented with the hope that it may be of interest to those who find pleasure in the analysis of the forces of the wind and be suggestive for further study.
The facts presented are the result of many experiments with the force developed from the contact of air current and surface, into which the pressure, alone, has entered. The weight of the surface in part, or wholly, and the weight and influence of the mountings, have been eliminated from both the experiment and the conclusions. An endeavor has been made to know the pressures in their elementary form, in which form they should be clearly recognized before they can be scientifically used. As found in practice with models, pressure and gravity are hopelessly complicated. It is impossible to know by watching a model in the air, to what extent an action is due to air pressure, or to what extent it is due to gravity.
Gravity has been eliminated from the experiments by placing the surfaces vertically in the air current.
An ideal method for studying the pressures theoretically, consists in placing the surface vertically upon a piece of sheet cork which floats upon water, across the face of which flows a steady and uniform current of air.
Mounted in this way the surface is free from the action of gravity and free to respond in any direction or manner to the influence of the air current. Its action shows the proportion of the pressure components.
If desired, the action of the float may be restricted by parallel arms sheltered from the air-current beneath the surface of the water; threads may be attached to the surface or the float; or the float may be pivotally fixed by a needle point engaging it from above or below.
When a surface is vertically, instead of horizontally, placed in an air
current, the drift is in no way affected. The components acting perpendicularly to the original current, which are termed "lift" when the surface is horizontal, are unaltered as to magnitude, but are spent horizontally.
There is a peculiar force—expressing effect in curvature; an action decomposing the original force which is a distinctive property of curvature, that should be noted before the experiment is described which has been chosen because of its completeness in supporting the title of this paper. A brief comparison of the effect a plane and an arched surface have upon an air current is here inserted.
The pressure of a current of air is normal to the surface at the point of application. It may be resolved into a force parallel with the original force, and one perpendicular to the original force. In the plane the component acting perpendicular to the original force is controlled entirely, by the angle of incidence; at o° angle of incidence it is 11011 existent.
The pressures normal to the arched surface, taken as a whole, are so acted upon that the effect seems to be a further decomposition of the original force. As in the plane, one component of the normal pressure acts parallel to the original force. The other component is divided : one portion is controlled by the angle of incidence. The other portion is fixed ; its magnitude controlled, by the amount of curvature represented in the surface.
This fixed portion of the original force is manifest at all angles of incidence. It is exerted in direction always from the common centre of the radii of the surface toward the surface. It is, therefore, centrifugal in character. It may be considered as acting along the bisecting radius.
When the surface is placed with its chord parallel with the current, this force is effective. In a surface in which the rise is one-twelfth of the chord this centrifugally-acting (or fixed) force will overcome the pressure of three negative degrees. Lilienthal noticed that at slight angles of incidence, this force lessened the drift. This has been recognized also in Hargrave's experiments.
If the surface is placed with its chord perpendicular to the current, with its convexity directed toward the current, this centrifugally-acting (or fixed) force is represented in a total pressure that is less than the pressure resulting from a plane similarly placed, whose length and breadth arc equal to the length and chord of the curved surface. If the chord is perpendicular to the current, with its concavity directed toward the current, this force is manifested in a total pressure that is greater than the pressure upon a similarly placed plane, whose length and breadth are equal to the length and chord of the curved surface.
This centrifugally-acting (or fixed) force, which for want of better description, has been referred to as a portion of the original force, is a clearly manifest expression of force, acting in the direction from the common centre of the radii of the surface toward the surface, and is indestructible by the angle of incidence. It is, probably, of an equal magnitude at all angles of incidence.
This fixed centrifugally-acting force is dependent, entirely, upon the amount of curvature represented in the surface. It is not found in the cylinder, nor in a half cylinder. If a thin metal sheet is bent to include any number of degrees, other than 360 or 180, this force will be developed and may be considered as acting along the bisecting radius. It is manifested in shallow curves and is increased with an increase in curvature. It increases as the curvature becomes greater or less than 1800, and increases as the curvature becomes less than 3600.
If a hollow cylinder is placed in an air current, drift only is observed. If a longitudinal strip is cut out from its side to reduce the number of degrees in-
eluded in its curvature, this force asserts itself. If the opening is widened by removing more of the surface material, this force increases. By repeating this process of removing the surface material a little at a time, it will be found that this force, at first, increases. As 1800 are approached, however, it diminishes. A further cutting away of the surface increases it. As the curvature becomes shallow it again diminishes. Upon building up a surface in this consecutive way, it will be noticed that the drift increases continuously. As a curvature of 900 is approached it increases at a much more rapid rate than the rate of increase of this fixed centrifugally-acting force.
This decomposition of the original force, which results in separating a portion of it from the control of the angle of incidence, is an essential characteristic of curvature. It is observable wherever there is curvature existing' between current and surface, whether a curved surface in a straight wind or a plane in a curved current is considered ; but with the following apparent difference in its action.
In the case of a straight wind in contact with the curved surface, its action is from the common centre of the radii toward the surface, but in the case of a rotating wind in contact with a plane, its action is from the surface toward the centre of rotation of the current; therefore, centripetal in character. In this case the action may be considered as exerted along the radius bisecting the surface, and the angle this radius makes with the surface is the angle of incidence.
In either case, whether the surface is an arc in a straight wind or whether the surface is a plane in a rotating wind, if the area, angle of incidence, radius of curvature and velocity are the same, the drift is the same, and the combined action of the fixed force and the force due to the angle of incidence is the same, that is, if considered horizontally as in a flying surface, the drift and the lift are the same. An experiment to establish this may be made in the following way.
Make two surfaces of equal weight and of equal dimensions; one a plane, and the other curved to an arc of known radius. Mount each surface on a post so that it is carried vertically as a vane. Each surface must be equally free to rotate about its post. Both must be mounted in similar proportions respective to the posts. Erect one of the posts carrying the plane on a carriage which can be drawn along a straight track or guide. Erect the other one carrying the aerocurve at the circumference and perpendicular to the radius of a flat disk having the same radius as the arched surface, and having a groove in its circumference to receive a small chord. The disk should rotate horizontally about its centre.
This apparatus may be placed for use either on a table or on the floor. The disk is secured by a fixed pivot passing through its centre, and the track is placed a short distance from it in a line tangential to it. The carriage is placed at the end of the track next the disk, a cord attached to it and carried once around the disk in the groove and then attached.
Now, when the carriage is drawn along the track, the post erected upon it will describe a straight path through the air, and the post erected at the circumference of the disk, will, in the same time, move the same distance, and describe a path curved to the same radius as that of the arched surface.
Give each surface the same initial angle of incidence to the path described by its post. The surfaces, so adjusted, therefore, bear the same relation to their respective paths, and the pressures developed by their passage must bear the same relation to their centres of rotation.
The truth of this is evidenced by the fact that when drawn through the air they both rotate on their posts the same number of degrees. The result of
the pressures on each surface is shown to be the same. The pressures, therefore, must be equal, and although one is a plane and one an arc, they may be said to be equivalent surfaces acting" under similar conditions. The conclusion must be drawn that a plane in a straight wind and an arched surface in a rotating wind will give equal results, other conditions being equal.
A second test may be made with the same apparatus, by transplacing the surfaces and drawing them through the air as before. In this test we have equal surfaces acting under conditions that are dissimilar, in an equal degree of dissimilarity, that is, the plane surface is carried in an arched path, and the arched surface in a straight path in which, as before, the angle of incidence of the air currents, taken at corresponding points on the surfaces is the same, and as before, both surfaces rotate on their posts equally, showing that the extent of the action is determined by the amount of curvature existing between the surface and the air current. In this test they rotate about their posts in opposite directions.
In applying the facts clearly supported by these tests, it is safe to say, and it is also evidenced in practice, that when a gliding surface encounters a horizontally rotating wind, the effect is similar to an increase or decrease in the curvature of the surface, in proportion as the relation of curvature is altered.
If the centre of rotation of the current is above the surface, the relation of the curvature is increased and the effect is the same as the effect produced by increasing the curvature of the surface while in a straight wind. If the centre of rotation is beneath the surface, the relation of the curvature is decreased and the effect is the same as the effect produced by decreasing the curvature while in a straight wind. If the centre of rotation should coincide with the common centre of the radii of the surface, for the time being, the surface is practically a plane in a straight wind.
Such a coincidence is an extreme conception, however. Its duration could be hut a fraction of a second, and inertia would tend to hold the course true.
Perhaps all who have experimented with large surfaces have found them very difficult to control while in flight if the ribs are not flexible and do not admit of a variation in the curvature of the surface. Those experimenters who have had this practical demonstration will agree that the variation in curvature and stipport that may be experienced in flight, is the greatest factor in determining the size of the tail and the arrangement for its operation.
In nature there are four distinct manifestations of relative curvature, and in each, ''lift" is manifestly present.
There is, first, the curved surface. This is seen most commonly in the bird's wing, and has been the subject of much experiment and observation.
Second, the rotating wind. The little whirlwind so common in hot weather "draws" certain flat objects toward its centre of rotation, so long as there is a motion between the wind and the object in the plane of rotation, but it only disperses the bulky objects which possess no gliding" qualities. The "lift" due to the curvature existing between the surface and the rotating wind is toward the centre of rotation of the wind.
Third, a plane rotating on an advancing axis contained within itself. The narrow strip of paper, as it falls rotating and advancing in its descent, may be used as an illustration of this because of its familiarity. This is a true glide. The inertia, and the travel of centre of pressure, combine in effecting rotation continuously in one direction, and the consequent "lift" prevents it from falling straight downward as it' does when formed into a cylinder. Another illustration somewhat more forceful, and familiar to nearly every boy, is seen when a flattened block of wood (4" x 1" x y'2" or thereabout) is thrown with an overhand throw, with its longest dimension horizontal, and perpendicular to its course, and caused to spin as it leaves the hand.
Fourth, a plane may make a more or less complete revolution about a centre at a distance from it, which centre may or may not be advancing". The apparatus previously described may be used as an illustration, by securing the plane to the post carried by the disk, compelling it to move as one piece with the disk as it rotates about its centre. This is an example of a plane in a rotating wind with the motion inherent in the surface.
The surface may move pendulum-like about a centre, and if so, the passage each way gives rise to a "lift" which is directed toward the centre.
Flying forms of life are so constructed that their wings are capable of describing all of the above movements, excepting, of course, the rotating wind, the origin of which is external.
The wings of many of the insects, especially the diptera, are particularly adapted to the motion last described, which seems to form the basis of their flight.
The wings, apparently, are planes. Their greatest transverse strength is toward the free extremity. By reflected sunlight, and by direct appearance of their wings while hovering, they seem to have a forward and backward motion in a curved path with the curvature directed downward.
If the line of gravity divides equally the amplitude of the vibration of their wings, the "lift" is directed upward and the insect hovers. If the amplitude is greater in tthe rear of gravity the "lift" is directed upward and forward and the insect advances. If the amplitude is greater in front of gravity, the "lift" is upward and backwards, and the insect moves backward. If a line passing through the centre about which the wing vibrates, and also perpendicularly through the wing, divides equally the wing surface, it is in effect the same surface curved to the radius of the arc described by its vibration, in a straight wind at an angle of incidence of o°, at the actual speed of the wing, and with the concavity directed downward. If this line passing through the centre about which the wing vibrates, perpendicularly divides the wing surface unequally, as the point of division approaches the anterior edge, the effect is equal to a proportionate positive increase in the angle of incidence. As it approaches the posterior edge the effect is equal to a proportionate negative increase in the angle of incidence. If in flight the wings are so adjusted in each passage that this tine is brought near the advancing edge, the figure-of-eight course as described by Pettigrew is the result. However, the figure-of-eight course can be attributed to other causes also.
There is probably no form of life that makes use of only one method of obtaining a relative curvature in its flight, but flight may always be the result of a combination of two or more of the motions described.
There is no fixed arched surface in the wing of the diptera, but this construction may be represented in the elytra of the beetle. Probably, in large winged specimens of the butterflies, the motion of the forward wing is only upward and downward, with a rotation on its axis that will bring the rear edge below the forward edge at the finish of the stroke. This wing motion will give the body an impulse forward and upward. Considered relative to the air the wing passage is downward and then forward in an arched line and may be classed under the motion described under No. 4.
The rear wing of the butterfly seems to act as a substitute for inertia, combining the action of wing and tail. Taken together their motion is imperfectly wave-like.
The wing of the bird is most highly constructed, and is capable of producing a relative curvature in the three ways described, and also of controlling the "lift" of the rotating winds which may be encountered. The fixed arched surface is represented in the portion next the body. The flattened portion nearer the tip may be rotated independently of the curved portion, or the
entire wing" may be used as a unit. The stroke may be considered relative to the air, as a straight line downward and forward with the flattened portion rotating about its axis ; or as a curved line, downward and then forward, with its transverse line fixed in reference to the body joint as a centre. In either case "lift" is developed by the flattened portion. The wing, therefore, is capable of developing- more lift than is thought by a consideration of the arched portion only.
It is unnecessary, perhaps, to state that there is a great difference in the appearance of the stroke of the various birds.
These statements concerning wing-motions are supported by field observations only, but the theory seems to be supported by them, i. e.: that by the wing motion a relative curvature is caused, so that the consequent "lift" may be utilized in flight.
Discussion of Mr. Spratt's Paper.. By Octave Chanute.
Air. Spratt's paper is somewhat obscure, but is worthy of closer study than the casual reader is likely to bestow upon it. He brings out an element of instability in flight which has been taken into account by few experimenters. They consider alone the changes produced in the apparatus by the movement of the centre of pressure and but seldom attribute the variations of support which they experience in actual flight to the relations of the wind.
When once pointed out it seems obvious enough that whether the curvature be in the surface or in the path of the wind, the practical effect will be the same, and the experiment described shows that an aerocurve, encountering a wind which rotates with the same radius of curvature as itself, is no more effective in support than is a plane meeting" a straight-away wind. The occasions will indeed be rare when the radius of such wind gyration will be the same as that of the aerocurve, but its balance and supporting power will be affected in some measure.
Now, nearly all brisk winds gyrate more or less, and this indicates that the experimenter should either provide some method of meeting, through his own actions, such gyrations when they occur, or seek for some combinations or forms of surfaces which shall adjust themselves automatically to the varying turmoils of the wind. One such arrangement consists in the flexible rear surfaces of the wings of birds, which, curiouslv enough, have seldom been resorted to by man. There are also various combinations of fixed or of movable surfaces which will be found greatly to increase the stability.
Mr. Spratt's field observations of wing movements are curious and well worth the attention of experimenters.
INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS.
As an indication of the extent to which interest in aeronautics is developing, the starting of a school to quickly help students to a groundwork of knowledge in the new art is a noteworthy incident.
The progress that has been made in the solution of the problems involved in the construction and use of apparatus for the navigation of the air has awakened the interest of inventors, scientists, and the public generally, but investigators have been hampered by the difficulty of obtaining accurate data on the results attained by workers in the various parts of the world. The navigation of the air is advancing so rapidly that books are out of date by the time of their publication, and experimenters have been constrained to solve each step for themselves because there was no way in which they could ascertain the results accomplished by other workers in the same fields.
M. Albert C. Triaca has made it his work to remedy this, and to classify in a concise, practical manner the work done in all branches of aeronautics, and the courses now offered by The International School of Aeronautics are the most complete and authentic exposition of matters pertaining to the science that has ever been collected. These courses, which are arranged for home study, consist of lessons, accompanied by nearly three hundred figures, diagrams and charts on separate plates, were prepared by Lieut.-Col. Espitallier, the foremost of the aeronautic experts of the French Army.
Associated with the school is a technical staff, composed of the most eminent authorities, and their collaboration has resulted in the production of papers in which the investigator will find the results and every detail of the work that has been done; the methods of the most successful aeronauts and aviators; the details and construction of balloons and dirigibles, gliders and aeroplanes, helicopters, ornithopters, and all other forms of apparatus; scientific data, formula; and tables and a fund of similar information such as is obtainable in no other quarters.
The International School of Aeronautics offers three courses, first, covering spherical balloons; second, dirigible balloons; third, heavier-than-air machines. It is the duty of the technical staff to supply new material and additions to the courses whenever an advance in the art warrants it, and makes it necessary, and as these men are the most eminent in their profession and arc in close touch with the school management, the students will have the benefit of the latest process and development.
THE SCHOOL'S MODEL OF THE AEROPLANE "ANTOINETTE."
Three lessons will be sent at a time for study, and the students will answer the questions that accompany them. With the next set of lessons the answers to the questions of the first will be forwarded that the students may make comparisons and check his understanding of the work. The lessons arc prepared with the text matter on one side of the sheet only, the other side to be used for making notes. The courses will be completed with supplementary lessons on dirigibles and aviation by Col. Espitallier and Capt. Ferber.
The equipment of the school office is very complete and the library, in addition to books on aeronautic subjects, includes files of the aeronautic magazines; a very extensive collection of photographs of all types of apparatus, and several hundred stereoscopic views. There are also models of air ships and aeroplanes built in the best French factories, a model of a spherical balloon for practical demonstration, motors, wood and metal screw propellers, supplies, instruments, and accessories for aeronauts, fabrics, ropes, and varnish for aeronautical work, etc.
Among the privileges granted to the enrolled students are:
A discount of 10 per cent, on subscriptions to Aeronautics, the "Scientific American," the "Aerophile," the "Revue de L'Aviation," and other aeronautical magazines. Ten per cent, discount on scientific instruments for aeronautic use, specially manufactured by Hue, Paris. Consultation with the technical staff of Paris, and the right to their advice and assistance. An ascension (all expenses paid) will be given to one student of every twenty who have completed the spherical balloon and dirigible courses. The student to be selected by ballot. The ascent can be made either in America or Europe, and if the student does not care to avail himself of it he will receive $50 as an equivalent. Upon the completion of one of the courses the student will receive a suitable certificate.
M. Albeit C. Triaca, founder and director of the School, was connected witli the New York School of Automobile Engineers, as director of the Foreign Department. He is a pilot licensed by the Aero Club of France; for the past year in Europe has devoted his energy to careful study of the construction and management of balloons and heavier-than-air machines, and is thoroughly familiar with the subject.
The spherical balloon course includes: Historic Summary of the Invention of Balloons. Ballooning after Mongolfier—Military Balloons, Captive and Free. Scientific and Sporting Aeronautics. Definition and Principles—Ascensional Power of Gas —Vacuum and Metallic Balloons—Balloon Composition. Ascensional Force—Composition and Weight of Air—Weight of Inflating Gases—Ascensional Force of Ordinary Gases—Relations between Altitude and Barometric Pressure. General Form of Cover—Different Methods of Making the Cover. Nature of Fabrics—Uses for Cover Making—Strain on Material. Valves — Their Functions—Position — Dimensions. Car and Net—Different Methods of Suspension. Accessories —Captive Suspension—Military Equipment of Captive Balloons in Germany. Static Equilibrium of a Balloon on the Vertical— Air Balloonet. General Remarks on the Duties of the Pilot — What an Improvised Aeronaut Should Do. Various Instruments Used in Aerostation. The Regulations—Measurement of the Gas—Preparation—The Ballast—Its Use. Ascent to a Great Altitude— Long Duration and Long Distance Ascents. Use of the Ballast in the Course of an Ascent —Preparations for the Definitive Descent—On the Landing. Practical Information for the and Payment of the Damages Installation of Kites—Applications to English, German and French—Technical Dirigible Balloon Course
a model "antoinette in flight
Ascent— done by
Log Book—Landing Certificate—Estimation the Landing. Sounding Balloons. Kites— Photography. Manufacture of Hydrogen. Dictionary.
Historical Sketch—Heroic Period of Various Navigations. The Present Time—From the Renard to the Lebaudy Dirigible. The Most Recent Dirigibles—The Patrie—The City of Paris—Zeppellin—Parseval Dirigibles— The Wellman. The Problem of the Dirigibility of Balloons—Resistance of the Anon a Dirigible. General Study of the Shape of the Steerable Balloons—The Stability of a Steerable Balloon. Rolling and Pitching. Stability of a Dirigible Balloon in Movement. On the Evolution and Displacement of a Dirigible Balloon in the Horizontal Plane. Elements and Division on the Gas-Holder on an Elongated Balloon. Cutting out the Gas-Bags—Arrangement of the Other Parts of a Dirigible Balloon. Examination of the Condition which a Well Constructed Dirigible should Fulfill— Ma-noeuvers. English, German, French—Technical Dictionary.
Aviation Course: General Remarks—Aviation in Germany and America—Otto Lilienthal—O. Chanute—The Wright Brothers. 1904. Langley's Work—Hiram Maxim —Aviation in France. Aeroplanes—General Sketch—Description of Some Apparatus— Bleriot—Santos Dumont—Delagrange—Kress—Vuia. On the Resistance of the Air on an Aeroplane Surface—Lilienthal's Experiments—Center of Pressure. Theory of the Aeroplane without Motor—Theory of the Aeroplane with Motor. Necessity of Light Motors—Electric Carbonic Acid—Ammonia Motors—Water Cooled and Air Cooled Motors. On Screw Propellers—Wood and Metal Screws—Calculation of a Screw. Helicopters—General Remarks—Description of Some Systems. Ornithopters— General Remarks—Study of the Flight of Birds—Mixed Apparatus. Hydroplanes— Description of the First Experiments of Hydroplanes with Aquatic Propulsion—Hydroplanes with Aerial Propellers. How an Aviator can Construct His First Trial Apparatus—The Duty of the Aviator in the Trials. English, French, German—Technical Dictionarv.
THE DIHEDRAL ANGLE IN KITES AND AEROPLANES.
By James Means.
Although the quotation given below was first published twelve years ago, and is known to most aviators, it has never had as wide a circulation as it deserves. It is timely now and is surely a gem of the first water.
As may be observed in the illustrations of Farman's motor-aeroplane and of Santos-Dumont's No. 19, whieh have appeared in recent issues of the leading illustrated papers, the two machines are radically different in design. As both were entered for
the Deutsch-Archdeacon prize, which has now been won by Farman, we have here an excellent opportunity to study' the two principles which are depended upon for stability.
I think that all who have taken an interest in the subject of aviation have great respect for Lawrence Hargrave of New South Wales and admiration for his work. He is known all over the world as the inventor of the Hargrave kite. In looking at the illustration of the Farman machine we notice the superposition of the surfaces, the extremely obtuse angle of the same and the cellular structure of the tail. We see in Santos-Dumont's No. 19 that he is testing the dihedral angle principle of stability with a much less obtuse angle, and that he has (for the time being perhaps) abandoned the Hargrave cells which he used in his No. 14 about a year ago.
The following quotation from a paper read by Hargrave before the Royal Society of New South Wales, August 5th, 189G, will explain my meaning:
"As there is little doubt that the cellular is a permanent type of kite, a few remarks will he of interest; especially as its action and construction as hitherto explained are somewhat obscure. The first question that suggests itself, is, Why should the cellular lift more per square foot than the ordinary single-surfaced kite? In a kite or flying machine the distribution of the lifting surface is most important. The value of the lifting surface depends within certain limits on the linear dimension that first meets the wind. Thus, a common kite of 25 sq. ft. area cannot show more than about 7 ft. of edge to the wind, whereas a cellular one of 25 sq. ft. area can easily show 20 ft. of edge to the wind.
"The great stability of the cellular kite is clue to the vertical surfaces. To understand this, it is necessary to grasp the truth, that a perfectly flat kite has no stability; and even with tail and side ropes is an inferior flyer. The more the kite bends hack from the longitudinal center line or backhone, the more stable it becomes. The angle between the two sides is called by flying-machine men the dihedral angle, and without this or its equivalent, no flying apparatus will balance with any degree of certainty.
"In the figure, let A B C be the dihedral angle of a kite, B being the end view
of the backbone. Resolve A B and B C into their components, and D B E is the breadth of surface that tends to lift the kite, and A D and C E are the heights of the surfaces that tend to steady it. Bisect D B and 13 E, and erect ner-pendiculars F H and G K equal to A D or C E; join H K; and F H K G is the breadth and height of a cell having the same lifting power as A B C and (apparently) greater stability.
"The width of the kite D E is halved, and therefore much less timbering spreads an equal area of lifting surface, to say nothing of the rigidity of the lattice girder construction.
"To realize this question of stability from another point of view, let us imagine a flying machine with lifting surfaces in the dihedral fashion ABC, and one with two cells like F H K G, to be on their respective stages, rails, carriages or floats, ready to fly; suppose them to have equal areas, weights, and wheel or other bases and to be heading directly to the wind; a momentary change of wind would promptly overturn A B C, but F H K G would only be pushed sideways."
1 believe that I am rendering a service to all who are thinking of entering upon experiments in aviation in stating that Lawrence Hargrave has been very generous in placing the reports of his long-continued experiments in the leading public libraries of the United States. These reports may be found catalogued under his name as author or in "The Journal and Proceedings of The Royal Society of New South Wales"
March.—Balloon race organized by the Aero Club of Nice. Distance race at Verona. Italy, on the 19th.
April 15.—Balloon race at Paris organized by the Aero Club of France.
May.—International balloon race in England organized by the Aero Club of the United Kingdom. International Aeronautic Congress at London. Balloon race of the Aero Club of France on May 16.
June 11.—Balloon contest of the Aero Club of France.
July.—Balloon race organized by the Aero Clubs de Brussels, Bordeaux and Tourcoing. Dirigible contests at Bretton Woods, N. H. On the 9th, 16th and 23d, flying machine contests at Spa.
September.—Grand Prix of the Aero Club of France at the Tuilerics. Aeroplane contest at Vichy.
October 11.—Gordon Bennett International Race and other contests at Berlin (Tcgel).
May 1, 'o8-'o9.—Aeroplane contests with and without motor, at Munich Exposition. 1911.—International assembly of dirigibles in Italy, under the auspices of the Societa Acronautica Italiana.
HELICOPTER JEAN BERTIN.
For some reason or other we hear of few helicopters ami, no doubt, few are being constructed. It is interesting to note that no great success has ever been obtained with a direct lift machine, although there seems to be no good reason why such a system is not only practicable but, indeed, save for the added danger, the most convenient. The machine needs less space, it should rise into the air more quickly, and land in a shorter space.
A machine of this type has just been constructed by Bertin, but no flights have yet been made. In a rigid framework of steel tubing is placed a horizontal air cooled 8 cylinder, 115 mm x 125 mm.. 150-horsepower motor, weighing only 120 kg., invented
TWO VIEWS OF THE BERTIN MACHINE.
by Bertin himself. It makes 2500 rpm. The power is transmitted through a disk clutch. Driven by bevel gears are two metal two-bladed propellers 2.8 metres in diameter, with blades 1.2m. by .75m. The propellers turn at 1250 rpm. In the front of the machine is another gear driven metal propeller .7m. in diameter turning at 2500 rpm., mounted on a shaft having a universal joint, and both steers and propels. The whole machine weighs but 310 kilograms, without counting the aviator who stands in the front part and the engineer in the rear at the motor. The first trials will be made with the vertical propellers—those on the vertical shaft—and later with the other. It is stated that at a preliminar}- trial the apparatus rose easily.
NEW AERO CLUBS. Aero Club of Milwaukee.
Application has been made to the Secretary of State to incorporate the Aero Club of Milwaukee. The prime movers are William Woods Plankinton. Dr. A. R. Silverston and Major Henry B. Hersey, members of the Aero Club of America; William George Bruce, Secretary of the Merchants' and Manufacturers' Ass'u; Dr. J. F. Schrieber; Edwin Tower, Jr.. Dr. S. D. Knapp. W. C. Krenl and R. B. Watrous. Secretary of the Citizens' Business League.
The intention is to organize under the wings of the Aero Club of America, which is the only club in this country recognized officially abroad. One club only in each country is admitted to membership in the International Aeronautic Federation and the Aero Club of America is the club representing America in this Federation.
At a meeting held to discuss the organization, Dr. Schreiber stated: "Milwaukee men must organize the body and conform it to the rules of the Aero Club of America, which will recognize us and promulgate the rides under which all the great contests of the world are held. This is the only way to assure clean sport when the time comes for Milwaukee to own its own aero grounds and assist in the development of aerial navigation. Nothing not done under the standard of rides of the Aero Club of America is recognized abroad, and it holds the sport up to as high a level as the American Automobile Association does its contests."
Three balloons are to be purchased in the near future, of varying sizes.
Club Aéronautique de Vincennes.
The Club Aéronautique de Vincennes, Secretary M. Rayac, has been formed to take an active part in the principles and sport of aerostation and aviation.
Societie des Anciens Aerostiers.
The Society of Ancient Military Aeronauts lias been formed at 35 Rue Boissy-d'Anglais, Secretary M. L. Lemaire.
Hamburg Aero Club.
On February 17th the Aero Club of Hamburg was formed with 300 members. Professor Voller was elected president. The club was presented with a balloon by one member and with 3,000 marks by another.
AERO CLUB OF AMERICA.
It is gratifying to note that the attendance at the club on "club nights," Monday and Friday, has increased considerably during the last month.
Mr. Wilbur R. Kimball has been appointed vice-chairman of the Entertainment Committee and during the month three lectures were given. Mr. F. H. White illustrated a practical talk on ballooning with beautiful lantern slides made from negatives secured on some of bis trips. Mr. Edward A. Durant lectured on the gyroscope and exhibited an interesting specimen driven by electric current. Mr. Kimball also gave an illustrated lecture with the aid of the lantern slides recently brought over from France by Mr. Albert C. Triaca.
On Monday evening, February 10, a general meeting was held, addressed by Messrs. Frank S. Lahm, Peter Cooper Hewitt, Albert C. Triaca and others. Considerable discussion followed looking towards greater activity in the club during the year. A number of members are building gliders and full-sized machines and the matter of an experiment station was considered and steps will probably be taken to secure the use of a race track near the city. An aviation section of the club was proposed and it is not unlikely that in the, near future one will be inaugurated. ,
A club flag has been adopted and members are requested to adopt private signals and register them with the club.
Members are urged to register the names and particulars of their balloons with the club. They are also asked to display the club flag in ascents.
The Automobile Club of America some time ago invited the Aero Club members to dine at the Automobile Club on the first and third Tuesdays of every month, on which nights entertainments will be provided.
On February 21st, Mr. Albert C. Triaca entertained a goodly number of guests with a "smoke talk" at the Aeronautic School. Mr. Triaca showed some new lantern slides of the French military dirigibles and the aeroplanes practicing at fssy. At the conclusion of the talk the work of the school was discussed and the various models and instruments were exhibited.
Captain T. S. Baldwin was awarded pilot's license on March 2. With the hundreds of ascents to his credit it is a wonder he did not apply for it previously.
The annual banquet will be held at the St. Regis on Saturday evening, March 14th. The speakers will be: Hon. James M. Beck, Ex-Assistant U. S. District Attorney; Mecredy Sykes whom all will remember with pleasure as speaking at the last banquet; Professor A. Lawrence Rotch, Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory; Lieutenant Frank P. Lahm and Ex-Governor David R. Francis of Missouri. President Sherrick of the Aero Club of Ohio, will also be present and address the diners.
Following is a statement of the scheme for a national federation, together with a synopsis of the arrangements between the affiliated French clubs. ft is to be very much regretted that there are but three clubs in America who have known actual legal being and it is obviously impossible to form a federation with mythical organizations. Most necessary it is to have a national organization to control the sporting side of the art and to standardize the requirements for the issuance of pilots' certificates; along the lines of the American Automobile Association.
"On account of the rapidly increasing number of aero clubs in the United States it is necessary that something be done to bring them into closer relations with one another.
"We believe that in order to keep the sport of aeronautics clean and as far as possible free from professionalism and commercialism, it is necessary that a uniform
standard should be established in order to put all the clubs on the same footing as regards matters which may effect the welfare of all of them.
"In Germany and France where there are a number of local clubs different systems have been put into operation. In France, where the situation is similar to that in this country, the Aero Club of France is the national society and as such represents France in the International Aeronautic Federation. In order that the local clubs shall be represented in this Federation, and for the purpose of establishing uniform rules regulating the sport, there has been in operation for several years a system of affiliation. Included in this system there were in 1907 six aero clubs affiliated with the Aero Club of France. The term of affiliation is one year and renewals are made on the first of January for the calendar year following. Attached hereto is a summary of the articles of agreement now in effect in France. It will be observed that the idea expressed throughout in these rules is that these clubs shall observe rules similar to those prevailing in the Aero Club of France regarding the issuance of pilots' licenses and as to details in the organization of aeronautical contests. The French affiliation agreement also contains provisions regarding granting of sanctions to aeronautical events organized by bodies other than the clubs included in the affiliation.
"In this country, the Aero Club of America believes the present high standard of aeronautics should be maintained and, therefore, it will not permit societies whose requirements are less than those of the Aero Club of America to affiliate with it. After carefully considering the matter, it has been decided to invite as the first members n this affiliation the Aero Club of St. Louis, the Aero Club of New England, the Aero Club of Ohio and the Aero Club of Philadelphia. From what has been learned of these clubs we feel certain that they are in entire sympathy with the purposes for which the Aero Club of America was founded and are willing to insist on the same standard of conduct on the part of their members.
"There are many details of this arrangement to be settled in accordance with the ideas of the several clubs mentioned, and, understanding as we do that the clubs mentioned are willing to affiliate with the Aero Club of America, it is desirable that a conference be held to consider the form of articles of agreement.
"It is not our purpose to extend this affiliation at present, but we suggest that a governing committee of the affiliated clubs should be formed with the idea of passing upon applications for affiliation from other clubs. If this affiliation is carried out to a definite organization, the Aero Club of America will consider that it is the organ of these clubs in regard to all matters requiring international agreement. As is well known, the Aero Club of America is the sole representative of America in the International Aeronautic Federation, and because of this is bound to apply, in all matters connected with the sport of aeronautics, the international rules established by that Federation. These rules are very complete and are so drawn that they provide for all contingencies in conducting aeronautical contests.
"The right to enter contestants or competitors for any international aeronautical event is vested in the Aero Club of America, and the Aero Club of America will be glad to make entries for its affiliated clubs in international events as may seem expedient in each case. We feel that rules governing the sport of aeronautics in this country must be kept at the highest possible standard, and unless the other aero clubs unite with us in maintaining these rules the sport is sure to become professional.
"We feel that the occasion now presented for affiliation is opportune and should be carried into effect at once before the increasing number of aero clubs in this country make the task more difficult."
(Signed.) CORTLAXDT F. BISHOP.
Synopsis of Affiliation Agreement of French Aeronautical Organizations with the
Aero Club of France.
Art. 1. During the year 1907 there were six aero clubs affiliated with the Aero Club ot France; two at Paris, one at Nice, one at Roubaix, one at Bordeaux and one at Troyes. The term of each affiliation is one year and is renewed on the first of January of each year for the year following.
Art. 2. Members of the affiliated societies alone are allowed to take part in the annual or occasional contests organized by the Aero Club of France, and only members of these affiliated clubs are admitted to the international contests of the Federation, whether they take place in France or in a foreign country.
Art. 3. Members of these affiliated clubs are also relieved of any tax which is charged for non-members of the Aero Club of France making ascensions from the Aero Club's grounds at Paris. Members of affiliated clubs may also obtain pilots' licenses under the same conditions as members of the Aero Club of France.
Art 4. The presidents of affiliated societies can become member* of the Aero Club of France without paying the initiation fee.
Art. 5. Members of the affiliated societies receive free copies of the official publication of the Aero Club of France, and also receive copies of the various rules, records, programs, etc., without cost.
Art. 7. The Aero Club of France gives various privileges and prizes for contests organized by these affiliated societies.
Art. 8. Pilots named by an affiliated society, although not pilots of the Aero Club of France, can take part in the various contests organized by the International Federation or by the Aero Club of France.
Art. 9. Members of affiliated societies are only allowed to compete in contests arranged by the Aero Club of France, the affiliated societies, or by persons or societies who have received licenses from the Aero Club of France, and by the International Aeronautic Federation.
Art. 10. Members of affiliated societies are bound in all respects to observe the racing rules made by the International Aeronautic Federation and by the Aero Club of France, and are also to correspond with no society not recognized by the Aero Club of France or by the International Aeronautic Federation, and are to take part in no contests other than those arranged by the Aero Club of France, or societies affiliated to it, or the International Aeronautic Federation, and also all pilots' licenses given by affiliated clubs must be granted under the same conditions as those granted by the Aero Club of France.
Art. 11. Affiliated societies shall give gratuitously to the Aero Club of France and to the other affiliated clubs free copies of all publications and news of the Club. Every aeronautical society in the affiliation must advise the Aero Club of France and the other affiliated societies of all changes in by-laws, officers and government, and in case they unite with any other society.
Art. 12. Members expelled from any of the affiliated societies cannot become members of the Aero Club of France or of any of the other affiliated societies. Xo members of any affiliated society- dropped for non-payment of dues can become a member of any of the other affiliated societies without first paying up arrears in the society to which he is indebted.
Art. 13. Each affiliated society-, regardless of the number of members, must pay-yearly dues to the Aero Club of France of $12 per year. The dues are payable 011 the first of January of each year, and if they are not paid within thirty days the Club owing them is expelled from the Federation without notice.
Art. 14. In order to join this federation of French clubs the Club wishing to join must send to the Aero Club of France a written request, together with a copy of its Constitution and By-Laws, copy of its certificate of incorporation, list of pilots, officers, address, etc.. and must deposit the annual dues which are returned if the Club is not accepted.
Art. 15. A society having ceased connection with the federation and desiring to again become affiliated must apply for membership the same as if they never were affiliated.
Art. 16. The Governors of the Aero Club of France may give sanctions to any-aeronautic contest of which the rules in no way conflict with the rules of the International Aeronautic Federation. The taxes for a meeting of this sort are as follows: For challenge cup—contest by balloons or flying machines—$10.00 each license. For special contests a tax of $2.00.
Art. r8. The Governors of the Aero Club of France are at liberty- to punish by fine or otherwise violation of the racing rules of the federation or of the International Aeronautic Federation, and judges to impose this penalty must be two Governors of the Aero Club of France with two Governors of other aero clubs in the federation.
Art. 19. Provides for filing of protests to the Aero Club of France. The Aero Club of France can also proceed in these matters of its own initiative, and the tribunal thus constituted decides questions without appeal.
Art. 20. Provides that no changes shall be made in the rules during any- one year except as a result of trial by- a committee provided for in rule No. 18.
AERO CLUB OF NEW ENGLAND.
The first social meeting of the Aero Club of New England was held at the house of Dr. Maurice II. Richardson, one of the most eminent surgeons in Boston, on Wednesday evening, February 26th.
The President, Professor A. Lawrence Rotch. gave an illustrated lecture on the "History and Development of Ballooning." Professor Rotch pointed out that Bos-tonians had always been interested in ballooning, since Benjamin Franklin had described in detail the first balloon ascension from Paris, and Dr. John Jeffries, a Harvard College graduate residing in London, had made the first balloon voyage for scientific purposes in 1784, only- a year after the balloon was invented. Professor Rotch described
tlie use of balloons for obtaining meteorological observations and especially those got by his own observatory with registration balloons at great heights above the American continent and over the Atlantic Ocean. The development of the motor balloon, since the first successful dirigible balloon of Major Renard in 1885, was pictured, as was the sport of balloon racing, which began during the Paris Exposition of 1900.
Mr. 11. H. Clayton continued this subject by giving an illustrated account of his balloon voyage from St. Louis to the Atlantic, which is printed in the March issue of the "Atlantic Monthly" magazine.
Jan. 28.— Lieut. Frank P. Lahm (Aero Club of America), Herbert \Y. Alden and J. G. Obermeier (Aero Club of Ohio), in the "Ohio" from Canton at 1:15 I'. M., landing at 3:35, twelve miles from Oil City, Pa., a distance of about 100 miles in a straight line. Most of the trip was above the low mist clouds. In ascending, the anchor caught in some wires which had to be cut. During inflation, in order to arrange the valve rope, the balloon was pulled down quite close, and Lieutenant Lahm got under the balloon. A flow of gas came from the neck, and the Lieutenant was nearly axphyxiated.
Feb. 22.—Leo Stevens and A. Holland Forbes (Aero Club of America), in the "Stevens 21," from North Adams, at 1:18 P. M., landing at 3:48 at Wales, near Palmer, Mass. The gas furnished was exceptionally light. Distance, about 65 miles. The cold was intense, freezing the ballast, water and even the ink in one of the registering instruments. Just after crossing the mountain near North Adams a snowstorm was encountered. On going up to an altitude of 13,000 feet the temperature seemed to be a little higher. When a landing place was looked for, none was in sight. For ten miles no suitable spot could be found. At last a narrow wood-road was sighted in the midst of the forest. The anchor was thrown just before reaching the spot and the balloon settled down, plumb in the middle of the road, as easily as a bird alights. So much for skill! The balloon was all packed up when a farmer came along with a wagon and drove the party to Palmer, where they spent the night.
ARMY AERONAUTICS FOR FEBRUARY.
TWIN SCREW DIRIGIBLE OF CAPT. BALDWIN.
On February 8th the Secretary of War approved the recommendation of the Board of Ordnance and Fortification and award has already been made for three flying machines of the aeroplane type, as follows: J. F\ Scott, of Chicago, price,
$1,000, time of delivery, 185 days; A. M. Herring, of New York, price $20,000, time of delivery, 180 days; Wright Brothers, of Dayton, Ohio, price, $25,000, time of delivery, 200 days.
On February 15th proposals for dirigible balloons of two-passenger size were opened. Eleven proposals were received. Award has been made to Captain Thos. F. Baldwin, of New York, price, $6,750; time of delivery, 150 days.
The length of the envelope will be 84 feet, diameter 16 feet, capacity 17,000 cubic feet). The frame of rectangular cross section, will be 65 feet long. The motor will be a specially designed Curtiss, 30 horsepower, 4 cycle, 4 cylinder
THE TWIN SCREW IN FLIGHT AT HAMMONDSPORT.
(vertical), water cooled, with Magneto ignition, cast-iron cylinders, copper-jacketed. The crank case will be of aluminum and McAdamite; shaft 4-throw, hollow Vanadium steel. The bearings are Parsons "white brass." The weight is estimated approximately at 200 pounds. Enough fuel will be carried for a flight of two hours. The feature of the ship will be the double propellers.
The Signal Corps balloon detachment was transferred from Fort Wood to Fort Myer during the month, and is now engaged in overhauling and repairing all Signal Corps aeronautical equipment at the balloon house at Fort Myer, under the direction of Lieut. F. P. Lahm of the Signal Corps.
During February there has been a lull in the flying at Issy. The Pischoft machine has not been out since the first few flights. At the time it seemed to have too little stability. However, the aviator was able to accomplish jumps of 30, 40 and 80 metres. The first week in February he experimented with his aeroplane and met with rather a serious setback. He was speeding at a moderate pace and his apparatus was about to rise when a wheel fell off and rolled away. The machine turned completely over and sustained considerable damage. It will be repaired as fast as possible.
On February 3rd Delegrange practiced with his new machine, No. 2, at Bagatelle. While traveling at a rapid rate on the ground one of the propeller blades snapped off and cracked the crank case. A feature of the machine is the tubular radiator carried in front of the main supporting surfaces and immediately ahead of the aviator, while the motor is at his back with the propeller behind that. No damage was done to the aeroplane.
The Gastambide-Mengin monoplane made its first trial on the 8th. The machine had risen about 5 metres and progressed horizontally about as far when it started to
THE PISCHOFF AEROPLANE.
capsize. The driver, Boyer, saw the movement and shut off the power just in time.
On the 12th it was again brought out and made short runs in the Bois de Boulogne. The machine seemed to behave very well. At the first trial it made a distance of 60 metres at a height of 6 metres. To avoid a clump of bushes a quick turn was given the rudder and the machine came down. One wheel struck an obstruction and the machine turned over. M. Boyer, the aviator, was uninjured. Considerable damage was
done. The general impression concerning the Gastambide aeroplane is that a similar accident will happen regularly as long as the constructors refuse to fit a horizontal rudder or headpiece, whereby the height and angle of the machine may be controlled when in the air. With the aeroplane, as it was yesterday, once the ground has been left the only means possessed by the driver to control the upward and downward movement is the motor.
The Farman Xo. r has been re-covered with '■Continental" rubber-silk. An air-cooled Renault motor has taken the place of the Antoinette heretofore used.
Pelteric is building another monoplane, to be ready in six weeks. The motor will, of course, be the R. E. P.—7 cylinders. 35 horsepower, 52 kilograms weight. In the
THE GASTAMBIDE—MENGIN IN FLIGHT.
No. 1 machine the lateral equilibrium was very good. In the No. 2 he has sought to improve the longitudinal stability, so that it will not dive. In the first machine he accomplished fully 50 flights inside of two months.
THE FARMAN II.
THE FARMAN II, "FLYING FISH.
The Farman No. 2, of a modified Langley type, is in course of construction. It has five pairs of wings, three in front and two in the rear on each side of the fusiform
body, at different levels. The body is 14 metres long, the spread of the planes in front 6.25 metres, that is, the total width of the machine across the front surfaces. The rear planes measure 4.7 metres across.
The rear plane pivots about a transverse axis passing through the center of pressure and acts as a horizontal rudder. There is also a vertical plane in the extreme
rear. The total surface is about 45 square metres, and the approximate weight 600 kilograms. The screw has a diameter of 2.5 metres and is actuated by a 35-horsepower Renault Motor. The whole is mounted on a three-wheeled chassis. The exact dimensions are not available.
A flying machine modelled on the principle of the natural flight of certain birds, such as the woodcock, the skylark and the humming bird, whose ascent from the ground is perpendicular, is the latest thing in English aeronautics. For thirty years the inventor has been studying the flight of birds, and even winged insects, in different parts of the country, and in all manner of circumstances. He has christened his invention "The Aeroway." It consists of a wheel called a "feathering propeller," capable of making many thousands of revolutions a minute the circumference of which is fitted with fans, which open and shut as the wheel revolves.
"My wheel," says the inventor, "does in the air what the paddle wheel does in the water—and more. I have discovered that no bird or insect can raise itself perpendicularly by the power that is derived solely from the wings striking the air. When a bird ascends perpendicularly the action of the wings creates a partial vacuum or suction above its body and an upward compressed air movement underneath. On that discovery my wheel is modelled. It continuously collects and carries the air by vanes or blades about seven feet wide over onedialf the circumference and compresses the air by the plane contracting to about two inches over the other half. Thus l secure for my flying machine more than double the lifting power of the bird, whose wings must necessarily follow a reciprocating movement. When an inventor has conquered the problem of perpendicular flight—and I believe I have—he has conquered all, for mere gliding horizontally in the air is a secondary matter when the machine is well up from the ground."—Boston Transcript.
AERONAUTIC RECORDS. Aerostation.
FREE BALLOONS. World's Distance Record.—1,193 miles, made by Counts Henry de la Vaulx and Castillion de Saint Victor, Vincennes, France, to Korostychew, Russia, in 35^4 hours, Oct. 9-11, 1900.
U. S. Distance Record (Second Best in the World).—S72% miles, made by Oscar Erbsloh and H. II. Clayton, St. Louis, Mo., to Asbury Park, N. J., in 40 hours, Oct. 2123, 1907.
World's Duration Record.—52 hours,* made by Drs. Kurt and Alfred Wegener April 5-7, 1906. Reinickendorf, near Berlin, Germany, to the north of Denmark and back to Laufach, Germany, 708 miles by path, 249 miles in airline between points.
U. S. Duration Record (Second Best in the World).—44 hours, made by Alfred Leblanc and E. W. Mix, St. Louis, Mo., to Herbertsville, N. J., 867 miles, Oct. 21-23, 1907.
World's Altitude Record.—37,000 feet, claimed by James Glaisher, Sept. 5, 1862. This, however, is doubted, and the record acceded to Professors Berson and Siiring of the Berliner V. f. L., who readied an altitude of 34,000 feet.
World's Distance Record.—211.36 miles,* made by the "Zeppelin 111" Sept. 30, 1907, flight lasting 7 hours, starting from and returning to Manzell on Lake Constance.
World's Speed Record.—30.22 miles per hour, attained in above flight.
World's Duration Record.—8 hours 13 minutes, made by "La Ville de Paris" on trip from Paris to Verdun Jan. 15, 1908. The corrected distance travelled, 161.56 miles.
VILLE DE PARIS.
The total length of the ascension was 9 hours 38 minutes. To obtain the time during which the airship was in forward motion, deduct 67 minutes covering ascending and
descending manoeuvres from the S hours 13 minutes, leaving 7 hours 6 minutes. Speed per hour based on the latter time is 22.75 miles.
The previous duration record without pause was S hours 10 minutes, made by the "Gross-Bazenoch" Oct. 28, 1907. The "Parseval" on the same day made an ascension lasting 7 hours 30 minutes, from which is to be deducted 1 hour 5 minutes for two stops, leaving actual time in motion 6 hours 25 minutes.
-- . }
THE 1906 PARSEVAL.
The French record for distance and duration wit hunt stop is held by "La Patrie" on account of trip from Chalais to Verdun on Nov. 23, 1907, 146.64 miles in 6 hours 45 minutes. The speed recorded in this flight, 21.195 miles per hour.
World's Altitude Record.—4,510 feet, made by "Lebaudy" on Nov. 10, 1905.
LA PATRIE. Aviation.
World's Distance and Duration Record.—24 1/5 miles* in 38 min. 3 sec, made by Wright Bros., Dayton, O.. Oct. 5, 1905. in an aeroplane. The next best record is that of Henry Farman, whose flight of 1 kilometre (.62137 mile), in a circle, in t min. 28 sees., won the Deutsch-Archdeacon $10,000 prize on Jan. 13, 1908.
The figures starred (*) are not "official" in that the flights have not been made tinder the control of any club belonging to the F. A. 1.
GORDON BENNETT, 1908.
Twenty-three entries, representing eight nations, have been received by the D. L. V. in the G-B race from Tegel on Oct. it. The United States, Germany, Belgium, England, France, Italy and Spain three balloons each; Switzerland two.
INFLATING, GORDON BENNETT ST. LOUIS.
This will be the first time that the Swiss club has entered an international race. The English representatives will be John Dunville, Prof. A. K. Huntington and the Hon. C. S. Rolls. Belgium has entered the "Belgien," 1680 cu. 111. (pilot, Al. Demoor); and the "Ville de Bruxelles," 2200 cu. m. (pilot, M. Leon de Brouckere). The third champion will probably be named by the Aero Club des Flandres, an affiliated club of the Aero Club de Belgique. The "Belgica" will be a new balloon from the Mallet atelier.
READY TO START, CROWD LOOKING AT PROF. ROTCH'S PILOT
As it is impossible to inflate twenty-three balloons at Tegel, either the balloons will have to be started on following days or else started from various nearby cities. A communication has been forwarded the Deutscher Luftschiffer Verband by the Aero Club of America to the effect that America will be pleased to have the race at St. Louis again this year. This is entirely possible under the rules, for, if a winning club cannot hold the contest the following year, it reverts to the previous holding club to handle the race.
An aviation contest will be held at Spa, Belgium, on the three Sundays, Jul}' 9, 16 and 23, at the Sanveniere race course, which is 2300 meters around. The first ten dates are for speed trials. A kilometer circuit is the trial for the first day, a figure eight on the second and for the third day a large prize is offered for the ten times circling of
the track, or 23 kilometers. The total of prizes amounts to $15,000. The expenses of the aviators will be paid.
Aviation at Dieppe.
It is possible that aviation contests will be held at Dieppe at the time of the Grand Prix automobile race. Several of the aviators have visited the neighborhood and looked over the ground.
If the Dieppe contest is arranged there may be a race between Pelterie and Farman. Pelterie has taken up Farman's challenge and will race under any conditions the latter may name. Both are building new machines.
Munich Exposition, May 1, 1908, to May 1, 1909.
An international aeronautic contest will be held during this year at Munich. A prize of $2,500 will be given to the aviator who is able to stay in the air 10 minutes over a specified place, about 500 by 1000 meters in size, and be able to land by himself at the end of that time. Entries must have been received by March 1st, accompanied by a description of the apparatus or photograph, and fee of $50.
There will also be a model exhibition. The carrying surface of the models will have to be at least 1 sq. meter and not more than 2 sq. meters at the most. The total weight of the model must be at least (not more than?) 5 kg. per sq. m. of surface. There is no limit of weight for the motor driven models. The tests will take place in a convenient place selected by the Committee. To be considered worthy of a prize, models will have to cover at least 15 m. in a line from the starting point, which will be 2 m. above the ground. Three trials may be made. The competitors must be willing to exhibit their models to the public. Those machines which do not come within the specifications will not be barred from making public demonstrations, however.
Flying Machine Competition at Vichy.
It is likely that plans for a competition at Vichy during the Summer will be arranged. The Automobile Club has offered a prize of $4,000 to the winner, in addition to which, every aviator completing the course will receive $200. A Committee of the Ae. C. F., Messrs. Pelterie, Archdeacon and Farman, visited Vichy and found that though the race track would not be .suitable there was an admirable large field on Avhich a couse 500 meters in length could be laid out. The Ae. C. F. was asked to arrange the program. Lcs Sports will also offer a commemorative medal to the winner.
First American Aviation Bet.
On March 2, Otto Luyties, of Baltimore, bet Wilbur R. Kimball, New York, $100 that he (Mr. Luyties) will lift his helicoptere into the air four weeks before Mr. Kimball. It is understood that the machines must be lifted into the air at least 10 feet, or fly through the air any distance above the earth, for at least 50 feet. Each bettor must operate his own machine in the trial. The checks were deposited with Captain Thos. S. Baldwin.
Both Messrs. Kimball and Luyties are staunch supporters of the type helicoptere and will shortly have their machines ready for trial.
Junior Aero Club of the U. S.—Triaca Model Prize.
On Washington's Birthday a kite flying competition was held at Fort George, at the northern end of Manhattan Island. Many members of the Aero Club of America were present to watch the boys and to assist them with advice and aid in operation.
Messrs. Kimball and Triaca addressed the boys at the Y. M. C. A. on 23rd Street on February 29th.
Albert C. Triaca, Director of the International Aeronautic School recently established in New York, has offered a prize of $100 to the model which shows the greatest merit at a competition during the Summer. The models may be with or without motors. The competition is open to members of the Club and the Aeronautic School without fee. To others the entrance fee will be $1.00.
German Military Aeroplane.
An aeroplane is under construction along the plans of Professor Suering of the Prussian Meteorological Institute and 011 completion, which will be in the near future, will be tried out at Tegel.
Lieutenant Coanda, of the Prussian army, is credited with having constructed an aeroplane with which he has made sensational secret flights recently.
Toboggan-Flying Machine, a New Winter Sport.
Mrs. Carl E. Myers, wife of Carl E. Myers of the "Balloon Farm'' at Frankfort, N. Y., has designed and experimented with a "toboggan-flying machine" which attains initial speed by gliding swiftly down a steep icy slope, ending in an abrupt rise at
the bottom, flinging the craft upward, at which moment the changing angle and air resistance together extend folded aeroplane wings on each side. It first soars under the impulse or momentum and then falls by gravity a long distance down the slope to a safe ending slide on the crust of the snow.
The toboggan has automatic equilibrium, or is so balanced by the rider's weight that any disposition to capsize is self-adjusted by the counter-balancing wings and by movements of the reclining body, or of any member, that by a sort of mechanical instinct it recovers position instantly, like a gliding skater on ice.
Based on this machine, Mr. Myers has arranged to build a power propelled machine. With a 2-cyl., 7-h.p. motor of 150 lbs. weight he has succeeded in obtaining a thrust of 66 lbs., which implies self support of its motive power in a vertical effort.
Aeronautic "Trust" in France.
On January 20 a meeting was held at the Automobile Club of France to discuss the advisability of combining the aeronautic trades in an association. At the second meeting on January 29th, the "Syndicate of the Aeronautical Industries" was formed. The four divisions at present are: manufacturers of flying machines; manufacturers of airships; trades connected with the manufacture of engines, propellers, etc.; the allied trades connected with the manufacture of material applicable to aeronautics. The object is to advance the industrial side and to hold competitions for light motors. It corresponds closely to our own Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers. For the year 190S the following officers have been elected:
President, Marquis Albert de Dion; Vice-Presidents, Maurice Mallet, Louis Godard, Louis Bleriot; Secretary, George Besaneon; Recording Secretary, M. Chauviere; Treasurer, R. E. Peltcrie.
A Military Dirigible for Russia
To be built by the Signal Corps from their own designs entirely of Russian material. It is expected to be completed by September. It will carry five passengers.
Wild Dirigible Afire in Mid-Air.
Lincoln Beachy and Horace Wild have been at the Jacksonville Exposition during February. Beachy made several good flights and Wild, one. On Wild's second flight, at the height of a hundred feet, gasoline leaking from the connecting hose caught fire. Wild quickly started the ship to the ground and tried to hold the bag away from the flames. He reached the ground safely but the bag was completely consumed.
Larger Dirigible for the French Army.
The French War Office has requested Messrs. Lebatidy to prepare plans and construct a larger dirigible than they have heretofore built. The length is to be too meters, diameter 11.5 meters, capacity 7000 to 8000 cubic meters. Two lifting screws are said to be intended for the purpose of obtaining special stability and forward motion will be caused by two screws each having its 120-horscpower motor. The speed estimated is 60 kilometers an hour. The Patrie was only 82 meters long and 10.3 meters in diameter.
The Lesson of La Patrie.
The disappearance of Patrie has caused discussion of means for the securing of dirigibles. Captain Ferber has said in AcropliUe that it is very important that something should be done for the fastening of dirigibles, such as the sailors use in anchoring their ships. An anchor is cast whose chain is tied to the bow of the ship, allowing the boat to have always its nose into the wind and tide, which position presents the least possible surface to currents. The boat swings and it is quite important that the dirigible be allowed to swing also. Moreover, there is another danger of which sailors are afraid. When they are too near the coast at anchor the oblique action of the chain would cause the boat to touch the bottom with the up-and-down motion of the waves. A dirigible, held by one anchor, whatever the length of the rope may be, would always bounce on the ground. Captain Ferber suggests that it should be tied to an aerial buoy high enough so it could not touch the ground. The buoy should be light enough to be carried by the dirigible and made of a cone of silk, the same as used in balloons, of 7 or 8 meters high by 2 meters in diameter at the bottom. This would be inflated at the time of landing by means of the ventilator of the airship. The top of the cone would have a steel circle on which would slide the rope from the dirigible. The cone might have three ropes to attach it firmly to the ground. The cost, it is estimated, would not be over $200 and by being provided with such an arrangement it would be certain that the aerial vessels would not be at the mercy of the wind.
It will be remembered, that when Patrie broke away it jumped up and down on the ground by the force of the wind and it was impossible to reach the valve for fear of being struck by the straining framework.
Hydrogen at the Cost of Coal Gas.
A new sensation is at this moment exciting aeronauts. It is nothing less than the possibility of utilizing hydrogen in place of illuminating gas. A newly formed company is to erect a plant adjacent to the Aero Club's park at St. Cloud and supply the hydrogen at 20 centimes (4 cents) a cubic meter. Compressed in tubes it will be sold at 10 cents a cubic meter. The company will have a monopol}- for France. The plant will be finished by the 15th of June.
The Pyrenees Cup of M. Deutsch.
On January 22, 1906, Fernando Duro won the cup offered by Baron Deutsch de la Meurthe. If not won again within two years it was to have become his property. The trip was made from Pau in the balloon Cicrzo, of 1600 cu. m., at 4 o'clock in the afternoon. At midnight the aeronaut was over Madrid and at 6 in the morning of the 23rd the landing was made at Gaudix just apposite the Sierra Nevada range on the shore of the Mediterranean. It would have been perilous to have attempted to cross this range with the sea on the other side. Unfortunately, M. Duro is not to receive the cup in his actual possession for he died of fever on August 9, 1906. The cup will be held by the Royal Aero Club of Spain which now has his other trophies.
Transatlantic Balloon Voyage.
Jacques Fame, a prominent French aeronaut, is planning to cross the ocean in a balloon, starting from New York, and is looking for financial backing. He thinks that an aeronaut would find a steady air current at a moderate height which would give an average speed of sixty miles an hour. M. Faure has made nearly 200 ascensions.
"Federation of American Aero Clubs" to promote aeronautics; incorporators, C. A. Coey, M. M. Bear, C. E. Gregory.
"Hot Springs Airship Co.," capital $50,000, of which $7,900 is claimed to have been subscribed; incorporators. Dr. \Y. H. Connell, W. J. AVestmoreland and Joe T. Rice. The company intends to construct an airship after the model patented by Rice.
Germany's Aerial Fleet.
It is freely asserted in Germany that England is far behind in the race for aerial supremacy, and the comments made here on Nnlli Secundns and her achievements are the reverse of flattering. German}- is applying herself to the question of aerial warfare with the keenest interest.
At present the German War Office possesses one airship, constructed by Major Gross, which has a capacity of about 2000 cubic meters. Another airship of the same type, but embodying such improvements as appear desirable in the light of the practical experience gained by experiments made with the present type, is now being constructed at the military ballooning works at Tegcl, near Berlin. The capacity of the new airship will be about 5000 cubic meters, and it will be provided with two motors, each of which will develop 75 h.p. This airship will be ready for active service in April or May, The work of construction is conducted with great secrecy, and no strangers are allowed to approach the shed in which it is concealed. Another airship is being constructed for the German War Office by Messrs. Siemens and Schuckert at their works in Berlin. The cubic capacity of this airship will be about 3000 cubic meters, and it will also be fitted with two motors.
The military authorities also intend to purchase Count Zeppelin's present airship, as well as the one which he is now constructing on the shores of Lake Constance. The Budget Committee of the Reichstag has just votd a sum of ¿100.000 as a donation to Count Zeppelin, in recognition ot his eminent services to the Fatherland, rendered by the invention and construction of his airship, and this proof of official approval and support will be followed by the purchase of the two Zeppelin navigable balloons. The decision to purchase them has not yet been officially made known, and the military authorities will, if course, inspect the new airship before taking it over; but these measures are regarded as mere formalities.
The present Zeppelin airship has a capacity of about 12,000 cubic meters, and the new Zeppelin airship will have a capacity of about 16,000 cubic meters. The new airship will be supplied with two motors, each developing 85-h.p., and it is expected that it will attain a speed of 50 kilometers an hour. These two airships, together with the two now being constructed at Berlin and Tegel respectively, and the one already in use, will form the nucleus of Germany's aerial fleet. German experts are somewhat reserved in expressing opinions regarding the possibility of dropping explosives from airships, but there is a general tendency to believe that the difficulties which now present themselves in this respect will be removed as improvements are made in the construction of airships and as more experience is gained in using them for military purposes. Meanwhile, it is freely acknowledged that they will be extremely valuable for purposes of obser-
vation, especially as wireless telegraphy apparatus can be carried on board without difficulty or inconvenience. London Standard, Feb. 10.
The Brothers Wright and the Powers.
"In the course of paying a tribute recently to the successful flight of Mr. Henry Farman, the war correspondent of our contemporary the "Daily Telegraph," incidentally makes an interesting statement with regard to the nature of the negotiations between the Brothers Wright and our War Office. According to this authority, they offered to build a machine for ¿5,000 or £10,000 capable of flying 200 hundred miles at 40 or 60 miles an hour. The offer was conditional, however, upon a subsequent contract being entered into to the effect that a sum of about ¿100,000 should be paid to the Brothers Vright for teaching a British officer to fly the machine after they had satisfactorily demonstrated its powers. They declined to sell either the exclusive rights or to build flying machines at a price even with a guaranteed quantity order. Not unnaturally, our War Office were unable to entertain the suggestion, and as it seems that the Brothers Wright put similar proposals before other Governments, it is not altogether surprising that these pioneers should have been left somewhat out in the cold.
"If the Brothers Wright have done everything that they claim to have accomplished,
they should know a good deal more about flight than any one living. Incidentally they should have gained a very fair idea as to whether anyone else—Mr. Henry Farman, for instance—is likely to very soon arrive at their own degree of perfection, in which case they must surely see the danger of being entirely supplanted if they delay in substantiating their claims any longer. If their 'secret' is so utterly unassailable —as their confidence in it seems to suggest— it is not altogether unreasonable to suppose that flying by their method may be altogether too difficult an art to be worth acquiring at any price, so that if some other intrepid experimenter can only solve the problem in a simpler way, so much the better for the general progress of aeronautics.
"It is, of course, only right that success should meet with proportionate material reward, but 011 the whole we knoiv of no more satisfactory or generous method of recompense than that which obtains from the institution of valuable prizes by wealthy patrons of the sport. There is a deftnite-ncss about such competitions which is encouraging to the pioneer. He knows exactly what he has to do, and when he is successful he pockets a lump sum at once. Inventors, unfortunately, have a habit of looking upon their ideas as potential millions, and are often aggrieved when business men. who may possibly agree with them, demur at paying so much cash down for mere possibilities of the fu-.ture. It should still not be too late for the Brothers Wright to make a substantial profit from their experience and to incidentally contribute in a somewhat more definite manner than they have done at present, their quota to the progress of science. If, on the other hand, they are determined to remain obdurate and not deal in a reasonable manner, we can only hope that the world will speedily show that it can get on very well without them."—Automotor Journal, England.
A CARICATURE OF FARMAN, BY MICH.
Lecture on Aeronautics at N. Y. Electrical Society.
At the 274th meeting on February 28th, Augustus Post, Vice President of the Society, assisted by Albert C. Triaca and Wilbur Kimball, gave an illustrated lecture on "Navigating the Air."
The lecture comprised a description of the latest developments in the field of aeronautics, and each stage of his address was graphically illustrated with lantern slides and with moving pictures of some of the most noteworthy gatherings and performances in recent days. A large number of the photographs and lantern slides were kindly loaned by the International School of Aeronautics established by Mr. Triaca. Perhaps the most interesting illustration was a motion picture of the Farman machine
in flight. Models, apparatus and instruments used in air navigation were exhibited, and the method of inflating a balloon was demonstrated with a complete model balloon from the Aeronautic School.
The lecture was divided into: I. Balloons, captive and free.—IT. Airships, or balloons with motor.—III. Aeroplanes, or heavier than air flying machines. Kites.—IV. Helicopters, or direct-lift machines, without either gas bag or plane surfaces.—V. Orni-thopters; bird-like, flapping, wing machines.—VI. Light Motors.
The lecture was most interestingly instructive. Other lectures on the same topic will be given before the Signal Corps on Governor's Island, Pratt Institute and the Explorers' Club.
Aero Club of France.
The Ae. C. F. will move into its new quarters, 63 Champs Elysee, in April. The next balloon contests will be held May 16 and June 11.
Engineer Colliex who drew the plans for the Farman aeroplane was given a souvenir consisting of a gold medal, designed by the sculptor Leon Uelagrange. M. Colliex is chief of the technical staff of the Voisin Frères who built the machine.
The Aero Club of France has accepted for 1908, affiliation with the following societies: Académie Aéronautique (Paris), Aéro Club de Nice et de Provence (Xice), Aéro Club du Nord (Roubaix), Aéro Club du Rhône et du Sud-Est (Lyon), Aéro Club du Sud-Ouest (Bordeaux), Aéronautique Club (Paris), Club Aéronautique de l'Aube (Troyes), Société Française de Navigation Aérienne (Paris).
The Club, at the instigation of M. Archdeacon, has offered a prize of 500 francs for an instrument to indicate the position of a flying machine witli respect to the horizontal during flights. The competition is open to Dec. 31, 1908.
Such an instrument must, of course, indicate changes quickly, be unaffected by external influences and capable of being easily and accurately read. A level of this nature was constructed in England. It consisted of a globule of mercury in a shallow dish, calibrated by concentric circles denoting degrees of tilt.
On February 6, Emile Dubonnet, Comte JeanRecope and Bob Valentin, travelled in the Condor from the park of the Aero Club of France to Arcachon, 323.11 miles, in 8 hours, a very good average of 40.4 miles per hour. Landing was necessary on account of the ocean.
Airships Past and Present, by Captain A. Hildebrandt; translated by \V. H. Story (D, Van Nostrand Co., 33 Murray St., New York; $3.50).
A resume of aeronautic operations, embracing all branches of the science from mythological history up to the present day, has been dealt with in a masterly manner by Captain Hildebrandt, of the Prussian Balloon Corps, and the excellent translation into English is by Mr. W. H. Story. An interesting feature of the volume is the unique collection of photographs, which the author has compiled from various sources, and taken himself. Five chapters are devoted to the art of balloon photography, and expert advice as to the most suitable camera, lens, plates, etc., is given, together witli the author's experiences. ՠChapter 14 is very interesting, as, under the heading of "Scientific Ballooning," it presents the reader witli accounts of physical and mental effects produced upon the human being at great altitudes. Four chapters pertaining to military ballooning form, perhaps, the most important features of the volume, the episodes during" the Franco-Prussian war being especially entertaining. Thrilling descriptions of hazardous descents in parachutes are treated upon, and the photographs illustrating these descents are of a distinctly exciting nature. The work accomplished in connection with aerial flight by such men as Santos-Dumont, Count Zeppelin, and Lebaudy, is also gone into fully by the author. Finally, although technically complete, a romantic vein runs through every chapter of this instructive book, which will appeal especially to the amateur reader. _
The first week in February, there was held a conference at London between delegates from the Aero Club of France, the Aero Club of the United Kingdom and the Junior Institution of Civil Engineers. As delegates from France, M. Juilliot represented the aeronauts, Captain Ferber the aviators and Count de la Vatilx aeronautics in general. A dinner was given in their honor by the A. C. of the U. K.
Five hundred and fifty dirigible flights were made in America during 1907 at the various fairs and expositions. This is more than made by Patrie, Ville de Paris, Gross-Bazenoch, Nulli Sccundus and the others combined.
Maurice Mallet, the balloon constructor, with Count de la Vaulx and others, has formed a "Societe Anonyme" to build dirigibles. The concern will not build new types, but only along the lines of the successful ones now in existence.
Major Moedebeck is getting up an aeronautic map of Germany, showing high tension electric wires, high church steeples, iron and steel foundries, points with favorable facilities for landing in balloons and airships, etc.
Bellamy in England tried his machine the first week in February. The machine ran along the ground for a short distance, but something gave way, and the trial was brought to a termination.
Voisin Brothers, the manufacturers of the Farman aeroplane, have received an order to construct a machine for the Chevalier Florio.
The Automobile Club of France has decided to take official cognizance of aero matters, and an aviation section is about to be inaugurated. The Automobile Club will work in harmony with the Aero Club, the latter to conduct trials ami contests and the former to take up principally the improvement of light motors.
The Gross-Bazenoch military dirigible during the short time of its existence has made over 60 ascensions.
After the thirty-sixth ascension of the "Ville de Paris," the end of January, it was deflated, and the hydrogen gas utilized for free balloon ascents. An admirable technical description, with drawings, of the "Ville de Paris," is given in the February 1st Aerophile.
A society has been formed at Savigliano with a capital of $15,000 to build and experiment with a new aeroplane invented by a young engineer, Giovonni Fuseri, of Savigliano, Italy.
The Fabbrica Italiano Aerostati-Milano has been formed with a capital of $25,000 at 51 Via Gaetano Donizetti. Constructors of balloons, dirigibles and other aero material. Manufacturer of the dirigible "Frassinctti" with aerodrome and hangar for dirigibles.
Captain Ferber in an address before the Société Française de Navigation Aérienne, said he had great confidence in the ultimate development of aviation. He said, among other things, "that he expected that the flying-machine of 1910 would travel 180 miles an hour."
A duplicate of the Farman machine may be had for $6000, and the machine which won the Deutsch-Archdeacon has been quoted at $8000.
On February 4, the German military dirigible made a sensational trip in a snowstorm and the officers in charge had to make a landing in open country. The balloon struck a thatch roof and carried it away. The country people succeeded finally in getting hold of it and rescued the aeronauts. The balloon did not suffer any damage.
A successful cross-channel trip was made on Feb. 8, by Capt. Grubb and Griffith Brewer, of the. A. C. U. K., in the Melotis II from the Short balloon factory to Etaples, France.
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A. V. Roe is working on his aeroplane at Brooklands Motordome and Griffith Brewer is expected out any day.
Mr. Carl E. Myers has taken exception to an item published last month relating to a new machine for the varnishing of balloon cloth and the making of nets. He-states: "I have been producing such fabric exclusively for thirty years, at first pri-
vately, and later under basic patents to me. covering varnishing machinery, process and 'new article of manufacture.' ****The U. S. Net and Twine Company, of New York, has been producing square and diamond mesh nets by the mile with machinery for years and 1 produce a two-man airship net or spherical balloon net, tit complete, in thirty hours from start to finish by an easy system in use twenty years."
A discovery of rutile is reported by Consul F. YY. Coding, from Queensland, Australia. Hitherto rutile has had no commercial value, but it is now used in the construction of aeroplanes. The advent of flying machines driven by gasoline motors that run at very high speed has proved that bearings and axles of ordinary metals submitted to speeds of 2.500 to 3,000 R. P. M. wear so rapidly and heat so quickly that the necessity has arisen for some metal to stand the strain and velocity without wearing or heating, and this has been found in the metal titanium, of which rutile is the purest ore.
Rutile is a titanium dioxide, containing from 70 to 98 per cent, of titanic acid, chiefly depending on the quantity of iron present. Pure rutile contains 98 per cent, of titanic acid and 2 per cent, of iron, when the mineral is a crystalline substance resembling sealing wax. The examples found in Queensland contain 70 per cent, and resemble wolfram, having a lustrous fracture and being uneven in the grain. The specific gravity of rutile is 4.2; it cannot be scratched with a knife, but can be marked with a quartz crystal. The mineral occurs with wolfram and tin. running in veins through cptartz and quartzite from a mere streak to large bunches, and is worth four times the price of wolfram at the present time.—Scientific American.
Leon Bollee, the well-known automobile manufacturer, is reported to be engaged in the construction of a flying-machine at Le Mans. The Clement-Bayard Company are also said to have an order for one for a Russian sportsman.
The engineer, E. Delavey, director of the aeronautic establishment of Louis Godard, left Paris the last day of January to go to Rio Janeiro to install the military captive balloon outfit which left Paris in December. The apparatus consists of a gas generator, compressor, steel tubes, carriage for transportation, windlass, baggage wagon and various parts which go to make up a military plant and comprises the new hot-air balloons with an arrangement permitting ascensions of several hours with this type.
Making his usual forecast of the things near at hand in the scientific world, Nikola Tesla, thus pays his respects to aerialism: "The coming year will dispel an error which has greatly retarded the progress of aerial navigation. The aeronaut will soon satisfy himself that an aeroplane proportioned according to data obtained by Langley is altogether too heavy to soar, and that such a machine, while it will have some uses, can never fly as fast as a dirigible balloon. Once this is fully recognized the expert will concentrate his efforts on the latter type, and before many months are passed it will be a familiar object in the sky."—Motor Print.
Another garage is being built for the French Government dirigible "Démocratie," at Epinal in the East of France. The airship will probably be read}- in the Fall. The ""République" will be ready for trial by May. It will be sent to Toul.
After visiting the autodrome of Brooklands, near London, in anticipation of securing a suitable place for attempts on the Daily Mail $5,ooo-mile-flight, Farman returned to Paris without accomplishing his purpose. No place seemed available that would be suitable.
Bleriot is building two new aeroplanes. The apparatus experimented with previously at Issy was 7 m. long. The length has been doubled for the two new machines. The forepart of the new ones is rectangular and the rear part triangular. A ifi-cyl., 50-horsepower motor will be used.
During 1907, The Aero Club du Nord made 19 ascensions, of which 7 were ladies. Sixty passengers were carried. The number of members wre doubled.
M. Balocco. of the Itala automobile works, is building a motor for the aeroplane of Henri Founder, the famous automobile driver. It wilTbe 8 cyl.. V, air cooled, of a weight of 2 kg. per h.p. Founder states "it will be real horsepower" and can be regulated as well as an automobile motor. A small model has already been constructed and Rheims & Auscher. the automobile body builders, will carry out the plans. It is of the monoplane type and will be ready in July.
It is predicted that ballooning will be the great sport of the future, and just as soon as the public mind can be disabused of the notion that the pastime is dangerous. Few persons ever get hurt in ballooning. They never know what happened to 'em.
At the balloon contests at Bordeaux, the week of February 16-23, nine balloons were started in the race for an objective point. There was no wind and all came down again on the outskirts of the town when it was seen to be impossible to accomplish the desired result. The "Malgrc-Nous" of M. Wawack, through inattention during inflation, was bursted by the pressure of the gas going into the silk bag. The men were interested in seeing the first balloon off and did not watch the pressure valve. The rent was made through a section of the silk itself and not at a seam or at the ripping panel.
Captain Baldwin has sold the 1907 California Arrow to William Mattery. While being made ready for an ascent at Louisville someone decided to shoot up the show and the event was indefinitely postponed.
William E. McKenna writes a daily paper as follows:
Permit me to call attention to an infringement of vested rights which is becoming more and more frequent.
"Even the air is not free," says Sir Frederick Pollock in "The Land Laws," "for the maxim is that the owner of the sod is owner up to the height above and down to the depth beneath. I conceive it is indisputable that to pass over land in a balloon at whatever height without the owner's or occupant's license is technically a trespass."
Do the aeronauts realize this when they recklessly soar over other people's land or, coming down, get themselves tangled up in other people's trees? A technical trespass, perhaps; but great oaks from little acorns grow. Cannot some of your correspondents suggest a remedy? Would it not be well to make the aeronauts pay license of every large city as common carriers, their operators bidding for public patronage by low fares?
A. B. Lambert, member of the City Council of St. Louis and Hon. Secretary of the Aero Club of St. Louis, and one of the most enthusiastic and enterprising automobilists, is now on his way to Paris to take his final instruction in navigating a balloon.
Henry Kapferer is constructing at Montesson a Langley type machine and will experiment at Issy soon. The weight is said to be 400 kg.
According to the London Daily Telegraph, the English army aeroplane now building at Aldershot is progressing rapidly, and in the course of a few weeks may be expected to be taken out for a trial.
Mechanics are working overtime on the "Dirigible II."
Rene Gasnier, one of the champions of Erance in the 1907 Gordon Bennett, is constructing an aeroplane with a 50-h.p. Antoinette motor.
COMMUNICATIONS. Does the United States Want an Airship?
To the Editor:
The question as to what our Government means by inviting bids for building and operating war airships and flying machines is a serious conundrum. It is reported from Washington, Feb. 8th, 1908, that the Government has accepted flying machine bids as follows: among 41 bidders:—J. F. Scott, Chicago, 111., $1,000, time, 185 days, A. M. Herring, New York, $20,000, 180 days, Wright Brothers, Dayton, O., $25,000. 200 days.
This seems very much or very little for a full Hedged flying machine, to carry two men and flit from 36 to 44 miles in one hour, or" die in the act, and forfeit the amount of bid, as prescribed in the specifications. This looks like a hard proposition, but the specifications for dirigible balloons or airships are worse.
Bids for airships were invited in December and opened Jan. 15, 1908; the six bids being as follows:—Carl E. Myers, Frankfort, N. Y., $9,996, time, 120 days; Win. Reiferscheid, Streator, 111., $5,000, 150 days; Charles J. Strobel, Toledo, O., $8,000, 120 days; Harry B. Shiller, Philadelphia, $25,000, 120 days; John Karies, Mount Vernon, N. Y., $10,000 to $30,000, according to speed; E. W. Creacy, Washington, $12,500. 90 days.
All these bids were rejected. Only Carl Myers and C. J. Strobel qualified by accompanying bids by a certified check of 15 per cent, of the proposed price, and only Myers is a professional and commercial constructor of airships.
Revised proposals were invited. Jan. 21st, for bids to be opened Feb. 15, under specifications which differed chiefly in requiring builders to supply their own gas-proof fabrics instead of using government supplies as at first proposed. On these ten bids were as follows:—Shiller, $33,000, 180 days; Rockman, $25,000, 180 days; Bumbaugh & Hei-
niann, $10,000, 250 days; Lnppets, Paris, $20,000, 90 days; Carl E. Myers, $11,994, 120 days; Reiferscheid, $8,000, 150 days; Charles Ellis, $10,000, 110 time stated: T. S. Baldwin, $6,750, 150 days; Peter Cooper Hewitt, $20,000, 260 days; followed later by a bid from G. F. Myer of $6,000, in 100 days.
Here we have bids ranging from $6,000 to $33,000, all on a two-man airship to make from 16 to 24 miles per hour, to be built and delivered at Fort Myer, Va., in from 90 to 250 days, the successful bidder to innate with hydrogen, operate 4 demonstrations, and instruct two officers, all at his own expense, under bond equal to the limit of his bid, for forfeit if inspecting officers reported unfavorably and subject to a reduced award of 15 per cent, of his bid for every mile less than 20 per hour, and bound to furnish a second vessel at award price if approved.
Taking for example the first bid of Carl Myers, amounting to practically $10,000, accompanied by a certified check, for $1,500., assumed to protect the Government, which supplied the gas-proof material for gas bag, of the maximum length specified, 120 feet. When his bid was repeated under revised demand for material to be furnished by bidder, samples of suitable machine-varnished silk of various grades were included, and his bid raised to practically $12,000, or $2,000 for the expensive silk involved necessitated by high import duties.
This estimate by a practical operator of 30 years' experience in the prc.duction of hydrogen-proof fabrics and their manufacturers into airships should be assumed to be a fair representation of value of finished fabric involved. Therefore, the first bid by Reiferscheid at $5,000, when the government supplied the material, compared with his second bid of $8,000, when forced to supply material, is an increase of $3,000, instead of $2,000 as estimated by Myers. The first bid of Schiller, $25,000, compared with his second bid of $33,000 shows the enormous increase of $8,000 for supply of material demanded, assuming that these cases include a mean speed of 20 miles per hour, and a maximum size of 120 feet length specified.
Analyzing another feature of the bids made, the lowest by G. F. Myer. $6,000, and Baldwin. $6,750, it must be remembered that these sums cover all expenses involved. Assuming that such bids be accepted, and the vessel built, conveyed to Fort Myer and tested, with a resultant speed of 16 miles per hour instead of 20, the award would be only 40 per cent, of the proposed 20-mile speed, $2,400 for Myer, or $2,700 for Baldwin, a "lemon" for either, as it would not pay expenses of delivering the goods, inflating and testing, besides instruction of officers, added to the incurred liability to deliver a duplicate vessel should the Government demand a second at the award price after testing.
Witli reference to speed, the best authenticated American airship time was at St. Louis contests, Oct., 1907. As stated in "Aeronautics," Nov., 1907, "The course was laid from a line on the grounds out to and around the Blair Monument and return, three quarters of a mile," 3,960 feet. The same statement was made in the official program. On this scale the best speed was made by Beachey, 10 h.p. second trial, 4 minutes, 40 seconds, equal to 9 2-3 miles per hour; and by Dallas, 10 h.p., third trial, 6 min. 10 sec; and Baldwin, 15 h.p., third trial, 7 min. 5 sec. ''Aeronautics," Jan., 1008, reviews these figures over an estimated course of 6,900 instead of 3.960 feet, with results of:—Beachey, 16.8 miles per hour; Dallas, 12.7 miles; Baldwin, 11.1 miles per hour, this with a one-man airship and 4 cylinder, 15 h.p. Curtiss motor.
The Government specification is for a two-man airship, having greater size and consequent aerial resistance than a one-man vessel. Engineering practice demands squaring the power to double the speed. Airships are built within narrow limits of their buoyancy or load. Applying these principles to the various bids referred to, it will be noted that a low bidder is handicapped by small dimensions, weights, values and expenditure till out-classed and out of the race, or possibly ruined by ruling. The difference between a slow and a speedy vessel is chiefly form, size with reference to carrying power or weight, air resistance or skin friction, and propulsion as adapted to power and shape. The larger and more expensive construction, if simple, has advantages, as its carrying power may increase as the cube of its dimension while its surface weight and resistance may increase only as the square, or in proportion of 8 to 4, enlarged.
Basing calculations upon the maximum dimensions and bid of Carl Myers, at $12,000, and a conservative estimate of 20 miles per hour, with total actual outlay of about $5,100, to produce the vessel complete, the excess above this sum provides for additional expenses of transportation, re-assembling, inflation with hydrogen, operating exhaustive tests, the instruction of officials, various contingencies, and the possibly reduced speed and award. 15 per cent, less for each mile below 20 per hour, or entire rejection if below 16 miles per hour, leaving the "successful" bidder with an ''elephant" war airship on his hands, unfit for ordinary commercial exhibits, or sale, for which purpose $1,300 suffices to create a complete one-man airship outfit and gas generators, as I am now doing for cash.
In the matter of speed alone it is possible to sacrifice main' other advantages, if unrestricted. The Government demands that counterpoising or balancing the airship
shall not he done by waste of gas or ballast, nor by shifting of the aeronaut's position along the boat or car, as is commonly practised. Also special means of compact transportation is favored, and the gas "must require no varnish," but must be of gas tight fabric. All these features are exactly in line with Carl Myers' productions during years past, and not practised by others. His vessel at $12,000 proposed also perfect control of equilibrium and movement, horizontal or vertical, at all times, and continuous adjustment of comparative gravity, in spite of expansion or shrinkage of gas by sun or shade, loss of gas or ballast, or lessened weight through consumption of gasoline or oil by the motor, all of which perturbing causes are met and adjusted by devices which he only is using today, and which add no weight to ordinary appliances of airships, though underlying all future progress of gas airships. The demand for speed is a justifiable one, but the demand for complete control is the only line which a government should especially welcome.
The results of the Government proposals arc vague, and puzzling in the present state of the art, and certainly not inviting. While practical constructors and aeronauts are giving object lessons in public, our Government does not now possess even a one-man airship, or present skill to operate it in competition with professional aeronauts in this or other countries, but it seeks to remedy this defect this year.
Feb. 21, 190S. CARL E. MYERS,
Balloon Farm, Frankfort, X. Y.
AERONAUTIC BOOKS FOR SALE.
This magazine will publish each month a list of such rare and contemporaneous books relating to aeronautics as it is able to secure. If you desire any of those listed, kindly send check with your order for the amount stated. Should the book ordered be sold previous to the receipt of your order, the money will be promptly returned.
History and Practice of Aeronautics (John Wise). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, Phila.,
1850. Very rare.......................................................... 15.00
Travels in The Air (James Glaisher). Illustrated. 8vo., cloth, London, 1871...... 10.00
Flying and No Failure, or Aerial Transit Accomplished More than a Century Ago.
(Rev. Ralph Morris). Very rare reprint on Private Press of London, 1751.. 3.00
My Airships (Santos Dumont). Illustrated. Crown 8vo., cloth.................. 1.40
Travels in Space (Valentine and Tomlinson). Introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim.
Gl plates, Svo., cloth, London. 1902........................................ 2.00
Conquest of the Air (John Alexander). 12mo., cloth, London, 1902................ 2.00
The Dominion of the Air (J. M. Bacon). Story of aerial navigation. Illustrated.
Crown, Svo., cloth, London, n. d............................................ 2.50
Resistance of Air and the Question of Flying (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated.
12mo., 42 pp., paper........................................................85
Flight Velocity (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated. 45 pp., 12mo., paper.............S5
Flying Machines, Past, Present and Future (A. W. Marshall and H. Greenly). Illustrated ..................................................................GO
Paradoxes of Nature and Science (W. Hampson). Illustrated. Two chapters on balloons as airships and bird flight. Svo., cloth, N. Y., 1907................... 1.50
Aerial Navigation (Van Salberda). Translated from the Dutch by Geo. E. Waring,
By Land and Sky (J. M. Bacon). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, London, 1900.......... 2.50
A Balloon Ascension at Midnight (G. E. Hall). Illustrated in color. Limited edition published. Very rare. Svo., paper, San Francisco, 1902................ 2.50
Andree's Balloon Expedition (Lachambre—Machuron). Illustrated. 12mo., cloth,
New York, 1S9S........................................................... 1.00
Parakites (G. Woglom). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, New York, 1S9G.................75
The Problem of Flight (Herbert Chatley, B. Sc.) A new textbook of aerial engineering both aerostation and aviation. Illustrated. Svo., cloth, 1908............ 3.50
Pocket Book of Aeronautics (Maj. H. W. L. Moedeheck). A manual of aviation and
aerostation. Illustrated. Cloth, 49G pages, London, 1907................... 3.25
Ballooning as a Sport (Maj. B. Baden Powell). Illustrated. London, 1907......... 1.10
Navigating the Air (Members Aero Club of America). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, New
York, 1907................................................................ 1.65
L'Omnihus Aerien (Bourget). A musical piece sung by Mile. Flore. Has a
picture of flying omnibus on front. Is extremely rare. Paris, 1S40......... 7.00
Keely and His Discoveries, Aerial Navigation (Mrs. B. Moore'). Svo, cloth,
London, 1S93 ............................................................ 3.00
St. Louis Gordon Bennett race views in an album, full set........................ 3.00
Narrative of the Aseent and First Voyage of the Aerial Steamer (George Aire,
F. A. S., A. L. C, etc.). Paper, 1G pp., ilk, London, 1S43. Rare............. 2.50-
Only American Institute of Aeronautics. Operated 28 years. All sorts of experiments conducted. Instructions and professional advice given. Hydrogen-Tight Balloons and Buoyant Airships, all sizes from smallest models to
largest Captives or long
voyage vessels with or without motors. 150 gas balloons for T\ S. Government. Patent, portable, hydrogen generators, lightest gas and gas works made. Machine-varnished balloon fabrics, hydrogen-proof, acid-proof, weather and spontaneous combustion proof, manufactured exclusively under basic patents for process, fabric, and machine.
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Any kind of gas balloon ascents, captive or free, or airship flights made at any time or place.
Bargains :—4-mau captive balloon outfit, complete with power windlass and gas plant for $1200 cash. New, tested, 7-I1. p., 2-cyl., 1-man airship complete with gas works, $1300, cash. Second-hand airship frame, shaft, 10 ft. propeller and rudder, with or without gas bag and motor. 4-I1. p., 1-cyl. stationary kerosene motor; 2-cyl., 12-h. p. and 2-cyl., 10-h. p.
Gas balloons and airships, bought, sold or exchanged. New i-man gas balloon outfit complete. Address w i t h stamp.
ESPECIALLY DESIGNED FOR AERONAUTICAL PURPOSES.
GREATEST POWER, LEAST WEIGHT CONSISTENT WITH RELIABILITY.
These motors are the result of years experience in designing and construction
of light weight engines.
line for 1908:
2 H. P. single cylinder air cooled, weight 20 lbs. 30 H. P. 8-cylinder V air cooled, weight 150 lbs
3l/2 H. P. single cylinder air cooled, " 35 " 40 H. P. 8-cylinder air cooled V. " 160 "
7 H. P. 2-cylinder V air cooled, " 50 " 50 H. P. 4-cylinder water cooled, " 200 "
15 H. P. 4-cylinder vertical air cooled, " 100 " 100 H. P. 8-cylinder water cooled, " 300 "
20 H. P. 4-cylinder vertical air cooled, " 110"
SEND FOR CATALOGUE N.
G. H. CURTISS MANUFACTURING CO., .... Hammondsport, N. Y.
Balloon Limited on the Over Land Route
and at the junction of the Seabreeze and St. Lawrence Currents on the aerial avenues just above the mountain walled valley of the Ammonoosuc, drop in on your friends at the two great mountain hostelries,
The flount Pleasant and The Hount Washington.
ANDERSON and PRICE, the Landlords
offer you a great Solid Silver Cup to fill from the crystal waters of the mountain springs and from which to drink your own good health which comes to all who drink the pure waters of Bretton Woods.
-2 ASK AERONAUTICS.
ALL WORK GUARANTEED.
Foremost hydrogen balloon and airship manufacturer and operator in America.
CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN Box 78 Madison Square P. O. - New York
AERONAUT LEO STEVENS
THE LEADER OF BALLOON
and AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTION
ALL BALLOONS ABSOLUTE HYDROGEN
and COAL GAS PROOF
ONE TO FIFTY PASSENGERS
THE keen SPORTSMAN of WIDE EXPERIENCE uses a "STEVENS BALLOON."
Varnishing by Improved Electrical process.
ALSO REPRESENTING CARTON &. LaCHAMBRE, LEADING BALLOON BUILDERS OF
Paris, France, two cent stamps for reply.
box 181, MADISON SQUARE. new YORK
AERO & MARINE MOTOR COMPANY
60 pemberton square boston, mass.
44 H. P. (brake test) motor, water cooled, weight 130 lbs., including magneto, oil cups and water. Especially built for aeronautic work.
SEND FOR CATALOG
WE CAN FURNISH COMPLETE
BALLOONS—AIRSHIPS—FLYING MACHINES, HYDROGEN GAS GENERATORS AND AIRSHIP MOTORS
AERONAUTICAL SUPPLY COMPANY,
1650 WESTERN AVENUE, CINCINNATI, OHIO.
Aeroplanes built complete or materials furnished. Steel or aluminum tubing, bamboo, etc. Castings for joining corners. Advice on construction given. Also information relating to past machines or experiments.
J. W. ROSHON, Harrisburg, Pa.
designer and constructor of
BALLOONS, AIR SHIPS AND FLYING MACHINES
Gentleman Airship Operator Wanted.
One who has had experience. Pay largest salary in the country. Half a hundred good engagements. Address quick,
CAPT. T. S. BALDWIN, Box 78, Madison Sq., New York.
2 GRAND BALLOONS 2
The "United States" which won for Lieutenant Lahm the Gordon Bennett Cup and the "America" which covered 848 miles in the International race from St. Louis.
Address, AERONAUT LEO STEVENS, 282 9th Avenue, New York. AMERICAN-LA FRANCE BALLOON CO.
aeronauts and constructors of
SPHERICAL AND DIRIGIBLE GAS BALLOONS
Balloons of Every Description, Silk of Cambric HOT AIR BALLOONS AND PARACHUTES
special wicker baskets made to order in any shape or quantity
THE INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF
108 WEST 49th STREET
TELEPHONE 2515 BRYANT NEW YORK
ALBERT O. TRIACA
PERMANENT TECHNICAL STAFF
COMMISSION ON AEROSTATION LIEUT. COL. GEORGES ESPITALLIER
Vice-President of The Permanent International Commission of Aeronautics
MAURICE MALLET GEORGES BESANCON
Ing.—Aeronaute Editor of L'Aerophile
COMMISSION ON AVIATION LEON LEVAVASSEUR VICTOR TATIN
Inventor of Antoinette Motor Member Institute of France
LUCIEN CHAUVIERE CAPTAIN FERBER
Ing.—Const. Aeroplanes, Hélicoptères Ex. Prof, of Military School of Fontainebleau
PILOTS OF AERO CLUB OF FRANCE ALBERT C. TRIACA ERNEST BARBOTTE CHARLES LEVEE
AVIATOR AERONAUT EXPERT IN THE U S.
LEON DELAGRANGE LEO STEVENS
THREE COURSES 1—Spherical Balloons 2—Dirigibles 3—Aviation
The famous, extra light motor for aeroplanes, hélicoptères, hydroplanes
8—I 6 Cylinder 24—120 H. P.
Farman, the winner of the best public flight in the World, used an Antoinette motor
Engineer :: :: :: Aeronaut The well-known builder — of —
Spherical and Dirigible Balloons
ALBERT C. TRIACA, Selling Agent
Contractor to the French Government
Highest award at the Exhibition of Sports, Paris, 1907
Aeronautical and Scientific Instruments especially made for the U. S.
Aneroids, Barometers, Aluminum and Wood Case Recording Barometers, Watch Barometers