[ HAUPTSEITE ]
Auf dieser Internetseite finden Sie ein Digitalisat der Zeitschrift „American Magazine of Aeronautics“. Die Zeitschrift „Aeronautics“ war in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (USA) das erste kommerzielle Luftfahrt- und Luftsport-Magazin. Die Zeitschrift wurde in englischer Sprache herausgegeben. Die Digitalisierung und Konvertierung mit Hilfe der automatischen Text- und Bilderkennungssoftware hat teilweise zu Format- und Rechtschreibfehlern geführt. Diese Fehler sollten jedoch im Hinblick auf den Gesamtumfang von weit mehr als 20.000 Einzelseiten als vernachlässigbar angesehen werden.
Für das wissenschaftliche Arbeiten und für das korrekte Zitieren können Sie auch das originale Digitalisat im PDF Format in hoher Druckqualität gegen Zahlung einer Lizenzgebühr in Sekundenschnelle herunterladen. Sie können das PDF Dokument ausdrucken bzw. in Ihre Publikationen übernehmen oder auf einem eBook-Reader lesen.
THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL NAVIGATION
The winner of the deutsch-archdeacon $10,000 Prize
PRICE, TWENTY-FIVE CENTS
THE INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS
108 WEST 49th STREET
TELEPHONE 2515 BRYANT NEW YORK
ALBERT O. rFTlJ^VO^V
PERMANENT TECHNICAL STAFF
COMMISSION ON AEROSTATION LIEUT. COL. GEORGES ESPITALLIER
Vice-President of The Permanent International Commission of Aeronautics
Editor of L'Aerophile
COMMISSION ON AVIATION VICTOR TATIN
Member Institute of France
Ex. Prof, of Military School of Fontainebleau
Inventor of Antoinette Motor
Ing.—Const. Aeroplanes, Hélicoptères
PILOTS OF AERO CLUB OF FRANCE
ALBERT C. TRIACA ERNEST BARBOTTE CHARLES LEVEE
AVIATOR LEON DELAGRANGE
THE COURSE COVERS :
Construction of Free and Captive Aerostats ; Dirigibles ; Aeroplanes ; Hélicoptères ; Orthoptères ; Hydroplanes ; Light Motors ; Screw Propellers ; Practical Guide for Aeronaut and Aviator ; Aeronautic Instruments ; Sounding Balloons ; Kites ; etc.
prospectus on application
ALL WORK GUARANTEED.
Foremost hydrogen balloon and airship manufacturer and operator in America.
CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN Box 78 Madison Square P. O. - New York
AND ITS PRINCIPLE
At the time of writing the advertisement which appeared in this space last month it was the intention to write something for this month's issue on the Magnetic Principle, as used for the purpose of indicating speed in the Warner Auto-Meter.
But we find this to be unnecessary. In the meantime Mr. Charles B. Hayes, au expert delegated by The Automobile, a prominent motoring journal, has saved us the trouble.
Our only regret is that we have not sufficient space in which to give an actual reproduction of this article as it appeared.
After speaking at length on the subject of "centrifugal force," as used in certain speed indicators, Mr. Hayes goes on to say :
" All of the instruments mentioned are of the mechanical transmission types, and as such, afford great play for the ingenuity of the designer in making them simple or complicated ; but it is only by substituting such forces as magnetism and electricity for mechanical operation that the extreme of simplicity is realized. The WARNER AUTO-METER utilizes the magnetic principle, and the sectioual view of its interior illustrates the method of its working. The actuating force consists of a magnet which is shown attached directly to the ball-bearing driving shaft where it enters the case. Supported in sapphire pivot bearings just above the magnet is a field ring, and attached to the latter is the dial which is of aluminum and annular in form. The field ring completes the magnetic circuit, and it will be apparent from this description that THERE IS NO MECHANICAL CONNECTION WHATEVER between the driving shaft and the indicating dial, NOR ANY DELICATE MOVING PARTS IN CONSTANT SERVICE. The principle of the instrument is that of the magnetic drag, the tendency of the magnet when revolving being to pull the dial around with it in the same direction as it is rotating.
This rotation of the dial is naturally proportionate to the speed of the magnet, but it is controlled by a hair-spring which tends to return it to zero at all times. The strength of the spring increases directly in proportion to the angle of displacement caused by the turning of the dial, thus making it possible to mark the latter with uniform spaces for the various speeds. As the field ring and the dial are combined and
the magnet acts -directly on the latter, THERE ARE BUT TWO PARTS TO THE INSTRUMENT, barring the case, so that THE GREAT SIMPLICITY OF THE MAGNETIC PRINCIPLE WILL BE EVIDENT."
We prefer to let Mr. Hayes' words speak for themselves. We have nothing to say.
Interior view Warner Aulo-Meter
C-Mafiwt G—Aluminum Dial
D—Field Rinff J—Sapphire Hole Jewel-
F-Speclal Steel Pivot K—Sapphire Cap Je»el
WARNER INSTRUMENT COMPANY, 114 wheeler avenue, Belolt, Wisconsin.
PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY
AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS CO.
ernest Larue Jones, editor and owner 142 West Sixty-Fifth Street, New York, U. S. A.
Vol. II February, 1908 No. 2
American Magazine of Aeronautics is issued promptly on the tenth of each mouth. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics. Contributions are solicited.
SUBSCRIPTION RATES. One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.
Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, mouey order or registered letter. WE CAN NOT USE CHECKS ON LOCAL BANKS UNLESS EXCHANGE IS ADDED. Send draft on New York. Make all remittances free ot exchange, payable to American Magazine of Aeronautics Co. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.
Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $^.50 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to American Magazine of Aeronautics Co. No foreign postage stamps accepted.
Important.—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is»-sent to insure proper credit.
Furnished on application. The value of American Magazine of Aeronautics as an advertising medium is unquestioned.
Owing to the desirability for a short and distinctive name, in the future the American Magazine of Aeronautics will be known simply as "AERONAUTICS."
THE AVIATION PRIZE AGAIN.
Few. apparently, are public spirited enough to contribute towards a money prize to be offered to the first aviator who flies a certain moderate distance in the United States. The distance of a mile in a circle has been suggested and seems to be all right, for the present. There is some likelihood of this being accomplished within the year but we are not likely to have a machine to fly five or ten miles "right off the reel." There is little encouragement now being offered for experiments. No commercial value seems to be attached to a flying machine, its sphere being principally for scouting purposes during war or as a sportsman's enjoyment. With little opportunity for gain even if a machine that flies is built, inventors are not going to spend their own money and that of their friends unless they can see a chance of getting it back, at least.
If some one really interested in the sport would hang up a cash prize, inventors would have something in sight as a basis for investment, and on that basis they would be more likely to obtain funds than on the mere drawings with nothing to be gained in case the object is accomplished. From the considerable number of men
who are members oi' aero clubs, supposedly organized for the sole purpose of aiding in the progress of the art, it would seem that a prize could be secured. After appealing to about eight hundred aero club members a dozen were willing to contribute $25 each towards a $5,000 prize. T nasked, we have received from several non-members offers to share in the accumulation of such a prize hut it has been impossible to raise the full amount. By keeping everlastingly at it v\re hope in time to complete the amount.
Such a prize would stimulate endeavors to build machines, and while few may be successful in flying, the experience gained will be of value and will eliminate to an extent the promulgation of so many foolish ideas.
Cannot some one be found to contribute the whole amount? There is not a single money prize for aviators in America—in comparison with the $10,000 offered in France by Henri Deutseh de la Meurthe and won by Farman.
AEROSTAT, AERONAT, AERONEF.
The Permanent Aeronautic Commission has adopted the following terms to be used in properly distinguishing between the various types of machines.
Akkonkk—Any machine which is without a gas vessel, divided into three classes as follows:
Heucoptki;—An aeronef which relies on one or more propellers for its suspension and progress through the air.
Aehoplank—An aeronef in which suspension in the air is more particularly assured by one or more planes.
Okthoi'Tkk—An aeronef which is sustained and propelled by beating wings.
The term aviator is to be employed as defining the operator of an aeronef; aeronaut as applied to the pilot of an aerostat or aeronat.
An aerostat is a balloon, free in the air.
An aeronat is a dirigible balloon.
AERO CLUB OF AMERICA.
There were 41 free balloon ascents made by members in America during 1907, in which 70 members participated, but only 23 different members made these 41. In 10 privately owned balloons 24 trips were made. 9 members own balloons of whom 5 are manufacturers and professionals. 8 members made ascents abroad. 56,000 cubic meters of gas were consumed in the 41 ascents, and a little over 4,600 miles traveled by balloons. One member made 16 flights, three made 9, two made 3, four 2, and thirteen one each. This is a gain of 11 over 1906.
PITTSFIELD AERO CLUB.
The club has leased the grounds known as "Aero Park." adjoining the gas works, and will shortly offer a handsome cup.
AERO CLUB OF FRANCE.
The Club is preparing an aeronautic map of France which will show the various lights, railroads, gas plants where coal gas may be obtained, electric wires, lighthouses, etc., a map which will be of considerable value to the balloonist, especially at night. The map will be published by the well-known French map publisher, Henry Barrere.
During the year 1907, 275,230 cubic meters of gas have been consumed in making 307 flights. S71 passengers have been carried, of whom 111 have been ladies.
AERONAUTIQUE CLUB DE FRANCE.
This organization organizes every year a number of ascensions which cost the members nothing and the ascensions are assigned to members in the order of the receipt of applications. During 1907 thirty of these free ascensions were made, at a cost of $1,800.
NEW AERO CLUBS.
A club has been formed at Lille, France, under the name "Nord-Aviation." A Dutch society for the promotion of aerial navigation has been started at The Hague.
Silesian society for aeronautics at Breslau.
NEW CLUB IN GERMANY.
A new aero club lias been formed under the patronage of the Crown Prince and named the "Deutscher Aero Club E. V." The president is Prince Ernst von SachsenAltenburg. Among the members of the Executive Committee are Major Gross, the commander of the aeronautic battalion, Major von Parseval, General Consul Schwabach. The membership is divided into honorary, life, regular, associate and lady.
GORDON BENNETT, 1908.
The race has been set for October IS at Tegel. near Berlin. This date falls on the last quarter of the moon. Unofficial reports state that America, Germany, France, Italy, Spain and England have entered three balloons each; Switzerland two and Sweden one, twenty-one in all. The contestants must be named not later than July 20. France is receiving applications to act as representatives up to the 30th of April. The Aero Club of America is inviting applicants who must each furnish a new balloon.
NEW AERO PRIZES.
The North Adams Herald has offered two cups of the value of $100 each: one to the aeronaut starting from North Adams and landing within five miles of Boston Common; one to the aeronaut who shall first make a flight of 100 miles in a straight line from North Adams, the prize to be retained by the first man to make that distance until someone else exceeds his mileage and the cup is to become the permanent property of the aeronaut making the longest continuous journey from North Adams during the calendar year 1908.
Anderson & Price, proprietors of the hotels Mount Washington and Mount Pleasant at Bretton Woods, N. H.. offer a cup of the value of $100 to the aeronaut starting 150 miles away who makes a landing within 1 mile of either of the two hotels.
M. Armengaud Jeune has offered a prize of $2,000 to the owner of the first aviator who shall remain in the air fifteen minutes.
The Aero Club of Belgium has decided to offer a prize of $100 to the Belgian schoolmaster who shall draw up the best popular textbook on aeronautics. The idea of the competition is to induce the young minds to take an interest in the problem of aerial navigation.
Dr. Ganz, president of the ballooning section of the Bavarian Automobile club, has offered a prize of $2,500 for an aeroplane race, distance not mentioned, to take place during the Munich exposition next summer. Dr. Ganz hopes thus to induce German inventors to turn their attention to the aeroplane.
Albert C. Triaca has offered a prize of $100 for the longest flight in 190S made by a member of the Aero Club of France or the Aero Club of America.
Three of the many prizes now offered have now been won. Santos Dumont won the Archdeacon Cup by a flight of 25 meters and Henry Farman won the Grand Prix d'Aviation (popularly known as the Deutsch-Archdeacon prize) of $10,000 and at the same time the Daily Mail prize of $500.
The cups now offered in this country are as follows: Lahin Cup. value $1,100, to the 'aeronaut beating Captain Chandler's—the present
holder—record .of 475 miles. Boston Herald Cup. $100 value, to the aeronaut starting 100 miles from Boston and
landing within 5 miles of Boston Common. Poland Spring Cup, $100 value, to the aeronaut starting 150 miles from Poland Spring
who lands his balloon within 2 miles of that place. North Adams Herald Cup. $100 value, to the aeronaut starting from North Adams and
landing within 5 miles of Boston Common. North Adams Herald Cup. value $100. to the aeronaut making a flight of 100 miles
starting from North Adams. Bretton Woods Cup. value $100, to the aeronaut landing within 1 mile of the hotels
Mt. Washington or Mt. Pleasant at Bretton Woods, start to be made 150 miles away. Scientific American Tropliy, value $2,500, for dynamic flight of 1 kilometer.
BALLOON RACE AT VERONA.
Under the patronage of the municipality of Verona, M. Bellini-Carnesali, the mayor, has nominated a committee to arrange the event.
The committee has prepared a program for a distance race to be held March 19, the balloons to start from the center of the old amphitheater constructed by the Romans in the 16th century. The rules are similar to those for the Gordon Bennett, except that the limit of size is 1000 cubic meters. The entry fee is $20, with the gas free. The Aeronautic Cup of Verona is offered as the main prize. Four gold medals will be given to the four making the next longest distances, while a silver plaque is offered to the chauffeur of the automobile that shall arrive first at the landing of the winning balloon.
AERONAUTICS IN GREAT BRITAIN. (By Our London Correspondent.)
In this, the slack season of ballooning, little beyond the ordinary balloon ascents, which take place from London almost every clay is to be recorded in the matter of aerostation. As far as can be foreseen at the present time, however, the forthcoming season promises to be a memorable one. Several balloon races have been organized for the summer; these will take place from the grounds of Hurlingham Club, where a complete system of gas-conduits is now being laid down. An international balloon race will start from there towards the end of May, on the occasion of the fourth meeting of the International Aeronautical Federation, which will be held in London.
The construction of the new military dirigible is progressing satisfactorily at Al-dershot. No precise details can, of course, be obtained; but it is understood that a new section is to be added to the gold-beater's skin envelope, which will be some 5 yards longer than the former one, and that far-reaching improvements are being made in the car, in the various steering devices, and in the apparatus for maintaining the airship's stability. The motive power will also be greatly increased—a new 100 h.p. Antoinette engine taking the place of the old one.
With regard to the experiments conducted by the military authorities in Scotland last summer, under the superintendence of Mr. Dunn, complete secrecy is maintained. However, this much can be said: although the machine was never actually tried in flight, satisfactory results were obtained. It is believed that the principle of the "rotary plane" (referred to by Professor Koppen in the article on parachutes in the "Pocket Book of Aeronautics") has formed the basis for some experiments.
At the moment of writing, no trials with man-carrying flying machines have been made in this country—at least in public. Two aeroplanes are, however, completed both of which will be tried during the next few weeks on the Brooklands Motor Racing-Track. The first, constructed by Mr. A. V. Roe, one of whose models gained the second prize in the competition last April, is already housed in its shed on the track. This aeroplane has two main super-posed planes, 36 ft. long by 5 ft. in depth; the upper one being situated 5 ft. above the lower. The forward steering plane is 28 ft. by 5 ft. The framework is constructed of bamboo and thin ash uprights, the covering being air-proof canvas. The steering is effected by twisting the planes by means of wires running over the central steering wheel. The motive power consists of a two-cylinder, 8 h.p., J. a. P. motor, actuating a 6 ft. 6-bladed propeller at an estimated speed of 1800 r.p.m. It is difficult to believe that this machine will ever rise from the ground with this inadequate power; little more than ordinary glides can be expected to result.
The second aeroplane, Avhich, as far as can be judged at present, offers far greater prospects of success, has been designed and constructed by Mr. J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon, a well-known member of the Aero Club. This aeroplane is also of the double-deck type. The frame of bamboo and ash, is covered with varnished balloon fabric up-and-down steering is effected by a front plane, horizontal steering by a special apparatus designed by the inventor. In addition a new device for maintaining equilibrium is expected to give good results. The aeroplane is mounted on long ski-like runners, which should to a great extent, preserve it from serious damage in landing.
The whole machine is mounted on a broad launching carriage, (running on four light wheels) from which it is released as soon as it has attained sufficient speed on the ground and the requisite upward lift. The absence of wheels on the actual aeroplane is a distinct advantage in point of weight and practicability, which should be obvious to any one who has closely followed the aeroplane experiments in France, where in the case of nearly every aeroplane, landings have almost invariably resulted in buckled wheels, which have necessitated repair and have thus interrupted experiments in a most vexatious manner.
The motive power consists of a 24 h.p. eight-cylinder Buchet motor, weighing 120 lbs., and driving a large four-bladed aluminum and steel propeller. The blades are spoon-shaped, not unlike those of Santos-Dumont's propeller. The machine will be tried by its inventor at Brooklands within the next month.
Another machine, details of which are not available, is being constructed here by Mr. Howard Wright to the designs of an Italian engineer, and will shortly be tried in this country. In conclusion it may be mentioned that Mr. Wright has just purchased two 5-cylinder Esnault-Pelterie motors.
In addition experiments are being conducted privately by several persons. In one case at least, there should be some prospect of a project materializing before the end of the year. Shortly after his return from America, Mr. Griffith Brewer, at one of the monthly Aero Club dinners, expressed his doubts as to the practicability of the flying machine in its present stage of development. The challenge was promptly taken up by Mr. Patrick Y. Alexander, who wagered £500 that within a year he would construct a machine which would fly a mile. The bet was as promptly accepted by Mr. Brewer; and there should be no doubt that an enthusiast of Mr. Alexander's wide reputation will not forfeit the stake without a serious attempt to accomplish the per-
formalice. Unkind rumor even whispers that since the bet became known Mr. Alexander has been inundated with applications from foreign firms of constructors to build him an efficient machine within the stated time.
The first of the year saw Farman, Delagrange, Pischoff and Santos Dumont all wait ing for a let-up in the wind and frosty weather to begin practice with their aeroplanes. The "Antoinette" aeroplane designed by Captain Ferber has been completed, and is being equipped with a 100-horsepower Antoinette engine. Santos Dumont has modified the "No. 19," and it now has two propellers driven by belts from a 2-cylinder horizontal engine of S horsepower. On December 31 Bleriot started practicing with his aeroplane, "Libellule," but the machine was not quite ready and the aviator had to content himself with runs on the ground and short distances at a slight height. The Republique, the new French military dirigible under construction at the shop of Lebaudy Brothers at Moisson, will probably be delivered the first part of May. Two others provided for in the 190S budget will also be put in the air later on under the direction of the engineer, Juilliot. It is reported that the plans-for the fourth dirigible have been approved by the Lebaudys. This one will be three times the capacity of those built to date. The bag will contain about 10.000 cubic metres and the motor will be 150-200 horsepower.
Referring to the Berliner Xeueste Xachriehten, the Imperial German Government Tvill ask for a trial for the Zeppelin III before they turn over to the "Graf von Zeppelin the subsidy of 2,150,000 marks voted him in the Reichstag. The balloon will have to accomplish a distance of about 700 kilometres and remain in the air uninterruptedly for 24 hours.
On January 2, the generals- assembled at Berlin to pay their respects to the Emperor were given opportunity to make flights in the German military dirigible, at Tegel. With Prince Ruprecht of Bavaria in the car the first flight lasted 39 minutes, permitting the balloon to make several evolutions above the manoeuvring ground. In the second flight with three generals aboard the weight was too great and the balloon did not rise with sufficient speed and hit a wall. One of the generals got out and the ascension took place. A journal states that this ascent attempted in public "without having taken necessary precautions, shows that the German military corps were not used to manoeuvring their balloon."
Farman is taking a rest after his prize flight, but will soon start work on a new aeroplane, "No. 2," of the Langley type.
Dec, 24—The Ville de Paris started for Verdun to take the place of the lost La Patrie. A strong wind was encountered, against which the ship was able to make 17 kilometres an hour. However, finding that it would be impossible to make Verdun that day, the pilot. Kapferer, turned back home. The trip made was of about 130 kilometres.
Dec. 30—Farman flew a kilometre in a circle, but the flight was not perfect enough to win the Deutsch prize.
Jan. 4—Twice in succession at the lssy-les-Moulineaux parade ground Farman succeeded in flying a circular kilometre with his aeroplane, and besides proving his ability to win with comparative ease the coveted Deutsch-Archdeacon prize, he also established a record for the longest flight yet made in Europe, with an apparatus of the gasless type. Had the celebrated aviator convoked the Aero Club officials the $10.000 prize would now be his property, but until a few minutes beforehand Farman had no intention of making a lengthy flight. There had been a treacherous wind blowing all the morning, and it was not until somewhat late in the afternoon that the machine was brought out of its shed and put through several short flights. In spite of the bad surface of the ground, making starting difficult, the motor seemed to be working so well that he decided to make a longer flight, and rising gracefully into the air from one corner of the field a vast curve was described, which terminated within three or four feet of the starting point. A second attempt was made, and practically the same ground was covered with an ease which astonished the none too numerous spectators. The machine answered its helm perfectly, and covered the distance, estimated as one mile, in 1% minutes, taking the curve just as if it were an automobile.
Jan. G—Farman and Pischoff practiced, and Farman made two short flights in the heavy wind. The wind struck the machine and forced it to the ground heavily, but did no damage.
Jan. 12—Farman made two very successful flights at Issy. and convoked the Aviation Committee of the Aero Club de France for the following morning in order to officially compete for the Deutsch-Archdeacon prize.
Jan. 13—Farman flew around the kilometre course and won the Grand Prix de l'Aviation, $10,000, together with the Daily Mail prize of $500 for a circular flight of half a mile, and a gold medal from the Aero Club of France. The Antoinette motor won the
gold medal offered by Albert C. Triaca of the Aero Club of America to the manufacturer of the motor carried in the machine winning the Grand Prix, and Voisin Brothers, the makers of the machine, received a silver medal from the Aero Club de France.
Jan. 15—The Ville de Paris traveled from Paris to Verdun, the place from which La Patrie blew away, 155.34 miles in S hours IS minutes. Average speed per hour, 18.71 miles. A short stop was made at Valmy to make a few adjustments, the time being deducted in the above figure. The total duration was hours.
Farm an covered more than two kilometres in a three-minute flight.
In the first trial an endeavor was made to rise in the air with a load of thirty kilos. It was found that the charge was too great. Only a very slight lifting movement could be obtained. With twenty kilos weight the machine rose for the length of a few hundred metres, but it possessed no "life."
With fifteen kilos a very successful flight was made from the shed to the fortifications, where by reason of a sudden, strong gust of wind M. Farm an was obliged to turn almost at right angles. The machine responded wonderfully, though it took an inclination which for a moment was distinctly dangerous. A few seconds later a curve had been accomplished, and then the apparatus, on an even keel, sped to the far corner of the field, never more than a metre or a metre and a half from the ground.
For the final test it was decided to remove-all the added weight and make a long run with the apparatus, just as it was when the Grand Prix was won, three days before. Starting close to'the shooting range, the machine shot into the air fifty yards further along. Passing by the Porte de Sevres, M. Farman skirted the fortifications in a vast circular movement, covering more than two kilometres and remaining in the air nearly three minutes. He descended just before the door of the shed.
M. Farman was almost as much pleased with this flight as with that of Monday. He had stopped longer in the air than in any previous flight, and had covered a longer distance.
Speaking with a Herald correspondent, M. Farman said he was much pleased with the trials, because he has now firmly satisfied himself that he has been running all the time just on the power limit, and that he has nothing to spare. The work of dismantling the apparatus for a thorough overhauling will be commenced at once.
Jan. 17—Delagrange made first trial of his "No. 2."
Jan. IS—Ville de Paris made a sortie lasting an hour with four people aboard, at Verdun.
Jan. 20—Delagrange made over 100 metres at an altitude of 3 meters. Gastambide and Mengin made 10 runs along the field at Bagatelle at the rate of 40 km. an hour. It is estimated a speed of 55 km. is necessary to get the machine in the air.
February 16-23. Distance and landing races of Aero Club Sud-Ouest, Bordeaux. March. Balloon race organized by the Aero Club of Nice. Distance race at Verona, Italy, on the 19th.
April 15. Balloon race at Paris organized by the Aero Club of France. May. International balloon race in England organized by the Aero Club of the United Kingdom. International Aeronautic Congress at London. Balloon race of the Aero Club of France.
July. Balloon race organized by the Aero Clubs de Brussels, Bordeaux and Tourcoing. Dirigible contests at Bretton AVoods, N. H.
September. Grand Prix of the Aero Club of France at the Tuileries. October IS. Gordon Bennett International Race, Berlin.
1908. Aeroplane contests with and without motor, at Munich Exposition. No date settled.
1911. International assembly of dirigibles in Italy, under the auspices of the Societa Aeronautica Italiana.
Tojijuy.—"I say, pa, what -"
Fatiikr.—"Ask your mother."
Tomjiy.—Well, it isn't a silly question 1 want to ask you." Fatiikr (wearily.)—"All right, what is it?"
Tojijiy.—"Well, if the end of the world was to come, and the earth was destroyed while a man was up in an air ship, where would he land when he came down."
FARMAN WINS THE GRAND PRIX.
On January 13th—note the clay—the third man in the history of the world was able to fly in a dynamic flying machine a distance of over 1 kilometre, Orville and Wilbur Wright being the other two. America is a little over four years ahead of the rest of the world, for the brothers Wright made their first flight for a distance of S52 ft. in a motor machine on December 17, 1903. In 1904 they increased the flights to a mile and more, and on October 5, 1905, made the record flight of over 24 miles in 38 minutes with their second motor aeroplane. Of course, many changes had been made during the two intervening years. The foreign journals state that the flight of Henry Farman was the longest ever made in a gasless machine. We Americans do not wrant to forget that we are entitled to some credit in the matter, even though we have done little to aid progress in the art here, and the results accomplished have been rather in spite of aero clubs than with their support.
All credit and honor, too, to Henry Farman, who perhaps has done more, through publicity, to brush away the cobwebs of doubt and ridicule than have the Wrights. Surprising it is, but a fact, that even here we doubt that the Wrights ever flew, wrhile we read of the flights of Farman with less astonishment than at the cultivation of a seedless apple or the invention of a headacheless booze.
After a couple of test flights on Sunday, January 12th, Farman felt confident in asking for the committee of the Aero Club of France to attend the following morning; the fifth official contest for the Grand Prix.
There was scarcely any wind, and the sun shone, brightening up the surroundings in honor of the event. At 10 o'clock the flags marking the course were placed in position, and at 10:12 the great machine started for the flag. After a preliminary run of a hundred yards the machine rose gracefully into the air and sailed like an enormous bird down the course. Half way to the 500-metre post the machine was tilted up a little to a height of about 8 metres. The turn was safely made, and after a wide curve the home stretch was negotiated.
Sweeping past the finish line at 4 metres from the ground the prize was won. Europe had seen at least that what the Wrights had claimed to have done might easily be possible, if not probable in their minds.
The time was 1 minute 28 seconds for the round trip. Considerably more than a kilometre was covered, as will be seen from the diagram.
The machine landed easily almost at the feet of the committee. M. Deutsch de la Meurthe, 'with M. Archdeacon, the donors of the prize, stepped forward and embraced the winner. "I congratulate you, my clear friend, on the great success which has crowned your perseverance and your energy. I am happy that with my own eyes I have seen solved the two problems which were closest to my heart: man guiding himself through space by machines both heavier and lighter than air. What will follow is now only a question of development until aerial navigation shall be within the reach of all. From to-day I shall hold you in grateful memory for having secured to me the profound joy of realizing my most cherished dream," wrere the words addressed by M. Deutsch to Farman. Other men paid their tribute to the man who, by his dauntless energy, carried the aeroplane from being held a myth to a practical means of locomotion.
After the flight Farman stated: "Of course, I am very satisfied with to-day's achievement, but I think it is only the beginning. I am full of confidence in the future. The aeroplane has come to stay. In a few years it will be a practical, reliable means of transportation. For the moment I am going to rest a little. Then, if I find that the conditions controlling the prizes in England and elsewhere are reasonable, I shall probably go and try for them. In any case. I shall have my new machine in a month's time—a lighter, faster and, I hope, more reliable apparatus than this one. Whether new prizes are offered or not, I shall go on with the sport, because I have now got thoroughly inter-
ested in it. With ray new machine, or with others yet to be built, 1 think long trips will be possible. There is only one thing at present which worries me, and that is the insecurity arising from the propeller. It might happen that a propeller broke when the machine was at a great height from the ground. That would, perhaps, mean a serious fall. But we shall get over that difficulty. The new propellers in view are stronger than any we have yet tried. We shall learn more how to control them. When we have
Scientific American Photo
Farman in full flight about to cross the finish line in the Deutsch-Archdeacon-kilometre-circle competition, thus winning the Grand Prix d'Aviation, 510,000. Reading from left to right: Rene Demanest, Andre Founder, L,ouis Bleriot and Charles Voisin, one of the two Voisin brothers who built the machine. In the automobile is M. Archdeacon, one of the two donors of the prize and Mine Archdeacon.
done this there is no reason why, in reasonable weather, lengthy trips should not be accomplished with ease." "Flying is like walking," Farman explains. "I dash up diagonally into the air with all my present motor force; but at the slightest slowing of the motor, or at an untoward shifting of my body, the down dip begins and I go tobogganing down upon the air. Before 1 get too low I must put my advance spur on the motor, raise the lifting rudder and turn the down dip into an upcurving dash."
tiie farmax aeroplane before the alterations.
The machine in its original state had a surface of 559 square feet. The two front planes measured 6.56 feet from front to rear and 39.36 feet from tip to tip, placed 6.56 feet apart vertically.* During December the size of the tail was considerably reduced. The weight of the former was 1,100 pounds, but the new weight is not known. A 50-horsepower Antoinette motor weighing 1 kilo 900 grammes to the horsepower drives the 6.89-foot propeller. Again America must claim credit, for the type of the machine is the
* These figures do not include the tail surface which probably has no lifting effect.
one first designed by Messrs. Herring and Chanute, used by the Wright Brothers, and copied in the Parman, Pischoff, Archdeacon, Ferber, and other machines.
Henry Farman, an Englishman by descent, was born in Paris in 1873, and has lived the greater part of his life in France. He is one of three sons of T. Farman, a newspaper correspondent of some note.
On October 22 last Farman made a flight of considerably more than 100 meters (about 110 yards). The machine rose from the ground almost instantly, and the propeller was set in motion, although there was no wind.
The way the aeroplane left the ground in this test proved to the aeronaut's satisfaction the correctness of his theory that a great improvement in the effective force of the propellers could be obtained by increasing the diameter and reducing the pitch.
Again, the following day the aeronaut made half a dozen successful flights, further demonstrating that the propeller of enlarged diameter had given the heavier-than-air machine additional lifting power. The great steadiness of Farman's aeroplane was a feature of the demonstration.
All records .for heavier-than-air machine flights were finally broken by the aeronaut on October 2G, when Farman drove his aeroplane 771 meters (about 800 yards) in fifty-three seconds, at the height of about three meters. Earlier in the same day he had covered 303 meters in thirty seconds, breaking the record of 220 meters held by Santos-Dumont.
Continuing to make almost daily trials, Mr. Farman, on November 7, twice beat his own record of 771 meters, made the previous month. His longest measured flight was 800 meters, but his second flight, which was not measured, was 100 meters longer. He remained in the air one minute and ten seconds. He also scored a further advance with his machine by performing on his third trial a huge "S" in the air with perfect stability.
UNDER FIRE IN A WAR BALLOON AT SANTIAGO.
By Ivy Baldwin.
[The captive balloon used in the battle of Santiago was constructed and operated by Ivy Baldwin and his experience is related here for the first time.—Ed.]
Embarking at Port Tampa, Florida, on the 14th of June, 1898, with the first expedition of invasion to Cuba 'under command of Major General Shatter, we landed at Baiquiri on June 22nd and went immediately to the front in small detachments, handling all cable and telegraph lines on which was transmitted all information from the seat of campaign.
The troop (Company "B," Signal and Balloon Sections) constructed a field telegraph line to the front and connected the American trenches in front of Santiago through the cable with the United States.
Three ascents with the balloon at a safe distance on June 30th, were made adding to a knowledge of streams, trails and roads in front of our army, and disclosing clearly the mooted presence of Cervera's squadron in Santiago Harbor. On the flattering report and the recommendation of his chief engineer, General Shaffer decided to use the balloon in battle next day, and ordered it to be brought to El Poso.
At daybreak on July 1, Major Maxfield rode in advance to El Poso Hill, the position designated by orders, only to find it vacant and covered by a sharp shrapnel fire, and to have his horse shot from under him. The balloon was then put up about a quarter of a mile in rear of the base of the hill, with Major Maxfield, Colonel Derby and Sergeant Ivy Baldwin in the basket, being within easy artillery range of the enemy. From this point the movements of the troops at El Caney and on the road in front towards San Juan Hill were clearly visible, and were made known at once to General Shatter's chief of the staff. Colonel Derby then ordered the balloon forward to the advance line, although Major Maxfield stated that artillery experiments abroad clearly demonstrated that a balloon could not live in such position. The orders were immediately obeyed, and the balloon was put promptly in the air in front of the troops deploying for the assault on San Juan Hill." Observations thus made were of great value. The commanding general was immediately informed that the intrench-ments on San Juan Hill were strongly held, and the suggestion that Grimes' artillery on El Poso immediately open fire was followed. There was also discovered a trail, hitherto unknown, leading to the left to a ford on the Aguadores. The discovery of this way was communicated to General Kent, who promptly availed himself of the information to relieve the congested condition of the main road by diverting therein part of General Hawkins' command. This action enabled the deployment of our troops over two roads, and by doubling the force may possibly have been the determining factor in the gallant capture of San Juan Hill.
The balloon wras directly in front of General Kent's division, and its appearance in the air was the signal for a very heavy and accurate fire of musketry and shrapnel, resulting in such numerous casualties that the men gave the place the name of "Hell's 'Corner'' and "Bloody Ford." The balloon was punctured in thirteen places by shrapnels.
MEMORANDUM ON THE SANTIAGO CAPTIVE BALLOON. By Lieut. Col. Wm. A. Glassford.
Ivy Baldwin, aeronaut, holds about the same place in the Spanish' War that Lowe and La Montain as aeronauts do to the Civil War. Baldwin was, however, a part of the army; Lowe and La Montain were civilians.
The army balloon park established at Fort Logan, Colorado, a short time before the Spanish War, needed just such a practical and resourceful aeronaut as Baldwin to help in the improvisations made necessary, and to give confidence to the men being instructed there. He was invaluable in teaching the details of manipulation, also construction of balloons and their accessories.
The gold-beaters' skin balloon "General Myer" manufactured in Paris at the Lachambre factory in 1892 for exhibition at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, was later transferred to Fort Logan, Colorado, near Denver, because the atmospheric conditions upon the foothills of the Rocky Mountains were so highly favorable.
An apparatus for generating hydrogen was here constructed, and a compressor for impounding hydrogen gas installed. These were assembled about the Fort Logan pumping station so as to obtain water for decomposition into gas, and power from the pumping engine to force the gas through the compressor into the storage tubes.
There was no house in which to place the balloon when inflated, and so a shelter was improvised out of bales of hay or straw arranged as a wall on three sides of a square, and high enough to protect the inflated balloon from ordinary wind. However, such protection was not always sufficient, and the General Myer while full of gas was ruptured in a wind storm and became a total loss. Under such difficult circumstances and inadequate provisions was the first aeronautical work in the army commenced. An incidental visit of the Secretary of War, accompanied by his secretary (now Major General Davis) who saw these improvisations, was responsible for the erection of a good balloon house, and allowances of the means to go forward with the development of the plant.
In all these difficulties the aid of the Army was ever to be depended upon. General McCook, the department commander, provided a detail of enlisted men selected from various army posts under him, also the widest, of space for balloon maneuvres upon the reservation at Fort Logan. Colonel Merriam, its commander, aided in every possible detail, while the officers and men always evinced an interest and were on the alert to help in any way they could.
With space for work a balloon house, balloons, generator, compressor and accessories', also aid from the authorities, considerable of an aeronautical park was assembled at Fort Logan. The formation of a balloon train was accomplished, using the ordinary army wagons, except the captive balloon wagon which was a specially constructed vehicle.
Several balloons were made; exercises with them held by cable as captives carried on. In all this work Baldwin was invaluable for he knew the practical details of every part of the work from cutting the gores of a balloon envelope, making the netting, inflation, and in all ascensions he was in the basket. His presence gave confidence to the men for they felt assured if any thing should happen to free the balloon they would be safe with so experienced and practical an aeronaut to pilot the balloon in its flight and landing. Baldwin was free from that disposition to keep to himself the knowledge that he had derived from a long experience as an aeronaut. He never failed to answer any question asked him. He deserves much credit, for it is certain that what was accomplished with the balloon at the siege of Santiago de Cuba had its genesis with Ivy Baldwin.
The names of the men in Baldwin's Company are most of them familiar as those of the detail at Fort Logan. The training they secured there prepared them for handling the balloon in battle under the trying circumstances which are apparent when the envelope was punctured in so many places.
THE MILITARY VALUE OF BALLOONS.
By 1st Lieut. George A. Wieczorek, Signal Corps, U. S. A.; Instructor, Army Signal School.
Many conservative military men look upon the balloon as somewhat of an encumbrance to an army in the field. They always think of it as a big ungainly instrument, difficult to manage and therefore requiring a large personnel and many wagons to haul the apparatus that goes with it. Its appearance when ready for ascension would indicate this, but on closer acquaintance it is sure to be found a most valuable-adjunct.
At present, I believe, the balloon is most valuable to us in reconnaissance. As an instrument of offence or defence it is a doubtful factor. We can see, however, that
there is some hope for the evolution of an offensive factor, provided that in its present state it comes into more general military use. Modern firearms were developed to their present high state of perfection by constant military use and frequent improvement. Balloons will undergo a corresponding development.
Briefly, the military uses for the different classes of balloons are:
(a) Captive balloons; reconnaissance of a limited front as the front of a division or army corps previous to an attack on an enemy's position or when it is occupying a defensive position awaiting attack.
(b) Free balloons; entering or leaving besieged places under favorable conditions. The recent contests in this country have shown us that we can depend on free balloons to make flights of from 700 to 800 miles under favorable conditions. If we wished to enter or leave a besieged place with important messages, favorable conditions for bal-
tr. S. INFANTRY AM) CAVALRY SCHOOL. U. S. SIGNAL SCHOOL AND STAFF COLLEGE.
looning would be of no value to us without a balloon, but at that moment, if we had the balloon, it would be worth many times its weight in gold.
(c) Dirigible balloons; reconnaissance of an extended front like that of an army in position before a battle.
The adoption of high power firearms which kill at extreme ranges has led armies to adopt formations which cause their troops to be extended along fronts sometimes fifty miles long. It is apparent even to a non-military observer that a reconnaissance of such a large piece of territory would consume much time. As this factor enters so vitally into all military calculations, the value of a dirigible balloon for this important work can not be measured in dollars and cents.
Our army has been anxious for some time to take up the subject of military aeronautics and we have now made a very favorable start. The recent international contests in St. Louis have given the science of aeronautics and aerostatics an impetus that is bound to be evident in a short while. Inventors all over the country are putting forth their best efforts and I hope that our government will be able to give some of them the aid that their efforts deserve, in the near future.
In the army we have already established the Army Signal School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where officers of the Signal Corps as well as line officers, receive instruc-
tion in all branches of science that pertain to the transmission of information to every part of an army in the field. Militia officers of State Signal Corps organizations are also permitted to attend this school by making application to the Adjutant General of the Army.
A course of theoretical instruction in balloons and air machines forms part of the work in the Department of Signal Engineering at the school. At present the course is necessarily confined to a series of lectures and conferences at which the possibilities of the use of different classes of balloons are discussed.
At Fort Omaha, Nebraska, the army is building a large balloon shed and a hydrogen generating plant. It is hoped that by next spring it will be possible to supplement the present course in aeronautics at the Signal School with ascensions of both free and dirigible balloons. The country in the neighborhood is admirably adapted to making short ascensions as there are few trcrs and many railroads. Among the other subjects taught at the Army Signal School, are the following:
A COK.VER IX THE l.Al'.OKATOKY OF THE AHAIY SKiXAl, SCHOOL.
1. Department of Field Signaling ; Use of optical, acoustical and electrical signaling apparatus, buzzer, field wireless telegraph and field telephone.
2. Department of Signal Engineering ; Electricity (practical and theoretical), telephony, operation and installation of steam, gas and oil engines, construction and operation of permanent wireless stations, installation and repair of submarine cables and logistics of Signal Corps troops.
3. Department of Topography ; Rapid sketching, compilation and combination of maps and sketches.
4. Department of Languages ; French, German and Spanish.
THE BETTING RING.
$2,500 by Alan R. Hawley that no aeronaut in America can beat the record made by J. C. McCoy in the Gordon Bennett. Mr. Hawley considers Mr. McCoy the best pilot in this country and will allow six trials to be made to win this bet, all six attempts, however, to be made within six days and Mr. Hawley to be duly notified. Any takers?
Chevalier Florio and M. Alfred Vonwiller have bet 100,000 francs even to fly in an aeroplane around the track at the hippodrome at Palermo before December 31, 1908. The length of the track is 1500 meters. If both competitors make the distance the money will go to the one making the fastest time.
M. Archdeacon suggests that the loser devote the sum to the cause of aviation, to be awarded to the aviator who accomplishes a flight of 25 kilometers in a circular course around stakes 1 kilometer apart. However, this plan did not meet with the approval of Chevalier Florio. He thinks that the money is at the disposal of the winner, to do with as he chooses, but states that when there is a reasonable prospect of seeing ten or a dozen aeroplanes likely to accomplish such a flight there will be a prize at hand.
A NEW TOY FOR MEN.
By William Bevier Ashley
Xo wind that day, nor the next one nor the next. Then iee-boat-race-day came and went without budging the club chimney's column of smoke, so Conill sot mad clear through and went out after breakfast and built a motor ice-boat, and of all the sports to come 1 predict some of the finest with this new toy.
OF ALL TTIE SPORTS TO COME. I PREDICT SOME OP THE FIXEST WTTII THIS NEW TOY. Photos by C. D. Moses & Co., Lake Placid, N. Y.
Conill began with the body, building it like the old-fashioned ice-boats that were in use up to the date of the Calm. Only, he tucked her shoes more modestly together. The beam measurement is about three and a half feet, length, fore ami aft, seven feet. He had to refit her with runners several times before discovering the wide ones that keep her from playing she is an ice-cutting machine. The works were a foreirone conclusion; thev would have to consist of a sparker, carburetter, transformer, gasoline tank and so on. Xo one knows where he dug the parts from, but with delightful tact he selected different brands so as t<^ give no manufacturer heartburn. The motor assembled, he next tackled the support for the blades which were to grip the immovable air and rip the boat along. Being three weeks from Xew York by freight, and befriended only by a sparsely equipped general blacksmith shop, Conill dove into his head for ideas. He came out with several pieces of scantling, which he sawed into two uprights and a crossbeam. The shaft to carry the blades ran through the top ends of the uprights and were decorated at one end with a wide sprocket wheel discarded by some bicycle, dangling a chain under the chin of the power shaft below. The wooden blades, about four feet long with a ten-foot swing, were gotten into the right shape and angle after only six rejections. Thus, about nine weeks after breakfast. Conill had spent his rage; and, spring being due, a tearing warm wind came over the hills for four days and left the ice like a
comb and brush. Then on that ridgy and mushy surface, ('(mill made ten miles an hour, that is to say. he demonstrated that a motor ice-boat is practicable for sport.
Con ill's lumber pile weighs three hundred and fifty pounds, or about one hundred more than it needs to. It is absolutely crude. Think of that gallows to hang the blades on ! Conill himself weighs one hundred and sixty pounds. His motor is 4 H. P. at the start-off, but loses one equine at least playing with the chain. Yet this home-made slap at the weather punched into it at the rate of a mile in six minutes.
Conill is entitled to an introduction to Aeronautic'? readers. Allow me: Senor Kern an 0. Conill from Havana. Mr. Conill had lived twenty-one years, some of them in Europe; but this was his first one in the Knifed States. He was preparing for Harvard under a private tutor. Mr. T. M. Simpson, on the shores of Mirror
OX THAT RIDGY AND 31 US 11Y SURFACE COXlLL MADE TEX MILES AX HOUR. Photos by C. D. Moses & Co., Lake Placid, N. Y.
Lake in the Adirondack?. Conill is well-born, well-built, and genial. The exploit of the motor ice-boat sufficiently attests his sporting qualities, if not.—he has tackled that impossibility now rivalling perpetual motion and patented an emergency brake for automobiles that will operate of itself, nearly. If this Cuban friend of the race irives the world a sure-thiny cmercencv brake, it wili be a benefit second only to this new element in sport.
The regulation ice-boat requires wind and room, not indigenous to every lake and stream. Even the necessary good surface is a whim of the weather.
Civen all the conditions, nothing but racing astride lightning can equal ice-yachting; minus any of them, and nothing can equal it.
On the average tributary, stream and lake, an ice-boat gives the same sport as a cat boat on a pond.
P>ut*the possibilities for sport are unlimited with a sixtv-inile-an-honr motor ice-boat, or even a forty-miler. Perfected, the boat might carry auxiliary sails; be provided with wheels for transporting it under its own power; fitted to carry a crew of one to six;—what can't be gotten out of it? And. of course, the motor-driven
CO.X1LL AXI) HIS LCM1IER PILE WEICH OVER 500 POCXDS. Photos by C. D. Moses & Co., Lake Placid, N. Y.
ice-boat can be worked against the wind or on snow. 1'rovide it with bunker springs, a flexible deck, a cabin and an oil stove, and nothing will be left in Arctic exploration but the fun of it. Seriously. Fernan 0. Conill has made a great contribution to sport in the United States.
Washington, D. C, February 8.—The Secretary of War has approved the recommendation of the Board of Ordnance and Fortification that bids for furnishing heavier-than-air flying-machines to the United States (iovernment be accepted as follows:
Price Time of delivery
J. F. Scott Chicago. Illinois...............$ 1.000 is:> days
A. M. Herring, Xew York................ -¿0,000 ISn
Wright Brothers. Dayton. Ohio............ ^YOOO ¿00 "
In all forty-one bids were received. These three were the only ones that complied with the requirements of the specification. It was part of the agreement in issuing the call for bids that none of the particulars of the bids »vere to be given out but retained as confidential.
INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.
President: Professor Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zahm. Chairman Gen'l Committee: Wm. J. Hammer. Chairman Executive Com.: Augustus Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.
The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will be published serially in this magazine and at the earliest date possible bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership .cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.
In accordance with the program as published in the November number, the-informal addresses of the Gordon Bennett contestants and others were concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.
The fifth paper is presented in this issue: ''Experiments with Model Flying Machine," by Edward \\r. Smith.
Experiments with Model Flying Machine, Being a Resume of a Thesis Submitted in 1901 to the University of Penna., by
Edw. W. Smith.
The machine, of the aeroplane type, was designed on the same lines as four preceding ones, use being made of the data obtained by Langley with his whirling arm to calculate the probable power, speed, etc., required to support it.
The primary object was to ascertain whether the general form which bad proved successful in the smaller machines would also prove stable and otherwise-satisfactory in a machine of size and weight sufficient to deduce the probable performance of a full size man carrying apparatus.
As the. work proceeded, a system of measurements, begun for the purpose of ascertaining the cause of failure of the last previous model, was extended until it became possible to measure with considerable accuracy the speed, efficiency of propellers, and power expended during actual flight; these measurements thus becoming a second objective.
The general design of the machine embodied a system of narrow superposed planes AA curved upward toward the ends, and approximately flat in the narrow or fore and aft direction. These planes or wings inclined slightly upward are made-to carry virtually all the weight of the machine, while a directing plane B, behind them, and normally about level, serves to maintain the wings at the desired angle with the horizontal. Two propellers CC driven directly by a large bundle or "sennit'' of elastic rubber threads serve to give the necessary thrust forward. The center of gravity of the whole is adjusted to lie a little forward of the middle of the wing, and about midway in a vertical direction. Any change in the inclination of the wings is effected by changing the angle between tail and wings.
The machine is given initial velocity by a launching track, operated by a stretched rubber sennit, and the length of flight is limited by the energy stored in the rubbers to about 120 feet.
The primary object of the test of this machine, the question of stability, is certainly one of the most important in connection with aeroplanes, so few words may be in place as to the theory upon which the machine was built.
The curved wings, with the center of gravity about central with the supporting surface, that is a little higher than half way between the two wings, gives good sideways stability; any puff of wind from either side being met by a rise of the-
wing at that side. As to the fore and aft question, three main conditions were observed. First, the main supporting surfaces should be very narrow, so that any shifting of the center of support ahead of or behind the center of gravity must be slight; any requisite number of superposed wings being employed to give the necessary area. In the case of a lew very wide wings, as frequently employed, a slight percentage displacement of the center of support ahead or behind tlie center
RESTING OX TRACK READY TO START.
of gravity causes a considerable moment tending to make the machine dip or rear. Second, the directing plane or tail must be sufficiently behind the wings and sufficiently large to easily take care of any moment which may come from a displacement of the center of support: in the model the tail is behind the wings rather more than one-half their breadth, and is about one-third their surface. Third, the tail must normally lie very nearly horizontal, that is. must make an angle (measured
REST1XG OX LEGS 1'1'O.V A TAIJLE.
above) of less than 180 degrees with the wings, as shown in the diagram. For. suppose that owing to a falling off of speed or other cause the upward pressure on the wings decreases. At once the wings drop, and the machine begins to take a plunge downward: the resistance now decreases or the machine perhaps begins even to coast, and gains in speed, when the downward slip of the wings decreases and gradually the normal position is restored. If. on the other hand, the upward
pressure becomes too great, the wings rise and assume a greater angle with the horizontal, resistance increases and speed is cut down, slip increases and the wings fall till equilibrium is again reached.
Were the tail, on the other hand, inclined more than 180 degrees (measured above) to the wings so soon as the machine started downward, the tail would tend to increase the effect and the machine must end by making a somersault.
Regarding the correctness of these principles, it was found that the model would fly with great regularity until the power gave out, the height of the flight being varied at will by changing the angle of the tail.
Gusts of wind were more than once encountered, but were always met easily by the machine with an inclination one way or the other, an upset or a sudden dive having never occurred. The four long downwardly projecting springs of wood, easiest described as le»s, for the purpose of breaking the fall, generally served their
The machine described has a breadth of 4 feet, wings S inches wide and S inches apart.—Ed.
purpose of preserving the main structure, though frequently giving out themselves. Sometimes being blown into obstacles or alighting crooked the outer wing structure was damaged, but in a total of over two dozen flights, only three, all owing to carelessness, were failures.
It is interesting to notice that, used as a kite, a machine of the kind described is not stable, many attempts to fly it having entirely failed.
We now come to the second objective, the measurement of speed and power expended. For determining the speed, a recording drum was provided, driven at a uniform speed by clockwork, and upon which bore a pencil, caused to move lengthwise by a long screw with axis parallel to that of the drum. Mounted on the long screw was a light wood pulley on which was wound a long piece of thread. The whole recorder was placed behind the starting track, and the free end of the string was made fast to the tail of the machine.
When the machine was then flown, the pencil would move lengthwise over the drum, and a curve would result whose abscissae represented time, ordinates distance and slant speed. Curves 41-44. pages 24-2o, were made in this way and indicate the general performance as regards speed.
The clockwork used to operate the drum was not very good, but a calibration at the time of the experiments virtually eliminated errors from this source.
The next step was to record the revolutions of the propellers, and though some difficulty was experienced at lirst, the apparatus shown herewith proved quite satisfactory.
It consists of a pulley .1 which, by a worm, drives a drum H at a much reduced rate of speed. Two pencils Dl) mounted upon flexible arms EF are made to mark upon the drum H as it revolves.
The whole apparatus is mounted upon the flying machine, the two arms EE are connected by threads to pins slightly out of center on the propellors, and a long thread with the free end fast to the ground is wound upon the pulley .1. As
the machine is flown then the string unwinding from .1 rapidly revolves it. the drum II slowly revolves, and the pencils 1)1) trace upon it sinuous linos, the successive peaks of which represent revolutions of the propellors. Cards 4, and 0. pages 24-25, were made in this way, simultaneously with -11-44 already described.
Comparing now a corresponding pair of diagrams we can get the rate of revolution of both propellors, and if the characteristic of the rubber sennit is known, this will give at once the power.
The apparatus for measuring the torque of the rubber, already developed in connection with the previous machine, is herewith shown in its final form. A represents the rubber sennit, about 40 inches long, \-j lb. weight. It is carried in an open frame BE supported on two bearings CC and free to turn about its long axis. Attached to one end of the frame is a drum //, with two cords fastened to opposite sides, one being fixed at its end, the other connected to a calibrated spring կ. The rubber sennit is fixed to the frame at one end and at the other to a shaft carrying a flat piece of wood or "dummy propel I or I). Mounted on the propellor shaft is also a small pulley E, which by means of a cord belt FF, and a set of reducing gears communicates to a drum G the revolution of the propellor.
If, now, after being wound up. the dummy propellor be allowed to unwind; 1st, the drum G will be turned around at a proportional rate; 2nd. the pencil A." will
indicate by its position the torque exerted by the rubber upon frame and propellor. Two pairs of diagrams taken in this way are shown below, the upper line in each case giving the torque on winding up, the lower on unwinding; the verticals divide the cards into spaces of ten revolutions each. Having now the three sets of cards as
Card 3 Curve 11
Jill '"/զraquo;''»ֈlip.lll.p«.!^ -vXm",'"""",,"""",,"",,"",",'",,,",,'h'"'"'l*.l...lM..I(...fM..,MHl,........I.....„Ml,,,.!..!..,,,, 72
described, we are in a position to make the calculation of power as outlined, and the method of making this calculation follows, for one particular set of diagrams, card 44.
The total height of the speed card is 2.86 inches, which corresponds to 1-12 feet of flight, including about 12 feet on the track.
Total length of revolution card, ò.òA inches, corresponding to 141 feet of flight.
Card 6 Curve 44
Inspection of the revolution card shows that about ten revolutions were required bv the propellors to attain their full speed, the machine covering in this time 19 'feet. This first 19 feet will therefore not be considered as part of the flight, the part bevond 129 feet being likewise discarded, since the rubbers were
run down by that time, and the machine was only soaring and rapidly descending. The two points, 19 feet and 129 feet, are now marked on both cards All. alt. and the horizontal distance on the speed card is measured and found to be 2.33 inches, winch indicates that 4.fi seconds were consumed by the machine in covering the 110 intervening feet. From the revolution en id it is found that in this same interval of 110 feet the port propellor made 112 revolutions and the starboard 122, and by now referiing to a table from cards 51 ami 52, the work done bv each rubber sennit during the interval is obtained.
In this manner it is found that the port propellor received 131 foot-pounds and the starboard 127. total 258. This being expended in 4.<> seconds it follows that
258 x 1)0
the mean power was---.102 H. I'.
1(5 x 33000
The total weight of the flying machine (including revolution counter) was at
the time of these tests 4.0 lbs. It thus maintained itself in the air with a ratio of 39 lbs. per horse power.
Owing to the fact of the rubber sennits running down toward the end, the-power is quite different during the first and second halves of the flight, and while it may perhaps be questioned whether during the latter half the machine really maintains itself by its own power there is, I think, no reasonable doubt that it so does during the first half. On this account all of these cards (41-44) have been divided approximately into two halves and the power calculated for the whole flight (barring the two extremities) and for the first half. It will also be interesting to calculate the power for the whole length of flight, taking into account the kinetic energy of the machine at start and finish, and also the energy gained by the machine dropping; through S feet owing to the slope of the ground.
In the case of card \<>. 44 we find the speed at point . L (about T feet after leaving the starting ear) to lie 19.4 miles per hour; time from .1 to /) 5.29 seconds at D (point of grounding) speed was 12..'5 miles per hour; total energy delivered to propellors 305 foot-pounds.
The total energy expended therefore was:
Given to propellors 3<)5 foot-pounds
Kinetic enerirv at start 51
Energy gained by descent of 8 ft. 32
Kinetic energy at finish
(lost when machine grounded) 20
3G8 foot-pounds therefore maintained the machine in the air for 5.29 seconds or the mean power over this time was .126 H. P., at the ratio of 31.8 lbs. supported per horse power.
The following table gives the principal quantities derived from each of these pairs of cards:
A B C
Wgt. H. P.
The three columns A, B and C, show the quantities derived from each card in the manner above illustrated; all begin at the same point, i. e., 19 feet from position
of rest or about 7 feet after leaving starting truck; in columns A that part of the card is considered between 19 feet (marked A on cards) and virtual end of flight B, the rubber sennits during this period being considered as furnishing all the propelling power. Columns B are derived from first half of the cards (A-C) in the same manner as are A, while columns C are taken from the point A to the very end of the card D, the energy used in this period being considered as the sum of the kinetic energy of the machine at A, the total energy stored in the rubber sennits; and the energy of the machine dropping 8 feet during flight, minus kinetic energy at point D (where this was clearly indicated).
The four sets of cards were all taken the same day, late in the Fall of 1900, and not under the most favorable conditions, as there was considerable breeze at the start, which gradually died out. The flights were timed between puffs, as far as possible, yet on the first, No. 41, the machine was struck pretty hard, being carried about 25 feet off its course, and over a fence into some rough ground where a slight damage was sustained in alighting. The wind being from the forward quarter shortened the length of this flight considerably.
On the second trial the machine was again struck by quite a breeze from ahead this time, and partly owing to this the first part of the flight was very high and the speed accordingly was cut down a good deal, and afterward recovered somewhat during the descent.
Prior to Xo. 43 the tail was a little flattened, making the course of the machine nearly level, though a little high at first.
For No. 44 it was flattened still further, producing a good average flight, a little upward at the start, with a gradual descent as the power lessened and gave out. As, moreover, there was no perceptible wind at this time this card is the fairest one upon which to build.
Incidentally the revolution cards 3, 4, 5, 6, furnish data for measuring the slip of the propellors, and if the friction of the blades be also measured, as was afterward approximately done on the apparatus shown on page, the efficiency is easily calculated. These calculations were made and showed a slip varying between 23 and 32 degrees and efficiency of 01 per cent, as a mean of the four flights recorded. The method of finding the friction was to mount the propellor and measure the thrust produced by it as the rubber sennit unwound; from this the pitch was then calculated, the torque utilized and the difference between this and the actual torque produced by the sennit was taken as representing the frictional loss. Assumed as varying with the square of the speed of revolution; this was then calculated for the speed shown by the revolution cards and the above mean result obtained.
As to the significance of these tests with regard to a full sized machine, it looks as if the same principles of balancing should obtain independent of size, and the large machine should be stable as well as the small one. As to the questions of weight and power the inference is not so clear perhaps. For, although a gasoline engine can be made giving a horse power for less than 10 lbs., thus leaving about 20 lbs. for wing structure and dead weight, yet the weight of the wings would probably increase faster than the surface, and there might be left very little margin for the dead weight.
On the other hand the stresses can all be calculated and members designed accordingly in a large machine, and all entering edges can be sharpened to reduce friction. The small machine, moreover, was under a good deal of disadvantage in having to be strong enough to stand a strain of about live times its weight when shot from the launching track, while the large machine could simply run on the ground with its own propellors till speed was attained.
These questions of power and weight have been for the most part answered since the experiments described were carried nut, but there seems still to be a little chance left to improve the balancing qualities, and in the parts referring to this phase of the question probably lies any value which may attach to the tests.
EDW. W. SMITH'S PAPER. Discussion by O. Chanute.
The paper of Mr. Edw. W. Smith is a very clever one, and he is entitled to great credit for having demonstrated by precise measurements the power required in horizontal flight by the type of aeroplane which he experimented with; also, for having suggested, as early as 1901, that '"A large machine provided with wheels to run on the ground could of itself attain the necessary initial velocity without a launching track, and could presumably be brought down gradually so as to land easily upon the wheels/' this being the method since independently adopted by Vuia. Santos Dumont, Delagrange, Bleriot, Farman, and other French experimenters.
Mr. Smith arrives at the conclusion that this type of machine can sustain a gross weight of at least 28 lbs., and very probably 33 lbs. per brake H. P., which result is almost identical with those obtained by Langley s model, but quite inferior to those of Wright Brothers, who sustained 925 lbs. with 17 H. P., or at the rate of 54.4 lbs. per H. P. The difference probably arises from the latter's arching fore and aft of the sustaining surfaces, (a la Lilienthal) while Mr. Smith's surfaces were flat; also from the head resistance of his framing and revolution counter. In most full size flying machines the head resistance absorbs from one-half to two-thirds of the power required and hence the French experimenters are providing motors which give out power at the rate of 14 to 22 lbs. sustained per H. P.
The wings of Mr. Smith's aeroplane are curved upward toward the ends, producing the effect of the Langley dihedral angle which has been adopted by almost all the French experimenters. This is probably the best arrangement to secure transverse equilibrium at the low speed obtained of about 15 miles per hour. This resembles the attitude of the soaring hawk; but for high speeds and tumultuous winds it would probably be better to curve the wings slightly downward at the ends thus resembling the attitude of the gull. My own experiments with full-sized gliding machines showed that the best stability was obtained with wings depressed downward at the ends, 4 inches on a span of 16 feet.
Mr. Smith's measuring instruments are quite ingenious and it is not probable that the necessity for attaching a thread to his model materially affected the results. Of course, on a full size machine different instruments would be required. The speed could be measured by an anamometre and the revolutions of the propellers by a revolution counter; but it would be necessary to ascertain in advance what output of power corresponded with a given number of revolutions, for it would be somewhat awkward to try to take indicator cards while in full flight in order to measure the power at the motor.
AERONAUTICS IN CINCINNATI. By Louis Horn.
Herewith is shown the 87,000 cu. ft. balloon built by Leslie B. Haddock, proprietor of the American-La France Balloon Co., and owned by The Union Gas & Electric Co., of Cincinnati, O. This balloon, in fact is the second largest in the United States. The Ben Franklin in Philadelphia being 5,000 cu. ft. larger.
The three-cornered white mark at the left of the valve is the rip section, which at the first inflation was ripped by a laborer who thought that every rope in the vicinity had to be held with his whole weight. The particulars of the outfit are as follows:
Diameter of bag, 55 feet; actual capacity, 87,135 cu. ft.; car, 4% ft. long, 31!. ft. wide, 4 ft. deep, made of India reed over a steel tube frame, upholstered in red leather with ground cork padding; net of Italian hemp; 27-in. butterfly valve; 20-ft. lipping section; the bag is built of a combination of linen and cotton, giving strength with a minimum of weight, three coats of varnish by machine, five coats by hand, is heavily reinforced at the apex and neck, and is triple sewed; walnut load ring, laminated. This outfit has been entirely rebuilt since last Summer.
THE DE MARCAY-KLUYTMANN DIRIGIBLE.
A novel airship has been constructed by the Baron Edmond de Rlarcay in conjunction with M. Kluytmann, a Dutch engineer, in The Galerie des Machines, Paris. Its pe-
T1IE NEW DE MAHCAY AlKSllIl*.
culiarity consists in dividing the gas vessel, which is very long, into two entirely distinct sections at the middle, and in mounting the propeller, which is of enormous diameter, in the gap thus provided. The illustrations show this construction very clearly, the general view showing the extent of the gap between the two sections of the gas vessel, while the other illustration shows in greater detail the manner in which the gap is bridged by an iron cage in which the propeller revolves. One of the propeller blades is visible in the illustration, where it is seen jutting out beyond the surface of the gas vessel. The blades, which are two in number, and appear comparatively small on account of their position, are mounted on very long arms, which revolve upon a spindle carried by the iron cage. The motor is carried on an under frame below the gas bag, transmission being by means of a long belt. Experiments made in the Galerie des Machines, the balloon being guided along by a rope, were thoroughly satisfactory. As soon as possible outdoor experiments will be undertaken, for as the propellers have been arranged to improve stability it is only by trials in a wind that their real worth can be determined. The construction of the gas vessel itself calls for no special comment, but it should be noted that it is equipped with longitudinal aeroplane surfaces, a horizontal rigid plane at the rear, and a vertical rigid plane terminating in a vertical rudder beneath.
THE l)K MAltC'A Y AIRSHIP WITH ITS MOV El, l'KOl'ELLKK.
THE PISCHOF AEROPLANE.
Pischof has made an interesting study of shapes for aeroplane surfaces and was led to decide in favor of surfaces with heavy front edges, as already extolled by several aviators, notably Goupil, and the adoption of a very efficient profile, approaching closely that of wings of birds.
According to the data of his preliminary experiments, Pischof first constructed a trial glider, without motor, of 10 meters spread of wings and 24.6 square meters of surface, in which the front edge of the carrying surface had a thickness decreasing from the middle of the plane to the rear extremities. This experimental apparatus gave very good satisfaction.
The inventor next undertook the construction of another aeroplane based on the same principles, and the preliminary experiments have already begun at Issy-les-Moulineaux.
This machine comprises an upper carrying plane slightly arched from front to rear so as to present an upper concavity. This plane is rigidly secured by a structure of wood, with steel wire cross bars stretching to the lower plane, which is smaller and is divided in two sections to allow room in the center for the motor and operator.
At the rear is a stabilitating tail consisting of a single surface divided in two sections, somewhat analagous to that in the Bleriot aeroplane. Between the two sections is the rudder consisting of a vertical frame covered with canvas.
The motor is an "Anzani," developing 25 h.p., with three cylinders, which operates a
TUE l'ISCllOF AEROPLANE GETTING READY FOR A TRIAL.
The aeroplane is supported on a chassis with three wheels, two in front and one behind, all rubber tired, and the latter is controlled by the rudder.
At the testing grounds of Issy-les-Moulineaux this aeroplane of Pischof moved on the ground at a gait estimated at approximately 40 kilometers per hour on November 14th, operated by Pischof and covered several times distances ranging from 100 to 250 meters, but did not always follow a true course, making several lurches away from the intended direction. In one of the attempts to turn it happened that only one of the front wheels remained on the ground. The operator was unable to master the machine or stop the motor in time. Invariably the apparatus would strike one of the trees surrounding the testing grounds, being arrested by striking iu front while the rear was at the height of the branches. Pischof disengaged himself without injury from the network of wires' and girders in which he was entangled. Contrary to what has been said, the aeroplane proper was not injured; the propeller only was seriously damaged by the shock. This has been replaced by another propeller of the same design and the trials will be resumed.
M. I'ISCIIOK IN THE AVIATORS SEAT READY TO START.
AIRSHIP AND BALLOON TOURNAMENT FOR BRETTON WOODS.
Messrs. Anderson & Price, the managers of the famous White Mountains hotels Mt. Washington and Mt. Pleasant at Bretton Woods, N. H., have announced a tentative program for an airship-balloon-automobile meet about the middle of July. There will be an automobile run from New York via "The Ideal Tour'' route. A little later will follow the dirigible races, starting from the level ground between the two hotels and coursing to the top of Mount Washington and return. It is also hoped to have a balloon ascent or two at the same time. Mount Washington has been used for some time by Mr. S. P. Fergusson, of Blue Hill Observatory, in obtaining upper air data.
ARMY AERONAUTICS FOR JANUARY. Dirigible.
In response to the advertisement for bids for a dirigible, General Allen received the following, which were opened on January 15th, with the result as stated:
"Harry B. Schiller, Philadelphia, Pa., $25,000; Wm. Reifercheid, Streator, 111., $5,000; Chas. J. Strobel, Toledo, Ohio, $8,000; Carl E. Myers, Frankfort, N. Y., $9,996; E. W. Creecy, Washington, D. C, $12,500. and John M. Karries. Mt. Vernon, N. Y., who bid on a flying machine which, if it attained a speed of 20 miles per hour, was to cost from ten to fifteen thousand dollars, and, if it attained a speed of 40 miles per hour, was to cost between twenty-five and thirty thousand dollars.
"As none of these proposals was satisfactory, all were rejected and new proposals will be opened on February 15th."
On January 21 a new advertisement and specification was issued for a dirigible balloon. There is one principal change, suggested in our January issue: That of allowing the bidder to furnish his own material. This is consented to in the new specification. There is no change in the speed to be required. A few more details are asked regarding the motor, propellers, frame, suspension, etc.
The specification for dynamic flying machine remained unchanged, except that notice was issued permitting the bidder to "preserve as confidential any features of his machine which he wishes to keep secret. In describing the flying machine features which are omitted should be referred to with a remark to the above effect." What is the use of submitting plans at all? The greatest value in the plan is the point which the inventor desires to keep secret. Flying machines always fly—on paper.
ON THE DETERMINATION OF THE SPEED OF FLYING MACHINES.
By Otto G. Luyties.
The method of determining the speed of dirigible balloons and dynamic flying machines indicated in the recently published specifications of the United States Government is incorrect in theory and would be unfair in practice.
As the matter may be of some future importance, it merits a detailed discussion. The following quotation constitutes paragraphs 4 and 5 of the specifications for a dynamic flying machine, the proposed method of testing the dirigible balloon being similar.
"4. The flying machine should be designed to have a speed of at least 40 miles per "hour in still air, but bidders must submit quotations in their proposals for cost, defending upon the speed attained during the trial flight, according to the following scale:
"40 miles per hour, 100%. "Less than 36 miles per hour, rejected.
"39 90%. "41 miles per hour, 110%.
"3S S0%. "42 120%.
"37 70%. "43 130%.
"30 60%. "44 140%.
"5. The speed accomplished during the trial flight will be determined by taking an "average of the time over a measured course of more than five miles, against and with "the wind. The time will be taken by a flying start, passing the starting point at full "speed at both ends of the course. This test subject to such additional details as the "Chief Signal Officer of the Army may prescribe at the time."
It should be observed in the first place that the specifications provide a large premium for high speed. A machine flying at the rate of 44 miles per hour during the test is valued by the Government at 133% more than one found to have a speed of 36 miles per hour. As safety is also a desideratum, and depends at present upon the use of large areas which tend to limit the speed, the wisdom of specifying such high velocity in the early stages of this art is open to question.
The specified method of determining the speed is theoretically incorrect, because it is based upon an erroneous method of obtaining an average. Let us suppose that an estimate has been accepted and that the inventor has completed his machine and can fly five miles in seven and a half minutes or at the rate of forty miles an hour in still air. Let us suppose that the Government trial is held in a twenty-mile wind, which is very common in our latitude. Let us suppose that the machine is sent over a measured course of five miles against the wind and returns with it. The flying machine would require 15 minutes to cover the distance one way and five minutes to return. The average time would be 10 minutes for five miles and give an.apparent speed of 30 miles per hour, the machine being rejected.
According to the specifications the bidder would lose his bond equal in amount to the accepted estimate, and probably also lose the cost of the rejected machine in spite of the
fact that it did actually fly through the air at the rate of 40 miles an hour, and all this on account of an incorrect system of measurement. To show a speed of 40 miles an hour against and with a 20-mile wind when measured as proposed would require a speed of nearly 48 miles an hour through the air.
The absolute incorrectness of the specified method of determining the speed is apparent.
The specified test is also entirely unfair from a business standpoint. The test is to be "subject to such additional details as the Chief Signal Officer of the Army may pre-' scribe at the time." This objectionable clause could be paraphrased to read, "Subject to rejection if preferred by the Chief Signal Officer."
. To reject the machine the officer would merely have to decide to try it in a high wind or during a dying wind or at an upward angle, or over along course, or around sharp turns, or over hilly country, or during a rainstorm, or after a slight accident, etc. To favor the acceptance of the machine on the other hand it might be tried on a comparatively calm day, or during a freshening wind or starting from a point higher than the finish, etc.
If the machine under test is to cost $100,000 for a 40-mile speed and is actually capable of 45 miles per hour under favorable conditions, it is optional with the Signal Officer to have the bidder receive $140,000 for it, or $60,000 or any intermediate sum, or nothing at all, .simply by deciding to test it in some particular intensity of wind or under some special conditions.
1 do not for a moment doubt the absolute integrity and good will of our Chief Signal Officer, although I have not the pleasure of knowing him personally, and do not suppose that any of the eventual bidders know him very well. This in itself constitutes the objectionable clause, as an inventor cannot properly estimate in advance on satisfying the requirements of a test to be later determined by an unknown arbiter invested with autocratic authority.
As a better method the time ought to be taken over a measured course against the wind and returning with it. The speed over the ground could readily be computed for each direction, and tlie speed through the air would be the average of these two figures.
Let us suppose a machine to cover a five-mile course in 15 minutes in one direction and in five minutes in the other. The speed over the ground would then be 20 miles per hour one way and GO the other, the average or true speed through the air being 40 miles per hour. If we should take the average of the time we should obtain a false result of 30 miles per hour.
As the wind in all flying devices blows squarely from the front, a popular misconception to the contrary notwithstanding, another way to measure the speed would be, by the use of an anemometer, previously calibrated for small errors by testing it on an automobile or train. The inaccuracy due to the flying machine swerving from its course would be very small, being about 1 per cent, for variations of 10 degrees on either side of the course. The small corrections to be deducted for this error could be computed with sufficient correctness by observers on the ground.
A third way would be to make the speed tests on a particularly calm day, using either of the other two methods of allowing for the slight wind effect, and then hold an entirely separate test for dirigibility on some windy day. This method would have the special advantage of practically eliminating the errors due to variation in the intensity and direction of the wind which would otherwise be considerable. I hope that these suggestions will arouse sufficient interest to lead to the adoption of a rational method of determining the speed of flying devices.
[This article was received too late for proof to be submitted to author.—-Ed.] ■
THE NEW "BAYARD" AIRSHIP.
The "Bayard" airship is a novel form which M. Clement, the well-known automobile constructor of Paris, is now engaged in building according to the designs of the aeronaut Capazza. What is new about the form of the balloon is that the upper and lower halves are each conical, the bases of the two cones forming the horizontal median line of the gas bag. When once in the air, this balloon will travel forward and downward on its lower cone somewhat after the manner of an aeroplane. The design was drawn up some years ago by M. Capazza, but he could not have it carried out from lack of funds. An envelope of rubber-coated tissue is to be used, having the double cone form, with a width of 138 feet and a maximum height of 23 feet. The total volume of the balloon is figured at 178,373 cubic feet. On the framework there are to be two propellers, each driven by a Bayard-Clement motor of the usual automobile type. It is designed to carry five aeronauts on board, together with over a ton of ballast, and to be able to remain for ten or twelve hours in the air. A well-developed system of planes will be added to the balloon. Thè profiles of the balloons are specially designed so as to transform the ascending or descending movements into a sliding movement or lateral displacement, and this gives the system an aeroplane action to some extent.
THE NEW MONOPLANE OF GASTAMBIDE AND MENGIN.
By M. Mengin.
The construction of an aeroplane by M. Robert Gastambide and myself, announced some time ago, has now been completed.
We are partisans with MM. Santos-Dumont and Bleriot in the type of machine, monoplane, and have decided upon that type.
The wings have a total spread of 10 meters and are attached to the body by a system of grooves which makes them easily detachable. They are held, on the other hand, to this same body by a new and original system of girders which are made up of thin sheets of steel which offer, in addition to less resistance to the air, greater solidity than those means heretofore employed. The chassis is fitted with wheels having a certain amount of play longitudinally and transversely, designed especially to minimize the shock of landing. The body of the apparatus, which is 5 meters long, carries in front a 50 h.p. S cyl. Antoinette motor, with one propeller mounted in front
the cjastajiriue-jiexgix jioxopla.xe.
directly on the shaft. In the middle of the "cage"' sits the aviator and at the extreme rear there is a tail for stability, serving as the sole means of governing the direction.
After a number of trials with small models we have thought it would be sufficient to give the apparatus an invariable angle of resistance and to rely only on the mobility of the 8 cylinder motor to modify the speed of the machine and, consequently, the form of its trajectory. We have thus abolished totally any governor for raising and lowering.
The total weight of the aeroplane will not exceed 400 kilograms. Trials of the propeller on the motor, made on the block of special construction, we found that we can easily count on 140 kilograms thrust and we think we ought to bring the speed up to 55 kilometers an hour.
After a well deserved rest we will begin trials with the apparatus. The apparatus was put on its feet in less than three weeks.
[The screw has a diameter of 2 meters, 1.3 meters pitch. Total surface is 24 square meters.—Ed.]
MILITARY DIRIGIBLE FOR THE BELGIAN GOVERNMENT.
The Belgian Government is considering the question of the construction of a dirigible, to be constructed by Louis Godard.
Principal dimensions: balloon 60 metres in length; diameter 10.6; circumference, 33.284; surface, 1900; cubic capacity, 3750 metres; ascensional force, 4125 kilograms; speed per hour, in calm air, (2 propellers) 50 to 55 kilometres; with 1 propeller, 35 to 40 kilometres; motor power, at 900 r.p.m., 120 h.p.; diameter of the propellers, 7 metres; r.p.m. 225; speed at the periphery per second, SO metres; length of the keel, 33 meters; length of the car, 1.5 metre; delivery of the fan, 3500 cubic metres; motor "l'actionnant" 6 horsepower
Weights: rubber cloth balloon, 700 kilograms; balloonet of l/6th the total cube, valve rope, "enpennages," "ralingue," vertical stem, suspension, rigging and rudder, 540; car, 350; 2 motors, 480; 2 propellers, 150; flywheels, shafts, radiators, connections and movements, supports, oil, water, gasoline, pipe system, 245; fan and its motor, 40 kil.; counterweights, means of equilibrium, instruments, &c, 245; possible deviations, 135; gasoline for 10 hours, 3G0; water, 30; 5 persons in the car, 400; ballast 45; total 4125 kilograms.
The engineer, Louis Godard, prefers to employ two motors of GO h.p. each with two propellers turning in opposite directions. In the event, of damage to a propeller or a motor it is expected to be able to return to the start with one motor and one propeller at a speed of 30 to 40 kilometers per hour.
THE YEAGER FLYING MODEL.
S. Yeager, of Pittsburg, has designed a novel aeroplane (or helicopter?), of which a model is illustrated below.
There are to be GO planes, containing 660 square feet of surface, made of No. 20
aluminum alloy, revolving on a vertical shaft. One-half the planes travel from left to right and the other half from right to left. The framework measures 45x14x12 feet, with a 4xlGx7-foot car underneath. There are six of the vertical series of blades, or wheels, each 12.5 in diameter. Two 15 h.p. Curtiss motors will furnish the power; one engine driving the four outer wheels, and the other engine the two inner wheels and the twin propeller, which will be placed forward. The four corner wheels are expected to run at a speed of G00 r. p. m., the two middle wheels being started first in rising. Soon after leaving the ground the propeller will be set in motion. The inventor claims that a square foot of the surface in his machine will lift six pounds, and travel at a rate the hollow framework. The
THE YEAGER MODEL
of SO miles an hour (?). The gasoline is to be carried in total weight is to be 1,000 pounds.
The model shown weighs 31 oz., and of the six wheels were used to project it
is propelled by rubber band power. Only four through the air against a slight breeze.
January 16th, Charles J. Glidden sailed for Egypt, taking his motor with him. A. Leo Stevens and A. Holland Forbes saw him off. Mr. Glidden was furnished with four small balloons, two of which were to be released as the boat left and two at sea. As the ship pulled out, Mr. Glidden let the two balloons go. This was a signal for the release of 175 others arranged at the end of the pier by Messrs. Stevens and Forbes. The sight was a pretty one and made a sensation.
"The airship is the coming thing," said Mr. Glidden just before sailing. "I have in mind a trip from Fort Omaha to Boston, a distance of 1,800 miles,'' said Mr. Glidden. "Leo Stevens has my order for the balloon, which will be of medium size, being of but 38,000 cubic feet capacity. Once this journey has been accomplished I shall endeavor to win some of the trophies offered around Boston. We have five to try for. These include a trophy to the aeronaut who starts at least 150 miles from Mount Washington and lands within a mile of Mount Washington hotel, offered by Mr. John A. Anderson, another like trophy for the aeronaut who starts a like distance away and lands within two miles of the Poland Springs hotel at Poland Springs, Maine; a third trophy to the aeronaut landing on Boston commons after starting 100 miles away, offered by the Boston Herald, and two trophies offered by the North Adams Herald, one for balloons starting from North Adams and landing within five miles of Boston common, and the second for the greatest distance covered starting from North Adams. All of these will be handsome trophies, and Bostonians are preparing to compete for them this year."
The Aero Club dinner at the St. Regis is postponed until March 14.
Acting on the complaint of several hundred stockholders, federal officers have started an investigation of the National Airship Company, San Francisco, and the first result of the investigation has been the disappearance of all the officials connected with the concern and with them what is left of stock sales amounting to more than quarter of a million dollars. The company was promoted to secure $1,000,000 with which to build an airship that would be the greatest thing ever imagined. More than 250,000 shares of stock were sold. It claimed that the intention was to construct an airship 1,250 feet long, 64 feet in diameter, of 140,000 cubic yards capacity and 128 tons displacement, with eight independent power plants, and engines developing 3280 horsepower turning 16 propellers. Forty men, as advertised, were to compose the crew, and the airship to carry 500 passengers and 40 tons of mail from New York to London at an expense of $875 in 24 hours, "every day in the year, regardless of weather conditions." Regular trips were advertised between Portland and San Francisco.
Many other claims of future accomplishment taxing the power of credulity to the breaking point were made in the matter, which is said to have gone through the mails. The company advertised, further, that it would issue checks in payment of dividends January 1, 190S, but this is said not to have been done.
The German government is constructing an automobile, armored, of high speed, carrying a rapid fire gun capable of firing at an angle of 70° to the horizontal, to be used as an "airship destroyer."
Here is a comparatively small country like Germany far ahead of the United States in its aeronautical arrangements for defense and yet we apparently are doing little or nothing in this line. Paying millions of young 1907 widows of old 1865 veterans, it might be well to devote a few thousand to aeronautics, offensive and defensive.
The Aero Club of Great Britain is in communication with the most successful aeroplane inventors, both in England and abroad, with a view of bringing them together upon a given day to demonstrate by practical flights their prowess in the air. It is suggested that the Brooklands motor track or the grounds at Hnrlingham shall be the scene of the great event. Already the promised awards for long flights and short flights amount to over $150,000. It is hoped that Mr. Henry Farman, who has achieved so many wonderful flights in Paris, may be persuaded to cross the Channel and demonstrate how near he is to a practical solution of the problem of the air. The "international aspect" of the trials will be provided by the determination of Mr. A. V. Roe, the English inventor, to take part in the contest. He is actively engaged upon the Brooklands motor track, putting finishing touches to the steering apparatus of his large, man-carrying machine, with which he proposes to make an experimental flight.
"La Patrie" and "La Ville de Paris" made 42 and 28 ascensions respectively during 1907.
Mount Weather Observatory has begun the publication of a bulletin, to be issued quarterly. The first number is most creditable. "Our Origin and Purpose" of the Bu-
reau is treated by Willis L. Moore, Chief U. S. Weather Bureau; "The Methods and Apparatus," by Dr. W. R. Blair, and "The Use of Upper Air Data in Forecasting," by Prof. A. J. Henry. Records of all kite flights and captive balloon ascents during the year are given, together with a number of fine illustrations.
A writer states that he examined the envelope of a balloon which burst at the International Exhibition at Milan in 1906. A number of spots were visible on the envelope, and at these places the material could be easily torn, whereas at other parts it showed great resistance to tearing. These spots were found to have been caused by phosphoric and arsenic acids, produced by oxidation from arseniuretted and phos-phoretted hydrogen contained in the hydrogen gas. The presence of these impurities is due to the use of impure materials in the preparation of the hydrogen, and the author recommends that the preparation of the gas for filling balloons should be under strict chemical control.—Engineer.
Attempts to beat the World's distance record and win at the same time, the Lahm cup will be made during 1908 by A. Leo Stevens and Charles J. Glidden, the start to be made at some point west of the Mississippi. Omaha has been considered by Mr. Glidden but coal gas cannot be obtained there. Denver will next be investigated.
Carl E. Myers has sold from his "balloon farm" at Frankfort the little dirigible "No. 23" to people in Seattle for exhibition purposes.
Major Baden-Powell, states that for several months past he has been experimenting with kites and models of aeroplanes. These experiments were purely of a private character and in no way connected with the War Office. Satisfactory results, he said, had already been accomplished, although he had obtained nothing conclusive, owing to the size of the models. The first experiment was carried out with models fitted to a 12-horse-power engine, the whole machine weighing under seventy pounds. Later on, an engine of double the power was secured, and the result was "extremely satisfactory." With an engine of a more perfect design, Major Baden-Powell hopes to be able to build, early in the new year, a model capable of lifting and carrying the weight of a man.
In view of the rapid progress of various forms of ballooning in France, M. Paul Fauchille, the Director of the Revue Generale de Droit International Public," has drawn up a series of thirty-two articles as the basis of an aerial code to be adopted by the various European powers.
The articles provide for the creation of an aerial customs organization, and it is suggested that in time of peace, as well as during hostilities, aeronauts should agree to respect certain portions of the atmosphere. They should for instance, undertake not to approach nearer than 4,500 feet above forbidden territory, such as barracks, forts, and encampments. In this way all "indiscretions" which might result from the use of cameras would be avoided.
M. Fauchille's articles will be discussed at Florence during this year, and, when the time is ripe for the drawing up of an international aerial code, the French Ministers of War, Marine, the Interior and Finance will nominate commissions composed of jurisconsults and technicians to frame the rules which they may consider advisable.
The principle of the liberty of the air must be maintained, says M. Fauchille, but with certain reservations affecting the repression of espionage, customs, sanitary policing and the necessities of national defense.
The coming aeronautical congress at Florence is expected to settle the thorny question of the role which dirigibles will play in the wars of the future, for it is now recognized that the airship is likely to become a redoubtable engine of combat.
Two more balloons have been sold from the Stevens shop: one of 1,600 cubic metres to A. H. Forbes and one of 1,100 metres to Charles .1. Glidden.
The price of subscription to the Aerophile. the official organ of the Aero Club de France, has been advanced to IS francs instead of 12, as heretofore. It will now be issued semi-monthly, on the 1st and the 15th.
Count Zeppelin has started the construction of a new airship which he is building for the German government. The dimensions of this new airship are given as follows: Length. 130 meters (426*2 feet); diameter, 12 meters (39 1-3 feet); horsepower, 240, consisting of two Daimler motors of 120 horsepower each, which will be used instead of the two S5 horsepower motors with which the present airship is equipped. The new airship is being constructed in a shed mounted on floats at Manzell on Lake Constance. It is the fourth airship that Count Zeppelin has built.
A syndicate is being formed in Hong-kong to build an airship designed in 1S94
by a Chinaman, Tse Tsan Tai. It is to be built of aluminum, and will be enclosed in an aluminum shell to protect it from the enemy's projectiles. The envelope is to be cigar-shaped. Tse Tsan Tai's principle is that airships should depend upon their fan-propellers for advancing, receding, ascending and descending. The gas-envelope is to be used only as a buoy. For the vertical movement, therefore, there are to be horizontal propellers on the deck regulated by clockwork. The steering will not be by exposed planes and rudders, but by concealed steel wings, which can be thrown out at the stern on the pressure of an electric button.
It is reported that the aeroplane which has been in course of construction in great secrecy, under the supervision of the English military, was tried out and found wanting. A new aeroplane will be tested at Farnborough. The Automotor Journal states: "The machine is of the double-decked type, and possesses a horizontal deflector in front and a vertical rudder behind. The over-all width of the double-decked plane is about 100 feet, and the height between decks about 10 feet. The extremities of the decks are joined by side curtains so as to convert the structure into a massive oblong box kite."
A horse named "Airship" won first money at 10 to 1 in New Orleans during January.
Captain Chas. De F. Chandler was detailed the first of January to deliver lectures in aeronautics to the balloon corps at Forts Omaha and Leavenworth.
The secretary of the new Aéronautique club of Chicago is an undertaker, and he is accused of joining the organization for mercenary reasons.
There has been organized in Milan the Fabbrica Italiana Aereostati, with a capital -of $25,000, for the construction and operation of dirigible airships. A series of experiments is proposed for the purpose of developing the value of the company's dirigible, which is known as the Frassinetti type.
Ever since the catastrophe at the Crystal Palace, work has been pushed forward on the repair of the Nulli Secundus, which is now once more in a condition to take the air. Profiting by past experience a more powerful motor is to be installed but at the present moment this has not yet arrived from France.
The vice-president of the Aero Club of France has offered a prize of 100 francs for the best device rendering the car of balloons unsinkable.
The "Aeronautical Supply Co." has been started by Messrs. Tappmeyer and Horn at 823 Overton St., Newport, Ky.
J. W. Roshon, whose aeroplane was described in this magazine has entered into business to supply flying machine material and supplies, at Harrisbuvg, Penna.
A fatherly interest is being taken in German inventors of aeronautical machines by the Berlin Aeronautical Society and the Automobile Technical Association, who have combined forces with a view of encouraging and assisting inventors to perfect their designs. A large open space has been obtained in the suburb of Konigswusterhausen as a testing ground and here trials will be made under the superintendence of Prof. Snring, a well-known meteorologist and balloonist. At first, experiments are to be confined to models of the Lilienthal type of machine.
In speaking of the Government specifications for a dirigible balloon, Mr. Carl E. Myers of the "balloon farm" at Frankfort, N. Y.. stated:
"My purpose in airship work is to retain during a voyage all the gas I start with, in the smallest bag practicable, of suitable form for least resistance both fore and aft. and carrying a boat keel and car light, and compact for transportation, actuated by lightest motor suitable, and controlled in satisfactory equilibrium by the aeronaut within his car without movement outside of it.
"1 believe these features must form the basis of any substantial advance in aerial navigation by gas bags, and that the matter of increased speed is simply a matter of increase in dimensions on this system.
"My bid for Government airships embodies these features and some others not yet disclosed, and of which the aeronautic world has yet no apparent conception. The gasproof fabric which the Government proposed at first to supply is exactly such as ] have been producing commercially for some time by patent machinery. The only change in the later revised specifications for which bids are invited is that bidders shall supply their own gas-proof fabrics, not requiring further varnishing.
"My 'No. 23' airship, lately sold to Seattle (Wash.) parties, consists of a symmetrical
gas spindle, capacious amidship, with sharp prow and stern, of 7,500 cu. ft. capacity, packing within its car, 23 x 23 x 33 inches, which also contains a 7-horsepower. 2-cylinder, 2-cycle, air-cooled gasolene motor with all appurtenances in place for immediate operation. This car in turn packs within a common trunk for shipment. A boat frame 36 ft. long, 23-inch triangular section of 36 lbs. weight, separates into 4 complete sections,, which telescope within the largest one 9 ft. long for shipment, with all machinery, propeller and steering aeroplanes, for immediate junction with the central car for use in a few minutes. The motor drives a twin blade propeller 4 ft. diameter of 3 lbs. weight, at 2,250 r. p. m., exerting a thrust of 60 lbs., either forward or backward. My facilities have reached such a point as to enable me to build and sell such a craft, complete with patent, portable gas generators for inflation, at $1,300, as a commercial runabout for one person and baggage, for sport, transport or exhibit."
THE VILLE DE PARIS AT VERDUN.
The dirigible Ville de Paris, has succeeded in sailing from Paris to Verdun. The-first trip was attempted three weeks ago, but was stopped by high, adverse winds.
The delay in making the second start was caused by the anxiety of the military authorities to avoid any unnecessary risk. Meteorologists promising a favorable wind that was likely to hold, the start was made from Paris at 9:47 A. M. Commandant Bottieax, Pilot Kapferer and Mechanician Paulhan formed the crew.
At Coulommiers Kapferer sent down a note, weighted with lead, saying that all was well and that the balloon was going eighteen miles an hour. At Montmirail another note was sent down, asking the automobiles that were following to turn on their searchlights, as an aid to piloting.
At 4:30 o'clock it became evident that the balloon's engines were not working and it returned to Valmy and landed. It was found that a pipe was broken, and an hour was required to mend it. Though it was now dark Bottieax decided to continue the journey^ saying he would follow the motors' lights. As a matter of fact, he led the way, and he reached Verdun and the balloon was safely housed by 7:05 o'clock; after a trip of 155 miles. The time was 8 hours and 18 minutes, deducting for the stop and for maneuvers of landing.
La Patrie made the trip in 7 hours 5 minutes. Since the wrecking of La Patrie the Ville de Paris is intended to take its place in the French army experiments.
A MACHINE FOR VARNISHING BALLOON CLOTH.
Machinery is now to take the place of band work in the varnishing of balloon cloth and to do in two or three days more and better work than usually takes five or six weeks. Leo Stevens has acquired the exclusive privilege for this machine, which will varnish and dry 2,000 yards of cloth an hour. After a repetition of the process seven times the cloth ought to be hydrogen proof. Of course, after the cloth is cut and sewed together the seams will have to be gone over again by hand, but the bulk of the work has been clone. The weight of the machine is about 2% tons.
Mr. Stevens also expects to have a machine to make nets. It is expected that the machine will tie three nets a day. whereas it takes 45 or 50 days to make one by hand.
NEW LIGHT MOTOR.
The new light water cooled motor of the Aero & Marine Motor Co., shown at the last. Aero Show, has been tested out and developed 44 horsepower, brake test. The motor is rated at 40 horsepower. The weight is 130 pounds, and this includes the magneto, oil cups, water, etc., all except gasoline tank. The weight per horsepower thus figures 2.95 pounds.
The Italian military airship is expected to be completed in another month or six weeks. The mechanical part is being built from a hydroplane which has made 80 kilometers an hour on trials over Lake de Bracciano, near Rome. The work is being conducted under the supervision of two distinguished technicians, Messrs. A. Crocco and Ricaldoni of the special aeronautical brigade. The bag is expected to be ready within the month.
The Junior Aero Club of the United States is being organized under the directorship of various members of the Aero Club of America. Messrs. Lee S. Bur-ridge, Thomas S. Baldwin, Wilbur R. Kimball, A. Leo Stevens, and Ernest L. Jones are on the Advisory Board. Its headquarters will be at 131 West 23d St., New York.
The objects as set forth in the constitution are: to promote interest in and encourage the study of serial science among young people and to hold exhibitions and contests of apparatus designed for the purpose of rerial locomotion, voluntary or involuntary, made or owned by its active members. It is not intended to limit the scope of the organization, however, as it is proposed to include the subjects of wireless telegraphy, telephony, etc., as applied to the art of aeronautics.
It is the intention to hold club, national and, perhaps, international contests at such dates as may be possible. The first is expected to be held on May 30, being a national event. A contest for distance is planned between small "pilot" balloons, starting from a convenient location near New York, probably. These will be filled with hydrogen and will carry notes asking the finders to return same to the club. Several prizes will be offered for the balloon making the greatest distance, the one having the most ingenious arrangement for disposal of ballast during flight, etc.
The contest is open to all members of the club, wherever they may be. The fact that they propose to compete, however, must be recorded in advance at the New York headquarters.
At a contest in Paris conducted by the "Auto," during 1907, more than 300 balloons were liberated, the winner travelling from Paris to Runsten, Sweden, about s40 miles,—exceeding the distance from New York to Chicago,—and breaking prior record of balloon flights made in 1901, of 750 miles, when balloon descended in Prussia. The balloons entered in this contest varied in size from the .small balloons such as are sold for a few pennies on the street to those three feet in diameter. The larger ones were made of goldbeater's skin with net such as used on large balloons, to which a tiny car weighing but an ounce or two was attached. The boys "showed great ingenuity in supplying their miniature balloons with ballast. Some had a box of flour hanging from the balloon, which a small valve allowed to escape as it rose, another had a lump of ice in a box which lightened the balloon by gradually melting, while yet a third had a long tail of inflammable matter to which was attached at intervals little pieces of lead. This was set on fire as the balloon was sent off,
and as it burned, the pieces of lead dropped one by one, thereby lightening the balloon." A card is always fastened to the balloon bearing the name of the owner, with request to return balloon or card to a specified address.
These contests would be of particular value to the Weather Bureau were the balloons fitted with registering instruments. Meteorological stations abroad are continually sending up numbers of these small balloons for the purpose of securing meteorological data. A great deal of this work lias been done by the Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, of which Professor A. Lawrence Rotch is the head. It is hoped to consummate some arrangement by which the results
A "Junior Aero Club" member, Percy W. Pierce, in his workshop. The young man is constructing a model dirigible. The bag will be 4^ feet long by 18 inches in diameter of goldbeaters skin.
obtained may be utilized by the Weather Bureau, and to work with the Bureau in obtaining data.
Membership in the club is divided into three classes:
(a) Honorary; (b) Active members who construct their own apparatus; (c) Active members who own apparatus not constructed by themselves.
No person shall be eligible for active membership who is more than 2J years of age.
Branches of ten or more members may be formed anywhere in the United States.
If it is found that interest warrants it, talks on scientific subjects may be given by members of various scientific organizations. Debates may be held by mem-
bers of the club and papers prepared by them.
Arrangements are being made for the manufacture of a specially designed balloon to be for sale at prices varying according to the size, fifteen cents to several dollars It is planned lo furnish from headquarters, patterns, material and directions for making balloons, at most moderate cost.
It is believed that there are at the present time many young men and boys interested in scientific subjects who ha\e the true inventive faculty and, in their own way, are doing impoitaiit work, and that these young students and experimenters should be encour ged and such
assistance afforded them as may be derived from an organization stimulating interchange of ideas. Advice will be given by experienced constructors and serious efforts made to direct the members' efforts along right lines.
America already has a number of boys who have achieved actual results in their experiments in aeronautic science. It is contemplated to hold an exhibition of everything relating to this subject on May 30II1, 190S, at the time of the contest.
The club is being organized by Miss K k. Todd, who, it has been stated is the only woman in the world who has designed and made working models of aeroplanes.
AERONAUTICS IN THE CURRENT MAGAZINES.
McClure's for February has a most interesting article on the Wright Brothers, by George Kibbe Turner. Mr. Turner visited the Wrights at Dayton, early in 1907 and secured the story of the development of the Wright flyer at first hand. Though the wording is not exactly that of the Wrights, the story is written as told by them. They tell of the starting of their work, the trouble experienced by the "turbulence of the air," the problem of equilibrium, the first successful flying machine in 1903. the trouble in turning corners, the absence of danger from the stopping of the engine, the uses of the aeroplane, the speed, the discovery of the principles of the screw propeller, the simplicity of learning to fly an aeroplane, etc
We quote: "The eventual speed of the aeroplane will be easily GO miles an hour. It will probably be forced up to 100 miles. Our last machine showed 40 miles, and the one we are building now will go considerably faster. At speeds above GO miles an hour the resistance of the air to the machine will make travel much more expensive of power. Our experiments have shown that a flyer designed to carry an aggregate of 745 pounds at 20 miles an hour would require only S horsepower, and at 30 miles an hour, 12 horsepower. At GO miles, 24 would be needed, and at 120 miles, B0 or 75 horsepower. ***** Our 1907 machine will carry gasoline enough to fly 5001 miles at a rate of some 50 miles an hour. We can, and possibly soon will, make a one-man machine carrying gasoline enough to go 1000 miles at 40 miles an hour. Moreover, any machine made to move at speeds up to GO miles an hour can be operated economically at a cost of not much more than one cent a mile for gasoline.*********** Besides inventing a practical flying machine we claim to have discovered for the first time the method of calculating in advance, the exact efficiency of screw-propellers, which will save the great waste involved in the present practice, by which screws must be made and tested before their efficiency can be accurately learned. This method of ours has been tested in the manufacture of our aeroplanes; our screws were made with only a slight margin of power over what was demanded by our flyer, and they have invariably proved successful."
"We say frankly that we hope to obtain an ample financial return from our invention but we care especially for some recognition as scientists, and, whenever it becomes possible, we propose to bring out the results of our investigations In a scientific work upon the principles of aerial navigation."
Scribner's for February opens with a most original and romantic story by Frederick Palmer, the war correspondent, entitled "For the Honor of the Balloon Corps." The situation is entirely possible under impending conditions of warfare. The hero of the exploit is a genius and an officer of mettle. It is vividly illustrated by Wyeth.
A recent cable message from Berlin is a singularly apt and timely commentary on Mr. Palmer's fine story, "For the Honor of the Balloon Corps," which appears in this number.
"The artillery branch of the German Army is carrying out a series of interesting experiments at Jüterbog, the fire of field guns being directed upon captive steerable airships. The results of the experiments are being kept secret.
"The navy already has had considerable practice in firing upon captive spherical balloons towed by torpedo-boat destroyers, the targets being moved quickly in every direction, giving the impression of balloons manoeuvring in the air."
ESPECIALLY DESIGNED FOR AERONAUTICAL PURPOSES.
GREATEST POWER, LEAST WEIGHT CONSISTENT WITH RELIABILITY.
These motors are the result of years experience in designing and construction
of light weight engines.
LINE ROR 1908 :
2 H. P.
single cylinder air coaled, weight
8-cylinder V air cooled, weight
V/z H. P.
single cylinder air cooled, "
8-cylinder air cooled V.
7 H. P.
2-cylinder V air cooled,
4-cylinder water cooled, "
15 H. P.
4-cylinder vertical air cooled, "
8-cylinder water cooled,
20 H. P.
4-cylinder vertical air cooled, "
send for catalogue n.
G. H. CURTISS MANUFACTURING CO., .... Hammondsport, N. Y.
Balloon Limited on the Over Land Route
BRETTON WOODS M
and at the junction of the Seabreeze and St. Lawrence Currents on the aerial avenues just above the mountain walled valley of the Ammonoosuc, drop in on your friends at the two great mountain hostelries,
The flount Pleasant and The Hount Washington.
ANDERSON and PRICE, the Landlords
offer you a great Solid Silver Cup to fill from the crystal waters of the mountain springs and from which to drink your own good health which comes to all who drink the pure waters of Bretton Woods.
-¿1 ASK AERONAUTICS. £-
leading balloon builder
- .. ՠՠ-tor *f 'h>? . .. '* -? Jiìsr ; ^.t,*::....
A- <vi' '"va'.
aeronautical engineer and constructor
AERONAUT LEO STEVENS
instructor to army balloon corps
box 181, Madison square, new York
TO AN EXPECTANT BUT DOUBTING WORLD.
I opine that you will not believe it, but it is a fact nevertheless, that I, Me, Myself, the undersigned, is the creator of an aerial craft that is radically different in principle and construction from anything heretofore conceived by experimentors in both schools of aeronautics. No philosophizing but a practical and demonstrated fact.
I have at different times and on various lines, tried to raise a whirlwind by interesting unsophisticated private parties and have failed of even a zephyr.
I have even gone so far as to communicate with four different governments, including our dear old Uncle Sam, believing in my childlike innocence that the said governments were groping in the dark trying to locate something practical in the aeronautical line but am sorry in having to affirm that they were all "from Missouri," and in persistently believing that the problem will be solved on the lines as followed by the different schools of aeronautics at the present time, not perceiving in their blindness that practical and successful aeronautics are impossible of accomplishment and fundamentally wrong on the lines followed by all experimentors.
Now I am perfectly willing to show all the Missourians that I have the only practical aerial craft in existence. And bear in mind, all ye Missourians, that you are not dealing with an over-night dream but with the cogitations and experiments of years.
So now is the time and opportunity to transfer yourself at small cost, to the Nacelle of this successful and swiftly moving craft and wallow in the glory of being connected with its mast-head.
All that is needed is a few double eagles to construct a demonstrator of aluminum and to acquire the patents in this and other countries.
Now if there are any confiding Missourians running around loose with a little coin that they are willing to sink in such a visionary scheme as a practical aerial craft, just deposit the coin in the bank, Mr. Missouri, subject to the order of the president of the bank, to be used by him solely in paying the bills for material as it is required, and to pay the cost of the patents. And to inspire any would-be nibbler with sufficient confidence to perform this feat of deposit, I will show him my model, which will elucidate, in all of its ramifications, the wonderful simplicity of construction and operation of this wonderfully practical and successful aerial craft.
Practical and successful through actual demonstration with a full sized craft made of cheap material, which had unfortunately to be destroyed by myself, rather than have the principle on which it operates discovered by other parties. Not. however, before having demonstrated beyond the peradventure of a doubt that the principle employed is the only practical solution to successful aerial navigation.
Let this sink deep into your gray matter, Mr. Missouri, that 1 am making this magnificent proposal solely because I appreciate the fact that at my present acceleration in high finance, 1 will probably in the next five years augment the condition of my exchequer to the tune of 30 cents.
Should this effusion by some miracle coincide with your jaded appetite as to wish to consume some more, communicate with me, and I will come again to the further assimilative assistance of your alimentation and to clinch the matter, Mr. Miller from Missouri, you will appoint one expert in aeronautics and the editor of some journal interested in aeronautics will appoint another and I will appoint one. which will make three experts in aeronautics, to act as judges to decide whether the principle elucidated in my model is practical. If two out of the three decide that the principle is practical the money on deposit will stick to the bank, but if by some unfortunate turn of the stars two out of the three experts should denounce the principle employed as the irrational conception of an erratic and bombastical crank, your deposit of ungainly buzzards in overalls, who do not trust in God, will be returned to you, Mr. Missouri.
Aeronautically yours, Box 305, San Jose, California. Jos Hf.nault.
AERONAUTIC BOOKS FOR SALE.
This magazine will publish each month a list of such rare and contemporaneous books relating to aeronautics as it is able to secure. If you desire any of those listed, kindly send check with your order for the amount stated. Should the book ordered be sold previous to the receipt of your order, the money will be promptly returned.
Astra Castra: Experiments and Adventures in the Atmosphere (Hatton Turner).
Illustrated. Royal 4to, cloth, 1865. Extremely rare........................$15.00
History and Practice of Aeronautics (John Wise). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, Phila.,
1S50. Very rare.......................................................... 15.00
Travels in The Air (James Glaisher). Illustrated. 8vo., cloth, London, 1871...... 10.00
Flying and No Failure, or Aerial Transit Accomplished More than a Century Ago.
(Rev. Ralph Morris). Very rare reprint on Private Press of London, 1751.. 3.00
My Airships (Santos Dumont). Illustrated. Crown 8vo., cloth.................. 1.40
Travels in Space (Valentine and Tomlinson). Introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim.
61 plates, 8vo., cloth, London. 1902........................................ 2.00
Conquest of the Air (John Alexander). 12mo., cloth, London, 1902................ 2.00
The Dominion of the Air (J. M. Bacon). Story of aerial navigation. Illustrated.
Crown, Svo., cloth, London, n. d............................................ 2.50
Resistance of Air and the Question of Flying (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated.
12mo., 42 pp., paper........................................................85
Flight Velocity (Arnold Samuelson). Illustrated. 45 pp., 12mo., paper.............85
Flying Machines, Past, Present and Future (A. W. Marshall and H. Greenly). Illustrated ..................................................................60
Paradoxes of Nature and Science (W. Hampson). Illustrated. Two chapters on balloons as airships and bird flight. Svo., cloth, N. Y., 1907................... 1.50
Aerial Navigation (Van Salberda). Translated from the Dutch by Geo. E. Waring,
By Land and Sky (J. M. Bacon). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, London, 1900.......... 2.50
A Balloon Ascension at Midnight (G. E. Hall). Illustrated in color. Limited edition published. Very rare. Svo., paper, San Francisco, 1902................ 2.50
Andree's Balloon Expedition (Lachambre—Machuron). Illustrated. 12mo., cloth,
New York, 1S9S........................................................... 1.00
Parakites (G. Woglom). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, New York, 1896.................75
The Problem of Flight (Herbert Chatley, B. Sc.) A new textbook of aerial engineering both aerostation and aviation. Illustrated. 8vo., cloth, 1908............ 3.50
Pocket Book of Aeronautics (Maj. H. W. L. Moedebeck). A manual of aviation and
aerostation. Illustrated. Cloth, 496 pages, London, 1907.........Օ........ 3.25
Ballooning as a Sport (Maj. B. Baden Powell). Illustrated. London, 1907......... 1.10
Navigating the Air (Members Aero Club of America). Illustrated. Svo., cloth, New
York, 1907................................................................ 1.65
L'Omnibus Aerien (Bourget). A musical piece sung by Mile. Flore. Has a
picture of flying omnibus on front. Is extremely rare. Paris, 1840......... 7.00
Keely and His Discoveries. Aerial Navigation (Mrs. B. Moore). Svo, cloth,
London, 1S93 ............................................................ 3.00
St. Louis Gordon Bennett race views in an album, full set........................ 3.00
Accounts of Three Aerial Voyages (Mr. Sadler). Small Svo., boards, autograph of
"Mr. Sadler," London, 1810-17. Very rare.................................. 5.00
Narrative of the Ascent and First Voyage of the Aerial Steamer (George Aire,
F. A. S., A. L. C, etc.). Paper, 16 pp., ill.. London, 1S43. Rare............. 2.50
Aeronautical Annual (Edited by James Means). Svo., cloth, ilk, 176 pp., Boston,
1897 .................................................................... 1.75
Aeronautical Annual (Edited by .lames Means). Svo., cloth, ilk, 158 pp., Boston,
1896 .................................................................... 1.75
History & Practice of Aeronautics (John Wise). Illustrated, 8vo., cloth. 310 pp..
Phila., 1S50 ............................................................. 9.00
Looking Forward; Aerial Navigation (Dr. A. De Bausset). Paper pamphlet, 48
pp., Boston, 1S89......................................................... 1.50
Aerial Navigation (Arthur De Bausset, M. D.). Paper pamphlet, 48 pp., Chicago,
1887 .................................................................... 1.50
Sounding the Ocean of Air (A. Lawrence Rotch, S. B., A. M.). 12mo, cloth, ilk,
London, 1900 ............................................................ 1.00
Scientific Experiments in Balloons (James Glaisher, F. R. S.). A lecture before
the Y. M. C. A., 1862-3. Cloth, Svo., London, 1S63......................... 3.00
Proceedings International Conference on Aerial Navigation, Chicago, 1S93, cloth,
8vo., ilk, New York, 1S94................................................ 4.50
Ballooning (G. May). Small Svo., cloth, ill. Rare.............................. 2.50
Account of the Late Aeronautical Expedition from London to Weilburg (Monck
Mason). Paper pamphlet, 35 pp., N. Y.. 1837.............................. 3.50
Aeroplanes built complete or materials furnished. Steel or aluminum tubing, bamboo, etc. Castings for joining corners. Advice on construction given. Also information relating to past machines or experiments.
J. W. ROSHON, Harrisburg, Pa.
Designer and Constructor of
BALLOONS, AIR SHIPS AND FLYING MACHINES
AERO & MARINE MOTOR COMPANY
60 PEMBERTON SQUARE BOSTON, MASS.
44 H. P. (brake test) motor, water cooled, weight 130 lbs., including magneto, oil cups and water. Especially built for aeronautic work.
SEND FOR CATALOG
Gentleman Airship Operator Wanted.
One who has had experience. Pay largest salary in the country. Half a hundred good engagements. Address quick,
CAPT. T. S. BALDWIN, Box 78, Madison Sq., New York.
2 GRAND BALLOONS 2
The "United States" which won for Lieutenant Lahni the Gordon Bennett Cup and the "America" which covered 848 miles in the International race from St. Louis.
Address, AERONAUT LEO STEVENS, 282 9th Avenue, New York.
142 West 65th Street, New York City.
Enclosed find THREE DOLLARS covering ٿ Subscription for One Year for "AERONAUTICS" commencing with the issue
Foreign Subscription $3.50 per year.
HYDROGEN-TIGHT BALLOONS BUDYHNT AIRSHIPS
All sizes from smallest models of lightest weight to largest captive or long voyage vessels with or without motors.
Patent machine varnished, hydrogen-proof fabrics, ready for speedy construction.
Best varnish made.
Patent hydrogen gas generator systems, complete, all sizes.
Estimates made. Practical professional advice given. Largest, most reliable manufactory in America. Operated 28 years. 140 gas balloons for U. S. Government. Instructions given. All sorts of experiments conducted.
Only American Institute of Aeronautics. Any kind of gas balloon ascents, captive or free, or airship flights made at any time or place.
CJ 4-maii Captive Balloon outfit, complete with power windlass and gas plant, for $1,200 cash.
€^ 7 h. p., 2-cylinder, i-man Airship complete with patent, portable hydiogen generators, $1,300 cash.
^ Second-hand airship frame, shaft and 10 ft. propeller and rudder, with or without gas bag and motor, for sale cheap. Also new, i-man gas balloon complete ; a 4 h. p. i-cyl. stationary, kerosene motor ; 2-cyl., 12 h. p ; and 2-cyl. 10 h. p., cheap. Address with stamp for particulars.
CARL E. MYERS,
BALLOON FARM, FRANKFORT, N. Y.